Estados Unidos da America
|Grande Selo : |
|Capital||Washington, DC |
|A maior cidade||Cidade de Nova York |
|Línguas oficiais||Nenhum no nível federal [a]|
|Grupos étnicos |
Por corrida: [b]
|Demônimo (s)||Americano [c] |
|Governo||República constitucional presidencial federal|
|Joe Biden ( D )|
|Kamala Harris ( D )|
|Nancy Pelosi ( D )|
|Câmara dos Representantes|
|4 de julho de 1776|
|1 de março de 1781|
|3 de setembro de 1783|
|21 de junho de 1788|
|25 de setembro de 1789|
|21 de agosto de 1959|
|5 de maio de 1992|
• Área total
|3.796.742 mi2 (9.833.520 km 2 ) [d]  ( 3º / 4º )|
• Água (%)
|4,66 (em 2015) |
• Área total do terreno
|3.531.905 sq mi (9.147.590 km 2 )|
• censo de 2020
|331.449.281 [e]  ( 3º )|
|87 / sq mi (33,6 / km 2 ) ( 146º )|
|PIB ( PPP )||Estimativa de 2021|
|$ 22,675 trilhões  ( 2º )|
• per capita
|$ 68.309  ( 7º )|
|PIB (nominal)||Estimativa de 2021|
|$ 22,675 trilhões  ( 1º )|
• per capita
|$ 68.309  ( 5º )|
|Gini (2020)|| 48,5  de |
|HDI (2019)|| 0,926  |
muito alto · 17º
|Moeda||Dólar dos Estados Unidos ($) ( USD )|
|Fuso horário||UTC −4 a −12, +10, +11|
• Verão ( DST )
|UTC −4 a −10 [f]|
|Formato de data|
|Eletricidade principal||110-120 V, 60 Hz |
|Lado de condução||certo [g]|
|Código de chamada||+1|
|Código ISO 3166||nós|
Os Estados Unidos da América ( EUA ou EUA ), comumente conhecidos como Estados Unidos ( EUA ou EUA ) ou América , é um país localizado principalmente na América do Norte . É composto por 50 estados , um distrito federal , cinco grandes territórios não incorporados , 326 reservas indígenas e algumas possessões menores . [j] Com 3,8 milhões de milhas quadradas (9,8 milhões de quilômetros quadrados), é o terceiro ou quarto maior país do mundo em área total . [d]Os Estados Unidos compartilham fronteiras terrestres significativas com o Canadá ao norte e o México ao sul, bem como fronteiras marítimas limitadas com as Bahamas , Cuba e Rússia .  Com uma população de mais de 331 milhões de pessoas, é o terceiro país mais populoso do mundo. A capital nacional é Washington, DC , e a cidade mais populosa é Nova York .
Os paleo-indianos migraram da Sibéria para o continente norte-americano há pelo menos 12.000 anos , e a colonização europeia começou no século XVI. Os Estados Unidos surgiram das treze colônias britânicas estabelecidas ao longo da Costa Leste . Disputas sobre tributação e representação política com a Grã-Bretanha levaram à Guerra Revolucionária Americana (1775-1783). Em 1788, quatro anos após conquistar a independência, os estados ratificaram a Constituição dos Estados Unidos, estabelecendo um novo governo federal que continua em vigor até hoje. No início do século 19, o país começou a se expandir pela América do Norte, gradualmente obtendo novos territórios , às vezes por meio da guerra , frequentemente deslocando os nativos americanos e admitindo novos estados ; em 1848, os Estados Unidos abrangiam o continente. A escravidão era legal nos estados do sul , o que desencadeou a Guerra Civil Americana (1861-1865). A vitória final da União levou à abolição da escravidão. A guerra e suas consequências viram a rápida expansão das capacidades industriais americanas. Uma política externa americana mais intervencionista foi confirmada pelos territórios ultramarinos conquistados pelos EUA na Guerra Hispano-Americana . A vitória na Primeira Guerra Mundial em 1918 fez dos Estados Unidos uma potência mundial. Os Estados Unidos forjaram uma nova identidade cultural forte nas décadas de 1920 e 1930, com a popularização do beisebol e a crescente atração internacional de Hollywood e do jazz .
Em 1941, os Estados Unidos entraram formalmente na Segunda Guerra Mundial como um membro das potências aliadas após o ataque surpresa a Pearl Harbor . Suas forças armadas lutaram simultaneamente em dois teatros militares, Europa Ocidental e Leste Asiático. O país também experimentou uma transformação sem paralelo que viu a rápida expansão de seu poderio militar, científico e industrial. Também buscou o Projeto Manhattan , um esforço ultrassecreto para desenvolver a bomba atômica. Os Estados Unidos saíram da guerra como uma superpotência e a única nação com armas nucleares. Teve um papel significativo no estabelecimento das Nações Unidas e na redação da Constituição de 1947 do Japão, derrotado em 1945.
Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, os Estados Unidos e a União Soviética enfrentaram tensões crescentes que culminaram na Guerra Fria , que duraria todo o século XX. Também representou o potencial de um conflito nuclear quando, em 1949, a União Soviética detonou sua primeira arma atômica . Os Estados Unidos se opuseram aos aliados soviéticos na Guerra da Coréia (um mandato da ONU) e na Guerra do Vietnã (sem o apoio da ONU), mas evitaram o conflito militar direto com a própria União Soviética . A corrida espacial , outra medida da competição EUA-Soviética durante a Guerra Fria, resultou na missão Apollo 11 que viu os Estados Unidos pousarem oo primeiro homem na Lua em 1969. A dissolução da União Soviética em 1991 encerrou a Guerra Fria, deixando os Estados Unidos como a única superpotência mundial nas duas décadas seguintes. No século 21, os Estados Unidos foram cada vez mais desafiados pela China como uma superpotência dominante.
Os Estados Unidos são uma república federal e uma democracia representativa com três ramos separados do governo , incluindo uma legislatura bicameral . É membro fundador das Nações Unidas , Banco Mundial , Fundo Monetário Internacional , Organização dos Estados Americanos , OTAN e outras organizações internacionais. É membro permanente do Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas . Considerada uma mistura de culturas e etnias , sua população foi profundamente moldada porséculos de imigração . O país tem uma alta classificação em medidas internacionais de liberdade econômica , qualidade de vida , educação e direitos humanos , e tem baixos níveis de percepção de corrupção . No entanto, o país tem recebido críticas nacionais e internacionais a respeito da desigualdade relacionada à raça , riqueza e renda , o uso da pena de morte , as altas taxas de encarceramento e a falta de saúde universal .
Os Estados Unidos são um país altamente desenvolvido , respondem por aproximadamente um quarto do PIB global e são a maior economia do mundo . Em valor, os Estados Unidos são o maior importador mundial e o segundo maior exportador de mercadorias. Embora sua população seja de apenas 4,2% do total mundial, ela detém 29,4% da riqueza total do mundo , a maior parcela detida por qualquer país. Representando mais de um terço dos gastos militares globais , é a principal potência militar do mundo; e é uma importante força política , cultural e científica internacionalmente. 
O primeiro uso conhecido do nome " América " data de 1507, quando ele apareceu em um mapa-múndi produzido pelo cartógrafo alemão Martin Waldseemüller . Em seu mapa , o nome aparece em letras grandes no que hoje seria considerada América do Sul , em homenagem a Américo Vespúcio . O explorador italiano foi o primeiro a postular que as Índias Ocidentais não representavam o limite oriental da Ásia, mas eram parte de uma massa de terra até então desconhecida.   Em 1538, o cartógrafo flamengo Gerardus Mercator usou o nome "América" em seu próprio mapa mundial, aplicando-o a todo o hemisfério ocidental . 
A primeira prova documental da frase "United States of America" datas de um 02 de janeiro de 1776 carta escrita por Stephen Moylan de George Washington 's ajudante-de-campo Joseph Reed . Moylan expressou seu desejo de ir "com plenos e amplos poderes dos Estados Unidos da América à Espanha" para buscar ajuda no esforço de guerra revolucionária .    A primeira publicação conhecida da frase "Estados Unidos da América" foi em um ensaio anônimo no jornal The Virginia Gazette em Williamsburg, Virginia, em 6 de abril de 1776 . 
O segundo esboço dos Artigos da Confederação , preparado por John Dickinson e concluído até 17 de junho de 1776 , declarava "O nome desta Confederação será 'Estados Unidos da América'."  A versão final dos Artigos, enviada aos estados para ratificação no final de 1777, afirmava que "O Stile desta Confederação será 'Os Estados Unidos da América'."  Em junho de 1776, Thomas Jefferson escreveu a frase "ESTADOS UNIDOS DA AMÉRICA" em todas as letras maiúsculas no título de seu "esboço original" da Declaração de Independência . Este rascunho do documento não veio à tona até21 de junho de 1776 , e não está claro se foi escrito antes ou depois que Dickinson usou o termo em seu rascunho dos Artigos da Confederação de 17 de junho. 
A forma abreviada "Estados Unidos" também é padrão. Outras formas comuns são "EUA", "EUA" e "América". Os nomes coloquiais são "US of A." e, internacionalmente, os "Estados". " Columbia ", um nome popular na poesia e canções americanas do final do século 18, deriva sua origem de Cristóvão Colombo ; tanto "Columbus" quanto "Columbia" aparecem frequentemente em topônimos dos EUA, incluindo Columbus, Ohio , Columbia, Carolina do Sul e Distrito de Columbia . Lugares e instituições em todo o hemisfério ocidental levam os dois nomes, incluindo Colón, Panamá ,o país da Colômbia , o rio Columbiae Columbia University .
A frase "Estados Unidos" era originalmente plural no uso americano. Descreveu um conjunto de estados - por exemplo, "os Estados Unidos são". A forma singular se tornou popular após o fim da Guerra Civil e agora é o uso padrão nos Estados Unidos. Um cidadão dos Estados Unidos é um " americano ". "Estados Unidos", "americano" e "EUA" referem-se ao país adjetivalmente ("valores americanos", "forças dos EUA"). Em inglês, a palavra " americano " raramente se refere a tópicos ou assuntos não diretamente relacionados com os Estados Unidos. 
Povos indígenas e história pré-colombiana
É geralmente aceito que os primeiros habitantes da América do Norte migraram da Sibéria por meio da ponte de terra de Bering e chegaram há pelo menos 12.000 anos; no entanto, algumas evidências sugerem uma data de chegada ainda anterior.    A cultura Clovis , que apareceu em torno de 11.000 aC, acredita-se que representam a primeira onda de assentamento humano of the Americas.   Esta foi provavelmente a primeira de três grandes ondas de migração para a América do Norte; ondas posteriores trouxeram os ancestrais dos atuais Athabaskans, Aleutas e Esquimós. 
Com o tempo, as culturas indígenas na América do Norte tornaram-se cada vez mais complexas e algumas, como a cultura pré-colombiana do Mississippi no sudeste, desenvolveram agricultura, arquitetura e sociedades complexas avançadas.  A cidade-estado de Cahokia é o maior e mais complexo sítio arqueológico pré-colombiano nos Estados Unidos modernos.  Na região dos Quatro Cantos , a cultura ancestral Puebloan desenvolveu-se a partir de séculos de experimentação agrícola.  O Haudenosaunee , localizado no sul dos Grandes Lagosregião, foi estabelecida em algum momento entre os séculos XII e XV.  Mais proeminentes ao longo da costa do Atlântico foram as tribos algonquianas , que praticavam a caça e a caça com armadilhas, junto com o cultivo limitado.
Estimar a população nativa da América do Norte na época do contato com a Europa é difícil.   Douglas H. Ubelaker do Smithsonian Institution estimou que havia uma população de 92.916 nos estados do Atlântico Sul e uma população de 473.616 nos estados do Golfo,  mas a maioria dos acadêmicos considera esse número muito baixo.  O antropólogo Henry F. Dobyns acreditava que as populações eram muito maiores, sugerindo cerca de 1,1 milhão ao longo das costas do Golfo do México, 2,2 milhões de pessoas vivendo entre a Flórida e Massachusetts , 5,2 milhões no Vale do Mississippie afluentes, e cerca de 700.000 pessoas na península da Flórida .  
Reivindicações de colonização muito precoce da costa da Nova Inglaterra pelos nórdicos são disputadas e controversas. A primeira chegada documentada de europeus ao território continental dos Estados Unidos é de conquistadores espanhóis como Juan Ponce de León , que fez sua primeira expedição à Flórida em 1513. Ainda antes, Cristóvão Colombo havia desembarcado em Porto Rico em sua viagem de 1493 , e em San Juan foi colonizado pelos espanhóis uma década depois.  Os espanhóis estabeleceram os primeiros assentamentos na Flórida e no Novo México, como Saint Augustine , frequentemente considerada a cidade mais antiga do país, e Santa Fe . Os franceses estabeleceram seus próprios assentamentos ao longo do rio Mississippi , notavelmente Nova Orleans .  A colonização inglesa bem-sucedida na costa leste da América do Norte começou com a Colônia da Virgínia em 1607 em Jamestown e com a colônia dos Peregrinos em Plymouth em 1620.   A primeira assembléia legislativa eleita do continente, a Casa dos Burgesses da Virgínia , foi fundada em 1619. Documentos como o Mayflower Compact e as Ordens Fundamentais de Connecticutestabeleceu precedentes para o autogoverno representativo e o constitucionalismo que se desenvolveriam nas colônias americanas.   Muitos colonos eram cristãos dissidentes que vieram em busca de liberdade religiosa . Em 1784, os russos foram os primeiros europeus a estabelecer um assentamento no Alasca , na Baía de Três Santos . A América russa já ocupou grande parte do atual estado do Alasca . 
Nos primeiros dias da colonização, muitos colonos europeus foram vítimas de escassez de alimentos, doenças e ataques de nativos americanos. Os nativos americanos também estavam frequentemente em guerra com tribos vizinhas e colonos europeus. Em muitos casos, porém, os nativos e colonos passaram a depender uns dos outros. Colonos trocados por comida e peles de animais; nativos para armas, ferramentas e outros produtos europeus.  Os nativos ensinaram muitos colonos a cultivar milho, feijão e outros alimentos. Os missionários europeus e outros sentiram que era importante "civilizar" os nativos americanos e os exortaram a adotar práticas agrícolas e estilos de vida europeus.   No entanto, com o aumento da colonização europeia da América do Norte, oOs nativos americanos foram deslocados e freqüentemente mortos .  A população nativa da América diminuiu após a chegada dos europeus por vários motivos,    principalmente doenças como varíola e sarampo .  
Colonizadores europeus também começou o tráfico de escravos africanos para a América Colonial através do tráfico transatlântico de escravos .  Por causa de uma menor prevalência de doenças tropicais e melhores tratamentos , os escravos tinham uma expectativa de vida muito maior na América do Norte do que na América do Sul, levando a um rápido aumento em seu número.   A sociedade colonial foi amplamente dividida sobre as implicações religiosas e morais da escravidão, e várias colônias aprovaram atos contra e a favor da prática.   No entanto, na virada do século 18, os escravos africanos suplantaram os servos contratados europeus comomão-de-obra da safra comercial , especialmente no sul dos Estados Unidos. 
As Treze Colônias ( New Hampshire , Massachusetts , Connecticut , Rhode Island , New York , New Jersey , Pensilvânia , Delaware , Maryland , Virgínia , Carolina do Norte , Carolina do Sul e Geórgia ) que se tornariam os Estados Unidos da América foram administradas pelos britânicos como dependências no exterior.  Todos, no entanto, tinham governos locais com eleições abertas para a maioria dos homens livres. Com taxas de natalidade extremamente altas, baixas taxas de mortalidade e assentamento estável, a população colonial cresceu rapidamente, eclipsando as populações nativas americanas.  O movimento revivalista cristão das décadas de 1730 e 1740, conhecido como o Grande Despertar, alimentou o interesse pela religião e pela liberdade religiosa. 
Durante a Guerra dos Sete Anos (1756-1763), conhecida nos Estados Unidos como Guerra Francesa e Indiana , as forças britânicas capturaram o Canadá dos franceses. Com a criação da Província de Quebec , a população francófona do Canadá permaneceria isolada das dependências coloniais de língua inglesa da Nova Escócia , Terra Nova e das Treze Colônias . Excluindo os nativos americanos que viviam lá, as Treze Colônias tinham uma população de mais de 2,1 milhõesem 1770, cerca de um terço da Grã-Bretanha. Apesar de novos recém-chegados, a taxa de aumento natural era tal que, na década de 1770, apenas uma pequena minoria de americanos havia nascido no exterior.  A distância das colônias da Grã-Bretanha havia permitido o desenvolvimento do autogoverno, mas seu sucesso sem precedentes motivou os monarcas britânicos a buscarem periodicamente reafirmar a autoridade real. 
Independência e expansão
A Guerra Revolucionária Americana travada pelas Treze Colônias contra o Império Britânico foi a primeira guerra de independência bem-sucedida por uma entidade não europeia contra uma potência europeia na história moderna . Os americanos desenvolveram uma ideologia de " republicanismo ", afirmando que o governo se apoiava na vontade do povo expressa em suas legislaturas locais. Eles exigiram seus " direitos como ingleses " e " nenhuma tributação sem representação ". Os britânicos insistiram em administrar o império por meio do Parlamento, e o conflito se transformou em guerra. 
O Segundo Congresso Continental aprovou por unanimidade a Declaração de Independência em 4 de julho de 1776 ; este dia é comemorado anualmente como o Dia da Independência .  Em 1777, os Artigos da Confederação estabeleceram um governo descentralizado que funcionou até 1789. 
Após sua derrota no Cerco de Yorktown em 1781, a Grã-Bretanha assinou um tratado de paz . A soberania americana tornou-se reconhecida internacionalmente, e o país recebeu todas as terras a leste do rio Mississippi . As tensões com a Grã-Bretanha permaneceram, no entanto, levando à Guerra de 1812 , que acabou empatada.  Os nacionalistas lideraram a Convenção da Filadélfia de 1787 ao escrever a Constituição dos Estados Unidos , ratificada em convenções estaduais em 1788. Entrando em vigor em 1789, esta constituição reorganizou o governo federal em três ramos, com base no princípio de criar freios e contrapesos salutares.George Washington , que liderou o Exército Continental à vitória, foi o primeiro presidente eleito sob a nova constituição. A Declaração de Direitos , proibindo a restrição federal das liberdades pessoais e garantindo uma série de proteções legais, foi adotada em 1791. 
Embora o governo federal tenha proibido a participação americana no comércio de escravos do Atlântico em 1807, depois de 1820, o cultivo da altamente lucrativa safra de algodão explodiu no Extremo Sul e, com ele, a população escrava.    O Segundo Grande Despertar , especialmente no período de 1800-1840, converteu milhões ao protestantismo evangélico . No Norte, ele energizou vários movimentos de reforma social, incluindo o abolicionismo ;  no sul, metodistas e batistas faziam proselitismo entre as populações escravas. 
Começando no final do século 18, os colonos americanos começaram a se expandir para o oeste ,  levando a uma longa série de guerras indígenas americanas .  A compra da Louisiana em 1803 quase dobrou a área do país,  a Espanha cedeu a Flórida e outros territórios da Costa do Golfo em 1819,  a República do Texas foi anexada em 1845 durante um período de expansionismo,  e 1846 O Tratado de Oregon com a Grã-Bretanha levou ao controle dos Estados Unidos do atual Noroeste americano .  Vitória na Guerra Mexicano-Americanaresultou na Cessão Mexicana da Califórnia em 1848 e grande parte do atual sudoeste americano , fazendo com que os EUA abrangessem o continente.  
A corrida do ouro na Califórnia de 1848-1849 estimulou a migração para a costa do Pacífico, o que levou ao Genocídio da Califórnia  e à criação de outros estados ocidentais.  A doação de grandes quantidades de terras para colonos europeus brancos como parte dos Homestead Acts , quase 10% da área total dos Estados Unidos, e para empresas ferroviárias privadas e faculdades como parte de doações de terras estimulou o desenvolvimento econômico .  Após a Guerra Civil, novas ferrovias transcontinentais tornaram a realocação mais fácil para os colonos, expandiram o comércio interno e aumentaram os conflitos com os nativos americanos. Em 1869, uma nova Política de Paz prometia nominalmente proteger os nativos americanos de abusos, evitar mais guerras e garantir sua eventual cidadania americana. No entanto, os conflitos em grande escala continuaram em todo o Ocidente até o século XX.
Era da Guerra Civil e Reconstrução
O conflito seccional irreconciliável em relação à escravidão de africanos e afro-americanos acabou levando à Guerra Civil Americana .  Com a eleição de 1860 do republicano Abraham Lincoln , convenções em treze estados escravistas declararam secessão e formaram os Estados Confederados da América (o "Sul" ou a "Confederação"), enquanto o governo federal (a " União ") manteve que a secessão era ilegal. Para provocar esta secessão, uma ação militar foi iniciada pelos separatistas e a União respondeu na mesma moeda. A guerra que se seguiu se tornaria o conflito militar mais mortal da história americana, resultando na morte de aproximadamente 618.000 soldados, bem como de muitos civis.  A União inicialmente simplesmente lutou para manter o país unido. No entanto, como as baixas aumentaram após 1863 e Lincoln fez sua Proclamação de Emancipação , o objetivo principal da guerra, do ponto de vista da União, passou a ser a abolição da escravidão. Na verdade, quando a União finalmente venceu a guerra em abril de 1865, cada um dos estados do Sul derrotado foi obrigado a ratificar a Décima Terceira Emenda , que proibia a escravidão, exceto como trabalho penal. Duas outras emendas também foram ratificadas, garantindo a cidadania aos negros e, pelo menos em tese, o direito de voto a eles.
A reconstrução começou para valer após a guerra. Enquanto o presidente Lincoln tentava promover a amizade e o perdão entre a União e a ex-Confederação, seu assassinato em 14 de abril de 1865 abriu uma divisão entre o norte e o sul novamente. Os republicanos no governo federal estabeleceram como meta supervisionar a reconstrução do Sul e garantir os direitos dos afro-americanos. Eles persistiram até o Compromisso de 1877, quando os republicanos concordaram em deixar de proteger os direitos dos afro-americanos no Sul para que os democratas concedessem a eleição presidencial de 1876 .
Os democratas brancos do sul, que se autodenominam " Redentores ", assumiram o controle do Sul após o fim da Reconstrução, começando o nadir das relações raciais americanas . De 1890 a 1910, os Redentores estabeleceram as chamadas leis Jim Crow , privando a maioria dos negros e alguns brancos pobres da região. Os negros enfrentariam a segregação racial em todo o país, especialmente no sul.  Eles também experimentaram ocasionalmente violência de vigilantes, incluindo linchamentos . 
Mais imigração, expansão e industrialização
No Norte, a urbanização e um influxo sem precedentes de imigrantes do Sul e do Leste da Europa forneceram um excedente de mão-de-obra para a industrialização do país e transformaram sua cultura.  A infraestrutura nacional, incluindo telégrafo e ferrovias transcontinentais , impulsionou o crescimento econômico e uma maior colonização e desenvolvimento do Velho Oeste americano . A invenção posterior da luz elétrica e do telefone também afetaria a comunicação e a vida urbana. 
Os Estados Unidos lutaram nas Guerras Indígenas a oeste do Rio Mississippi de 1810 a pelo menos 1890.  A maioria desses conflitos terminou com a cessão do território nativo americano e seu confinamento em reservas indígenas . Além disso, a Trilha das Lágrimas na década de 1830 exemplificou a política de remoção de índios que reassentou os índios à força. Isso expandiu ainda mais a área cultivada com cultivo mecânico, aumentando os excedentes para os mercados internacionais.  A expansão do continente também incluiu a compra do Alasca da Rússia em 1867.  Em 1893, elementos pró-americanos no Havaí derrubarama monarquia havaiana e formou a República do Havaí , que os Estados Unidos anexaram em 1898. Porto Rico , Guam e as Filipinas foram cedidos pela Espanha no mesmo ano, após a Guerra Hispano-Americana .  Samoa Americana foi adquirida pelos Estados Unidos em 1900 após o fim da Segunda Guerra Civil Samoa .  As Ilhas Virgens dos EUA foram compradas da Dinamarca em 1917. 
Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in the railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest. These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements. This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, and greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917 when it joined the war as an "associated power" alongside the Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage. The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television. The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal. The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s; whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.
At first effectively neutral during World War II, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers, and in the following year, to intern about 120,000 U.S. residents (including American citizens) of Japanese descent. Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy. The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation. During the war, the United States was one of the "Four Powers" who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union, and China. Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel, it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.
The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war. The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history, the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The United States developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945; the Japanese surrendered on September 2, ending World War II.
Cold War and civil rights era
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, occasionally supporting authoritarian right-wing regimes. American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–1953. The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first crewed spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the Moon in 1969. The United States became increasingly involved in the Vietnam War (1955–1975), introducing combat forces in 1965.
At home, the U.S. had experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class following World War II. After a surge in female labor participation, especially in the 1970s, by 1985, the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. In 1959, the United States formally expanded beyond the contiguous United States when the territories of Alaska and Hawaii became, respectively, the 49th and 50th states admitted into the Union. The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination. Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew, which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, the Black Power movement, and the sexual revolution.
The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. The United States supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War; in response, the country faced an oil embargo from OPEC nations, sparking the 1973 oil crisis. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter brokered a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, marking the first time an Arab nation recognized Israeli existence.[relevant?] After his election, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the Soviet Union. The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the Soviet Union, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War. This brought about unipolarity with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower.
After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing the spread of instability, in August, President George H. W. Bush launched and led the Gulf War against Iraq; waged until January 1991 by coalition forces from 34 nations, it ended in the expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and restoration of the monarchy.
Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture. Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history. Beginning in 1994, the U.S. signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), causing trade among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico to soar.
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorist hijackers flew passenger planes into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people. In response, President George W. Bush launched the War on Terror, which included a nearly 20-year war in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2021 and the 2003–2011 Iraq War. A 2011 military operation in Pakistan led to the death of the leader of Al-Qaeda.
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing, widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance, and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the nation's largest economic contraction since the Great Depression. During the crisis, assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their value. Barack Obama, the first multiracial president, with African-American ancestry was elected in 2008 amid the crisis, and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd–Frank Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. In 2010, President Obama led efforts to pass the Affordable Care Act, the most sweeping reform to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades.
In the presidential election of 2016, Republican Donald Trump was elected as the 45th president of the United States, a result viewed as one of the biggest political upsets in American history. In the presidential election of 2020, Democrat Joe Biden was elected as the 46th president. On January 6, 2021, supporters of outgoing President Trump stormed the United States Capitol in an unsuccessful effort to disrupt the presidential Electoral College vote count.
The 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia occupy a combined area of 3,119,885 square miles (8,080,470 km2). Of this area, 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940 km2) is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U.S. land area. Hawaii, occupying an archipelago in the central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles (28,311 km2) in area. The five populated but unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands together cover 9,185 square miles (23,789 km2). Measured by only land area, the United States is third in size behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada.
The United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by total area (land and water), ranking behind Russia and Canada and nearly equal to China. The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.[d]
The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. The Appalachian Mountains divide the eastern seaboard from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest. The Mississippi–Missouri River, the world's fourth longest river system, runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.
The Rocky Mountains, west of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, peaking around 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in Colorado. Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and Mojave. The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run close to the Pacific coast, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m). The lowest and highest points in the contiguous United States are in the state of California, and only about 84 miles (135 km) apart. At an elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190.5 m), Alaska's Denali is the highest peak in the country and in North America. Active volcanoes are common throughout Alaska's Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature.
The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical, as well as its territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. States bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world's tornadoes occur in the country, mainly in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South. Overall, the United States receives more high-impact extreme weather incidents than any other country in the world.
Wildlife and conservation
The U.S. is one of 17 megadiverse countries containing a large amount of endemic species: about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and more than 1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland. The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species, as well as about 91,000 insect species.
There are 62 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Altogether, the government owns about 28% of the country's land area, mostly in the western states. Most of this land is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching, and about .86% is used for military purposes.
Environmental issues include debates on oil and nuclear energy, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation, and climate change. The most prominent environmental agency is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970. The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
The United States is ranked 24th among nations in the Environmental Performance Index. The country joined the Paris Agreement on climate change in 2016 and has many other environmental commitments. It left the Paris Agreement in 2020, and rejoined it in 2021.
|Note that the census numbers do|
not include Native Americans until 1860.
The U.S. Census Bureau reported 331,449,281 residents as of April 1, 2020. This figure, like most official data for the United States as a whole, excludes the five unincorporated territories (Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands) and minor island possessions. According to the Bureau's U.S. Population Clock, on January 28, 2021, the U.S. population had a net gain of one person every 100 seconds, or about 864 people per day. The United States is the third most populous nation in the world, after China and India. In 2020 the median age of the United States population was 38.5 years.
In 2018, there were almost 90 million immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants in the United States, accounting for 28% of the overall U.S. population. The United States has a diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members. White Americans of European ancestry, mostly German, Irish, English, Italian, Polish and French, including White Hispanic and Latino Americans from Latin America, form the largest racial group, at 73.1% of the population. African Americans constitute the nation's largest racial minority and third-largest ancestry group, and are around 13% of the total U.S. population. Asian Americans are the country's second-largest racial minority (the three largest Asian ethnic groups are Chinese, Filipino, and Indian).
In 2017, out of the U.S. foreign-born population, some 45% (20.7 million) were naturalized citizens, 27% (12.3 million) were lawful permanent residents, 6% (2.2 million) were temporary lawful residents, and 23% (10.5 million) were unauthorized immigrants. Among current living immigrants to the U.S., the top five countries of birth are Mexico, China, India, the Philippines and El Salvador. Until 2017, the United States led the world in refugee resettlement for decades, admitting more refugees than the rest of the world combined.
About 82% of Americans live in urban areas, including suburbs; about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000. In 2008, 273 incorporated municipalities had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four cities had over two million (namely New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston). Many U.S. metropolitan populations are growing rapidly, particularly in the South and West.
As of 2018[update], 52% of Americans age 15 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 32% had never been married. As of 2020, the total fertility rate stood at 1.64 children per woman. In 2013, the average age at first birth was 26, and 41% of births were to unmarried women. In 2019, the U.S. had the world's highest rate (23%) of children living in single-parent households; the rates in Canada and Mexico were 15% and 7%, respectively.
English (specifically, American English) is the de facto national language of the United States. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English, and most states have declared English as the official language. Three states and four U.S. territories have recognized local or indigenous languages in addition to English, including Hawaii (Hawaiian), Alaska (twenty Native languages),[k] South Dakota (Sioux), American Samoa (Samoan), Puerto Rico (Spanish), Guam (Chamorro), and the Northern Mariana Islands (Carolinian and Chamorro). In Puerto Rico, Spanish is more widely spoken than English.
According to the American Community Survey, in 2010 some 229 million people (out of the total U.S. population of 308 million) spoke only English at home. More than 37 million spoke Spanish at home, making it the second most commonly used language in the United States. Other languages spoken at home by one million people or more include Chinese (2.8 million), Tagalog (1.6 million), Vietnamese (1.4 million), French (1.3 million), Korean (1.1 million), and German (1 million).
The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate education, are Spanish (around 7.2 million students), French (1.5 million), and German (500,000). Other commonly taught languages include Latin, Japanese, American Sign Language, Italian, and Chinese. 18% of all Americans claim to speak both English and another language.
The United States has the world's largest Christian population. In a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians; Protestants accounted for 46.5%, while Catholics, at 20.8%, formed the largest single Christian denomination. In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. adult population claimed a non-Christian religion. These include Judaism (1.9%), Islam (0.9%), Hinduism (0.7%), and Buddhism (0.7%). The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no religion—up from 8.2% in 1990. Membership in a house of worship fell from 70% in 1999 to 47% in 2020, much of the decline related to the number of Americans expressing no religious preference. However, membership also fell among those who identified with a specific religious group.
Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at 15.4%, and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination at 5.3% of the U.S. population. Apart from Baptists, other Protestant categories include nondenominational Protestants, Methodists, Pentecostals, unspecified Protestants, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, other Reformed, Episcopalians/Anglicans, Quakers, Adventists, Holiness, Christian fundamentalists, Anabaptists, Pietists, and multiple others.
The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that the United States had an average life expectancy at birth of 78.8 years in 2019 (76.3 years for men and 81.4 years for women), up 0.1 year from 2018. This was the second year that overall U.S. life expectancy rose slightly after three years of overall declines that followed decades of continuous improvement. The recent decline, primarily among the age group 25 to 64, was largely due to record highs in the drug overdose and suicide rates; the country still has one of the highest suicide rates among wealthy countries. From 1999 to 2019, more than 770,000 Americans died from drug overdoses. Life expectancy was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks.
Increasing obesity in the United States and improvements in health and longevity outside the U.S. contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in 1987 to 42nd in 2007. In 2017, the United States had the lowest life expectancy among Japan, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and seven nations in western Europe. Obesity rates have more than doubled in the last 30 years and are the highest in the industrialized world. Approximately one-third of the adult population is obese and an additional third is overweight. Obesity-related type 2 diabetes is considered epidemic by health care professionals.
In 2010, coronary artery disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.S. Low back pain, depression, musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most harmful risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease, substance use disorders, kidney disease, cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita rates. U.S. teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are substantially higher than in other Western nations, especially among blacks and Hispanics.
Government-funded health care coverage for the poor (Medicaid, established in 1965) and for those age 65 and older (Medicare, begun in 1966) is available to Americans who meet the programs' income or age qualifications. Nonetheless, the United States remains the only developed nation without a system of universal health care. In 2017, 12.2% of the population did not carry health insurance. The subject of uninsured and underinsured Americans is a major political issue. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), passed in early 2010 and informally known as "ObamaCare", roughly halved the uninsured share of the population. The bill and its ultimate effect are still issues of controversy in the United States. The U.S. health care system far outspends that of any other nation, measured both in per capita spending and as a percentage of GDP. However, the U.S. is a global leader in medical innovation.
American public education is operated by state and local governments and regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of five or six (beginning with kindergarten or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17.
About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. 3.4% of children are homeschooled as of 2012. The U.S. spends more on education per student than any nation in the world, spending an average of $12,794 per year on public elementary and secondary school students in the 2016–2017 school year. Some 80% of U.S. college students attend public universities.
Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees. The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%. The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world.
The United States has many private and public institutions of higher education. The majority of the world's top universities, as listed by various ranking organizations, are in the U.S. There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition.
In 2018, U21, a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the United States first in the world for breadth and quality of higher education, and 15th when GDP was a factor. As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. trails some other OECD (Organization for Cooperation and Development) nations but spends more per student than the OECD average, and more than all nations in combined public and private spending. As of 2018[update], student loan debt exceeded 1.5 trillion dollars.
Government and politics
The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal district, five territories and several uninhabited island possessions. It is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law." Since 2015, the U.S. has ranked 25th on the Democracy Index, and is described as a "flawed democracy". On Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, its public sector position deteriorated from a score of 76 in 2015 to 69 in 2019.
In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district.
The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the writ of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 times; the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review, and any law can be voided if the courts determine that it violates the Constitution. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803) in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.
The federal government comprises three branches:
- Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.
- Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to congressional override), and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.
- Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.
The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories each have one member of Congress—these members are not allowed to vote.
The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every two years. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories do not have senators. The president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The president is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia. The Supreme Court, led by the chief justice of the United States, has nine members, who serve for life.
The 50 states are the principal political divisions in the country. Each state holds jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, where it shares sovereignty with the federal government. They are subdivided into counties or county equivalents and further divided into municipalities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, the city of Washington. The states and the District of Columbia choose the president of the United States. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their representatives and senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment. Territories of the United States such as Puerto Rico do not have presidential electors, and so people in those territories cannot vote for the president.
The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U.S. citizens and tribal lands are subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency. Reservations are usually part of a single state, though 12 reservations cross state boundaries. Indian country jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters is shared by tribes, states, and the federal government.
Parties and elections
The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history. For elective offices at most levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 1856, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and the Republican Party, founded in 1854. Since the Civil War, only one third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore Roosevelt, running as a Progressive in 1912—has won as much as 20% of the popular vote. The president and vice president are elected by the Electoral College.
In American political culture, the center-right Republican Party is considered "conservative" and the center-left Democratic Party is considered "liberal". The states of the Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as "blue states", are relatively liberal. The "red states" of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative.
Democrat Joe Biden, the winner of the 2020 presidential election and former vice president, is serving as the 46th president of the United States. Leadership in the Senate includes Vice President Kamala Harris, President pro tempore Patrick Leahy, Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, and Minority Leader Mitch McConnell. Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, and Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy.
In the 117th United States Congress, the House of Representatives and the Senate are narrowly controlled by the Democratic Party. The Senate consists of 50 Republicans and 48 Democrats with two Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of 222 Democrats and 211 Republicans. Of state governors, there are 27 Republicans and 23 Democrats. Among the D.C. mayor and the five territorial governors, there are three Democrats, one Republican, and one New Progressive.
The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. However, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the Republic of China (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States (although the U.S. still maintains unofficial relations with Bhutan and Taiwan). It is a member of the G7, G20, and OECD.
The United States has a "Special Relationship" with the United Kingdom and strong ties with Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Japan, South Korea, Israel, and several European Union countries, including France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Poland. It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the trilateral United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement. Colombia is traditionally considered by the United States as its most loyal ally in South America.
Taxation in the United States is progressive, and is levied at the federal, state, and local government levels. This includes taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates, and gifts, as well as various fees. Taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency. Both non-resident citizens and Green Card holders living abroad are taxed on their income irrespective of where they live or where their income is earned. The United States is one of the few countries in the world to do so.
In 2010 taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of GDP. Based on CBO estimates, under 2013 tax law the top 1% will be paying the highest average tax rates since 1979, while other income groups will remain at historic lows. For 2018, the effective tax rate for the wealthiest 400 households was 23%, compared to 24.2% for the bottom half of U.S. households.
During fiscal year 2012, the federal government spent $3.54 trillion on a budget or cash basis. Major categories of fiscal year 2012 spending included: Medicare & Medicaid (23%), Social Security (22%), Defense Department (19%), non-defense discretionary (17%), other mandatory (13%) and interest (6%).
In 2018, the United States had the largest external debt in the world. As a percentage of GDP, it had the 34th largest government debt in the world in 2017; however, more recent estimates vary. The total national debt of the United States was $23.201 trillion, or 107% of GDP, in the fourth quarter of 2019. By 2012, total federal debt had surpassed 100% of U.S. GDP. The U.S. has a credit rating of AA+ from Standard & Poor's, AAA from Fitch, and AAA from Moody's.
The president is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Department of Defense administers five of the six service branches, which are made up of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force. The Coast Guard, also a branch of the armed forces, is normally administered by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy in wartime. In 2019, all six branches of the U.S. Armed Forces reported 1.4 million personnel on active duty. The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2.3 million. The Department of Defense also employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors.
Military service in the United States is voluntary, although conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. From 1940 until 1973, conscription was mandatory even during peacetime. Today, American forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 11 active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy, and Army's XVIII Airborne Corps and 75th Ranger Regiment deployed by Air Force transport aircraft. The Air Force can strike targets across the globe through its fleet of strategic bombers, maintains the air defense across the United States, and provides close air support to Army and Marine Corps ground forces. The Space Force operates the Global Positioning System, operates the Eastern and Western Ranges for all space launches, and operates the United States' Space Surveillance and Missile Warning networks. The military operates about 800 bases and facilities abroad, and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.
The United States spent $649 billion on its military in 2019, 36% of global military spending. At 4.7% of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia. Defense spending plays a major role in science and technology investment, with roughly half of U.S. federal research and development funded by the Department of Defense. Defense's share of the overall U.S. economy has generally declined in recent decades, from early Cold War peaks of 14.2% of GDP in 1953 and 69.5% of federal spending in 1954 to 4.7% of GDP and 18.8% of federal spending in 2011. In total number of personnel, the United States has the third-largest combined armed forces in the world, behind the Chinese People's Liberation Army and Indian Armed Forces.
The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and one of nine countries to possess nuclear weapons. The United States possesses the second-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world, behind Russia. More than 40% of the world's 14,000 nuclear weapons are held by the United States.
Law enforcement and crime
Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police departments and sheriff's offices, with state police providing broader services. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal laws. State courts conduct most criminal trials while federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts.
A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 showed that United States homicide rates "were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher." In 2016, the U.S. murder rate was 5.4 per 100,000.
The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and largest prison population in the world. As of 2020, the Prison Policy Initiative reported that there were some 2.3 million people incarcerated. According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the majority of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug offenses. The imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities is 478 per 100,000 in 2013. About 9% of prisoners are held in privatized prisons, a practice beginning in the 1980s and a subject of contention.
Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, it is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and at the state level in 28 states, though three states have moratoriums on carrying out the penalty imposed by their governors. In 2019, the country had the sixth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Egypt. No executions took place from 1967 to 1977, owing in part to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling striking down the practice. Since the decision, however, there have been more than 1,500 executions. In recent years the number of executions and presence of capital punishment statute on whole has trended down nationally, with several states recently abolishing the penalty.
According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $22.7 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 16% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity. The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter, though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2010, the total U.S. trade deficit was $635 billion. Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and the European Union are its top trading partners.
From 1983 to 2008, U.S. real compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the rest of the G7. The country ranks fifth in the world in nominal GDP per capita and seventh in GDP per capita at PPP. The U.S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency.
In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the economy. While its economy has reached a post-industrial level of development, the United States remains an industrial power. In August 2010, the American labor force consisted of 154.1 million people (50%). With 21.2 million people, the public sector is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people. It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than most other high-income countries.
The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation and is one of a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right. 74% of full-time American workers get paid sick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, although only 24% of part-time workers get the same benefits. In 2009, the United States had the third-highest workforce productivity per person in the world, behind Luxembourg and Norway.[needs update]
Science and technology
The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th century. Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by the U.S. War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half of the 19th century. This technology, along with the establishment of a machine tool industry, enabled the U.S. to have large-scale manufacturing of sewing machines, bicycles, and other items in the late 19th century and became known as the American system of manufacturing. Factory electrification in the early 20th century and introduction of the assembly line and other labor-saving techniques created the system of mass production. In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector. The United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor.
In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone. Thomas Edison's research laboratory, one of the first of its kind, developed the phonograph, the first long-lasting light bulb, and the first viable movie camera. The latter led to emergence of the worldwide entertainment industry. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford popularized the assembly line. The Wright brothers, in 1903, made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight.
The rise of fascism and Nazism in the 1920s and 30s led many European scientists, including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and John von Neumann, to immigrate to the United States. During World War II, the Manhattan Project developed nuclear weapons, ushering in the Atomic Age, while the Space Race produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science, and aeronautics.
The invention of the transistor in the 1950s, a key active component in practically all modern electronics, led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U.S. technology industry. This, in turn, led to the establishment of many new technology companies and regions around the country such as Silicon Valley in California. Advancements by American microprocessor companies such as Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Intel, along with both computer software and hardware companies such as Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems, created and popularized the personal computer. The ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department requirements, and became the first of a series of networks which evolved into the Internet. The United States was ranked third (after Switzerland and Sweden) in the Global Innovation Index in 2019 and 2020.
Income, wealth, and poverty
Accounting for 4.24% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 29.4% of the world's total wealth, the largest percentage of any country. The U.S. also ranks first in the number of billionaires and millionaires in the world, with 724 billionaires and 10.5 million millionaires as of 2020. Prior to the 2019–2021 global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Credit Suisse listed some 18.6 million U.S. citizens as having a net worth in excess of $1 million. The Global Food Security Index ranked the U.S. number one for food affordability and overall food security in March 2013. Americans on average have more than twice as much living space per dwelling and per person as EU residents. For 2017 the United Nations Development Programme ranked the United States 13th among 189 countries in its Human Development Index (HDI) and 25th among 151 countries in its inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI).
Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated; the richest 10% of the adult population possess 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom half possess only 2%. According to the Federal Reserve, the top 1% controlled 38.6% of the country's wealth in 2016. In 2017, Forbes found that just three individuals (Jeff Bezos, Warren Buffett and Bill Gates) held more money than the bottom half of the population. According to a 2018 study by the OECD, the United States has a larger percentage of low-income workers than almost any other developed nation, largely because of a weak collective bargaining system and lack of government support for at-risk workers. The top one percent of income-earners accounted for 52 percent of the income gains from 2009 to 2015, where income is defined as market income excluding government transfers.
After years of stagnation, median household income reached a record high in 2016 following two consecutive years of record growth. Income inequality remains at record highs however, with the top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income. The rise in the share of total annual income received by the top one percent, which has more than doubled from nine percent in 1976 to 20 percent in 2011, has significantly affected income inequality, leaving the United States with one of the widest income distributions among OECD members. The extent and relevance of income inequality is a matter of debate.
There were about 567,715 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U.S. in January 2019, with almost two-thirds staying in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program. In 2011, 16.7 million children lived in food-insecure households, about 35% more than 2007 levels, though only 845,000 U.S. children (1.1%) saw reduced food intake or disrupted eating patterns at some point during the year, and most cases were not chronic. As of June 2018[update], 40 million people, roughly 12.7% of the U.S. population, were living in poverty, including 13.3 million children. Of those impoverished, 18.5 million live in deep poverty (family income below one-half of the poverty threshold) and over five million live "in 'Third World' conditions". In 2017, the U.S. states or territories with the lowest and highest poverty rates were New Hampshire (7.6%) and American Samoa (65%), respectively. The economic impact and mass unemployment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic raised fears of a mass eviction crisis, with an analysis by the Aspen Institute indicating that between 30 and 40 million people were at risk for eviction by the end of 2020.
Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million kilometers) of public roads. The United States has the world's second-largest automobile market, and has the highest vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 816.4 vehicles per 1,000 Americans (2014). In 2017, there were 255,009,283 non-two wheel motor vehicles, or about 910 vehicles per 1,000 people.
The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1978, while most major airports are publicly owned. The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are U.S.-based; American Airlines is number one after its 2013 acquisition by US Airways. Of the world's 50 busiest passenger airports, 16 are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport.
The United States has the longest rail network in the world, nearly all standard gauge. The network handles mostly freight, with intercity passenger service provided by the government-subsidized Amtrak to all but four states.
Transport is the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions by the United States, which are the second highest by country, exceeded only by China's. The United States has historically been the world's largest producer of greenhouse gases, and greenhouse gas emissions per capita remain high.
The United States energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per year. In 2018, 37% of this energy came from petroleum, 31% from natural gas, and 13% from coal. The remainder was supplied by nuclear and renewable energy sources.
The United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Aside from the Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated or were imported as slaves within the past five centuries. Mainstream American culture is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of European immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from Africa. More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics.
Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism, as well as a unifying belief in an "American creed" emphasizing liberty, equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government. Americans are extremely charitable by global standards: according to a 2006 British study, Americans gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, more than any other nation studied.
The American Dream, or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants. Whether this perception is accurate has been a topic of debate. While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless society, scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values. Americans tend to greatly value socioeconomic achievement, but being ordinary or average is also generally seen as a positive attribute.
Literature, philosophy, and visual art
In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe, contributing to Western culture. Writers such as Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half; Emily Dickinson, virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now recognized as an essential American poet. A work seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character—such as Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925) and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)—may be dubbed the "Great American Novel."
Thirteen U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature. William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are often named among the most influential writers of the 20th century. Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. The Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as have postmodernist authors such as John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Don DeLillo.
The transcendentalists, led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, established the first major American philosophical movement. After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce and then William James and John Dewey were leaders in the development of pragmatism. In the 20th century, the work of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty, and later Noam Chomsky, brought analytic philosophy to the fore of American philosophical academia. John Rawls and Robert Nozick also led a revival of political philosophy.
In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art scene. Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new, individualistic styles. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then postmodernism has brought fame to American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry. Americans have long been important in the modern artistic medium of photography, with major photographers including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, Edward Weston, and Ansel Adams.
Early settlers were introduced by Native Americans to such indigenous, non-European foods as turkey, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup. They and later immigrants combined these with foods they had known, such as wheat flour, beef, and milk to create a distinctive American cuisine.
The American fast food industry, the world's largest, pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s. Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely consumed. Americans drink three times as much coffee as tea. Marketing by U.S. industries is largely responsible for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages.
Among America's earliest composers was a man named William Billings who, born in Boston, composed patriotic hymns in the 1770s; Billings was a part of the First New England School, who dominated American music during its earliest stages. Anthony Heinrich was the most prominent composer before the Civil War. From the mid-late 1800s John Philip Sousa of the late Romantic era, composed numerous military songs—particularly marches—and is regarded as one of America's greatest composers. By the late 19th century, the Second New England School (sometimes referred to specifically as the "Boston Six") became prominent representatives of the classical tradition, of whom John Knowles Paine was the leading figure.
Although little known at the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical tradition, while experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created a distinctive American approach to classical composition. Aaron Copland and George Gershwin—eventually furthered by Leonard Bernstein—developed a new synthesis of popular and classical music.
The rhythmic and lyrical styles of African-American music have deeply influenced American music at large, distinguishing it from European and African traditions. Elements from folk idioms such as the blues and what is now known as old-time music were adopted and transformed into popular genres with global audiences. Jazz was developed by innovators such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington early in the 20th century. Country music developed in the 1920s, and rhythm and blues in the 1940s.
Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry were among the mid-1950s pioneers of rock and roll. Rock bands such as Metallica, the Eagles, and Aerosmith are among the highest grossing in worldwide sales. In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of America's most celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the development of funk.
More recent American creations include hip hop, salsa, techno, and house music. Mid-20th-century American pop stars such as Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, and Elvis Presley became global celebrities, as have artists of the late 20th century such as Michael Jackson, Prince, Madonna and Whitney Houston. Popular artists from the mid-1990s to late 2000s include Mariah Carey, Britney Spears, Justin Timberlake, Christina Aguilera and Beyoncé. Well-known American singers of the 2010s include Katy Perry, Bruno Mars, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift and Ariana Grande.
Hollywood, a northern district of Los Angeles, California, is one of the leaders in motion picture production. The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization.
Director D. W. Griffith, an American filmmaker during the silent film period, was central to the development of film grammar, and producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising. Directors such as John Ford redefined the image of the American Old West, and, like others such as John Huston, broadened the possibilities of cinema with location shooting. The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Hollywood", from the early sound period until the early 1960s, with screen actors such as John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe becoming iconic figures. In the 1970s, "New Hollywood" or the "Hollywood Renaissance" was defined by grittier films influenced by French and Italian realist pictures of the post-war period. In more recent times, directors such as Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and James Cameron have gained renown for their blockbuster films, often characterized by high production costs and earnings.
Notable films topping the American Film Institute's AFI 100 list include Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941), which is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time, Casablanca (1942), The Godfather (1972), Gone with the Wind (1939), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), The Wizard of Oz (1939), The Graduate (1967), On the Waterfront (1954), Schindler's List (1993), Singin' in the Rain (1952), It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Sunset Boulevard (1950). The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, have been held annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929, and the Golden Globe Awards have been held annually since January 1944.
American football is by several measures the most popular spectator sport in the United States; the National Football League (NFL) has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the Super Bowl is watched by tens of millions globally. Even on the collegiate level, college football games receive millions of viewers per television broadcast; most notably the College Football Playoff, which averages 25 million viewers. Baseball has been regarded as the U.S. national sport since the late 19th century, with Major League Baseball (MLB) being the top league. Basketball and ice hockey are the country's next two leading professional team sports, with the top leagues being the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Hockey League (NHL). College football and basketball attract large audiences. The NCAA Final Four is one of the most watched sporting events. In soccer (a sport that has gained a footing in the United States since the mid-1990s), the country hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the men's national soccer team qualified for ten World Cups and the women's team has won the FIFA Women's World Cup four times; Major League Soccer is the sport's highest league in the United States (featuring 23 American and three Canadian teams). The market for professional sports in the United States is roughly $69 billion, roughly 50% larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined.
Eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States. The 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri, were the first-ever Olympic Games held outside of Europe. As of 2017[update], the United States has won 2,522 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, more than any other country, and 305 in the Winter Olympic Games, the second most behind Norway. While most major U.S. sports such as baseball and American football have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboarding, and snowboarding are American inventions, some of which have become popular worldwide. Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western contact. The most-watched individual sports are golf and auto racing, particularly NASCAR and IndyCar.
The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), American Broadcasting Company (ABC), and Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX). The four major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. Cable television offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches. Americans listen to radio programming, also largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day.
In 1998, the number of U.S. commercial radio stations had grown to 4,793 AM stations and 5,662 FM stations. In addition, there are 1,460 public radio stations. Most of these stations are run by universities and public authorities for educational purposes and are financed by public or private funds, subscriptions, and corporate underwriting. Much public radio broadcasting is supplied by NPR. NPR was incorporated in February 1970 under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967; its television counterpart, PBS, was created by the same legislation. As of September 30, 2014[update], there are 15,433 licensed full-power radio stations in the U.S. according to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
Well-known newspapers include The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and USA Today. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage. With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily papers, such as New York City's The Village Voice or Los Angeles' LA Weekly. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups. Aside from web portals and search engines, the most popular websites are Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, Yahoo!, eBay, Amazon, and Twitter.
- English is the official language of 32 states; English and Hawaiian are both official languages in Hawaii, and English and 20 Indigenous languages are official in Alaska. Algonquian, Cherokee, and Sioux are among many other official languages in Native-controlled lands throughout the country. French is a de facto, but unofficial, language in Maine and Louisiana, while New Mexico law grants Spanish a special status. In five territories, English as well as one or more indigenous languages are official: Spanish in Puerto Rico, Samoan in American Samoa, and Chamorro in both Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Carolinian is also an official language in the Northern Mariana Islands.
- Current results are not directly comparable to past results, due to changes in methodology.
- The historical and informal demonym Yankee has been applied to Americans, New Englanders, or northeasterners since the 18th century.
- The United States is the third-largest country, after Canada, if coastal and territorial waters are included. If excluded, it is the fourth-largest, after China. Coastal/territorial waters included: 3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,517 km2) Coastal/territorial waters excluded: 3,696,100 sq mi (9,572,900 km2)
- Excludes Puerto Rico and the other unincorporated islands because they are counted separately in U.S. census statistics.
- See Time in the United States for details about laws governing time zones in the United States.
- A single jurisdiction, the U.S. Virgin Islands, uses left-hand traffic.
- Country code top-level domains are generally not used in the U.S.
- .um was removed by ICANN in 2008, but is still recognized by the U.S. government as a country code top-level domain.
- The five major territories are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. There are eleven smaller island areas without permanent populations: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, and Palmyra Atoll. U.S. sovereignty over Bajo Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, and Wake Island is disputed.
- Inupiaq, Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Unanga (Aleut), Denaʼina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwichʼin, Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian.
- People born in American Samoa are non-citizen U.S. nationals, unless one of their parents is a U.S. citizen. In 2019, a court ruled that American Samoans are U.S. citizens, but the litigation is onging.
- 36 U.S.C. § 302
- "The Great Seal of the United States" (PDF). U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
- "An Act To make The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem of the United States of America". H.R. 14, Act of March 3, 1931. 71st United States Congress.
- Kidder & Oppenheim 2007, p. 91.
- "uscode.house.gov". Public Law 105-225. uscode.house.gov. August 12, 1999. pp. 112 Stat. 1263. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
Section 304. "The composition by John Philip Sousa entitled 'The Stars and Stripes Forever' is the national march."
- Cobarrubias 1983, p. 195.
- García 2011, p. 167.
- "2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country". United States Census. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
- "Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel". Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel | Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. January 14, 2021. Archived from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and Fact-index: Ohio. 1963. p. 336.
- Areas of the 50 states and the District of Columbia but not Puerto Rico nor other island territories per "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Census.gov. August 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.
- "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- "Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count". United States Census. Retrieved April 26, 2021. The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
- "Income inequality in America is the highest it's been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
- "Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- "Electricity 101". United States Department of Energy. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
- OECD (2004), "Generic Top Level Domain Names: Market Development and Allocation Issues", OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 84, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/232630011251.
- U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
- "China". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
- "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Simpson, Victoria (May 6, 2020). "Countries with Which the US Shares Maritime Borders". World Atlas.
- Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower
BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America
"Geographical trends of research output". Research Trends. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
"The top 20 countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
"Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- Sider 2007, p. 226.
- Szalay, Jessie (September 20, 2017). "Amerigo Vespucci: Facts, Biography & Naming of America". Live Science. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
- Jonathan Cohen. "The Naming of America: Fragments We've Shored Against Ourselves". Retrieved February 3, 2014.
- DeLear, Byron (July 4, 2013) Who coined 'United States of America'? Mystery might have intriguing answer. "Historians have long tried to pinpoint exactly when the name 'United States of America' was first used and by whom ... This latest find comes in a letter that Stephen Moylan, Esq., wrote to Col. Joseph Reed from the Continental Army Headquarters in Cambridge, Mass., during the Siege of Boston. The two men lived with Washington in Cambridge, with Reed serving as Washington's favorite military secretary and Moylan fulfilling the role during Reed's absence." Christian Science Monitor (Boston, MA).
- Touba, Mariam (November 5, 2014) Who Coined the Phrase 'United States of America'? You May Never Guess "Here, on January 2, 1776, seven months before the Declaration of Independence and a week before the publication of Paine's Common Sense, Stephen Moylan, an acting secretary to General George Washington, spells it out, 'I should like vastly to go with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain' to seek foreign assistance for the cause." New-York Historical Society Museum & Library
- Fay, John (July 15, 2016) The forgotten Irishman who named the 'United States of America' "According to the NY Historical Society, Stephen Moylan was the man responsible for the earliest documented use of the phrase 'United States of America'. But who was Stephen Moylan?" IrishCentral.com
- ""To the inhabitants of Virginia", by A PLANTER. Dixon and Hunter's. April 6, 1776, Williamsburg, Virginia. Letter is also included in Peter Force's American Archives". The Virginia Gazette. 5 (1287). Archived from the original on December 19, 2014.
- Safire 2003, p. 199.
- Mostert 2005, p. 18.
- Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia guide to standard American English. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-231-06989-2.
- Erlandson, Rick & Vellanoweth 2008, p. 19.
- Savage 2011, p. 55.
- Haviland, Walrath & Prins 2013, p. 219.
- Waters & Stafford 2007, pp. 1122–1126.
- Flannery 2015, pp. 173–185.
- Gelo 2018, pp. 79–80.
- Lockard 2010, p. 315.
- Martinez, Sage & Ono 2016, p. 4.
- Fagan 2016, p. 390.
- Dean R. Snow (1994). The Iroquois. Blackwell Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-55786-938-8. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
- Perdue & Green 2005, p. 40.
- Haines, Haines & Steckel 2000, p. 12.
- Thornton 1998, p. 34.
- Fernando Operé (2008). Indian Captivity in Spanish America: Frontier Narratives. University of Virginia Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8139-2587-5.
- "Not So Fast, Jamestown: St. Augustine Was Here First". NPR.org. February 28, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
- Christine Marie Petto (2007). When France Was King of Cartography: The Patronage and Production of Maps in Early Modern France. Lexington Books. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-7391-6247-7.
- James E. Seelye Jr.; Shawn Selby (2018). Shaping North America: From Exploration to the American Revolution [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-4408-3669-5.
- Robert Neelly Bellah; Richard Madsen; William M. Sullivan; Ann Swidler; Steven M. Tipton (1985). Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. University of California Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-520-05388-5. OL 7708974M.
- Remini 2007, pp. 2–3
- Johnson 1997, pp. 26–30
- "Russians settle Alaska". History. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
- Ripper, 2008 p. 6
- Ripper, 2008 p. 5
- Calloway, 1998, p. 55
- Joseph 2016, p. 590.
- Cook, Noble (1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6.
- Treuer, David. "The new book 'The Other Slavery' will make you rethink American history". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
- Stannard, 1993 p. xii
- "The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology Archived February 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine". Arthur C. Aufderheide, Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-521-55203-5
- Bianchine, Russo, 1992 pp. 225–232
- Jackson, L. P. (1924). "Elizabethan Seamen and the African Slave Trade". The Journal of Negro History. 9 (1): 1–17. doi:10.2307/2713432. JSTOR 2713432. S2CID 150232893.
- Tadman, 2000, p. 1534
- Schneider, 2007, p. 484
- Lien, 1913, p. 522
- Davis, 1996, p. 7
- Quirk, 2011, p. 195
- Bilhartz, Terry D.; Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1817-7.
- Wood, Gordon S. (1998). The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. UNC Press Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8078-4723-7.
- Walton, 2009, pp. 38–39
- Foner, Eric (1998). The Story of American Freedom (1st ed.). W.W. Norton. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-393-04665-6.
story of American freedom.
- Walton, 2009, p. 35
- Otis, James (1763). The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved. ISBN 9780665526787.
- Humphrey, Carol Sue (2003). The Revolutionary Era: Primary Documents on Events from 1776 To 1800. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-0-313-32083-5.
- Fabian Young, Alfred; Nash, Gary B.; Raphael, Ray (2011). Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation. Random House Digital. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-0-307-27110-5.
- Wait, Eugene M. (1999). America and the War of 1812. Nova Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-56072-644-9.
- Boyer, 2007, pp. 192–193
- Cogliano, Francis D. (2008). Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy. University of Virginia Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-8139-2733-6.
- Walton, 2009, p. 43
- Gordon, 2004, pp. 27,29
- Clark, Mary Ann (May 2012). Then We'll Sing a New Song: African Influences on America's Religious Landscape. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4422-0881-0.
- Heinemann, Ronald L., et al., Old Dominion, New Commonwealth: a history of Virginia 1607–2007, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8139-2609-4, p. 197
- Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America. Turning Points in History Series. ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-833-0.
- Billington, Ray Allen; Ridge, Martin (2001). Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. UNM Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8263-1981-4.
- "Louisiana Purchase" (PDF). National Park Services. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
- Klose, Nelson; Jones, Robert F. (1994). United States History to 1877. Barron's Educational Series. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-8120-1834-9.
- Morrison, Michael A. (April 28, 1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 13–21. ISBN 978-0-8078-4796-1.
- Kemp, Roger L. (2010). Documents of American Democracy: A Collection of Essential Works. McFarland. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7864-4210-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- McIlwraith, Thomas F.; Muller, Edward K. (2001). North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7425-0019-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Wolf, Jessica. "Revealing the history of genocide against California's Native Americans". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- Rawls, James J. (1999). A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-520-21771-3.
- Paul Frymer, "Building an American Empire: The Era of Territorial and Political Expansion," (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017)
- Black, Jeremy (2011). Fighting for America: The Struggle for Mastery in North America, 1519–1871. Indiana University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-253-35660-4.
- Stuart Murray (2004). Atlas of American Military History. Infobase Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4381-3025-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Harold T. Lewis (2001). Christian Social Witness. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56101-188-9.
- O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Atlas of World History (Concise ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-19-521921-0.
- Vinovskis, Maris (1990). Toward A Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-39559-5.
- Shearer Davis Bowman (1993). Masters and Lords: Mid-19th-Century U.S. Planters and Prussian Junkers. Oxford UP. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-19-536394-4.
- Jason E. Pierce (2016). Making the White Man's West: Whiteness and the Creation of the American West. University Press of Colorado. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-60732-396-9.
- Marie Price; Lisa Benton-Short (2008). Migrants to the Metropolis: The Rise of Immigrant Gateway Cities. Syracuse University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8156-3186-6.
- John Powell (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Winchester, pp. 351, 385
- Michno, Gregory (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850–1890. Mountain Press Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9.
- "Toward a Market Economy". CliffsNotes. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
- "Purchase of Alaska, 1867". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
- "The Spanish–American War, 1898". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Ryden, George Herbert. The Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975.
- "Virgin Islands History". Vinow.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- Kirkland, Edward. Industry Comes of Age: Business, Labor, and Public Policy (1961 ed.). pp. 400–405.
- Zinn, 2005, pp. 321–357
- Paige Meltzer, "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General Federation and Women's Citizenship, 1945–1960," Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (2009), Vol. 30 Issue 3, pp. 52–76.
- James Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900–1920 (Harvard UP, 1963)
- George B. Tindall, "Business Progressivism: Southern Politics in the Twenties," South Atlantic Quarterly 62 (Winter 1963): 92–106.
- McDuffie, Jerome; Piggrem, Gary Wayne; Woodworth, Steven E. (2005). U.S. History Super Review. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education Association. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-7386-0070-3.
- Voris, Jacqueline Van (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. Women and Peace Series. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-55861-139-9.
Carrie Chapmann Catt led an army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920. ... Catt was one of the best-known women in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century and was on all lists of famous American women.
- Winchester pp. 410–411
- Axinn, June; Stern, Mark J. (2007). Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-52215-6.
- Lemann, Nicholas (1991). The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-394-56004-5.
- James Noble Gregory (1991). American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507136-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
"Mass Exodus From the Plains". American Experience. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
Fanslow, Robin A. (April 6, 1997). "The Migrant Experience". American Folklore Center. Library of Congress. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
Walter J. Stein (1973). California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-8371-6267-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- The official WRA record from 1946 state it was 120,000 people. See War Relocation Authority (1946). The Evacuated People: A Quantitative Study. p. 8.. This number does not include people held in other camps such as those run by the DoJ or U.S. Army. Other sources may give numbers slightly more or less than 120,000.
- Yamasaki, Mitch. "Pearl Harbor and America's Entry into World War II: A Documentary History" (PDF). World War II Internment in Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 13, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- Stoler, Mark A. "George C. Marshall and the "Europe-First" Strategy, 1939–1951: A Study in Diplomatic as well as Military History" (PDF). Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- Kelly, Brian. "The Four Policemen and. Postwar Planning, 1943–1945: The Collision of Realist and. Idealist Perspectives". Retrieved June 21, 2014.
- Hoopes & Brinkley 1997, p. 100.
- Gaddis 1972, p. 25.
- Leland, Anne; Oboroceanu, Mari–Jana (February 26, 2010). "American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved February 18, 2011. p. 2.
- Kennedy, Paul (1989). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Vintage. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-679-72019-5
- "The United States and the Founding of the United Nations, August 1941 – October 1945". U.S. Dept. of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, Office of the Historian. October 2005. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
- Woodward, C. Vann (1947). The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-60239-194-9.
- "The Largest Naval Battles in Military History: A Closer Look at the Largest and Most Influential Naval Battles in World History". Military History. Norwich University. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "Why did Japan surrender in World War II? | The Japan Times". The Japan Times. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Pacific War Research Society (2006). Japan's Longest Day. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-4-7700-2887-7.
- Wagg, Stephen; Andrews, David (2012). East Plays West: Sport and the Cold War. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-134-24167-5.
- Blakemore, Erin (March 22, 2019). "What was the Cold War?". National Geographic. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- Blakeley, 2009, p. 92
- Collins, Michael (1988). Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 9780802110114.
- Chapman, Jessica M. (August 5, 2016), "Origins of the Vietnam War", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.013.353, ISBN 978-0-19-932917-5, retrieved August 28, 2020
- "Women in the Labor Force: A Databook" (PDF). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2013. p. 11. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- Winchester, pp. 305–308
- Blas, Elisheva. "The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways" (PDF). societyforhistoryeducation.org. Society for History Education. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Richard Lightner (2004). Hawaiian History: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-313-28233-1.
- "The Civil Rights Movement". PBS.org. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
- Dallek, Robert (2004). Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President. Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-19-515920-2.
- "Our Documents—Civil Rights Act (1964)". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
- "Remarks at the Signing of the Immigration Bill, Liberty Island, New York". October 3, 1965. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- Levy, Daniel (January 19, 2018). "Behind the Protests Against the Vietnam War in 1968". Time Magazine. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- "Social Security". ssa.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Soss, 2010, p. 277
- Fraser, 1989
- Howell, Buddy Wayne (2006). The Rhetoric of Presidential Summit Diplomacy: Ronald Reagan and the U.S.-Soviet Summits, 1985–1988. Texas A&M University. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-549-41658-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Kissinger, Henry (2011). Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster. pp. 781–784. ISBN 978-1-4391-2631-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Mann, James (2009). The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of the End of the Cold War. Penguin. p. 432. ISBN 978-1-4406-8639-9.
- Hayes, 2009
- Charles Krauthammer, "The Unipolar Moment", Foreign Affairs, 70/1, (Winter 1990/1), 23–33.
- Judt, Tony; Lacorne, Denis (2005). With Us Or Against Us: Studies in Global Anti-Americanism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4039-8085-4.
Richard J. Samuels (2005). Encyclopedia of United States National Security. Sage Publications. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-4522-6535-3.
Paul R. Pillar (2001). Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8157-0004-3.
Gabe T. Wang (2006). China and the Taiwan Issue: Impending War at Taiwan Strait. University Press of America. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7618-3434-2.
Understanding the "Victory Disease", From the Little Bighorn to Mogadishu and Beyond. Diane Publishing. 2004. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-1052-2.
Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-313-38375-5.
- "Persian Gulf War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- Winchester, pp. 420–423
- Dale, Reginald (February 18, 2000). "Did Clinton Do It, or Was He Lucky?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
Mankiw, N. Gregory (2008). Macroeconomics. Cengage Learning. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-324-58999-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) | United States Trade Representative". www.ustr.gov. Archived from the original on March 17, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
Thakur; Manab Thakur Gene E Burton B N Srivastava (1997). International Management: Concepts and Cases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 334–335. ISBN 978-0-07-463395-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-313-38376-2.
- Flashback 9/11: As It Happened. Fox News. September 9, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
"America remembers Sept. 11 attacks 11 years later". CBS News. Associated Press. September 11, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
"Day of Terror Video Archive". CNN. 2005. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- Walsh, Kenneth T. (December 9, 2008). "The 'War on Terror' Is Critical to President George W. Bush's Legacy". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
Atkins, Stephen E. (2011). The 9/11 Encyclopedia: Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 872. ISBN 978-1-59884-921-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Wong, Edward (February 15, 2008). "Overview: The Iraq War". The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
Johnson, James Turner (2005). The War to Oust Saddam Hussein: Just War and the New Face of Conflict. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7425-4956-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Durando, Jessica; Green, Shannon Rae (December 21, 2011). "Timeline: Key moments in the Iraq War". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Cooper, Helene (May 1, 2011). "Obama Announces Killing of Osama bin Laden". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
- Wallison, Peter (2015). Hidden in Plain Sight: What Really Caused the World's Worst Financial Crisis and Why It Could Happen Again. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-978-59407-7-0.
- Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (2011). Financial Crisis Inquiry Report (PDF). ISBN 978-1-60796-348-6.
- Taylor, John B. (January 2009). "The Financial Crisis and the Policy Responses: An Empirical Analysis of What Went Wrong" (PDF). Hoover Institution Economics Paper Series. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- Hilsenrath, Jon; Ng, Serena; Paletta, Damian (September 18, 2008). "Worst Crisis Since '30s, With No End Yet in Sight". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- Altman, Roger C. "The Great Crash, 2008". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
- "Barack Obama: Face Of New Multiracial Movement?". NPR. November 12, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Barack Obama elected as America's first black president". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. October 31, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
- Washington, Jesse; Rugaber, Chris (September 9, 2011). "African-American Economic Gains Reversed By Great Recession". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
- Oberlander, Jonathan (June 1, 2010). "Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed". Health Affairs. 29 (6): 1112–1116. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447. ISSN 0278-2715. PMID 20530339.
- Smith, Harrison (November 9, 2016). "Donald Trump is elected president of the United States". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
- Lemire, Jonathan (November 7, 2020). "Biden defeats Trump for White House, Say's time to heal". Associated Press. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- Peñaloza, Marisa (January 6, 2021). "Trump Supporters Storm U.S. Capitol, Clash with Police". npr.org. NPR. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
- "Field Listing: Area". The World Factbook. cia.gov.
- "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates—Geography—U.S. Census Bureau". State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- "2010 Census Area" (PDF). census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. p. 41. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 8, 2018. (given in square miles, excluding)
- "United States". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. January 3, 2018. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
- "Geographic Regions of Georgia". Georgia Info. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Lew, Alan. "PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE US". GSP 220—Geography of the United States. North Arizona University. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Harms, Nicole. "Facts About the Rocky Mountain Range". Travel Tips. USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Great Basin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Mount Whitney, California". Peakbagger. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Find Distance and Azimuths Between 2 Sets of Coordinates (Badwater 36-15-01-N, 116-49-33-W and Mount Whitney 36-34-43-N, 118-17-31-W)". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Poppick, Laura (August 28, 2013). "US Tallest Mountain's Surprising Location Explained". LiveScience. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
- O'Hanlon, Larry (March 14, 2005). "America's Explosive Park". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on March 14, 2005. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
- Boyden, Jennifer. "Climate Regions of the United States". Travel Tips. USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "World Map of Köppen–Geiger Climate Classification" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Perkins, Sid (May 11, 2002). "Tornado Alley, USA". Science News. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2006.
- Rice, Doyle. "USA has the world's most extreme weather". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
- Len McDougall (2004). The Encyclopedia of Tracks and Scats: A Comprehensive Guide to the Trackable Animals of the United States and Canada. Lyons Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-59228-070-4.
- Morin, Nancy. "Vascular Plants of the United States" (PDF). Plants. National Biological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
- Osborn, Liz. "Number of Native Species in United States". Current Results Nexus. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- "Numbers of Insects (Species and Individuals)". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- "National Park Service Announces Addition of Two New Units" (Press release). National Park Service. February 28, 2006. Archived from the original on October 1, 2006. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- Lipton, Eric; Krauss, Clifford (August 23, 2012). "Giving Reins to the States Over Drilling". New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- Vincent, Carol H.; Hanson, Laura A.; Argueta, Carla N. (March 3, 2017). Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data (Report). Congressional Research Service. p. 2. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
- Gorte, Ross W.; Vincent, Carol Hardy.; Hanson, Laura A.; Marc R., Rosenblum. "Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data" (PDF). fas.org. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- "Chapter 6: Federal Programs to Promote Resource Use, Extraction, and Development". doi.gov. U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- The National Atlas of the United States of America (January 14, 2013). "Forest Resources of the United States". Nationalatlas.gov. Archived from the original on May 7, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- "Land Use Changes Involving Forestry in the United States: 1952 to 1997, With Projections to 2050" (PDF). 2003. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- Daynes & Sussman, 2010, pp. 3, 72, 74–76, 78
- Hays, Samuel P. (2000). A History of Environmental Politics since 1945.
- Collin, Robert W. (2006). The Environmental Protection Agency: Cleaning Up America's Act. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-33341-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Turner, James Morton (2012). The Promise of Wilderness
- Endangered species Fish and Wildlife Service. General Accounting Office, Diane Publishing. 2003. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-3997-4. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "What Is the Greenest Country in the World?". Atlas & Boots. Environmental Performance Index. June 6, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
- "United States of America". Global Climate Action – NAZCA. United Nations. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
- Nugent, Ciara (November 4, 2020). "The U.S. Just Officially Left the Paris Agreement. Can it Be a Leader in the Climate Fight Again?". Times. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
- "Biden announces return to global climate accord, new curbs on U.S. oil industry". Money News. Reuters. January 20, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
- "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places In The United States". census.gov. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- "Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count". United States Census. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- "Population Clock". www.census.gov.
- "The World Factbook: United States". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States". Migration Policy Institute. March 14, 2019.
- "Ancestry 2000" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. June 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 4, 2004. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "Table 52. Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2009" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 25, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- "Key findings about U.S. immigrants". Pew Research Center. June 17, 2019.
- Jens Manuel Krogstad (October 7, 2019). "Key facts about refugees to the U.S." Pew Research Center.
- "United States—Urban/Rural and Inside/Outside Metropolitan Area". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved September 23, 2008.
- "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (PDF). 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. July 1, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2009.
- "Counties in South and West Lead Nation in Population Growth". The United States Census Bureau. April 18, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
- "Table MS-1. Marital Status of the Population 15 Years Old and Over, by Sex, Race and Hispanic Origin: 1950 to Present". Historical Marital Status Tables. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
- Hamilton, Brady E.; Martin, Joyce A.; Osterman, Michelle J.K. (May 2021). Births: Provisional data for 2020 (PDF) (Report). Vital Statistics Rapid Release. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. doi:10.15620/cdc:104993.
- "FASTSTATS—Births and Natality". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. November 21, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- "U.S. has world's highest rate of children living in single-parent households". Pew Research Center. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- "States Where English Is the Official Language". The Washington Post. August 12, 2014. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
- "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4". Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. November 7, 1978. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- Chapel, Bill (April 21, 2014). "Alaska OKs Bill Making Native Languages Official". NPR.org.
- "South Dakota recognizes official indigenous language". Argus Leader. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "Translation in Puerto Rico". Puerto Rico Channel. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder—Results". Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2017.
- "Foreign Language Enrollments in K–12 Public Schools" (PDF). American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). February 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 8, 2016. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- Goldberg, David; Looney, Dennis; Lusin, Natalia (February 2015). "Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2013" (PDF). Modern Language Association. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- David Skorton & Glenn Altschuler. "America's Foreign Language Deficit". Forbes.
- Importance of religion by state Pew forum
- ANALYSIS (December 19, 2011). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- "Church Statistics and Religious Affiliations". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Pew Research. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- ""Nones" on the Rise". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
- Barry A. Kosmin; Egon Mayer; Ariela Keysar (December 19, 2001). "American Religious Identification Survey 2001" (PDF). CUNY Graduate Center. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- "United States". January 27, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Jones, Jeffrey M. (March 29, 2021). "U.S. Church Membership Falls Below Majority for First Time". Gallup.com. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
- Gabbatt, Adam (April 5, 2021). "'Allergic reaction to US religious right' fueling decline of religion, experts say". the Guardian. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
- "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
- "Mississippians Go to Church the Most; Vermonters, Least". Gallup. February 17, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- "Life Expectancy in the United States (2019), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention". www.cdc.gov. December 20, 2020. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
- Achenbach, Joel (November 26, 2019). "'There's something terribly wrong': Americans are dying young at alarming rates". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- "New International Report on Health Care: U.S. Suicide Rate Highest Among Wealthy Nations | Commonwealth Fund". www.commonwealthfund.org. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- Kight, Stef W. (March 6, 2019). "Deaths by suicide, drugs and alcohol reached an all-time high last year". Axios. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- STATCAST – Week of September 9, 2019. NCHS Releases New Monthly Provisional Estimates on Drug Overdose Deaths. National Center for Health Statistics
- "Mortality in the United States, 2017". www.cdc.gov. November 29, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Bernstein, Lenny (November 29, 2018). "U.S. life expectancy declines again, a dismal trend not seen since World War I". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- MacAskill, Ewen (August 13, 2007). "US Tumbles Down the World Ratings List for Life Expectancy". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- "How does U.S. life expectancy compare to other countries?". Peterson-Kaiser Health System Tracker. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- "Mexico Obesity Rate Surpasses The United States', Making It Fattest Country in the Americas". Huffington Post. July 9, 2013.
- Schlosser, Eric (2002). Fast Food Nation. New York: Perennial. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-06-093845-1.
- "Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2003–2004". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
- "Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. American Heart Association. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007.
- Murray, Christopher J.L. (July 10, 2013). "The State of US Health, 1990–2010: Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors". Journal of the American Medical Association. 310 (6): 591–608. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.13805. PMC 5436627. PMID 23842577.
- "About Teen Pregnancy". Center for Disease Control. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
- Luhby, Tami (March 11, 2020). "Here's How the US Health Care System Makes It Harder to Stop Coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
- "U.S. Uninsured Rate Steady at 12.2% in Fourth Quarter of 2017". Gallup. January 16, 2018.
- Abelson, Reed (June 10, 2008). "Ranks of Underinsured Are Rising, Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
- Blewett, Lynn A.; et al. (December 2006). "How Much Health Insurance Is Enough? Revisiting the Concept of Underinsurance". Medical Care Research and Review. 63 (6): 663–700. doi:10.1177/1077558706293634. ISSN 1077-5587. PMID 17099121. S2CID 37099198.
- "Health Care Law 54% Favor Repeal of Health Care Law". Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- "Debate on ObamaCare to intensify in the wake of landmark Supreme Court ruling". Fox News. June 29, 2012. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "The U.S. Healthcare System: The Best in the World or Just the Most Expensive?" (PDF). University of Maine. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2007. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
- Whitman, Glen; Raad, Raymond. "Bending the Productivity Curve: Why America Leads the World in Medical Innovation". The Cato Institute. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- "Ages for Compulsory School Attendance ..." U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
- "Statistics About Non-Public Education in the United States". U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Non-Public Education. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
- Rushe, Dominic (September 7, 2018). "The US spends more on education than other countries. Why is it falling behind?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
- "Fast Facts: Expenditures". nces.ed.gov. April 2020. Retrieved August 29, 2020.
- Rosenstone, Steven J. (December 17, 2009). "Public Education for the Common Good". University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
- "Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
- For more detail on U.S. literacy, see A First Look at the Literacy of America's Adults in the 21st century, U.S. Department of Education (2003).
- "Human Development Indicators" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- "QS World University Rankings". Topuniversities. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "Top 200—The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2010–2011". Times Higher Education. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2014". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on January 19, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2015.
- "U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems 2019 | Universitas 21". Universitas 21. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
- AP (June 25, 2013). "U.S. education spending tops global list, study shows". CBS. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "Education at a Glance 2013" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "Student Loan Debt Exceeds One Trillion Dollars". NPR. April 4, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Krupnick, Matt (October 4, 2018). "Student loan crisis threatens a generation's American dream". The Guardian. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
- "Common Core Document of the United States of America". U.S. Department of State. December 30, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
- The New York Times 2007, p. 670.
- Onuf 2010, p. xvii.
- Scheb, John M.; Scheb, John M. II (2002). An Introduction to the American Legal System. Florence, KY: Delmar, p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7668-2759-2.
- "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?". EIU.com. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2019" (PDF). transparency.org. Transparency International. p. 12 & 13. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- Killian, Johnny H. "Constitution of the United States". The Office of the Secretary of the Senate. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- Feldstein, Fabozzi, 2011, p. 9
- Schultz, 2009, pp. 164, 453, 503
- Schultz, 2009, p. 38
- "The Legislative Branch". United States Diplomatic Mission to Germany. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- "The Process for impeachment". ThinkQuest. Archived from the original on April 8, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- "The Executive Branch". The White House. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- Kermit L. Hall; Kevin T. McGuire (2005). Institutions of American Democracy: The Judicial Branch. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-988374-5.
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (2013). Learn about the United States: Quick Civics Lessons for the Naturalization Test. Government Printing Office. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-16-091708-0.
Bryon Giddens-White (2005). The Supreme Court and the Judicial Branch. Heinemann Library. ISBN 978-1-4034-6608-2.
Charles L. Zelden (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
"Federal Courts". United States Courts. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- Locker, Melissa (March 9, 2015). "Watch John Oliver Cast His Ballot for Voting Rights for U.S. Territories". Time. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
- "What is the Electoral College". National Archives. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Cossack, Roger (July 13, 2000). "Beyond politics: Why Supreme Court justices are appointed for life". CNN. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012.
- 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(36) and 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(38) U.S. Federal Code, Immigration and Nationality Act. 8 U.S.C. § 1101a
- "Electoral College Fast Facts | U.S. House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
- Tribal Geography in Relation to State Boundaries
- "American Samoa and the Citizenship Clause: A Study in Insular Cases Revisionism". harvardlawreview.org. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
- Alvarez, Priscilla (December 12, 2019). "Federal judge rules American Samoans are US citizens by birth". CNN.com. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
- Romboy, Dennis (December 13, 2019). "Judge puts citizenship ruling for American Samoans on hold". KSL.com. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
- Keating, Joshua (June 5, 2015). "How Come American Samoans Still Don't Have U.S. Citizenship at Birth?" – via Slate.
- Etheridge, Eric; Deleith, Asger (August 19, 2009). "A Republic or a Democracy?". New York Times blogs. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
The US system seems essentially a two-party system. ...
- Avaliktos, Neal (2004). The Election Process Revisited. Nova Publishers. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-59454-054-7.
- David Mosler; Robert Catley (1998). America and Americans in Australia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-275-96252-4. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Grigsby, Ellen (2008). Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Cengage Learning. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-0-495-50112-1.
- "U.S. Senate: Leadership & Officers". www.senate.gov. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "Leadership | House.gov". www.house.gov. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
- "Congressional Profile". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives.
- "U.S. Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- Kan, Shirley A. (August 29, 2014). "Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990" (PDF). Federation of American Scientist. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
"Taiwan's Force Modernization: The American Side". Defense Industry Daily. September 11, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- "What is the G8?". University of Toronto. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- Dumbrell, John; Schäfer, Axel (2009). America's 'Special Relationships': Foreign and Domestic Aspects of the Politics of Alliance. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-203-87270-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Ek, Carl & Ian F. Fergusson (September 3, 2010). "Canada–U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Vaughn, Bruce (August 8, 2008). Australia: Background and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service. OCLC 70208969.
- Vaughn, Bruce (May 27, 2011). "New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with the United States" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Lum, Thomas (January 3, 2011). "The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Chanlett-Avery, Emma; et al. (June 8, 2011). "Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Mark E. Manyin; Emma Chanlett-Avery; Mary Beth Nikitin (July 8, 2011). "U.S.–South Korea Relations: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Zanotti, Jim (July 31, 2014). "Israel: Background and U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "U.S. Relations With Poland".
- "The Untapped Potential of the US-Colombia Partnership". Atlantic Council. September 26, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- "U.S. Relations With Colombia". United States Department of State. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Charles L. Zelden (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Loren Yager; Emil Friberg; Leslie Holen (2003). Foreign Relations: Migration from Micronesian Nations Has Had Significant Impact on Guam, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Diane Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7567-3394-0.
- Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel (2007). "How Progressive is the U.S. Federal Tax System? A Historical and International Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives. 21: 11. doi:10.1257/jep.21.1.3. S2CID 5160267.
- Lowrey, Annie (January 4, 2013). "Tax Code May Be the Most Progressive Since 1979". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- Konish, Lorie (June 30, 2018). "More Americans are considering cutting their ties with the US—here's why". CNBC. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- Power, Julie (March 3, 2018). "Tax fears: US-Aussie dual citizens provide IRS with details of $184 billion". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- Porter, Eduardo (August 14, 2012). "America's Aversion to Taxes". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
In 1965, taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.7 percent of the nation's output. In 2010, they amounted to 24.8 percent. Excluding Chile and Mexico, the United States raises less tax revenue, as a share of the economy, than every other industrial country.
- "The Distribution of Household Income and Federal Taxes, 2010". Congressional Budget Office (CBO). December 4, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Lowrey, Annie (January 4, 2013). "Tax Code May Be the Most Progressive Since 1979". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Ingraham, Christopher (October 8, 2019). "For the first time in history, U.S. billionaires paid a lower tax rate than the working class last year". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
- "CBO Historical Tables-February 2013". Congressional Budget Office. February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "America Owes the Largest Share of Global Debt". U.S. News. October 23, 2018.
- "Country Comparison: Public Debt – The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved May 10, 2020.
- "FRED Graph". fred.stlouisfed.org. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. September 21, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
- Thornton, Daniel L. (November–December 2012). "The U.S. Deficit/Debt Problem: A Longer–Run Perspective" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- "Fitch revises U.S. outlook to negative; affirms AAA rating". reuters.com. Reuters. July 31, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
- The Military Balance 2019. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies. 2019. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-85743-988-5. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020.
- "READ: James Mattis' resignation letter". CNN. December 21, 2018. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
- "What does Selective Service provide for America?". Selective Service System. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- "First Peacetime Draft Enacted Just Before World War II". Department of Defense. April 7, 2020. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
- "With 'historic' bomber flights on opposite sides of the planet, the US Air Force is sending a message to friends and foes". Retrieved March 22, 2021.
- "Noble Eagle Without End". Retrieved February 1, 2005.
- "The Ups and Downs of Close Air Support". Retrieved December 1, 2019.
- "Building the Space Range of the Future". Retrieved May 1, 2020.
- "Global Positioning System". www.schriever.spaceforce.mil.
- "Space surveillance technologies a top need for U.S. military". November 22, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- Harris, Johnny (May 18, 2015). "Why does the US have 800 military bases around the world?". vox.com. Vox Media. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
- "Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by Country (309A)" (PDF). Department of Defense. March 31, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- "World military expenditure grows to $1.8 trillion in 2018". sipri.org. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. April 19, 2019. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
- "Federal R&D Budget Dashboard". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
- "Fiscal Year 2013 Historical Tables" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved November 24, 2012 – via National Archives.
- IISS 2020, pp. 46
- Reichmann, Kelsey (June 16, 2019). "Here's how many nuclear warheads exist, and which countries own them". defensenews.com. Sightline Media Group. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
- "U.S. Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Who Governs & What They Do". Chiff.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 226–273. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Rawlinson, Kevin (December 7, 2017). "Global homicide rate rises for first time in more than a decade". The Guardian. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
- Haymes et al., 2014, p. 389
- Sawyer, Wendy; Wagner, Peter (March 24, 2020). Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2020 (Report). Prison Policy Initiative. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- "Federal Bureau of Prisons: Statistics". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- Carson, Elizabeth Ann (September 2014). Prisoners in 2013 (PDF) (Report). Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 247282. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- Donna, Selman; Leighton, Paul (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. New York City: Rowman & Littlefield. p. xi. ISBN 978-1-4422-0173-6.
Harcourt, Bernard (2012). The Illusion of Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order. Harvard University Press. pp. 235 & 236. ISBN 978-0-674-06616-8.
Gottschalk, Marie (2014). Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-691-16405-2.
- Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur (2020). Law and Justice around the World: A Comparative Approach. Univ of California Press. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-0-520-30001-9.
- Connor, Tracy; Chuck, Elizabeth (May 28, 2015). "Nebraska's Death Penalty Repealed With Veto Override". NBC News. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- Simpson, Ian (May 2, 2013). "Maryland becomes latest U.S. state to abolish death penalty". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
- "State by State". Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
- "Death Sentences and Executions 2019". Amnesty International USA. 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- "Searchable Execution Database". Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- "The NYSE Makes Stock Exchanges Around The World Look Tiny". Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Largest stock exchange operators worldwide as of April 2018, by market capitalization of listed companies (in trillion U.S. dollars)". Statista. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
- "The World Factbook". CIA.gov. Central Intelligence Agency.
- "Trade Statistics". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- "Top Ten Countries with which the U.S. Trades". U.S. Census Bureau. August 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
- "U.S. trade in goods with World, Seasonally Adjusted" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. June 1, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
- Hagopian, Kip; Ohanian, Lee (August 1, 2012). "The Mismeasure of Inequality". Policy Review (174). Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
- "United Nations Statistics Division—National Accounts". unstats.un.org. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
- "Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- "GDP by Industry". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "USA Economy in Brief". U.S. Dept. of State, International Information Programs. Archived from the original on March 12, 2008.
- Isabelle Joumard; Mauro Pisu; Debbie Bloch (2012). "Tackling income inequality The role of taxes and transfers" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- Ray, Rebecca; Sanes, Milla; Schmitt, John (May 2013). "No-Vacation Nation Revisited" (PDF). Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Bernard, Tara Siegel (February 22, 2013). "In Paid Family Leave, U.S. Trails Most of the Globe". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- Vasel, Kathryn (January 20, 2015). "Who doesn't get paid sick leave?". CNN. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- "U.S. Workers World's Most Productive". CBS News. Associated Press. September 3, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
- "Total Economy Database, Summary Statistics, 1995–2010". Total Economy Database. The Conference Board. September 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2009.
- Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass Production, 1800–1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269, OCLC 1104810110
- "Research and Development (R&D) Expenditures by Source and Objective: 1970 to 2004". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 10, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
- MacLeod, Donald (March 21, 2006). "Britain Second in World Research Rankings". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 14, 2006.
- Allen, Gregory (February 6, 2019). "Understanding China's AI Strategy". Center for a New American Security.
- "Thomas Edison's Most Famous Inventions". Thomas A Edison Innovation Foundation. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Benedetti, François (December 17, 2003). "100 Years Ago, the Dream of Icarus Became Reality". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
- Fraser, Gordon (2012). The Quantum Exodus: Jewish Fugitives, the Atomic Bomb, and the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959215-9.
- 10 Little Americans. ISBN 978-0-615-14052-0. Retrieved September 15, 2014 – via Google Books.
- "NASA's Apollo technology has changed the history". Sharon Gaudin. July 20, 2009. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Goodheart, Adam (July 2, 2006). "Celebrating July 2: 10 Days That Changed History". The New York Times.
- Sawyer, Robert Keith (2012). Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation. Oxford University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-19-973757-4.
- "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". www.wipo.int. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
- "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
- "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
- "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. October 28, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
- "Population Clock". U.S. and World Population Clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. May 16, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
The United States population on May 23, 2020 was: 329,686,270
- "Global Wealth Report". Credit Suisse. October 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- "Forbes Billionaires 2021: The Richest People in the World". Forbes. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
- "Coronavirus Reduces Millionaire Count". spectrem.com. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
- "Wayback Machine" (PDF). October 23, 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2021. Cite uses generic title (help)
- "Global Food Security Index". London: The Economist Intelligence Unit. March 5, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- Rector, Robert; Sheffield, Rachel (September 13, 2011). "Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts About America's Poor". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "Human Development Index (HDI) | Human Development Reports". UNHDP. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- "Trends in Family Wealth, 1989 to 2013". Congressional Budget Office. August 18, 2016.
- Piketty, Thomas (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Belknap Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-674-43000-6
- Egan, Matt (September 27, 2017). "Record inequality: The top 1% controls 38.6% of America's wealth". CNN Money. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Kirsch, Noah. "The 3 Richest Americans Hold More Wealth Than Bottom 50% Of The Country, Study Finds". Forbes.
- Van Dam, Andrew (July 4, 2018). "Is it great to be a worker in the U.S.? Not compared with the rest of the developed world". The Washington Post. Retrieved