Universidade da California, Berkeley
|Universidade da Califórnia (1868–1958)|
|Lema||Fiat lux ( latino )|
Lema em inglês
|Que haja luz|
|Modelo||Universidade pública de pesquisa com concessão de terras|
|Estabelecido||23 de março de 1868 |
|Universidade da Califórnia|
|Doação||$ 5 bilhões (2020) |
|Chanceler||Carol T. Christ|
|Alunos||42.347 (outono de 2020) |
|Graduandos||30.799 (outono de 2020) |
|Pós-graduados||11.548 (outono de 2020) |
Coordenadas : 
|Campus||Cidade urbana / universitária , |
campus central: 178 acres (72 ha) 
Total: 8.163 acres (3.303 ha) 
|Apelido||Ursos de ouro|
|NCAA Divisão I FBS - Pac-12 |
|Mascote||Oski o urso|
|Local na rede Internet||www |
A Universidade da Califórnia, Berkeley ( UC Berkeley, Berkeley , Cal ou Califórnia )   é uma universidade pública de pesquisa com concessão de terras em Berkeley, Califórnia . Fundada em 1868 como a Universidade da Califórnia, é a primeira universidade com concessão de terras do estado e o primeiro campus do sistema da Universidade da Califórnia . Suas quatorze faculdades e escolas oferecem mais de 350 programas de graduação e matriculam cerca de 31.000 alunos de graduação e 12.000 alunos de pós-graduação.   Berkeley está classificada entre as melhores universidades do mundo pelas principais publicações educacionais. 
Membro fundador da Association of American Universities , Berkeley hospeda muitos institutos de pesquisa importantes, incluindo o Mathematical Sciences Research Institute e o Space Sciences Laboratory . Fundou e mantém relações estreitas com três laboratórios nacionais em Berkeley , Livermore e Los Alamos ,  e desempenhou um papel proeminente em muitos avanços científicos, desde o Projeto Manhattan e a descoberta de 16 elementos químicos até avanços na ciência da computação e genômica .  Berkeley também é conhecida porativismo político e o Movimento pela Liberdade de Expressão dos anos 1960. 
As equipes atléticas de Berkeley, que competem como Ursos de Ouro da Califórnia principalmente na Conferência Pac-12 , ganharam 107 campeonatos nacionais e, em 2021, seus alunos e ex-alunos ganharam 223 medalhas olímpicas (incluindo 121 medalhas de ouro).  
Ex - alunos e professores de Berkeley contam entre suas fileiras 110 ganhadores do Prêmio Nobel , 25 ganhadores do Turing Award , 14 Fields Medalists , 28 ganhadores do Wolf Prize , 103 ganhadores do MacArthur "Genius Grant" , 30 ganhadores do Prêmio Pulitzer e 19 ganhadores do Oscar . A universidade produziu sete chefes de estado ou governo ; seis presidentes de justiça, incluindo o presidente da Suprema Corte dos Estados Unidos, Earl Warren ;  22 funcionários em nível de gabinete ; 11 governadores; e 25 bilionários vivos.  É também um produtor líder de Fulbright Scholars , MacArthur Fellows e Marshall Scholars .  Ex-alunos de Berkeley, amplamente reconhecidos por seu empreendedorismo, fundaram várias empresas notáveis , incluindo Apple , Tesla , Intel , eBay , SoftBank , AIG e Morgan Stanley .  
Tornada possível pela assinatura da Lei Morrill pelo presidente Lincoln em 1862, a Universidade da Califórnia foi fundada em 1868 como a primeira universidade com concessão de terras do estado, herdando o terreno e as instalações da faculdade privada da Califórnia e a elegibilidade de financiamento federal de uma faculdade pública de agricultura, mineração e artes mecânicas.  A Lei Orgânica afirma que a "Universidade deve ter como objetivo fornecer instrução e educação completa e completa em todos os departamentos de ciência, literatura e arte, atividades industriais e profissionais, e educação geral, e também cursos especiais de instrução em preparação para as profissões ".  
Dez membros do corpo docente e 40 alunos do sexo masculino constituíram a incipiente universidade quando ela foi inaugurada em Oakland em 1869.  Frederick H. Billings , um curador do College of California, sugeriu que um novo campus ao norte de Oakland fosse nomeado em homenagem a Filósofo anglo-irlandês George Berkeley .  A universidade começou a admitir mulheres no ano seguinte.  Em 1870, Henry Durant , fundador do College of California, tornou-se seu primeiro presidente. Com a conclusão dos Halls Norte e Sul em 1873, a universidade mudou-se para Berkeley com 167 alunos do sexo masculino e 22 do sexo feminino.   A primeira aluna a se formar foi Rosa L. Scrivener em 1874, admitida na primeira turma para incluir mulheres em 1870. 
A partir de 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst financiou vários programas e novos edifícios e, em 1898, patrocinou um concurso internacional em Antuérpia, Bélgica, onde o arquiteto francês Émile Bénard apresentou o projeto vencedor para um plano diretor de campus.
Em 1905, a University Farm foi estabelecida perto de Sacramento , tornando-se finalmente a University of California, Davis .  Em 1919, a Escola Normal do Estado de Los Angeles tornou-se o ramo sul da Universidade, que finalmente se tornou a Universidade da Califórnia, em Los Angeles .  Na década de 1920, o número de edifícios do campus cresceu substancialmente e incluiu vinte estruturas projetadas pelo arquiteto John Galen Howard . 
Em 1917, um dos primeiros programas ROTC do país foi estabelecido em Berkeley  e sua Escola de Aeronáutica Militar começou a treinar pilotos, incluindo o general Jimmy Doolittle . Os ex-alunos do ROTC de Berkeley incluem o ex-secretário de Defesa Robert McNamara e o chefe do Estado - Maior do Exército, Frederick C. Weyand , bem como 16 outros generais .  Em 1926, o futuro almirante da frota Chester W. Nimitz estabeleceu a primeira unidade Naval ROTC em Berkeley. 
Na década de 1930, Ernest Lawrence ajudou a estabelecer o Laboratório de Radiação (agora Laboratório Nacional Lawrence Berkeley ) e inventou o ciclotron , que lhe rendeu o Prêmio Nobel de Física em 1939.  Usando o ciclotron, professores de Berkeley e pesquisadores do Laboratório de Berkeley passaram a descobrir 16 elementos químicos - mais do que qualquer outra universidade no mundo.   Em particular, durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial e após a descoberta secreta de plutônio de Glenn Seaborg , o Laboratório de Radiação de Ernest Orlando Lawrence começou a contratar o Exército dos EUA para desenvolver a bomba atômica. Professor de físicaJ. Robert Oppenheimer foi nomeado chefe científico do Projeto Manhattan em 1942.   Junto com o Laboratório Nacional Lawrence Berkeley, Berkeley fundou e era então sócio na gestão de dois outros laboratórios, o Laboratório Nacional de Los Alamos (1943) e Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).
Em 1952, a Universidade da Califórnia se reorganizou em um sistema de campi semi-autônomos, com cada campus recebendo um chanceler, e Clark Kerr se tornou o primeiro chanceler de Berkeley, enquanto Sproul permaneceu no cargo como presidente da Universidade da Califórnia. 
Berkeley ganhou reputação mundial pelo ativismo político na década de 1960.   Em 1964, o Movimento pela Liberdade de Expressão organizou a resistência estudantil às restrições da universidade às atividades políticas no campus - mais visivelmente, as atividades estudantis relacionadas ao Movimento pelos Direitos Civis . A prisão em Sproul Plaza de Jack Weinberg , um ex-aluno recente de Berkeley e presidente do Campus CORE , em outubro de 1964, desencadeou uma série de atos de protesto formal e desobediência civil liderados por estudantes que finalmente deram origem ao Movimento pela Liberdade de Expressão, movimento esse que prevalecer e servir como um precedente para a oposição estudantilao envolvimento da América na Guerra do Vietnã.   
Em 1982, o Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) foi estabelecido no campus com o apoio da National Science Foundation e a pedido de três matemáticos de Berkeley - Shiing-Shen Chern , Calvin Moore e Isadore M. Singer . O instituto é agora amplamente considerado como um centro líder em pesquisa matemática colaborativa, atraindo milhares de pesquisadores visitantes de todo o mundo a cada ano.   
Os estudantes modernos de Berkeley são menos politicamente radicais, com uma porcentagem maior de moderados e conservadores do que nas décadas de 1960 e 1970.   Os democratas superam os republicanos no corpo docente em uma proporção de 9: 1.  No geral, os democratas superam os republicanos nos campi universitários americanos em uma proporção de 10: 1. 
Em 2007, o Instituto de Biociências de Energia foi estabelecido com financiamento da BP e Stanley Hall, um centro de pesquisa e sede do Instituto de Biociências Quantitativas da Califórnia , inaugurado. Os anos seguintes viram a dedicação do Centro de Ciências Biomédicas e da Saúde, financiado por um grande presente do bilionário Li Ka-shing ; a inauguração do Sutardja Dai Hall, sede do Centro de Pesquisa em Tecnologia da Informação no Interesse da Sociedade; e a inauguração do Blum Hall, que abriga o Centro Blum para Economias em Desenvolvimento. Apoiado por uma bolsa do ex-aluno James Simons , do Simons Institute for the Theory of Computingfoi estabelecido em 2012. Em 2014, Berkeley e seu campus irmão, UCSF , estabeleceram o Innovative Genomics Institute e, em 2020, um doador anônimo prometeu US $ 252 milhões para ajudar a financiar um novo centro de computação e ciência de dados. 
Desde 2000, ex-alunos e professores de Berkeley receberam 40 prêmios Nobel , atrás apenas de Harvard e MIT entre as universidades americanas; cinco prêmios Turing , atrás apenas do MIT e Stanford; e cinco medalhas Fields , perdendo apenas para Princeton. De acordo com a PitchBook , Berkeley ocupa o segundo lugar, atrás apenas de Stanford, na produção de empreendedores apoiados por VC . 
Organização e administração
Embora o sistema da Universidade da Califórnia não tenha um campus oficial oficial , muitos acadêmicos e especialistas consideram Berkeley seu carro-chefe não oficial. Em alguns casos, ele compartilha esse status não oficial com a Universidade da Califórnia, em Los Angeles . 
Oficialmente a Universidade da Califórnia, Berkeley, seu nome é frequentemente abreviado para Berkeley em referência geral ou em um contexto acadêmico (www.berkeley.edu, Berkeley Law , Berkeley Public Health , Berkeley Haas ) ou para Califórnia ou Cal, especialmente quando se refere a suas equipes atléticas ( California Golden Bears ).   
A Universidade da Califórnia é governada por um Conselho de Regentes de 26 membros , 18 dos quais são nomeados pelo Governador da Califórnia para mandatos de 12 anos. O conselho também tem sete membros ex officio , um estudante regente e um estudante regente designado sem direito a voto. Antes de 1952, Berkeley era a Universidade da Califórnia, então o reitor da universidade também era o principal executivo de Berkeley. No entanto, em 1952, a universidade se reorganizou em um sistema de campi semiautônomos, com cada campus tendo seu próprio chefe executivo, um reitor, que, por sua vez, se reportaria ao reitor do sistema universitário. Doze vice-chanceleres se reportam diretamente ao chanceler de Berkeley, e os reitores das 14 faculdades e escolas se reportam ao vice-chanceler executivo e ao reitor, o diretor acadêmico de Berkeley. 
Berkeley recebe financiamento de várias fontes federais, estaduais e privadas. Com exceção dos contratos governamentais, o apoio público é distribuído a Berkeley e aos outros campi do sistema da Universidade da Califórnia por meio do Gabinete do Presidente da UC e representa cerca de 12% das receitas totais de Berkeley.  Berkeley há muito se beneficia da filantropia privada, com consideráveis doações das famílias Flood, Hearst, Durant, Strauss, Lick, Harmon e Bacon no século 19 e das famílias Hearst, Doe, Sather, Rockefeller, Cowell, Haviland, Famílias Bowles, Boalt e Stern, entre outras, na primeira metade do século XX. Mais recentemente, ex-alunos e suas fundações doaram à universidade para operações e despesas de capital. [ citação necessária]
Berkeley também se beneficiou da doação de indivíduos, corporações e fundações, dentre as quais se destacam Mark Zuckerberg e Priscilla Chan (prometeram US $ 600 milhões, compartilhados com a UCSF e a Universidade de Stanford , para formar o Biohub ); [ carece de fontes? ] BP (prometeu US $ 400 milhões para a pesquisa de biocombustíveis); a Fundação Bill e Melinda Gates (mais de $ 68 milhões desde a criação da fundação), o bilionário Sir Li Ka-Shing (vários presentes, principalmente um presente de $ 40 milhões em 2005), o bilionário russo-israelense Yuri Milner , Thomas e Stacey Siebel, Sanford e Joan Weill e o professor Gordon Rausser (presente de US $ 50 milhões em 2020). [carece de fontes ] Várias doações significativas foram feitas anonimamente, incluindo uma doação de US $ 50 milhões em 1999 para apoiar a engenharia molecular, uma doação de US $ 50 milhões em 2018 para apoiar o corpo docente STEM,uma doação de US $ 70 milhões em 2019 para apoiar o BioEnginuity Hub,[ 67]e um presente em 2020 de $ 252 milhões para apoiar a ciência de dados. 
A campanha de 2008–13 para Berkeley arrecadou US $ 3,13 bilhões de 281.855 doadores, e a campanha "Ilumine o caminho", anunciada no início de 2020, está programada para arrecadar US $ 6 bilhões até o final de 2023. 
Berkeley é uma grande universidade de pesquisa de Nível Um, principalmente residencial, com a maioria de suas matrículas em programas de graduação, mas também oferece um programa de doutorado abrangente.  A universidade foi credenciada pela Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission desde 1949.  A universidade opera em um calendário semestral e concedeu 8.725 bacharelado, 3.286 mestrado ou profissional e 1.272 doutorado em 2018- 2019. 
O empreendimento acadêmico da universidade está organizado em 14 faculdades e escolas, que, por sua vez, compreendem 180 departamentos e 80 unidades interdisciplinares que oferecem mais de 350 programas de graduação. As faculdades atendem a alunos de graduação e pós-graduação, enquanto as escolas geralmente são apenas para pós-graduação, embora algumas ofereçam especializações ou menores de graduação.
- Faculdade de química
- Faculdade de Engenharia
- Faculdade de Design Ambiental
- Faculdade de Letras e Ciências
- Escola de Pós-Graduação em Educação
- Escola de Pós-Graduação em Jornalismo
- Haas School of Business
- Escola Goldman de Políticas Públicas
- Rausser College of Natural Resources
- Escola de Informação
- Faculdade de Direito
- Escola de Optometria
- Escola de Saúde Pública
- Escola de Bem-Estar Social
- Extensão UC Berkeley (atualmente possui dois locais, no centro de Berkeley e no centro de San Francisco .
Programas de graduação
O programa de graduação em tempo integral de quatro anos oferece 107 graus de bacharelado em Haas School of Business (1), Faculdade de Química (5), Faculdade de Engenharia (20), Faculdade de Design Ambiental (4), Faculdade de Letras e Ciências (67), Rausser College of Natural Resources (10) e especializações individuais (2).  Os cursos mais populares são Engenharia Elétrica e Ciência da Computação, Ciência Política, Biologia Molecular e Celular, Ciências Ambientais e Economia. 
Os requisitos para cursos de graduação são definidos por quatro autoridades: o sistema da Universidade da Califórnia, o campus de Berkeley, a faculdade ou escola e o departamento. Esses requisitos incluem um requisito de redação de nível de entrada antes da inscrição (normalmente preenchido por notas mínimas em exames de admissão padronizados, como o SAT ou ACT), a conclusão do curso de "História e Instituições Americanas" antes ou depois da inscrição, tendo uma aula introdutória, passando em um Aula "American Cultures Breadth" em Berkeley, bem como requisitos de leitura e composição e requisitos específicos declarados pelo departamento e pela escola. Os exames finais de três horas são exigidos na maioria das aulas de graduação e ocorrem durante uma semana após o último dia de aula, em meados de dezembro para o semestre de outono e em meados de maio para o semestre de primavera.  As notas acadêmicas são relatadas em uma escala de cinco letras de quatro pontos (A a F) com as notas sendo modificadas em três décimos de ponto para pontos positivos e negativos, exceto para A +, que carrega apenas quatro pontos.  Os requisitos para honras acadêmicas são especificados por escolas e faculdades individuais, prêmios acadêmicos são normalmente concedidos por departamentos e os alunos são eleitos para honrar as sociedades com base nos critérios dessas organizações. 
Pós-graduação e programas profissionais
Berkeley possui um programa de pós-graduação "abrangente", com alta convivência com os programas oferecidos aos alunos de graduação, e oferece programas de pós-graduação interdisciplinares com as escolas de medicina da UCSF (vários mestrados e doutorados) e Stanford (MD / MPH). A universidade oferece Master of Arts , Master of Science , Master of Fine Arts e PhD , além de graus profissionais, como o Juris Doctor , Master of Business Administration , Master of Public Health e Master of Design .   A universidade concedeu 963 diplomas de doutorado e 3.531 de mestrado em 2017. A admissão aos programas de pós-graduação é descentralizada; os candidatos aplicam-se diretamente ao departamento ou programa de graduação. A maioria dos alunos de pós-graduação é apoiada por bolsas de estudo, estágios de ensino ou de pesquisa.  A classificação do Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa dos Estados Unidos de 2010 identificou a UC Berkeley como tendo o maior número de programas de doutorado com melhor classificação no país. Os programas de doutorado de Berkeley que receberam a classificação # 1 incluem Economia Agrícola e de Recursos, Astrofísica, Química, Engenharia Civil e Ambiental, Ciência da Computação, Inglês, Epidemiologia, Geografia, Alemão, Matemática, Engenharia Mecânica, Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Genética, Genômica e Desenvolvimento, Física, Biologia Vegetal e Ciência Política. Berkeley também foi o destinatário nº 1 do National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships entre 2001 e 2010, com 1.333 prêmios. 
Faculdade e pesquisa
Berkeley está classificada entre "R1: Universidades de Doutorado - Atividade de pesquisa muito alta".  No ano fiscal de 2021, o financiamento de Berkeley para pesquisa e desenvolvimento ultrapassou US $ 1 bilhão.  Existem 1.629 membros do corpo docente em tempo integral e 896 em tempo parcial entre mais de 130 departamentos acadêmicos e mais de 80 unidades de pesquisa interdisciplinar.  O corpo docente atual inclui 260 bolsistas da American Academy of Arts and Sciences , três Fields Medalists, 77 Fulbright Scholars , 139 Guggenheim Fellows , 78 membros da National Academy of Engineering , 149 membros da National Academy of Sciences , oito vencedores do Prêmio Nobel, quatro vencedores do Prêmio Pulitzer, 125 Sloan Fellows , 7 vencedores do Prêmio Wolf e 1 vencedor do Prêmio Pritzker .    
Sistema de biblioteca
As 32 bibliotecas de Berkeley juntas contêm mais de 13 milhões de volumes e cobrem mais de 12 acres (4,9 ha) de terra, formando um dos maiores complexos de bibliotecas do mundo.   A Biblioteca Doe serve como referência do sistema de biblioteca, periódico e centro administrativo, enquanto a maioria das coleções principais residem nas pilhas principais subterrâneas de Gardner e na Biblioteca de Graduação Moffitt. A Biblioteca Bancroft , que possui mais de 400.000 volumes impressos e 70 milhões de manuscritos, fotos e mapas, mantém coleções especiais que documentam a história da parte ocidental da América do Norte, com ênfase na Califórnia, México e América Central. A Biblioteca Bancroft também abriga os Documentos de Mark Twain,  o Centro de História Oral, o Centro para os Papiros Tebtunis  e os Arquivos da Universidade. 
|Classificação||2021 QS World Ranking por Assunto|
|4||Art and Humanities (OVERALL)|
|7||Architecture & Built Environment|
|7||Engineering and Technology (OVERALL)|
|5||Computer and Information System|
|4||Civil and Structural Engineering|
|3||Electronic and Electrical Engineering|
|8||Natural Sciences (OVERALL)|
|6||Physics & Astronomy|
|7||Social Sciences & Management (OVERALL)|
|8||Accounting & Finance|
|13||Business & Management Studies|
|10||Communication & Media Studies|
|5||Economics & Econometrics|
|8||Education & Training|
|7||Statistics & Operations Research|
Nacionalmente, a 2019-20 US News & World Report " s 'Melhor Colleges' classifica Berkeley segundo lugar entre as universidades públicas e 22 entre as universidades nacionais.  O relatório Forbes America's Top Colleges 2019 classifica Berkeley como a melhor universidade pública e a 13ª entre 650 universidades e faculdades de artes liberais nos Estados Unidos.  Washington Monthly classificou Berkeley 17 entre as universidades nacionais em 2020, com critérios baseados em pesquisa, serviço comunitário e mobilidade social. Para 2020, o QS World University Rankings coloca Berkeley em quarto lugar entre todas as universidades dos EUA e em primeiro lugar entre os públicos.  2018-19O Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) classificou a universidade como a melhor universidade pública do país e a quarta no geral com base na qualidade da educação, emprego de ex-alunos, qualidade do corpo docente, publicações, influência e citações.  A classificação das Melhores Faculdades da Money Magazine em 2015 classificou Berkeley em 9º nos Estados Unidos, com base na qualidade educacional, acessibilidade e ganhos de ex-alunos.  Em 2015, Kiplinger classificou Berkeley como a 4ª universidade pública de melhor valor no país para estudantes estaduais, e 6ª para estudantes de fora do estado.  Em 2014, o relatório The Daily Beast 's Best Colleges classificou Berkeley em 11º no país. O relatório das Top American Research Universities de 2013 do Center for Measuring University Performance classificou Berkeley em 8º lugar no geral, 5º em recursos, corpo docente e educação, 9º em recursos e educação e 1º em educação.  Berkeley produz mais ganhadores do Prêmio Nobel e bilionários do que qualquer outra universidade pública nos Estados Unidos. Berkeley foi listado como um " Ivy Pública ", em 1985, de Richard Moll Ivies públicos . 
Globalmente, para 2020–21, Berkeley foi classificada em 4º pelo US News & World Report , 5º pelo Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) , 7º pelo Times Higher Education World University Rankings e 30º no QS World University Rankings . Além disso, o Times Higher Education considera Berkeley, com base na reputação, uma das "seis supermarcas" do mundo, junto com Cambridge , Harvard , MIT , Oxford e Stanford .      Para 2020–21, oO Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) classificou a universidade em 12º no mundo com base na qualidade da educação, emprego de ex-alunos, qualidade do corpo docente e desempenho em pesquisa.  Em 2017, o Nature Index classificou a universidade como o nono maior contribuinte para artigos publicados em 82 periódicos importantes.  
Admissões e matrículas
|Etnia||Graduação 2020||Graduação 2016||Pós-Graduação em 2020||Pós-Graduação 2016|
|Hispânico e latino||17,9%||14,2%||9,2%||7,6%|
|Não relatado / desconhecido||4,2%||4,1%||4,7%||8,5%|
|Estudante universitário||Graduado||Califórnia||Censo dos EUA|
|Branco não hispânico||24,0%||32,9%||38,5%||61,7%|
|Hispânico (de qualquer raça)||16,1%||8,4%||38,6%||17,7%|
|Internacional||12,7%||28,7%||N / D||N / D|
|Outro / desconhecido||9,5%||7,3%||3,7%||2,8%|
No outono de 2019, o total de matrículas de Berkeley foi de 43.695: 31.780 alunos de graduação e 11.915 alunos de pós-graduação, com as mulheres representando 54% dos alunos de graduação e 46% dos alunos de pós-graduação e profissionais.  A taxa de aceitação para calouros foi de 14 por cento. Dos calouros matriculados, 55% eram mulheres. O calouro matriculado teve uma média não ponderada de GPA de 3,89 e uma pontuação média no SAT de 1425. O intervalo interquartil para as pontuações no SAT foi de 1330–1520. Berkeley e outros campi da Universidade da Califórnia não superam a pontuação.
|Requerentes      ||87.398||89.621||85.057||82.571||78.923||73.794||67.713||61.702||52.953|
|Admite     ||14.676||13.308||14.552||14.429||13.332||13.338||14.181||13.038||13.523|
|Taxa de admissão     ||16,8%||14,8%||17,1%||17,5%||16,9%||18,1%||20,9%||21,1%||25,5%|
|Inscrito     ||6.454||6.012||6.379||6.253||5.832||5.813||5.848||5,365||5.640|
|GPA (não ponderado)||3,89||3,89||3,91||3,86||3,87||3,85||3,86||3,84||3,83|
Os alunos de Berkeley são elegíveis para uma variedade de ajuda financeira pública e privada. Geralmente, as solicitações de ajuda financeira são processadas através do Financial Aid and Scholarships Office, embora algumas escolas, como a Haas School of Business  e a Berkeley Law ,  tenham seus próprios escritórios de ajuda financeira. A inscrição de Berkeley como bolsistas de mérito nacional era a terceira no país até 2002, quando a participação no programa de mérito nacional foi descontinuada.  Para 2017-18, Berkeley ficou em quarto lugar na inscrição de recipientes da Bolsa de Mérito Nacional de $ 2.500 (124 bolsistas).  Vinte e sete por cento dos alunos admitidos recebemPell grant . 
Descobertas e inovação
Uma série de invenções e descobertas significativas foram feitas pelo corpo docente e pesquisadores de Berkeley: 
- Bomba atômica - o professor de física J. Robert Oppenheimer foi diretor durante a guerra do Laboratório Nacional de Los Alamos e do Projeto Manhattan .
- Carbono 14 e fotossíntese - Martin Kamen e Sam Ruben descobriram o carbono 14 em 1940, e o prêmio Nobel Melvin Calvin e seus colegas usaram o carbono 14 como um traçador molecular para revelar o caminho de assimilação do carbono na fotossíntese, conhecido como ciclo de Calvin . 
- Carcinógenos - produtos químicos identificados que danificam o DNA. O teste de Ames foi descrito em uma série de artigos em 1973 por Bruce Ames e seu grupo na Universidade.
- Elementos químicos - 16 elementos foram descobertos em Berkeley ( astatine , neptunium , plutônio , cúrio , amerício , berkelium , califórnio , einsteinium , fermium , mendelevium , nobelium , lawrencium , dubnium , seaborgium , tecnécio , e rutherfordium ).  
- Ligação covalente - Gilbert N. Lewis em 1916 descreveu o compartilhamento de pares de elétrons entre átomos e inventou a notação de Lewis para descrever os mecanismos.
- Edição do gene CRISPR - a ganhadora do Nobel Jennifer Doudna descobre uma maneira precisa e barata de manipular o DNA em células humanas. 
- Ciclotron - Ernest O. Lawrence criou um acelerador de partículas em 1934 e recebeu o Prêmio Nobel de Física em 1939. 
- Energia escura - Saul Perlmutter e muitos outros do Supernova Cosmology Project descobrem que o universo está se expandindo por causa da energia escura de 1998.
- Vacina contra a gripe - Wendell M. Stanley e colegas descobriram a vacina na década de 1940.
- Bomba de hidrogênio - Edward Teller , o pai da bomba de hidrogênio, foi professor em Berkeley e pesquisador do Laboratório Nacional Lawrence Livermore e do Laboratório Nacional de Los Alamos .
- Imunoterapia do câncer - James P. Allison descobre e desenvolve terapia com anticorpos monoclonais que usa o sistema imunológico para combater o câncer 1992-1995.
- Relógio molecular - descoberta de Allan Wilson em 1967.
- Neuroplasticidade - Marian Diamond descobre mudanças estruturais, bioquímicas e sinápticas no cérebro causadas por enriquecimento ambiental 1964
- Oncogene - Peter Duesberg descobre o primeiro gene causador de câncer em um vírus da década de 1970.
- Telomerase - Elizabeth H. Blackburn , Carol Greider e Jack Szostak descobrem a enzima que promove a divisão e o crescimento celular em 1985.
- Vitamina E - Gladys Anderson Emerson isolou a vitamina E em uma forma pura em 1952. 
Computador e ciências aplicadas
- Berkeley RISC – David Patterson leads ARPA's VLSI project of microprocessor design 1980–1984.
- Berkeley UNIX/Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) – The Computer Systems Research Group was a research group at Berkeley that was dedicated to enhancing AT&T Unix operating system and funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Bill Joy modified the code and released it in 1977 under the open source BSD license, starting an open-source revolution.
- Deep sea diving – Joel Henry Hildebrand used helium with oxygen to mitigate decompression sickness.
- GIMP – In 1995, Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis began developing GIMP as a semester-long project at Berkeley.
- Polygraph – invented by John Augustus Larson and a police officer from the Berkeley Police Department in 1921.
- Project Genie – DARPA funded project. It produced an early time-sharing system including the Berkeley Timesharing System, which was then commercialized as the SDS 940. Concepts from Project Genie influenced the development of the TENEX operating system for the PDP-10, and Unix, which inherited the concept of process forking from it. Unix co-creator Ken Thompson worked on Project Genie while at Berkeley.
- SPICE – Donald O. Pederson develops the Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) 1972.
- Tcl programming language – developed by John Ousterhout in 1988.
- Three-dimensional Transistor – Chenming Hu won the 2014 National Medal of Technology for developing the "first 3-dimensional transistors, which radically advanced semiconductor technology."
- Vi text editor – Bill Joy created the first Vi editor in 1976.
- Wetsuit – Hugh Bradner invents first wetsuit 1952.
Companies and entrepreneurship
Berkeley alumni and faculty have founded many companies, some of which are shown below. Berkeley has often been cited as one of the universities that have produced most entrepreneurs, and boasts its own startup incubator, Berkeley SkyDeck.
- Activision Blizzard, 1979 (as Activision), co-founder Alan Miller (BS) and Larry Kaplan (BA)
- AIG, 1919, founder Cornelius Vander Starr (Attended)
- Apple, 1976, co-founder Steve Wozniak (BS)
- Coursera, 2012, co-founder Andrew Ng (PhD)
- eBay, 1995, founder Pierre Omidyar (Attended)
- Gap Inc., 1969, co-founder Donald Fisher (BS)
- HTC Corporation, 1997, co-founder Cher Wang (BA)
- Intel, 1968, co-founders Gordon Moore (BS) and Andy Grove (PhD)
- Marvell Technology Group, 1995, co-founders Sehat Sutardja (MS, PhD) and Weili Dai (BA)
- Morgan Stanley, 1924 (as Dean Witter & Co.), co-founder Dean G. Witter (BA)
- Mozilla Corporation, 2005, co-founder Mitchell Baker (BA, JD)
- Myspace, 2003, co-founder Tom Anderson (BA)
- Renaissance Technologies, 1982, founder James Simons (PhD)
- Rotten Tomatoes, 1998, founders Senh Duong (BA), Patrick Y. Lee (BA) and Stephen Wang (BA)
- SanDisk, 1988, co-founder Sanjay Mehrotra (BS, MS)
- Softbank, 1981, founder Masayoshi Son (BA)
- Sun Microsystems, 1982, co-founder Bill Joy (MS)
- Tesla, 2003, co-founder Marc Tarpenning (BS)
- VMware, 1998, co-founders Diane Greene (MS) and Mendel Rosenblum (PhD)
The Berkeley campus encompasses approximately 1,232 acres (499 ha), though the "central campus" occupies only the low-lying western 178 acres (72 ha) of this area. Of the remaining acres, approximately 200 acres (81 ha) are occupied by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; other facilities above the main campus include the Lawrence Hall of Science and several research units, notably the Space Sciences Laboratory, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, an 800-acre (320 ha) ecological preserve, the University of California Botanical Garden and a recreation center in Strawberry Canyon. Portions of the mostly undeveloped, eastern area of the campus are actually within the City of Oakland; these portions extend from the Claremont Resort north through the Panoramic Hill neighborhood to Tilden Park.
To the west of the central campus is the downtown business district of Berkeley; to the northwest is the neighborhood of North Berkeley, including the so-called Gourmet Ghetto, a commercial district known for high quality dining due to the presence of such world-renowned restaurants as Chez Panisse. Immediately to the north is a quiet residential neighborhood known as Northside with a large graduate student population; situated north of that are the upscale residential neighborhoods of the Berkeley Hills. Immediately southeast of campus lies fraternity row and beyond that the Clark Kerr Campus and an upscale residential area named Claremont. The area south of the university includes student housing and Telegraph Avenue, one of Berkeley's main shopping districts with stores, street vendors and restaurants catering to college students and tourists. In addition, the University also owns land to the northwest of the main campus, a 90-acre (36 ha) married student housing complex in the nearby town of Albany ("Albany Village" and the "Gill Tract"), and a field research station several miles to the north in Richmond, California.
The campus is home to several museums including the University of California Museum of Paleontology, the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, and the Lawrence Hall of Science. The Museum of Paleontology, found in the lobby of the Valley Life Sciences Building, showcases a variety of dinosaur fossils including a complete cast of a Tyrannosaurus Rex. The campus also offers resources for innovation and entrepreneurship, such as the Big Ideas Competition (Blum Center for Developing Economies), SkyDeck, the Sutardja Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology, and the Berkeley Haas Innovation Lab. The campus is also home to the University of California Botanical Garden, one of the most diverse plant collections in the United States, famous for its large number of rare and endangered species, with more than 12,000 individual species.
Outside of the Bay Area, the University owns various research laboratories and research forests in both northern and southern Sierra Nevada.
What is considered the historic campus today was the result of the 1898 "International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California", funded by William Randolph Hearst's mother and initially held in the Belgian city of Antwerp; eleven finalists were judged again in San Francisco in 1899. The winner was Frenchman Émile Bénard, however he refused to personally supervise the implementation of his plan and the task was subsequently given to architecture professor John Galen Howard. Howard designed over twenty buildings, which set the tone for the campus up until its expansion in the 1950s and 1960s. The structures forming the "classical core" of the campus were built in the Beaux-Arts Classical style, and include Hearst Greek Theatre, Hearst Memorial Mining Building, Doe Memorial Library, California Hall, Wheeler Hall, (Old) Le Conte Hall, Gilman Hall, Haviland Hall, Wellman Hall, Sather Gate, and the 307-foot (94 m) Sather Tower (nicknamed "the Campanile" after its architectural inspiration, St Mark's Campanile in Venice), the tallest university clock tower in the United States. Buildings he regarded as temporary, nonacademic, or not particularly "serious" were designed in shingle or Collegiate Gothic styles; examples of these are North Gate Hall, Dwinelle Annex, and Stephens Hall. Many of Howard's designs are recognized California Historical Landmarks and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Built in 1873 in a Victorian Second-Empire-style, South Hall, designed by David Farquharson, is the oldest university building in California. It, and the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Piedmont Avenue east of the main campus, are two of the only surviving examples of the nineteenth-century campus. Other notable architects and firms whose work can be found in the campus and surrounding area are Bernard Maybeck (Faculty Club); Julia Morgan (Hearst Women's Gymnasium and Julia Morgan Hall); William Wurster (Stern Hall); Moore Ruble Yudell (Haas School of Business); Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects (C.V. Starr East Asian Library), and Diller Scofidio + Renfro (Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive).
Flowing into the main campus are two branches of Strawberry Creek. The south fork enters a culvert upstream of the recreational complex at the mouth of Strawberry Canyon and passes beneath California Memorial Stadium before appearing again in Faculty Glade. It then runs through the center of the campus before disappearing underground at the west end of campus. The north fork appears just east of University House and runs through the glade north of the Valley Life Sciences Building, the original site of the Campus Arboretum.
Trees in the area date from the founding of the university. The campus features numerous wooded areas, including: Founders' Rock, Faculty Glade, Grinnell Natural Area, and the Eucalyptus Grove, which is both the tallest stand of such trees in the world and the tallest stand of hardwood trees in North America. The campus sits on the Hayward Fault, which runs directly through California Memorial Stadium.
Student life and traditions
The official university mascot is Oski the Bear, who debuted in 1941. Previously, live bear cubs were used as mascots at Memorial Stadium until it was decided in 1940 that a costumed mascot would be a better alternative. Named after the Oski-wow-wow yell, he is cared for by the Oski Committee, whose members have exclusive knowledge of the identity of the costume-wearer.
The University of California Marching Band, which has served the university since 1891, performs at every home football game and at select road games as well. A smaller subset of the Cal Band, the Straw Hat Band, performs at basketball games, volleyball games, and other campus and community events.
The UC Rally Committee, formed in 1901, is the official guardian of California's Spirit and Traditions. Wearing their traditional blue and gold rugbies, Rally Committee members can be seen at all major sporting and spirit events. Committee members are charged with the maintenance of the five Cal flags, the large California banner overhanging the Memorial Stadium Student Section and Haas Pavilion, the California Victory Cannon, Card Stunts and The Big "C" among other duties. The Rally Committee is also responsible for safekeeping of the Stanford Axe when it is in Cal's possession. The Chairman of the Rally Committee holds the title "Custodian of the Axe" while it is in the Committee's care.
The Cal Mic Men, a standard at home football games, has recently expanded to involve basketball and volleyball. The traditional role comes from students holding megaphones and yelling, but now includes microphones, a dedicated platform during games, and the direction of the entire student section. Both men and women are allowed to fulfill the role, despite the name.Overlooking the main Berkeley campus from the foothills in the east, The Big "C" is an important symbol of California school spirit. The Big "C" has its roots in an early 20th-century campus event called "Rush", which pitted the freshman and sophomore classes against each other in a race up Charter Hill that often developed into a wrestling match. It was eventually decided to discontinue Rush and, in 1905, the freshman and sophomore classes banded together in a show of unity to build "the Big C". Owing to its prominent position, the Big "C" is often the target of pranks by rival Stanford University students who paint the Big "C" red and also fraternities and sororities who paint it their organization's colors. One of the Rally Committee's functions is to repaint the Big "C" to its traditional color of King Alfred Yellow.
Cal students invented the college football tradition of card stunts. Then known as Bleacher Stunts, they were first performed during the 1910 Big Game and consisted of two stunts: a picture of the Stanford Axe and a large blue "C" on a white background. The tradition continues today in the Cal student section and incorporates complicated motions, for example tracing the Cal script logo on a blue background with an imaginary yellow pen.
The California Victory Cannon, placed on Tightwad Hill overlooking the stadium, is fired before every football home game, after every score, and after every Cal victory. First used in the 1963 Big Game, it was originally placed on the sidelines before moving to Tightwad Hill in 1971. The only time the cannon ran out of ammunition was during a game against Pacific in 1991, when Cal scored 12 touchdowns.
Berkeley students are offered a variety of housing options, including university-owned or affiliated residences, private residences, fraternities and sororities, and cooperative housing (co-ops).
The university runs twelve different residence halls: seven undergraduate residence halls or complexes, both with and without themes; family student housing; re-entry student housing; and optional international student housing at the International House, built with a gift from John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and the erstwhile home of six Nobel laureates. Undergraduate residence halls are located off-campus in the city of Berkeley. Units 1, 2 and 3, located on the south side of campus, offer high-rise accommodations with common areas on every other floor. Units 1 and 2 share a common dining hall, Crossroads. The oldest unit, Unit 3, has its own dining hall, Café 3, on the first floor. At the beginning of the 2018–2019 school year, a new building called Blackwell Hall, was opened across the street from Unit 3. These buildings share a dining hall. Further away and also on the south side of campus is Clark Kerr, an undergraduate residential complex that houses many student athletes and was once a school for the deaf and blind.
In the foothills east of the central campus, there are three additional undergraduate residence halls: Foothill, Stern, and Bowles. Foothill is a co-ed, suite-style hall reminiscent of a Swiss chalet. Just south of Foothill, overlooking the Hearst Greek Theatre, is the all-women's traditional-style Stern Hall, which boasts an original mural by Diego Rivera. Because of their proximity to the College of Engineering and College of Chemistry, these residence halls often house science and engineering majors. They tend to be quieter than the southside complexes but often get free glimpses of concerts owing to their proximity to the theater.
Bowles Hall, the country's oldest residential college, is located on the north side of campus between California Memorial Stadium and the Hearst Greek Theater. Gifted by Mary McNear Bowles in 1929 to honor her late husband, Regent Philip E. Bowles, the college began as a student-governed residence hall. The hall was originally all male until its reopening in 2016 following a $45 million renovation. Bowles is known for its Collegiate Gothic architecture, its sense of community, and its unusual traditions and pranks. The Channing-Bowditch and Ida Jackson apartments cater to re-entry students, while the 58-acre University Village, located some 3 miles (4.8 km) northwest of campus, provides housing for students with families.
Berkeley students, and those of other local schools, have the option of living in one of the twenty cooperative houses participating in the Berkeley Student Cooperative (BSC), a nonprofit housing cooperative network consisting of 20 residences and 1250 member-owners. Notable BCS alumni include Norman Mineta, Steve Wozniak, Gordon Moore, Nathan Huggins, Marion Nestle, and Beverly Cleary.
Fraternities and sororities
About three percent of undergraduate men and nine percent of undergraduate women—or 3,400 of total undergraduates—are active in Berkeley's Greek system. University-sanctioned fraternities and sororities comprise over 60 houses affiliated with four Greek councils.
|Fraternities (IFC)||Sororities (PHC)|
Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC)
The Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC) is the official student association that controls funding for student groups and organizes on-campus student events. It is considered[by whom?] the most autonomous student government at any university in the U.S. due to its independent funding model, level of university involvement and resources. The two main political parties are "Student Action" and "CalSERVE." The organization was founded in 1887 and has an annual operating budget of $1.7 million (excluding the budget of the Graduate Assembly of the ASUC), in addition to various investment assets. Its alumni include multiple State Senators, Assemblymembers, and White House Administration officials.[circular reference]
The ASUC's Student Union Program, Entertainment, and Recreation Board (SUPERB) is a student-run, non-profit branch dedicated to providing entertainment for the campus and community. Founded in 1964, SUPERB's programming includes the Friday Film Series, free Noon Concerts on Lower Sproul Plaza, Comedy Competitions, Poker Tournaments, free Sneak Previews of upcoming movies, and more.
Media and publications
Berkeley's student-run online television station, CalTV, was formed in 2005 and broadcasts online. It is run by students with a variety of backgrounds and majors. Since the mid-2010s, it has been a program of the ASUC.
Berkeley's independent student-run newspaper is The Daily Californian. Founded in 1871, The Daily Cal became independent in 1971 after the campus administration fired three senior editors for encouraging readers to take back People's Park. The Daily Californian has both a print and online edition. Print circulation is about 10,000. The newspaper is an important source of information for students, faculty, staff, and the surrounding City of Berkeley.
Berkeley also features an assortment of student-run publications:
- California Law Review, law journal published by Berkeley Law, est. 1912.
- Berkeley Fiction Review, American literary magazine, est. 1981.
- Berkeley Poetry Review, national poetry journal, est. 1974.
- Berkeley Political Review, nonpartisan political magazine, est. 2001.
- Berkeley Economic Review, economics journal, est. 2016.
- Business Berkeley, Haas undergraduate journal.
- Caliber Magazine, an "everything magazine," featuring articles and blogs on a wide range of topics, est. 2008.
- Free Peach, satirical newspaper, est. 2019.
- B-Side, music magazine, est. 2013.
- California Patriot, conservative political magazine, est. 2000.
- Smart Ass, liberal magazine, est. 2015.
There are some 94 political student groups on campus, including MEChXA de UC Berkeley, Berkeley ACLU, Berkeley Students for Life, Campus Greens, The Sustainability Team (STEAM), the Berkeley Student Food Collective, Students for Sensible Drug Policy, Cal Berkeley Democrats, and the Berkeley College Republicans.
The Residence Hall Assembly (RHA) is the student-led umbrella organization that oversees event planning, legislation, sponsorships and other activities for over 7,2000 on-campus undergraduate residents.
Berkeley students also run a number of consulting groups, including the Berkeley Group, founded in 2003 and affiliated with the Haas School. Students from various concentrations are recruited and trained to work on pro-bono consulting engagements with actual nonprofit clients. Berkeley Consulting, founded in 1996, has served over 140 companies across the high-tech, retail, banking, and non-profit sectors.
ImagiCal has been the college chapter of the American Advertising Federation at Berkeley since the late 1980s. The team competes annually in the National Student Advertising Competition, with students from disparate majors working together on a marketing case underwritten by a corporate sponsor.
The Berkeley Forum is a nonpartisan student organization that hosts panels, debates, and speeches across a variety of fields. Past speakers include Senator Rand Paul, entrepreneur and venture capitalist Peter Thiel, and Khan Academy founder Salman Khan.
Democratic Education at Cal, or DeCal, is a program that promotes the creation of professor-sponsored, student-facilitated classes. DeCal arose out of the 1960s Free Speech movement and was officially established in 1981. The program offers around 150 courses on a vast range of subjects that appeal to the student community, including classes on the Rubik's Cube, blockchain, web design, metamodernism, cooking, Jewish art, 3D animation, and bioprinting.
The campus is home to several a cappella groups, including Drawn to Scale, Artists in Resonance, Berkeley Dil Se, the UC Men's Octet, the California Golden Overtones, and Noteworthy. The University of California Men's Octet was founded in 1948 and features a repertoire of barbershop, doo-wop, contemporary pop, modern alternative, and fight songs. Hewing to tradition, the groups perform weekly under Sather Gate on alternating days. Berkeley hosts a myriad other performing arts groups in comedy, dance, acting and instrumental music, and include jericho!, Improv & Sketch Comedy, The Movement, Taiko drumming, BareStage student musical theater, the Remedy Music Project, Main Stacks, AFX Dance, and TruElement.
Since 1967, students and staff jazz musicians have had an opportunity to perform and study with the University of California Jazz Ensembles. Under the direction of Dr. David W. Tucker, who was hired by the Cal Band as a composer, arranger, and associate director, but was later asked to direct the jazz ensembles as it grew in popularity and membership, the group grew rapidly from one big band to multiple big bands, numerous combos, and numerous instrumental classes with multiple instructors. For several decades it hosted the Pacific Coast Collegiate Jazz Festival, part of the American Collegiate Jazz Festival, a competitive forum for student musicians. PCCJF brought jazz artists including Hubert Laws, Sonny Rollins, Freddie Hubbard, and Ed Shaughnessy to the Berkeley campus as performers, clinicians, and adjudicators. The festival later included high school musicians. Michael Wolff and Andy Narell are just a couple of its more famous alumni.
Berkeley student organizations also hosts many other conferences, seminars, and musical and theatrical performances, including the annual Sociological Research Symposium.
Engineering Student Teams
Given UC Berkeley's STEM education and its proximity to Silicon Valley, there are a variety of student-run engineering teams that focus on winning design and engineering competitions. Berkeley has two prominent amateur rocketry teams: Space Enterprise at Berkeley (SEB) and Space Technologies and Rocketry (STAR). Both have launched solid-fuel sounding rockets and are currently developing liquid propellant rockets. The university also has two Formula SAE teams: Berkeley Formula Racing and Formula Electric Berkeley. Both of these teams participate in Formula SAE–run competitions, with the former focusing on internal combustion engines and the latter on electric motors. Berkeley has a number of other vehicle teams, including CalSol, CalSMV, and Human Powered Vehicle.
The university's athletic teams are known as the California Golden Bears (often shortened to "Cal Bears" or just "Cal") and are primarily members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12). Cal is also a member of the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several sports not sponsored by the Pac-12 and the America East Conference in women's field hockey. The first school colors, established in 1873 by a committee of students, were Blue (specifically Yale Blue) and Gold. Yale Blue was originally chosen because many of the university's inaugural faculty were Yale graduates, including Henry Durant, its first president. Blue and Gold were specified and made the official colors of the university and the state colors of California in 1955. However, the athletic department has recently specified a darker blue, close to but not the same as the Berkeley Blue now used by the university.
The California Golden Bears have a long history of excellence in athletics, having won national titles in football, men's basketball, baseball, softball, men's and women's crew, men's gymnastics, men's tennis, men's and women's swimming, men's water polo, men's Judo, men's track, and men's rugby. In addition, Cal athletes have won numerous individual NCAA titles in track, gymnastics, swimming and tennis. On January 31, 2009, the university's Hurling club made athletic history by defeating Stanford in the first collegiate hurling match ever played on American soil. Berkeley teams have won national championships in baseball (2), men's basketball (2), men's crew (15), women's crew (3), football (5), men's golf (1), men's gymnastics (4), men's lacrosse (1), men's rugby (26), softball (1), men's swimming & diving (4), women's swimming & diving (3), men's tennis (1), men's track & field (1), and men's water polo (13). Cal students and alumni have also won 207 Olympic medals.
California finished in first place in the 2007–08 Fall U.S. Sports Academy Directors' Cup standings (Now the NACDA Directors' Cup), a competition measuring the best overall collegiate athletic programs in the country, with points awarded for national finishes in NCAA sports. Cal finished the 2007–08 competition in seventh place with 1119 points. Most recently, California finished in third place in the 2010–11 NACDA Directors' Cup with 1219.50 points, finishing behind Stanford and Ohio State. This is California's highest ever finish in the Director's Cup.
The Golden Bears' traditional arch-rival is the Stanford Cardinal, and the most anticipated sporting event between the two universities is the annual football match dubbed the Big Game, celebrated with spirit events on both campuses. Since 1933, the winner of the Big Game has been awarded custody of the Stanford Axe. Other sporting games between these rivals have related names such as the Big Splash (water polo) or the Big Kick (soccer).
One of the most famous moments in college football history occurred during the 85th Big Game on November 20, 1982. In what has become known as "the band play" or simply The Play, Cal scored the winning touchdown in the final seconds with a kickoff return that involved a series of laterals and the Stanford marching band rushing onto the field.
Notable alumni, faculty, and staff
Berkeley alumni, faculty and staff have distinguished themselves in a wide range of endeavors and include 110 Nobel laureates (34 alumni), 25 Turing Award winners (11 alumni), 14 Fields Medalists, 28 Wolf Prize winners, 103 MacArthur Fellows (62 alumni) , 30 Pulitzer Prize recipients, 19 Academy Award winners, five foreign heads of state, chief justices of the United States and California, 22 cabinet members, ten state governors, numerous members of Congress, 36 general and flag officers of the United States Armed Forces, 40 billionaires, and the founders or co-founders of many world-renowned companies.
Christina Romer, Professor of Economics, 25th Chairperson of the President's Council of Economic Advisers
Natalie Coughlin, BA 2005, multiple gold medal-winning Olympic swimmer
Faculty and staff
- Shiing-Shen Chern, a leading geometer of the 20th century, co-founded the renowned Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and served as its founding Director until 1984.
- Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was scientific director of the Manhattan Project and was the founder of the Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics.
- Faculty member Edward Teller was (together with Stanislaw Ulam) the "father of the hydrogen bomb", who laid important foundations for the establishment of Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley.
- Ernest Lawrence, a Nobel laureate in physics who invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, and founded the Radiation Laboratory on campus, which later became the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
- Gilbert N. Lewis, former Dean of the College of Chemistry, was nominated 41 times for Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He mentored and influenced numerous Berkeley Nobel laureates, including Harold Urey (1934 Nobel Prize), William F. Giauque (1949 Nobel Prize), Glenn T. Seaborg (1951 Nobel Prize), Willard Libby (1960 Nobel Prize), and Melvin Calvin (1961 Nobel Prize).
- Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg discovered or co-discovered 10 chemical elements at Berkeley and served as Chancellor from 1958 to 1961.
- Hans Albert Einstein, the first son of Albert Einstein and a world's leading scholar in hydraulic engineering, was a long-time faculty member at Berkeley.
- Former United States Secretary of Energy and Nobel laureate Steven Chu (PhD 1976), was Director of Berkeley Lab, 2004–2009.
- Janet Yellen, the 15th Chair of the Federal Reserve Board and current United States Secretary of Treasury, is a professor emeritus at Berkeley Haas School of Business and the Department of Economics.
Berkeley alumni have served in a range of prominent government offices, both domestic and foreign, including Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (Earl Warren, BA, JD); United States Attorney General (Edwin Meese III, JD); United States Secretary of State (Dean Rusk, LLB); United States Secretary of the Treasury (W. Michael Blumenthal, BA, and G. William Miller, JD); United States Secretary of Defense (Robert McNamara, BS); United States Secretary of the Interior (Franklin Knight Lane, 1887); United States Secretary of Transportation and United States Secretary of Commerce (Norman Mineta, BS); United States Secretary of Agriculture (Ann Veneman, MPP); National Security Advisor (Robert C. O'Brien, JD); scores of federal judges and members of the United States Congress (10 currently serving) and United States Foreign Service; governors of California (George C. Pardee; Hiram W. Johnson; Earl Warren, BA and LLB; Jerry Brown, BA; and Pete Wilson, JD), Michigan (Jennifer Granholm, BA), and the United States Virgin Islands (Walter A. Gordon, BA); Chief of Staff of the United States Army (Frederick C. Weyand, Class of 1938); Lieutenant General of the United States Army (Jimmy Doolittle); Vice Admiral of the United States Navy (Murry L. Royar, Class of 1916); Major General of the United States Marine Corps (Oliver Prince Smith); Brigadier General of the United States Marine Corps (Bertram A. Bone); Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (John A. McCone, BS); chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisors (Michael Boskin, BA, PhD.; Sandra Black, BA; Jesse Rothstein, PhD; Robert Seamans, PhD; Jay Shambaugh, PhD; James Stock, MA, PhD); Governor of the Federal Reserve System (H. Robert Heller, PhD) and President and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (William Dudley, PhD); Commissioners of the SEC (Troy A. Paredes, BA) and the FCC (Rachelle Chong, BA); and United States Surgeon General (Kenneth P. Moritsugu, MPH); Georgia Institute of Technology president, invented the California pipe method (Blake R Van Leer, M.S. in mechanical engineering).
Foreign alumni include the President of Colombia 1922–1926, (Pedro Nel Ospina Vázquez, BA, Mining Engineering); the President of Mexico (Francisco I. Madero, attended 1892–93); the President and Prime Minister of Pakistan; the Premier of the Republic of China (Sun Fo, BA); the President of Costa Rica (Miguel Angel Rodriguez, MA, PhD); and members of parliament of the United Kingdom (House of Lords, Lydia Dunn, Baroness Dunn, BS), India (Rajya Sabha, the upper house, Prithviraj Chavan, MS); Iran (Mohammad Javad Larijani, PhD); Nigerian Minister of Science and Technology and first Executive Governor of Abia State (Ogbonnaya Onu, PhD Chemical Engineering); Barbados' Ambassador to Brazil (Tonika Sealy-Thompson).
Alumni have also served in many supranational posts, notable among which are President of the World Bank (Robert McNamara, BS); Deputy Prime Minister of Spain and Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (Rodrigo Rato, MBA); Executive Director of UNICEF (Ann Veneman, MPP); member of the European Parliament (Bruno Megret, MS); and judge of the World Court (Joan Donoghue, JD).
Alumni have made important contributions to science. Some have concentrated their studies on the very small universe of atoms and molecules. Nobel laureate William F. Giauque (BS 1920, PhD 1922) investigated chemical thermodynamics, Nobel laureate Willard Libby (BS 1931, PhD 1933) pioneered radiocarbon dating, Nobel laureate Willis Lamb (BS 1934, PhD 1938) examined the hydrogen spectrum, Nobel laureate Hamilton O. Smith (BA 1952) applied restriction enzymes to molecular genetics, Nobel laureate Robert Laughlin (BA math 1972) explored the fractional quantum Hall effect, and Nobel laureate Andrew Fire (BA math 1978) helped to discover RNA interference-gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg (PhD 1937) collaborated with Albert Ghiorso (BS 1913) to discover 12 chemical elements, such as americium, berkelium, and californium. David Bohm (PhD 1943) discovered Bohm Diffusion. Nobel laureate Yuan T. Lee (PhD 1965) developed the crossed molecular beam technique for studying chemical reactions. Carol Greider (PhD 1987), professor of molecular biology and genetics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer. Harvey Itano (BS 1942) conducted breakthrough work on sickle cell anemia that marked the first time a disease was linked to a molecular origin. While he was valedictorian of UC Berkeley's class of 1942, he was unable to attend commencement exercises due to internment. Narendra Karmarkar (PhD 1983) is known for the interior point method, a polynomial algorithm for linear programming known as Karmarkar's algorithm. National Medal of Science laureate Chien-Shiung Wu (PhD 1940), often known as the "Chinese Madame Curie", disproved the Law of Conservation of Parity for which she was awarded the inaugural Wolf Prize in Physics. Kary Mullis (PhD 1973) was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in developing the polymerase chain reaction, a method for amplifying DNA sequences. Daniel Kahneman was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his work in Prospect theory. Richard O. Buckius, engineer, Bachelor's in Mechanical Engineering '72, Masters '73, PhD '75, currently Chief Operating Officer of the National Science Foundation. Edward P. Tryon (PhD 1967) is the physicist who first said our universe originated from a quantum fluctuation of the vacuum.
John N. Bahcall (BS 1956) worked on the Standard Solar Model and the Hubble Space Telescope, resulting in a National Medal of Science. Peter Smith (BS 1969) was the principal investigator and project leader for the NASA robotic explorer Phoenix, which physically confirmed the presence of water on the planet Mars for the first time. Astronauts James van Hoften (BS 1966), Margaret Rhea Seddon (BA 1970), Leroy Chiao (BS 1983), and Rex Walheim (BS 1984) have orbited the earth in NASA's fleet of space shuttles.
Undergraduate alumni have founded or cofounded such companies as Apple Computer, Intel, LSI Logic The Gap, MySpace, PowerBar, Berkeley Systems, Bolt, Beranek and Newman (which created a number of underlying technologies that govern the Internet), Chez Panisse, GrandCentral (known now as Google Voice), HTC Corporation, VIA Technologies, Marvell Technology Group, MoveOn.org, Opsware, RedOctane, Rimon Law P.C., SanDisk, Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker, VMware and Zilog, while graduate school alumni have cofounded companies such as DHL, KeyHole Inc (known now as Google Earth), Sun Microsystems, and The Learning Company. Berkeley alumni have also led various technology companies such as Electronic Arts, Google, Adobe Systems, Softbank (Masayoshi Son) and Qualcomm.
Berkeley alumni have developed a number of key technologies associated with the personal computer and the Internet. Unix was created by alumnus Ken Thompson (BS 1965, MS 1966) along with colleague Dennis Ritchie. Alumni such as L. Peter Deutsch (PhD 1973), Butler Lampson (PhD 1967), and Charles P. Thacker (BS 1967) worked with Ken Thompson on Project Genie and then formed the ill-fated US Department of Defense-funded Berkeley Computer Corporation (BCC), which was scattered throughout the Berkeley campus in non-descript offices to avoid anti-war protestors. After BCC failed, Deutsch, Lampson, and Thacker joined Xerox PARC, where they developed a number of pioneering computer technologies, culminating in the Xerox Alto that inspired the Apple Macintosh. In particular, the Alto used a computer mouse, which had been invented by Doug Engelbart (BEng 1952, PhD 1955). Thompson, Lampson, Engelbart, and Thacker all later received a Turing Award. Also at Xerox PARC was Ronald V. Schmidt (BS 1966, MS 1968, PhD 1971), who became known as "the man who brought Ethernet to the masses". Another Xerox PARC researcher, Charles Simonyi (BS 1972), pioneered the first WYSIWIG word processor program and was recruited personally by Bill Gates to join the fledgling company known as Microsoft to create Microsoft Word. Simonyi later became the first repeat space tourist, blasting off on Russian Soyuz rockets to work at the International Space Station orbiting the earth.
In 1977, a graduate student in the computer science department named Bill Joy (MS 1982) assembled the original Berkeley Software Distribution, commonly known as BSD Unix. Joy, who went on to co-found Sun Microsystems, also developed the original version of the terminal console editor vi, while Ken Arnold (BA 1985) created Curses, a terminal control library for Unix-like systems that enables the construction of text user interface (TUI) applications. Working alongside Joy at Berkeley were undergraduates William Jolitz (BS 1997) and his future wife Lynne Jolitz (BA 1989), who together created 386BSD, a version of BSD Unix that runs on Intel CPUs and evolved into the BSD family of free operating systems and the Darwin operating system underlying Apple Mac OS X. Eric Allman (BS 1977, MS 1980) created SendMail, a Unix mail transfer agent that delivers about 12 percent of the email in the world.
The XCF, an undergraduate research group located in Soda Hall, has been responsible for a number of notable software projects, including GTK+ (created by Peter Mattis, BS 1997), The GIMP (Spencer Kimball, BS 1996), and the initial diagnosis of the Morris worm. In 1992, Pei-Yuan Wei, an undergraduate at the XCF, created ViolaWWW, one of the first graphical web browsers. ViolaWWW was the first browser to have embedded scriptable objects, stylesheets, and tables. In the spirit of Open Source, he donated the code to Sun Microsystems, inspiring Java applets( Kim Polese (BS 1984) was the original product manager for Java at Sun Microsystems.) ViolaWWW also inspired researchers at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications to create the Mosaic web browser, a pioneering web browser that became Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Alumni collectively have won at least twenty-five Pulitzer Prizes. Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Marguerite Higgins (BA 1941) was a pioneering female war correspondent who covered World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. Novelist Robert Penn Warren (MA 1927) won three Pulitzer Prizes, including one for his novel All the King's Men, which was later made into an Academy Award–winning movie. Pulitzer Prize–winning cartoonist Rube Goldberg (BS 1904) invented the comically complex—yet ultimately trivial—contraptions known as Rube Goldberg machines. Journalist Alexandra Berzon (MA 2006) won a Pulitzer Prize in 2009, and journalist Matt Richtel (BA 1989), who also coauthors the comic strip Rudy Park under the pen name of "Theron Heir", won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting. Pulitzer Prize–winning historian Leon Litwack (BA 1951, PhD 1958) taught as a professor at UC Berkeley for 43 years; three other UC Berkeley professors have also received the Pulitzer Prize. Alumna and professor Susan Rasky won the Polk Award for journalism in 1991. USC Professor and Berkeley alumnus Viet Thanh Nguyen's (PhD 1997) first novel The Sympathizer won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
Alumni have also written novels and screenplays that have attracted Oscar-caliber talent, including The Call of the Wild author Jack London. Irving Stone (BA 1923) wrote the novel Lust for Life, which was later made into an Academy Award–winning film of the same name starring Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh. Stone also wrote The Agony and the Ecstasy, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar winner Charlton Heston as Michelangelo. Mona Simpson (BA 1979) wrote the novel Anywhere But Here, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-winning actress Susan Sarandon. Terry McMillan (BA 1986) wrote How Stella Got Her Groove Back, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-nominated actress Angela Bassett. Randi Mayem Singer (BA 1979) wrote the screenplay for Mrs. Doubtfire, which starred Oscar-winning actor Robin Williams and Oscar-winning actress Sally Field. Audrey Wells (BA 1981) wrote the screenplay The Truth About Cats & Dogs, which starred Oscar-nominated actress Uma Thurman. James Schamus (BA 1982, MA 1987, PhD 2003) has collaborated on screenplays with Oscar-winning director Ang Lee on the Academy Award–winning movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Brokeback Mountain.
Collectively, alumni have won at least 20 Academy Awards. Gregory Peck (BA 1939), nominated for four Oscars during his career, won an Oscar for acting in To Kill a Mockingbird. Chris Innis (BA 1991) won the 2010 Oscar for film editing for her work on best picture winner, The Hurt Locker. Walter Plunkett (BA 1923) won an Oscar for costume design (for An American in Paris). Freida Lee Mock (BA 1961) and Charles H. Ferguson (BA 1978) have each won an Oscar for documentary filmmaking. Mark Berger (BA 1964) has won four Oscars for sound mixing and is an adjunct professor at UC Berkeley. Edith Head (BA 1918), who was nominated for 34 Oscars during her career, won eight Oscars for costume design. Joe Letteri (BA 1981) has won four Oscars for Best Visual Effects in the James Cameron film Avatar and the Peter Jackson films King Kong, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King.
Alumni have collectively won at least 25 Emmy Awards: Jon Else (BA 1968) for cinematography; Andrew Schneider (BA 1973) for screenwriting; Linda Schacht (BA 1966, MA 1981), two for broadcast journalism; Christine Chen (dual BA's 1990), two for broadcast journalism; Kristen Sze (BA), two for broadcast journalism; Kathy Baker (BA 1977), three for acting; Ken Milnes (BS 1977), four for broadcasting technology; and Leroy Sievers (BA), twelve for production. Elisabeth Leamy is the recipient of 13 Emmy awards. 
Alumni have acted in classic television series that are still broadcast on TV today. Karen Grassle (BA 1965) played the mother Caroline Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie, Jerry Mathers (BA 1974) starred in Leave it to Beaver, and Roxann Dawson (BA 1980) portrayed B'Elanna Torres on Star Trek: Voyager.
Former undergraduates have participated in the contemporary music industry, such as Grateful Dead bass guitarist Phil Lesh, The Police drummer Stewart Copeland, Rolling Stone Magazine founder Jann Wenner, The Bangles lead singer Susanna Hoffs (BA 1980), Counting Crows lead singer Adam Duritz, electronic music producer Giraffage, MTV correspondent Suchin Pak (BA 1997), AFI musicians Davey Havok and Jade Puget (BA 1996), and solo artist Marié Digby (Say It Again). People Magazine included Third Eye Blind lead singer and songwriter Stephan Jenkins (BA 1987) in the magazine's list of 50 Most Beautiful People.
Alumni have also participated in the world of sports. Tennis athlete Helen Wills Moody (BA 1925) won 31 Grand Slam titles, including eight singles titles at Wimbledon. Tarik Glenn (BA 1999) is a Super Bowl XLI champion, and Mitchell Schwartz (2011) is an All-Pro NFL offensive tackle. Michele Tafoya (BA 1988) is a sports television reporter for ABC Sports and ESPN. Sports agent Leigh Steinberg ( BA 1970, JD 1973) has represented professional athletes such as Steve Young, Troy Aikman, and Oscar De La Hoya; Steinberg has been called the real-life inspiration for the title character in the Oscar-winning film Jerry Maguire (portrayed by Tom Cruise). Matt Biondi (BA 1988) won eight Olympic gold medals during his swimming career, in which he participated in three different Olympics. At the Beijing Olympics in 2008, Natalie Coughlin (BA 2005) became the first American female athlete in modern Olympic history to win six medals in one Olympics.
Berkeley alumni—often generous benefactors—have long been among the billionaire ranks, their largess giving rise to many of the campus' eponymous schools, pavilions, centers, institutes, and halls, and with some of the more prominent being J. Paul Getty, Ann Getty, Sanford Diller and Helen Diller, Donald Fisher, Flora Lamson Hewlett, David Schwartz (Bio-Rad) and members of the Haas (Walter A. Haas, Rhoda Haas Goldman, Walter A. Haas Jr., Peter E. Haas, Bob Haas), Hearst, and Bechtel families. There are at least 30 living alumni billionaires: Gordon Moore (Intel founder), James Harris Simons (Renaissance Technologies), Masayoshi Son (SoftBank), Jon Stryker (Stryker Medical Equipment), Eric Schmidt (former Google Chairman) and Wendy Schmidt, Michael Milken, Bassam Alghanim, Kutayba Alghanim, Charles Simonyi (Microsoft), Cher Wang (HTC), Robert Haas (Levi Strauss & Co.), Carlos Rodriguez-Pastor (Interbank, Peru), Fayez Sarofim, Daniel S. Loeb, Paul Merage, David Hindawi, Orion Hindawi, Bill Joy (Sun Microsystems founder), Victor Koo, Tony Xu (DoorDash), Lowell Milken, Nathaniel Simons and Laura Baxter-Simons, Elizabeth Simons and Mark Heising, Oleg Tinkov, Liong Tek Kwee (BS 1968), Liong Seen Kwee (BS 1974) and Alice Schwartz.
- Various human and animal rights groups have been in conflict with Berkeley. Native Americans contended with the school over repatriation of remains from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.[who else?]
- Cal's seismically unsafe Memorial Stadium reopened September 2012 after a $321 million renovation. The university incurred a controversial $445 million of debt for the stadium and a new $153 million student athletic center, which it planned to finance with the sale of special stadium endowment seats. However, in June 2013 news surfaced that the university has had trouble selling the seats. The roughly $18 million interest-only annual payments on the debt consumes 20 percent of Cal's athletics' budget; principal repayment begins in 2032 and is scheduled to conclude in 2113.
- On May 1, 2014, Berkeley was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. Investigations continued into 2016, with hundreds of pages of records released in April 2016, showing a pattern of documented sexual harassment and firings of non-tenured staff.
- On July 25, 2019, Berkeley was removed from the U.S. News Best Colleges Ranking for misreporting statistics. Berkeley had originally reported that its two-year average alumni giving rate for fiscal years 2017 and 2016 was 11.6 percent, U.S. News said. The school later told U.S. News the correct average alumni giving rate for the 2016 fiscal year was just 7.9 percent. The school incorrectly overstated its alumni giving data to U.S. News since at least 2014. The alumni giving rate accounts for five percent of the Best Colleges ranking.
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The issue I want to talk about tonight is the future of "flagship" universities, institutions like the University of Texas at Austin, or Texas A&M at College Station, or the University of California, Berkeley. This is not an easy topic to talk about for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the fact that those of us in "systems" of higher education are frequently actively discouraged from using the term "flagship" to refer to our campuses because it is seen as hurtful to the self-esteem of colleagues at other institutions in our systems.
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