Modelo: Cite web

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Modelos de Citation Style 1
{{ Cite arXiv }}pré-impressões arXiv
{{ Cite AV media }}mídia audiovisual
{{ Cite notas de mídia AV }}Notas de capa de mídia AV
{{ Cite bioRxiv }}pré-impressões bioRxiv
{{ Cite o livro }}livros e capítulos
{{ Cite citeseerx }}Artigos CiteSeerX
{{ Cite a conferência }}papéis da conferência
{{ Cite a enciclopédia }}coleções editadas
{{ Cite o episódio }}episódios de rádio ou TV
{{ Citar entrevista }}entrevistas
{{ Cite Journal }}Revistas acadêmicas
{{ Cite magazine }}revistas, periódicos
{{ Cite mailing list }}listas de correio públicas
{{ Cite o mapa }}mapas
{{ Citar notícias }}novos artigos
{{ Cite newsgroup }}newsgroups online
{{ Cite podcast }}podcasts
{{ Cite o comunicado à imprensa }}comunicados de imprensa
{{ Cite report }}relatórios
{{ Cite serial }}seriados de áudio ou vídeo
{{ Sinal de citação }}sinais, placas
{{ Cite o discurso }}discursos
{{ Cite ssrn }}Papéis SSRN
{{ Cite relatório técnico }}relatórios técnicos
{{ Cite a tese }}teses
{{ Cite web }}fontes da web não cobertas pelo acima
Veja tambémModelos de fontes específicas Modelos de
wrapper

Este modelo Citation Style 1 é usado para criar citações para fontes da web que não são caracterizadas por outro modelo CS1. Não use este modelo na seção " Links externos " dos artigos.

Uso

Copie uma versão em branco para usar. Quase todos os nomes de parâmetro são suportados apenas em minúsculas (alguns initialisms, como |isbn=têm aliases em maiúsculas como |ISBN=, que são aceitáveis ​​para uso). Use o botão "|" (barra vertical) entre cada parâmetro. Os parâmetros não utilizados podem ser excluídos para evitar confusão na janela de edição. Alguns exemplos nesta página de documentação podem incluir a data atual. Se a data não for atual, limpe a página.

Parâmetros mais comumente usados ​​em formato horizontal

Para referências com crédito do autor

{{cite web |url= |title= |last= |first= |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote=}}

Para referências sem crédito de autor

{{cite web |url= |title= |author=<!--Not stated--> |date= |website= |publisher= |access-date= |quote=}}
Parâmetros mais comumente usados ​​em formato vertical
{{citar web
 | url =
 | title =
 | last =
 | primeiro =
 | data =
 | website =
 | publisher =
 | data de acesso =
 | quote =}}
Parâmetro completo definido em formato horizontal
{{cite web |url= |url-access= |title= |last= |first= |author= |author-link= |last2= |first2= |author2= |author-link2= |date= |year= |orig-year= |editor-last= |editor-first= |editor= |editor-link= |editor-last2= |editor-first2= |editor-link2= |editors= |department= |website= |series= |publisher= |agency= |location= |page= |pages= |at= |language= |script-title= |trans-title= |type= |format= |arxiv= |asin= |bibcode= |doi= |doi-broken-date= |isbn= |issn= |jfm= |jstor= |lccn= |mr= |oclc= |ol= |osti= |pmc= |pmid= |rfc= |ssrn= |zbl= |id= |access-date= |url-status= |archive-url= |archive-date= |via= |quote= |ref= |postscript=}}
Parâmetro completo definido em formato vertical
Lista vertical Pré-requisitos Instruções / notas breves
{{citar web
 | url =
 | url-access =
 | title =
 | last =
 | primeiro =
 | link-autor =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author-link2 =
 | data =
 | ano =
 | orig-year =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor-link =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | editor2-link =
 | departamento =
 | website =
 | series =
 | publisher =
 | agência =
 | localização =
 | page =
 | páginas =
 | at =
 | idioma =
 | script-title =
 | trans-title =
 | type =
 | format =
 | arxiv =
 | asin =
 | bibcode =
 | doi =
 | doi-broken-date =
 | isbn =
 | issn =
 | jfm =
 | jstor =
 | lccn =
 | mr =
 | oclc =
 | ol =
 | osti =
 | pmc =
 | pmid =
 | rfc =
 | ssrn =
 | zbl =
 | id =
 | data de acesso =
 | url-status =
 | archive-url =
 | archive-date =
 | via =
 | quote =
 | ref =
 | postscript =}}
 
 
 
 
 
último
 
último
last2
 
 
 
 
 
editor-último
 
editor-último
editor2-last
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
url 
url 
url, data do arquivo
arquivo-url
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
obrigatório
 
obrigatório
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  • Se um nome de campo estiver listado na coluna Pré - requisitos , é um pré-requisito para o campo à esquerda.

Escolhendo entre Template: cite web e Template: cite news

Antes de 2014, os editores tinham que decidir se usavam {{ cite web }} ou {{ cite news }} com base em seus recursos. Em 2014, a maioria das diferenças entre os dois modelos foi eliminada.

Desde 29 de julho de 2016 , {{cite web}} e {{cite news}} apresentam as seguintes diferenças:

  • {{cite news}} pode ser usado para fontes offline (papel), enquanto {{cite web}} gera um erro de URL ausente quando nenhum URL é fornecido
  • {{cite news}} aceita |issue=e |volume=parâmetros, enquanto {{cite web}} não (veja a Ajuda: Estilo de citação 1 § Páginas ; veja também {{ cite magazine }}).

Mas, dado o mesmo conjunto de parâmetros válidos, sua saída é exatamente a mesma:

citar web : Silverman, Dwight (15 de julho de 2011). “A Microsoft imagina um sistema operacional universal, mas pode não ser chamado de Windows” . Houston Chronicle . Hearst Corporation . Recuperado em 26 de maio de 2015 .
citar notícias : Silverman, Dwight (15 de julho de 2011). “A Microsoft imagina um sistema operacional universal, mas pode não ser chamado de Windows” . Houston Chronicle . Hearst Corporation . Recuperado em 26 de maio de 2015 .

Exemplos

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |publisher=Open Publishing |date=April 30, 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=September 10, 2021}}
Doe, John (30 de abril de 2005). "Minhas coisas favoritas, parte II" . Enciclopédia das coisas . Publicação aberta . Recuperado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=10 September 2021}}
Doe, John (30 de abril de 2005). "Minhas coisas favoritas, parte II" . Enciclopédia das coisas . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=2021-09-10}}
Doe, John (30/04/2005). "Minhas coisas favoritas, parte II" . Recuperado em 2021-09-10 .
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |access-date=10 September 2021}}
Doe, John. "Minhas coisas favoritas, parte II" . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |access-date=2021-09-10}}
"Minhas coisas favoritas, parte II" . Recuperado em 2021-09-10 .
  • {{cite web |url=https://operations.nfl.com/the-rules/nfl-rules-digest/ |title=NFL Rules Digest |website=NFL Football Operations |publisher=[[National Football League]] |access-date=September 10, 2021}}
"NFL Rules Digest" . NFL Football Operations . Liga Nacional de Futebol . Recuperado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .

Usando "format ="

Quando este modelo detecta um link cujo URL inclui uma extensão ".pdf" ou ".PDF", típico de arquivos PDF , ele exibe automaticamente um ícone de PDF após o link (independentemente de o link ir para um arquivo PDF ou para um Página de destino HTML, típica de sites pagos). Ele também atua internamente como se |format=PDFtivesse sido especificado, exibindo "(PDF)" após o ícone. (Neste caso, um |format=PDFparâmetro explícito seria redundante, por isso não é recomendado adicioná-lo. Os usuários podem removê-lo. O bot Citation, quando invocado, o removerá. ( Ref ))

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.indiapost.gov.in/Pdf/Customs/List_of_Psychotropic_Substances.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |publisher=International Narcotics Control Board |access-date=10 September 2021}}
"Lista de substâncias psicotrópicas sob controle internacional" (PDF) . Conselho Internacional de Controle de Entorpecentes . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .

Se o link for para um arquivo PDF que não é automaticamente reconhecível por sua extensão, este modelo não exibe o ícone PDF. Você pode adicionar o parâmetro |format=PDF, que exibe "(PDF)" após o link.

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.sample.com/somePDFdocument.000 |title=Some PDF Document |publisher=Sample Int'l |format=PDF |access-date=10 September 2021}}
"Algum documento PDF" (PDF) . Sample Int'l . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .

Para links para arquivos em outros formatos, nenhum ícone é exibido. Por exemplo, para um arquivo .odt , você pode adicionar o parâmetro |format=ODT, que exibe "(ODT)" após o link.

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.sample.com/someODTdocument.odt |title=Some ODT Document |publisher=Sample Int'l |format=ODT |access-date=10 September 2021}}
"Algum Documento ODT" (ODT) . Sample Int'l . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .

Língua estrangeira e título traduzido

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Honi soit qui mal y pense |last=Joliet |first=François |date=30 April 2005 |access-date=10 September 2021 |language=French |trans-title=Shame on those who think evil of it}}
Joliet, François (30 de abril de 2005). "Honi soit qui mal y pense" (em francês) . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .

Usando o link do autor

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=My Favorite Things, Part II |last=Doe |first=John |author-link=John Doe |publisher=Open Publishing |date=April 30, 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=September 10, 2021}}
Doe, John (30 de abril de 2005). "Minhas coisas favoritas, parte II" . Enciclopédia das coisas . Publicação aberta . Recuperado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .

Vários autores

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Our Favourite Things |last1=Doe |first1=John |last2=Smith |first2=Peter |last3=Smythe |first3=Jim |publisher=Open Publishing |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopaedia of Things |access-date=10 September 2021}}
Doe, John; Smith, Peter; Smythe, Jim (30 de abril de 2005). "Nossas coisas favoritas" . Enciclopédia das coisas . Publicação aberta . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .

Sem autor

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |publisher=Open Publishing |date=2005-04-30 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=2021-09-10}}
"Índice de coisas afiadas" . Enciclopédia das coisas . Publicação aberta. 30/04/2005 . Recuperado em 2021-09-10 .

Sem autor, sem editor

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |date=30 April 2005 |website=Encyclopedia of Things |access-date=10 September 2021}}
"Índice de coisas afiadas" . Enciclopédia das coisas . 30 de abril de 2005 . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.example.org/ |title=Index of Sharp Things |date=April 30, 2005 |access-date=September 10, 2021}}
"Índice de coisas afiadas" . 30 de abril de 2005 . Recuperado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=2021-09-10 |language=Greek}}
"Lista de substâncias psicotrópicas sob controle internacional" (PDF) (em grego). 30/04/2005 . Recuperado em 2021-09-10 .

Usando "archive-url" e "archive-date" (e opcionalmente "url-status") para páginas da web que foram arquivadas

Por padrão, se "archive-url" for usado |url-status=deade o link principal for para o arquivo:
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |title=List of psychotropic substances under international control |date=2005-04-30 |access-date=2021-09-10 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050907150136/http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf |archive-date=2005-09-07}}
"Lista de substâncias psicotrópicas sob controle internacional" (PDF) . 30/04/2005. Arquivado do original (PDF) em 07/09/2005 . Recuperado em 2021-09-10 .
Com |url-status=live, o link principal é para o original:
  • {{cite web |url=http://joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi?archive=currnews&story=20060405-01shore.htm |title=Interview with Maggie Downs |date=March 31, 2006 |publisher=The Desert Sun |url-status=live |archive-url=http://72.14.207.104/search?q=cache:JAxf4v-pQmgJ:joanjettbadrep.com/cgi-bin/fullStory.cgi%3Farchive%3Dcurrnews%26story%3D20060405-01shore.htm |archive-date=April 26, 2006}}
"Entrevista com Maggie Downs" . The Desert Sun. 31 de março de 2006. Arquivado do original em 26 de abril de 2006.
Com |url-status=unfitou usurped, o original não está vinculado:
  • {{cite web |url=http://www.wunderground.com/global/stations/03772.html |title=London, United Kingdom Forecast: Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport) |publisher=The Weather Underground |access-date=10 September 2021 |url-status=unfit |archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/5yo0HaAk7 |archive-date=19 May 2011}}
"Previsão de Londres, Reino Unido: Clima subterrâneo (clima e altitude no aeroporto de Heathrow)" . O tempo no subsolo. Arquivado do original em 19 de maio de 2011 . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 .CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)

Usando cotação

  • {{cite web |url=http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/c.html |title=Daylight saving time: rationale and original idea |website=WebExhibits |date=2008 |access-date=10 September 2021 |quote=...&nbsp;Lord Balfour came forward with a unique concern: 'Supposing some unfortunate lady was confined with twins&nbsp;...'}}
"Horário de verão: fundamento lógico e ideia original" . WebExhibits . 2008 . Retirado em 10 de setembro de 2021 . ... Lorde Balfour apresentou-se com uma preocupação única: 'Suponhamos que alguma infeliz senhora tenha sido confinada com gêmeos ...'

Parâmetros

Sintaxe

Parâmetros aninhados dependem de seus parâmetros pais:

  • pai
  • OU: pai2 - pode ser usado no lugar do pai
    • filho - pode ser usado com o pai (e é ignorado se o pai não for usado)
    • OU: filho2 - pode ser usado em vez de filho (e é ignorado se pai2 não for usado)
Onde os aliases são listados, apenas um dos parâmetros pode ser definido; se vários parâmetros com alias forem definidos, apenas um será mostrado.

Por padrão, os conjuntos de campos são encerrados com um ponto (.).

Moedas

Este modelo incorpora metadados COinS na saída HTML, permitindo que o software de gerenciamento de referência recupere metadados bibliográficos. Veja Wikipedia: COinS . Como regra geral, apenas um item de dados por parâmetro. Não inclua texto explicativo ou alternativo:

  • |date=27 September 2007não use|date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

O uso de modelos dentro do modelo de citação é desencorajado porque muitos desses modelos adicionarão HTML ou CSS estranhos que serão incluídos brutos nos metadados. Além disso, entidades HTML, por exemplo &nbsp;, &ndash;etc., não devem ser usadas em parâmetros que contribuem para os metadados.

Os metadados COinS são criados para esses parâmetros

Nota: Esta tabela de metadados é exibida para todos os modelos Citation Style 1. Nem todos esses parâmetros são suportados por todos os modelos CS1. Alguns desses parâmetros são mutuamente exclusivos, alguns são apelidos de outro parâmetro e alguns exigem que outros parâmetros estejam presentes. Consulte a documentação de cada modelo para obter uma lista completa de parâmetros suportados, seus aliases e suas dependências.

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=,|dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |script-chapter=, |contribution=, |script-contribution=, |entry=, |script-entry=, |article=, |script-article=, |section=,|script-section=
  • |title=, |script-title=,|book-title=
  • |publication-place=, |place=,|location=
  • |date=, |year=,|publication-date=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=, |issue=,|number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=, |quote-page=,|quote-pages=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |institution=
  • |url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=,|section-url=
  • |author-last=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |author-surname=, |author-surname#=, |author#-surname=, |last=, |last#=, |surname=, |surname#=, |author=, |author#=, |subject=, |subject#=, |host=,|host#=
  • |author-first=, |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |author-given=, |author-given#=, |author#-given=, |first=, |first#=, |given=,|given#=
  • |degree=
  • |arxiv=, |bibcode=, |biorxiv=, |citeseerx=, |doi=, |eissn=, |eprint=, |hdl=, |isbn=, |issn=, |jfm=, |jstor=, |lccn=, |message-id=, |mr=, |oclc=, |osti=, |pmc=, |pmid=, |rfc=, |ssrn=, |s2cid=,|zbl=

O que há de novo

O que há de novo ou alterado recentemente
Parâmetro Descrição Encontro
|author-given= aliases adicionados (incluindo formulários enumerados) para |author-first= Outubro de 2020
|author-surname= aliases adicionados (incluindo formulários enumerados) para |author-last= Outubro de 2020
|display-subjects= adicionado alias |display-authors=para uso com|subject= Outubro de 2020
|interviewer-given= aliases adicionados (incluindo formulários enumerados) para |interviewer-first= Outubro de 2020
|interviewer-surname= aliases adicionados (incluindo formulários enumerados) para |interviewer-last= Outubro de 2020
|orig-date= adicionado formato canônico para alias |orig-year= Outubro de 2020
|quote-page= adicionado especificador de página única para |quote= Outubro de 2020
|quote-pages= adicionou especificador de múltiplas páginas para |quote= Outubro de 2020
|sbn= adicionado parâmetro identificador para números de livro padrão Abril de 2020
|script-quote= adicionado recurso de texto de script não latino para |quote= Outubro de 2020
|subject-mask= aliases adicionados (incluindo formulários enumerados) |author-mask=para uso com|subject= Outubro de 2020
|s2cid= adicionado parâmetro identificador para ID do corpus do Semantic Scholar Abril de 2020
|s2cid-access= adicionado parâmetro de ícone de acesso para |s2cid= Abril de 2020
|title-link= adicionaram tokens especiais none/doi/pmcpara substituir / desativar a vinculação automática (apenas {{ cite journal }}) Outubro de 2020
|trans-quote= adicionado recurso de texto traduzido para |quote= Outubro de 2020
aceitar esta marcação como escrita adicionado por |doi=, |eissn=, |isbn=, |issn=,|sbn= Outubro de 2020

Descontinuada

Parâmetros CS1 / CS2 obsoletos
Parâmetro obsoleto Substituir com Encontro
nenhum obsoleto no momento


Parâmetros CS1 / CS2 removidos recentemente
Parâmetro removido Substituir com Encontro
|authorfirst= |author-first= Outubro de 2020
|authorfirstn= |author-firstn= Outubro de 2020
|authornfirst= |authorn-first= Outubro de 2020
|authorgiven= |author-given= Outubro de 2020
|authorgivenn= |author-givenn= Outubro de 2020
|authorngiven= |authorn-given= Outubro de 2020
|authorlast= |author-last= Outubro de 2020
|authorlastn= |author-lastn= Outubro de 2020
|authornlast= |authorn-last= Outubro de 2020
|authormask= |author-mask= Janeiro de 2021
|authormaskn= |author-maskn= Janeiro de 2021
|authornmask= |authorn-mask= Janeiro de 2021
|authorsurname= |author-surname= Outubro de 2020
|authorsurnamen= |author-surnamen= Outubro de 2020
|authornsurname= |authorn-surname= Outubro de 2020
|booktitle= |book-title= Maio de 2021
|chapterurl= |chapter-url= Maio de 2021
|conferenceurl= |conference-url= Abril de 2021
|contributionurl= |contribution-url= Abril de 2021
|deadurl=yes |url-status=dead Setembro de 2019
|dead-url=yes |url-status=dead September 2019
|displayauthors= |display-authors= January 2021
|displayeditors= |display-editors= October 2020
|doi-broken= |doi-broken-date= October 2020
|doi-inactive-date= |doi-broken-date= October 2020
|editorfirst= |editor-first= October 2020
|editorfirstn= |editor-firstn= October 2020
|editornfirst= |editorn-first= October 2020
|editorgiven= |editor-given= October 2020
|editorgivenn= |editor-givenn= October 2020
|editorngiven= |editorn-given= October 2020
|editorlast= |editor-last= October 2020
|editorlastn= |editor-lastn= October 2020
|editornlast= |editorn-last= October 2020
|editorlink= |editor-link= January 2021
|editorlinkn= |editor-linkn= January 2021
|editornlink= |editorn-link= January 2021
|editors= |editor= (one editor) or |editorn= (more than one editor) or |veditors= (for Vancouver style editors). Consider splitting |editorn= into |editor-firstn= and |editor-lastn=, if possible. Consider |editor-maskn=, if annotation is required. January 2021
|editorsurname= |editor-surname= October 2020
|editorsurnamen= |editor-surnamen= October 2020
|editornsurname= |editorn-surname= October 2020
|editormask= |editor-mask= October 2020
|editormaskn= |editor-maskn= October 2020
|editornmask= |editorn-mask= October 2020
|embargo= |pmc-embargo-date= October 2020
|episodelink= |episode-link= May 2021
|event-format= (delete) January 2021
|eventurl= (delete) January 2021
|event-url= (delete) January 2021
|ignoreisbnerror= |isbn=((<isbn>)) October 2020
|ignore-isbn-error= |isbn=((<isbn>)) January 2021
|interviewerlink= |interviewer-link= October 2020
|interviewerlinkn= |interviewer-linkn= October 2020
|interviewernlink= |interviewern-link= October 2020
|interviewermask= |interviewer-mask= October 2020
|interviewermaskn= |interviewer-maskn= October 2020
|interviewernmask= |interviewern-mask= October 2020
|last-author-amp= |name-list-style=amp January 2021
|lastauthoramp= |name-list-style=amp January 2021
|laydate= |lay-date= April 2021
|laysource= |lay-source= April 2021
|layurl= |lay-url= April 2021
|mailinglist= |mailing-list= May 2021
|mapurl= |map-url= May 2021
|name-list-format= |name-list-style= April 2021
|nocat= |no-tracking= January 2021
|no-cat= |no-tracking= October 2020
|nopp= |no-pp= May 2021
|notracking= |no-tracking= October 2020
|publicationdate= |publication-date= May 2021
|publicationplace= |publication-place= May 2021
|registration= |url-access=registration January 2020
|sectionurl= |section-url= April 2021
|serieslink= |series-link= May 2021
|seriesno= |series-number= April 2021
|seriesnumber= |series-number= January 2021
|series-separator= (delete) October 2020
|subjectlink= |subject-link= January 2021
|subjectlinkn= |subject-linkn= January 2021
|subjectnlink= |subjectn-link= January 2021
|subscription= |url-access=subscription January 2020
|timecaption= |time-caption= April 2021
|titlelink= |title-link= April 2021
|transcripturl= |transcript-url= May 2021

Description

Authors

  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn, but not the other way around). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, author1-link, authorlink.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: author1-link through authorn-link.
    • name-list-style: accepts a limited list of keywords as value; when set to amp, ampersand, or &, inserts an ampersand between the last two names in a name list; when set to and, inserts the conjunction 'and' between the last two names of a name list; when set to vancdisplays name lists in Vancouver style when the lists use the last/first forms of name parameters.
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn, but not the other way around). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Title

(See also Help:Citation Style 1 § Titles and chapters.)

  • title: Title of source page on website. Displays in quotes. If script-title is defined, use title to hold a Romanization (if available) of the title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc); follows Romanization defined in title (if present). Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;
{{bracket|text}} {{pipe}}see also Help:Table § Rendering pipe itself
This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |no-tracking=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • website: Title of website; may be wikilinked. Displays in italics. Aliases: work
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source. May alternatively be used to identify the type of manuscript linked to in the title, if this is not the final version of a manuscript (e.g. if a preprint of a manuscript is freely available, but the version of record is behind a paywall). Format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. The reserved keyword none can be used to disable the display of a type. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, Accepted manuscript, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
  • language: The language (or a comma-separated list of the languages) in which the source is written, as either the ISO 639 language code (preferred) or the full language name. Examples: |language=ru; |lang=fr, pt-br; |lang=Russian; |language=French, Portuguese. See the list of supported codes and names. Do not use templates or wikilinks. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. When the only source language is English, no language is displayed in the citation. The use of languages recognized by the citation module adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources. Because cs1|2 templates are often copied from en.wiki to other wikis, the use of language codes is preferred so that language names render in the correct language and form: espagnol at a French-language wiki instead of the English word "Spanish". Aliases: lang

Date

  • date: Date of referenced source. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after the publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.

For no date, or "undated", use |date=n.d.
Automatic date formatting: Citation Style 1 and 2 templates, including this template, automatically render dates in all date parameters (such as |date=, |publication-date=, |access-date=, |archive-date=, etc.) except for |orig-date= in the style specified by the article's {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} template. See those templates' documentation for details.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. The usage of this parameter is discouraged; use the more flexible |date= parameter instead unless both of the following conditions are met:
    1. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    2. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • orig-date: Original publication date or year; displays in square brackets after the date (or year). For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-date=First published 1859 or |orig-date=Composed 1904. As |orig-date= does not support automatic date formatting, use the same date format as defined by |df= (or, if it exists in the article, by |cs1-dates= of a {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} template), or as used in the |date= parameter. Alias: orig-year
  • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates; overrides the automatic date formatting described above. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    dmy – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    mdy – as above for month day, year format
    ymd – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    dmy-all – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    mdy-all – as above for month day, year format
    ymd-all – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Website

  • work (required by {{cite journal}} and {{cite magazine}}): Name of the work containing the source; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. If the name of the periodical changed over time use the name at the time of the source's publication. If script-work is defined, use work to hold a Romanization (if available) of the title in script-work Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical, website. Use Latin script. For languages written in non-Latin based scripts (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Indic, Japanese, Korean, etc.) use a standard Romanization in this field.
    • script-work: Work title in its original, non-Latin script; not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in work (if present). Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script. Leave empty for Latin-based scripts (Czech, French, Turkish, Vietnamese, etc.). Aliases: script-journal, script-newspaper, script-magazine, script-periodical, script-website.
    • trans-work: English translation of the work title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after work or script-work. Aliases: trans-journal, trans-newspaper, trans-magazine, trans-periodical, trans-website.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters in the same citation:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display (and will produce an error message).

Publisher

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company, organization or other legal entity that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a website, book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, etc.). If the name of the publisher changed over time use the name as stated in the publication or at the time of the source's publication. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc.", or "GmbH" are not usually included. Not normally used for periodicals. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title.
  • place: For news stories with a dateline, that is, the location where the story was written. If the name of the location changed over time use the name as stated in the publication or at the time of the source's publication. In earlier versions of the template this was the publication place, and for compatibility, will be treated as the publication place if the publication-place parameter is absent; see that parameter for further information. Alias: location
  • publication-place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the publication place; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title. If the name of the publication place changed over time use the name as stated in the publication or at the time of the source's publication. If only one of publication-place, place, or location is defined, it will be treated as the publication place and will show after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location is shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if date (or year) are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), or if the deliverer requests attribution. See the access level parameters to display access restrictions.
  • agency: The news agency (wire service) that provided the content; examples: Associated Press, Reuters, Agence France-Presse. Do not use for sources published on the agency's own website; e.g. apnews.com or reuters.com; instead, use work or publisher. May be wikilinked if relevant.

Series

  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.

In-source locations

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |no-pp=yes. If hyphenated, use {{hyphen}} to indicate this is intentional (e.g. |page=3{{hyphen}}12), otherwise several editors and semi-automated tools will assume this was a misuse of the parameter to indicate a page range and will convert |page=3-12 to |pages=3{{ndash}}12. Alias: p.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |no-pp=yes.
    Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate because individual page numbers contain hyphens, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use double parentheses to tell the template to display the value of |pages= without processing it, and use {{hyphen}} to indicate to editors that a hyphen is really intended: |pages=((3{{hyphen}}1{{ndash}}3{{hyphen}}15)). Alternatively, use |at=, like this: |at=pp. 3-1&ndash;3-15. Alias: pp.
    • no-pp: Set to yes, y, or true to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover or |pages=passim.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
    Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.
  • For |quote-page= and |quote-pages= used in conjunction with |quote=, see here.

URL

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication named by title can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... For linking to pages in PDF files or in Google Books, see WP:PAGELINKS. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon; use |isbn= or |oclc= to provide neutral search links for books. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
    • access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is required for online sources, such as personal websites, that do not have a publication date; see WP:CITEWEB. Access dates are not required for links to published research papers, published books, or news articles with publication dates. Note that access-date is the date that the URL was found to be working and to support the text being cited. See "Automatic date formatting" above for details about interaction with {{use dmy dates}} and {{use mdy dates}}. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived snapshot of a web page. Typically used to refer to services such as Internet Archive (see Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine), WebCite (see Help:Using WebCite) and archive.today (see Help:Using archive.today); requires archive-date and url. By default (overridden by |url-status=live) the archived link is displayed first, with the original link at the end. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Archive-service snapshot-date; preceded in display by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink; templated dates are discouraged. See "Automatic date formatting" above for details about interaction with {{use dmy dates}} and {{use mdy dates}}. Alias: archivedate.
      • url-status: this optional parameter is ignored if archive-url is not set. If omitted, or with null value, the default value is |url-status=dead. When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |url-status=live; this changes the display order, with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting |url-status=unfit or |url-status=usurped suppresses display of the original URL (but |url= and |archive-url= are still required).
      • archive-format: File format of the work referred to by archive-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after the archive link. HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. See Using |format=
    • url-access: See Access indicators for url-holding parameters
  • format: File format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. (For media format, use type.) HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. See Using |format=

URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.

If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:

Character space " ' < > [ ] { | }
Encoding %20 %22 %27 %3C %3E %5B %5D %7B %7C %7D

Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.

  1. ^ a b Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Anchor

  • ref: the citation's HTML anchor identifier, when different from its default. When set, |ref=ID generates an anchor with the given ID (the id= attribute in the citation's <cite id="ID"> HTML tag). Setting |ref=ID identifies the template as a target and allows wikilinking to full references, especially useful with short-form citations like shortened notes and parenthetical referencing. The default anchor ID is suitable for use with {{sfn}} and {{harv}} templates. Since April 2020, the parameter / keyword pair |ref=harv has no special meaning; this deprecated setting should not be used and may be removed from existing cs1|2 templates. To inhibit anchor ID creation, set |ref=none. Aliases: none. See Template:Citation/doc § Anchors for Harvard referencing templates.

Identifiers

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use an external link template as applicable. For example, |id=NCJ 122967 will append "NCJ 122967" at the end of the citation. You can use templates such as |id={{NCJ|122967}} to append NCJ 122967 instead.

The following identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. |rfc=822 or |pmc=345678.

  • arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: |arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or |arxiv=0706.0001 (April 2007 – December 2014) or |arxiv=1501.00001 (since January 2015). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html". Aliases: eprint.
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn. Because this link favours one specific distributor, include it only if standard identifiers are not available. Example |asin=B00005N5PF. Aliases: ASIN.
    • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: ae, au, br, ca, cn, de, es, fr, in, it, jp, mx, nl, pl, sa, se, sg, tr, uk. Aliases: none.
  • bibcode: bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H. Aliases: none.
  • biorxiv: bioRxiv id, as in the entire DOI (e.g. 10.1101/078733 for http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/10/01/078733 or https://doi.org/10.1101/078733; 10.1101/2020.07.24.220400 for https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.24.220400). Aliases: none.
  • citeseerx: CiteSeerX id, a string of digits and dots found in a CiteSeerX URL (e.g. 10.1.1.176.341 for http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.176.341). Aliases: none.
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.). Aliases: DOI.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid DOIs using a non-standard format, see below.
    • doi-broken-date: Date a valid DOI was found to be non-working/inactive at https://doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Aliases: none.
  • eissn: International Standard Serial Number for the electronic media of a serial publication; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space; example |eissn=1557-2986. Aliases: EISSN.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid eISSNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • hdl: Handle System identifier for digital objects and other resources on the Internet; example |hdl=20.1000/100. Aliases: HDL.
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. (See Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN § Overview.) Hyphens in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, use sbn. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Aliases: ISBN, isbn13, ISBN13.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid ISBNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • ismn: International Standard Music Number; for example: 979-0-9016791-7-7. Hyphens or spaces in the ISMN are optional. Use the ISMN actually printed on or in the work. This parameter should hold only the ISMN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens – and the proper check digit. Aliases: ISMN.
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space; example |issn=2049-3630. Aliases: ISSN.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid ISSNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik; do not include "JFM" in the value; example |jfm=53.0144.01. Aliases: JFM.
  • jstor: JSTOR reference number; for example: |jstor=3793107. Aliases: JSTOR.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case and without a space; example |lccn=79-57364 or |lccn=2004042477 or |lccn=e09001178. Aliases: LCCN.
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews; example |mr=630583. Aliases: MR.
  • oclc: OCLC Number for looking up publications in the WorldCat union catalog; example |oclc=9355469. Aliases: OCLC.
  • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value; example |ol=7030731M. Aliases: OL.
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information; example |osti=4367507. Aliases: OSTI.
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for open repository full-text of a journal article, e.g. |pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also the pmid parameter, below; these are two different identifiers.. Aliases: PMC.
    • pmc-embargo-date: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date. Aliases: none.
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier; example |pmid=17322060 See also the pmc parameter, above; these are two different identifiers. Aliases: PMID.
  • rfc: Request for Comments; example |rfc=3143. Aliases: RFC.
  • sbn: Standard Book Number; example |sbn=356-02201-3. Aliases: SBN.
    • Supports accept-this-as-written markup to indicate valid SBNs using a non-standard format, see below.
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network; example |ssrn=1900856. Aliases: SSRN.
  • s2cid: Semantic Scholar corpus ID; example |s2cid=37220927. Aliases: S2CID.
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH; example |zbl=0472.53010 For zbMATH search results like JFM 35.0387.02 use |jfm=35.0387.02. Aliases: ZBL.

In very rare cases, valid identifiers (f.e., as actually printed on publications) do not follow their defined standard format or use non-conforming checksums, which would typically cause an error message to be shown. Do not alter them to match a different checksum. In order to suppress the error message, some identifiers (|doi=, |eissn=, |isbn=, |issn=, and |sbn=) support a special accept-this-as-written markup which can be applied to disable the error-checking (as |<param>=((<value>))). If the problem is down to a mere typographical error in a third-party source, correct the identifier value instead of overriding the error message.

For some identifiers, it is possible to specify the access status using the corresponding |<param>-access= parameter.

For {{cite journal}}, some identifiers (specifying free resources) will automatically be linked to the title when |url= and |title-link= are not used to specify a different link target. This behaviour can be overridden by one out of a number of special keywords for |title-link= to manually select a specific source (|title-link=pmc or |title-link=doi) for auto-linking or to disable the feature (|title-link=none).

It is not necessary to specify a URL to a link identical to a link also produced by an identifier. The |url= parameter (or |title-link=) can then be used for providing a direct deep link to the corresponding document or a convenience link to a resource that would not otherwise be obviously accessible.

Quote

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote must include terminating punctuation. If script-quote is defined, use quote to hold a Romanization (if available) of the text in script-quote.
    • script-quote: Original quotation for languages that do not use a Latin-based script (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc.); not italicized, follows italicized Romanization defined in quote (if available). Alias: none. Must be prefixed with one of the supported language codes to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |quote=Tōkyō tawā |script-quote=ja:東京タワー |trans-quote=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-quote: English translation of the quotation if the source quoted is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets. Alias: none.
  • quote-page: The number of a single page quoted in |quote=. Use either |quote-page= or |quote-pages=, but not both. Should be a subset of the page(s) specified in |page=, |pages= or |at=. Displays preceded by p. unless |no-pp=yes. If hyphenated, use {{hyphen}} to indicate this is intentional (e.g. |quote-page=3{{hyphen}}12). Alias: none.
  • OR: quote-pages: A list or range of pages quoted in |quote=. Use either |quote-page= or |quote-pages=, but not both. Should be a subset of the pages specified in |pages= or |at=. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,). Displays preceded by pp. unless |no-pp=yes is defined. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate because individual page numbers contain hyphens, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use double parentheses to tell the template to display the value of |quote-pages= without processing it, and use {{hyphen}} to indicate to editors that a hyphen is really intended: |quote-pages=((3{{hyphen}}1{{ndash}}3{{hyphen}}15)). Alias: none.

Editors

  • editor-last: surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
    • editor: This parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last), or the name of an editorial committee. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
    • editor-first: given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn (Aliases: editorn-last, editor-surnamen or editorn-surname; editorn-first, editor-givenn or editorn-given; editorn). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use |editor-first1=...|editor-last1=... |editor2=....
    • editor-link: title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn (alias editorn-link).
    • name-list-style: accepts a limited list of keywords as value; when set to amp, ampersand, or &, inserts an ampersand between the last two names in a name list; when set to and, inserts the conjunction 'and' between the last two names of a name list; when set to vancdisplays name lists in Vancouver style when the lists use the last/first forms of name parameters.
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses. End with etal if appropriate:
    |veditors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.)), etal
    • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in |veditors=, as described above
  • Display:
    Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
    If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
    If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."

Lay summary

  • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary".
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the lay summary. Displays in italics and preceded by a spaced endash.
    • lay-date: Date of the lay summary. Displays in parentheses.
    • lay-format: File format of the work referred to by lay-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after lay summary. HTML is implied and should not be specified. File format annotation is automatically rendered when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add file format information for the visually impaired. See Using |format=

Display options

  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask:
  • contributor-mask:
  • editor-mask:
  • interviewer-mask:
  • subject-mask:
  • translator-mask:
    Replaces the name of the (first) author with em dashes or text. Set <name>-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set <name>-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". The numeric value 0 is a special case to be used in conjunction with <name>-link—in this case, the value of <name>-link will be used as (linked) text. In either case, you must still include the values for all names for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. Mask parameters can take an enumerator in the name of the parameter (e.g. |authorn-mask=) to apply the mask to a specific name.
  • display-authors:
  • display-contributors:
  • display-editors:
  • display-interviewers:
  • display-subjects:
  • display-translators:
    Controls the number of author or editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of names, set display-authors and/or display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation (and not affect the display of editors). Likewise, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors (and all authors). |display-authors=0 and |display-editors=0 are special cases suppressing the display of all authors or editors including the et al. By default, all authors and editors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: none.
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Additional text or templates beyond the terminating punctuation may generate an error message. |postscript= is ignored if quote is defined.

Subscription or registration required

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability § Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors should signal restrictions on access to material provided via the external links included in a citation. These levels describe requirements or constraints related to accessing and viewing the cited material; they are not intended to indicate the ability to reuse, or the copyright status, of the material, since that status is not relevant to verifying claims in articles.

Four access levels can be used:

  • access indicator for named identifiers:
    • Freely accessible free: the source is free to read for anyone (from the viewpoint of the provider of the source – could still be blocked by client-side filtering or safeguarding, or distributor-based geoblocking)
  • access indicators for url-holding parameters:
    • Free registration required registration: a free registration with the provider of the source is required to access the source, even if a limited preview, abstract or review may still be available without registration
    • Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required limited: there are other constraints (such as a cap on daily views, a restriction to certain day or night times, or providing the contents only to certain IP ranges/locales on behalf of the provider of the source) to freely access this source as a whole
    • Paid subscription required subscription: the source as a whole is only accessible via a paid subscription with the provider of the source ("paywall"), even if a limited preview, abstract or review may still be available without subscription

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, each value is attributed to a specific external link.

Access indicators for url-holding parameters

Online sources linked by |url=, |article-url=, |chapter-url=, |contribution-url=, |entry-url=, |map-url=, and |section-url= are presumed to be free-to-read.[1] When they are not free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. Because the sources linked by these url-holding parameters are presumed to be free-to-read, they may not be marked as free.

URL-holding and access-indicator parameters
URL Access Allowed keywords
|url= |url-access= registration Free registration required
limited Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required
subscription Paid subscription required
|article-url= |article-url-access=
|chapter-url= |chapter-url-access=
|contribution-url= |contribution-url-access=
|entry-url= |entry-url-access=
|map-url= |map-url-access=
|section-url= |section-url-access=
  1. ^ This guidance does not restrict linking to websites that are being used as sources to provide content in articles.

For example, this cites a web page that requires registration but not subscription:

{{cite web |url=https://example.com/nifty_data.php |url-access=registration |date=2021-04-15 |title=Nifty example data}}

which renders as:

"Nifty example data". 2021-04-15.
Access indicator for named identifiers

Links inserted by named identifiers are presumed to lie behind a paywall or registration barrier – exceptions listed below. When they are free-to-read, editors should mark those sources with the matching access-indicator parameter so that an appropriate icon is included in the rendered citation. When the sources linked by these named-identifier parameters are not presumed to carry a free-to-read full text (for instance because they're just abstracting services), they may not be marked as limited, registration, or subscription.

Named-identifier and access-indicator parameters
Identifier Access Allowed keywords
|bibcode= |bibcode-access= free Freely accessible
|doi= |doi-access=
|hdl= |hdl-access=
|jstor= |jstor-access=
|ol= |ol-access=
|osti= |osti-access=
|s2cid= |s2cid-access=

Some named-identifiers are always free-to-read. For those named identifiers there are no access-indicator parameters; the access level is automatically indicated by the template. These named identifiers are:

  • |arxiv=
  • |biorxiv=
  • |citeseerx=
  • |pmc=
  • |rfc=
  • |ssrn=

For embargoed pmc that will become available in the future, see pmc-embargo-date.

TemplateData

This is the TemplateData for this template used by TemplateWizard, VisualEditor and other tools. Click here to see a monthly parameter usage report for this template based on this TemplateData.

TemplateData for Cite web

Formats a citation to a website using the provided information such as URL and title. Used only for sources that are not correctly described by the specific citation templates for books, journals, news sources, etc.

Template parameters

This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.

ParameterDescriptionTypeStatus
Last namelast last1 author author1 author1-last author-last surname1 author-last1 subject1 surname author-last subject

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Linesuggested
First namefirst given author-first first1 given1 author-first1 author1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Linesuggested
Author linkauthor-link author-link1 author1-link subject-link subject-link1 subject1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

Page nameoptional
Last name 2last2 author2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link2'.

Lineoptional
First name 2first2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Author link 2author-link2 author2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

Page nameoptional
Last name 3last3 author3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link3'.

Lineoptional
First name 3first3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Author link 3author-link3 author3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

Page nameoptional
Last name 4last4 author4

The surname of the fourth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link4'.

Lineoptional
First name 4first4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth author; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Author link 4author-link4 author4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth author.

Page nameoptional
Last name 5last5 author5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link5'.

Lineoptional
First name 5first5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Author link 5author-link5 author5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth author.

Page nameoptional
Last name 6last6 author6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link6'.

Lineoptional
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Author link 6author-link6 author6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

Page nameoptional
Last name 7last7 author7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link7'.

Lineoptional
First name 7first7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Author link 7author-link7 author7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

Page nameoptional
Last name 8last8 author8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link8'.

Lineoptional
First name 8first8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Author link 8author-link8 author8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

Page nameoptional
Last name 9last9 author9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'author-link9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

Lineoptional
First name 9first9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Author link 9author-link9 author9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

Page nameoptional
Authors listauthors people host

List of authors as a free form list. Use of this parameter is discouraged, "lastn" to "firstn" are preferable. Warning: do not use if last or any of its aliases are used.

Stringoptional
Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

Stringoptional
Display authorsdisplay-authors

Number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used. By default, all authors are displayed. Examples: |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation followed by et al. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al.

Stringoptional
Name list stylename-list-style

Set to 'amp' or 'and' to change the separator between the last two names of the name list to ' & ' or ' and ', respectively. Set to 'vanc' to display name lists in Vancouver style.

Suggested values
amp and vanc
Stringoptional
Source datedate

Full date when the source was published; if unknown, use access-date instead; do not wikilink

Datesuggested
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; deprecated in favor of 'date', except for the special case of ISO dates with disambiguating letter

Stringoptional
Original yearorig-year

Original year of publication; provide specifics

Stringoptional
Editor last nameeditor-last editor1-last editor

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors.

Lineoptional
Editor first nameeditor-first editor1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

Lineoptional
Editor linkeditor-link editor1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

Page nameoptional
Editor last name 2editor2-last editor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

Lineoptional
Editor first name 2editor2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Editor link 2editor2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

Page nameoptional
Editor last name 3editor3-last editor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

Lineoptional
Editor first name 3editor3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Editor link 3editor3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

Page nameoptional
Editor last name 4editor4-last editor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

Lineoptional
Editor first name 4editor4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Editor link 4editor4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

Page nameoptional
Editor last name 5editor5-last editor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

Lineoptional
Editor first name 5editor5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Editor link 5editor5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

Page nameoptional
Editor last name 6editor6-last editor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

Lineoptional
Editor first name 6editor6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Editor link 6editor6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

Page nameoptional
Editor last name 7editor7-last editor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

Lineoptional
Editor first name 7editor7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Editor link 7editor7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

Page nameoptional
Editor last name 8editor8-last editor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

Lineoptional
Editor first name 8editor8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Editor link 8editor8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

Page nameoptional
Editor last name 9editor9-last editor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

Lineoptional
Editor first name 9editor9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

Lineoptional
Editor link 9editor9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

Page nameoptional
Othersothers

Used to record other (non-author) contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'. Only one ''others'' parameter is allowed: e.g., 'Illustrated by Jane Doe; Translated by John Smith'

Stringoptional
Titletitle

The title of the source page on the website; will display with quotation marks added. Usually found at the top of your web browser. Not the name of the website.

Stringrequired
Script titlescript-title

For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

Stringoptional
Translated titletrans-title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

Stringoptional
URLurl URL

The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the protocol relative scheme "//..."

Example
https://www.metacritic.com//...
URLrequired
URL access levelurl-access

Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

Suggested values
registration subscription limited
Stringoptional
URL statusurl-status

If set to 'live', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live. Set to "dead" or 'usurped' for broken links. Entering 'unfit' or 'usurped' makes the original link not appear at all.

Suggested values
dead live usurped unfit
Default
'dead' if an Archive URL is entered
Example
'dead' or 'live'
Auto value
live
Stringsuggested
Archive URLarchive-url

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archive-date'

Auto value
URLsuggested
Archive datearchive-date

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

Datesuggested
Archive formatarchive-format

Format of the archived copy; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

Stringoptional
URL access dateaccess-date

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

Datesuggested
Name of the websitewebsite work

Title (name) of the website (or its short URL if no plain-language title is discernible); may be wikilinked; will display in italics. Having both 'publisher' and 'website' is redundant in many cases.

Example
[[Rotten Tomatoes]]
Stringsuggested
Series identifierseries

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal

Stringoptional
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; may be wikilinked. Having both 'publisher' and 'website' (a.k.a. 'work') is redundant in many cases.

Example
[[CBS Interactive]] (which owns "Metacritic.com")
Stringoptional
Location of publicationlocation

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

Stringoptional
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

Stringoptional
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source); displays after 'pp.'

Stringoptional
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

Stringoptional
Languagelanguage lang

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name or one of the standard MediaWiki language codes; do not use icons or templates; separate multiple languages with commas (with no 'and' before the last one)

Example
de, fr, es
Stringoptional
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

Stringoptional
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url'; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

Stringoptional
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

Stringoptional
Publication datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

Dateoptional
Published viavia

Name of the entity hosting the original copy of the work, if different from the publisher. This entity is committed not to alter the work.

Example
[[GitHub]], [[SourceForge]], [[CodePlex]], [[YouTube]], [[Vimeo]], [[Dailymotion]], [[Netflix]], [[Archive.org]], [[Wikimedia Commons]], [[grc.com]]
Stringoptional
No ppno-pp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

Auto value
y
Booleanoptional
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

Stringoptional
ASINasin

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

Stringoptional
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

Stringoptional
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

Stringoptional
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

Lineoptional
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

Lineoptional
DOIdoi

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

Stringoptional
DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

Auto value
Dateoptional
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

Stringoptional
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number; 8 characters; may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen

Stringoptional
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

Stringoptional
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

Stringoptional
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

Stringoptional
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

Stringoptional
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

Stringoptional
OLol

Open Library identifier

Stringoptional
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

Stringoptional
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

Stringoptional
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

Stringoptional
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

Stringoptional
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

Stringoptional
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

Stringoptional
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

Stringoptional
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; must include terminating punctuation

Stringoptional
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references

Stringoptional
Postscriptpostscript

The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined

Default
.
Stringoptional
Lay URLlay-url

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

URLoptional
Lay sourcelay-source

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

Stringoptional
Lay datelay-date

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

Dateoptional
Editionedition

Specify the edition or revision of the source, when applicable. For example: '2nd' or '5.1'. What you supply here is suffixed by ' ed.'

Stringoptional
Bibcode access levelbibcode-access

If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

Auto value
free
Stringoptional
DOI access leveldoi-access

If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

Auto value
free
Stringoptional
HDL access levelhdl-access

If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

Auto value
free
Stringoptional
Jstor access leveljstor-access

If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

Auto value
free
Stringoptional
OpenLibrary access levelol-access

If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

Auto value
free
Stringoptional
OSTI access levelosti-access

If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

Auto value
free
Stringoptional

Notes

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.