Eslovênia

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Coordenadas : 46 ° 07′N 14 ° 49′E / 46.117°N 14.817°E / 46.117; 14.817

República da Eslovênia
Republika Slovenija   ( esloveno )
Hino:  Zdravljica
("Um brinde")
Location of Slovenia (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Localização da Eslovênia (verde escuro)

- na Europa  (verde e cinza escuro)
- na União Europeia  (verde)

Capital
e a maior cidade
Liubliana 46 ° 03′N 14 ° 30′E
 / 46.050°N 14.500°E / 46.050; 14.500
Línguas oficiaisEsloveno [i]
Idiomas regionais reconhecidosHúngaro italiano
Grupos étnicos
(2002 [1] [2] )
Religião
(2018) [3]
Demônimo (s)Esloveno
esloveno
Governo República constitucional parlamentar unitária
•  Presidente
Borut Pahor
Janez Janša
LegislaturaParlamento
Conselho Nacional
Assembleia Nacional
Estabelecimento
29 de outubro de 1918
1 de dezembro de 1918
19 de fevereiro de 1944
29 de novembro de 1945
•  Independência da
Iugoslávia
25 de junho de 1991 [4]
•  Acordo Brioni
assinado
7 de julho de 1991
•  Constituição atual
adotada
23 de dezembro de 1991
•  Admitido nas Nações Unidas
22 de maio de 1992
1 de maio de 2004
Área
• Total
20.271 km 2 (7.827 sq mi) ( 151st )
• Água (%)
0,7 [5]
População
• estimativa de 2021
Neutral decrease2.108.977 [6] ( 147º )
• censo de 2002
1.964.036
• Densidade
103 [6] / km 2 (266,8 / sq mi) ( 106 )
PIB  ( PPP )Estimativa para 2020
• Total
$ 83 bilhões [7] ( 93 )
• per capita
Increase$ 40.343 [7] ( 35º )
PIB  (nominal)Estimativa para 2020
• Total
$ 56 bilhões [7] ( 80º )
• per capita
Increase$ 27.452 [7] ( 34 )
Gini  (2020)Positive decrease 23,5 [8]
baixo
HDI  (2019)Increase 0,917 [9]
muito alto  ·  22º
MoedaEuro ( ) ( EUR )
Fuso horárioUTC +1 ( CET )
• Verão ( DST )
UTC +2 ( CEST )
Formato de datadd. milímetros. aaaa ( AD )
Lado de conduçãodireito
Código de chamada+386
Código ISO 3166SI
Internet TLD.si [ii]
  1. ^ Húngaro e italiano são co-oficiais em alguns municípios.
  2. ^ Também .eu , compartilhado com outrosestados membros da União Europeia .

Slovenia ( / s l v i n i ə , s l ə - / ( escutar ) About this sound[10] [11] sloh- VEE -nee-ə ; eslovena : Slovenija [slɔˈʋèːnija] ), [12] oficialmente a República da Eslovênia (esloveno: Republika Slovenija , [13] abr .: RS [14] ), é um país da Europa Central. [15] Faz fronteira com a Itália a oeste, Áustria ao norte, Hungria a nordeste, Croácia a sudeste e o Mar Adriático a sudoeste. [16] A Eslovênia é principalmente montanhosa e arborizada, [17]About this sound  cobre 20.271 quilômetros quadrados (7.827 sq mi) e tem uma população de 2,1 milhões, dos quais 500.000 vivem na capital e maior cidade, Ljubljana . [18] Os eslovenos constituem a grande maioria da população do país, enquanto os sérvios são a maior minoria. [19] O esloveno , uma língua eslava do sul , é a língua oficial. [20] A Eslovênia tem um clima predominantemente continental , [21] com exceção do Litoral Esloveno e dos Alpes Julianos . Um clima sub-mediterrâneo atinge as extensões do norte dos Alpes Dináricosque atravessam o país na direção NW-SE. Os Alpes Julianos no noroeste têm um clima alpino. [22] O clima continental é cada vez mais pronunciado em direção à planície da Panônia no noroeste. A capital e maior cidade do país - Ljubljana - está situada aproximadamente no centro do país. [23]

A Eslovênia tem sido historicamente o cruzamento das línguas e culturas eslavas , germânicas e românicas . [15] O território da Eslovênia moderna fez parte de muitos estados diferentes; o Império Romano , o Império Bizantino , o Império Carolíngio , o Sacro Império Romano , o Reino da Hungria , a República de Veneza , as Províncias da Ilíria , o Império Austríaco e a Áustria-Hungria . [16] Em outubro de 1918, os eslovenos co-fundaram o Estado dos eslovenos, croatas e sérvios. [24] Em dezembro de 1918, eles se fundiram com o Reino da Sérvia no Reino da Iugoslávia . [25] Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial , Alemanha , Itália e Hungria ocuparam e anexaram a Eslovênia, com uma pequena área transferida para a Croácia , um estado fantoche nazista na época. [26] Em 1945, tornou-se um membro fundador da Iugoslávia . No pós-guerra, a Iugoslávia foi inicialmente aliada do Bloco de Leste , mas após a divisão Tito-Stalin de 1948, ela nunca assinou o Pacto de Varsóvia., e em 1961, tornou-se um dos fundadores do Movimento dos Não-Alinhados . [27] Em junho de 1991, a Eslovênia se tornou a primeira república que se separou da Iugoslávia e se tornou um estado soberano independente . [4]

A Eslovênia é um país desenvolvido , com uma economia avançada de alta renda ; classificação muito alta no Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano . [28] Medida por Gini, tem uma das taxas de desigualdade de renda mais baixas do mundo. [29] É membro de várias organizações internacionais, incluindo as Nações Unidas, a União Europeia , a Zona Euro , o Espaço Schengen , a OSCE , o Conselho da Europa e a OTAN . [30]

Etimologia [ editar ]

O nome da Eslovênia significa "Terra dos Eslovenos " em esloveno e em outras línguas eslavas do sul . É, portanto, um cognato das palavras Eslavônia , Eslováquia e Slavia . A etimologia do próprio eslavo permanece incerta.

O autônimo reconstruído * Slověninъ é geralmente derivado da palavra slovo ("palavra"), originalmente denotando "pessoas que falam (a mesma língua)", i. e. pessoas que se entendem. Isso contrasta com a palavra eslava que denota o povo alemão, a saber * němьcь , que significa "povo silencioso e mudo" (do eslavo * němъ " mudo , resmungando"). A palavra slovo ( "palavra") e as respectivas slava ( "glória, fama") e slukh ( "ouvir") são originários da Proto-Indo-Europeu raiz * ḱlew- ( "ser falado, glória"),cognato com o grego antigo κλέος ( kléos"fama"), como no nome Péricles , latim clueo ("ser chamado") e inglês alto . [ citação necessária ]

Os modernos origina estaduais eslovenos do Comitê eslovena de Libertação Nacional (SNOS) realizada em 19 de fevereiro de 1944. Eles oficialmente nomeado do Estado como a Eslovénia Federal ( Federalna Slovenija ), uma unidade dentro da federação jugoslava. Em 20 de fevereiro de 1946, a Eslovênia Federal foi renomeada como República Popular da Eslovênia ( Ljudska republika Slovenija ). [31] Manteve este nome até 9 de abril de 1963, quando seu nome foi alterado novamente, desta vez para República Socialista da Eslovênia ( esloveno : Socialistična republika Slovenija ). [32]Em 8 de março de 1990, SR Eslovênia removeu o prefixo "Socialista" de seu nome, tornando-se República da Eslovênia ; permaneceu como parte do SFRY até 25 de junho de 1991.

Nomes oficiais
Encontro Nome Notas
1945-1946 Eslovênia Federal Parte da Iugoslávia Federal Democrática
1946–1963 República Popular da Eslovênia Parte da República Popular Federal da Iugoslávia
1963-1990 República Socialista da Eslovênia Parte da República Socialista Federal da Iugoslávia
1990 – presente República da Eslovênia País independente de 1991

História [ editar ]

Pré-história à liquidação eslava [ editar ]

Pré-história [ editar ]

Uma caverna perfurada com osso de urso , possivelmente uma flauta, de Divje Babe

A Eslovênia atual é habitada desde os tempos pré-históricos . Há evidências de habitação humana por volta de 250.000 anos atrás. [33] Um osso perfurado de urso da caverna , datando de 43100 ± 700 AP , encontrado em 1995 na caverna Divje Babe perto de Cerkno , é considerado um tipo de flauta e, possivelmente, o instrumento musical mais antigo descoberto no mundo. [34] Nas décadas de 1920 e 1930, artefatos pertencentes ao Cro-Magnon , como ossos perfurados, pontas de ossos e uma agulha foram encontrados pelo arqueólogo Srečko Brodar na caverna Potok . [35] [36]

Em 2002, restos de moradias com mais de 4.500 anos foram descobertos nos pântanos de Ljubljana , agora protegidos como Patrimônio Mundial da UNESCO , junto com a roda de madeira dos pântanos de Ljubljana , a roda de madeira mais antiga do mundo. [37] Isso mostra que as rodas de madeira apareceram quase simultaneamente na Mesopotâmia e na Europa. [38] No período de transição entre a Idade do Bronze para a Idade do Ferro , a cultura Urnfield floresceu. Vestígios arqueológicos que datam do período de Hallstatt foram encontrados, particularmente no sudeste da Eslovênia, entre eles uma série de situlasem Novo Mesto , a "Vila de Situlas". [39] Na Idade do Ferro , a atual Eslovênia era habitada por tribos ilíricas e celtas até o século 1 aC. [ citação necessária ]

Era Romana [ editar ]

Parede sul de Roman Emona (reconstrução) na atual Liubliana

A área que é a atual Eslovênia era, na época romana, compartilhada entre Venetia et Histria (região X da Itália romana na classificação de Augusto ) e as províncias da Panônia e Noricum . Os romanos estabeleceram cargos em Emona (Ljubljana), Poetovio (Ptuj) e Celeia (Celje); e construiu estradas comerciais e militares que cruzavam o território esloveno da Itália à Panônia. Nos séculos 5 e 6, a área foi sujeita a invasões pelos hunos e tribos germânicas durante suas incursões na Itália. Uma parte do estado interno era protegida por uma linha defensiva de torres e paredes chamadasClaustra Alpium Iuliarum . Uma batalha crucial entre Teodósio I e Eugênio ocorreu no Vale do Vipava em 394. [40] [41]

Povoado eslavo [ editar ]

As tribos eslavas migraram para a área alpina após a partida dos lombardos para o oeste (a última tribo germânica) em 568 e, sob pressão dos ávaros, estabeleceram um assentamento eslavo nos Alpes orientais . De 623 a 624 ou possivelmente 626 em diante, o rei Samo uniu os alpinos e eslavos ocidentais contra os ávaros e os germânicos e estabeleceu o que é conhecido como Reino de Samo. Após sua desintegração após a morte de Samo em 658 ou 659, os ancestrais dos eslovenos localizados na atual Caríntia formaram o ducado independente da Carantânia , [42] e Carniola, mais tarde ducado Carniola. Outras partes da atual Eslovênia foram novamente governadas pelos ávaros antes da vitória de Carlos Magno sobre eles em 803.

Idade Média [ editar ]

Os carantanos , um dos grupos ancestrais dos eslovenos modernos, particularmente os eslovenos da Caríntia , foram os primeiros eslavos a aceitar o cristianismo . Eles foram em sua maioria cristianizados por missionários irlandeses, entre eles Modestus , conhecido como o "Apóstolo dos Carantanianos". Este processo, juntamente com a cristianização dos bávaros , foi posteriormente descrito no memorando conhecido como Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum , que se acredita ter enfatizado exageradamente o papel da Igreja de Salzburgo no processo de cristianização em relação a esforços semelhantes do Patriarcado de Aquileia .

Uma representação de um antigo ritual democrático de tribos de língua eslovena, que ocorreu na Pedra do Príncipe na Eslovênia até 1414.

Em meados do século 8, Carantania tornou-se um ducado vassalo sob o domínio dos bávaros , que começaram a espalhar o cristianismo . Três décadas depois, os carantanianos foram incorporados, juntamente com os bávaros, ao Império Carolíngio . Durante o mesmo período , Carniola também foi subordinada aos francos e foi cristianizada em Aquiléia . Após a rebelião anti-franca de Liudewit no início do século 9, os francos removeram os príncipes carantanianos, substituindo-os por seus próprios duques de fronteira. Consequentemente, o sistema feudal franco atingiu o território esloveno.

Após a vitória do imperador Otto I sobre os magiares em 955, o território esloveno foi dividido em várias regiões fronteiriças do Sacro Império Romano . Carantania, sendo a mais importante, foi elevada ao Ducado da Caríntia em 976.

No século 11, a germanização do que hoje é a Baixa Áustria isolou efetivamente o território habitado pelos eslavos dos outros eslavos ocidentais , acelerando o desenvolvimento dos eslavos da Carantânia e dos Carniola em um grupo étnico carantano / carniolano / esloveno independente. No final da Idade Média, as províncias históricas de Carniola, Styria , Carinthia , Gorizia , Trieste e Istriadesenvolvido a partir das regiões fronteiriças e foram incorporados ao estado alemão medieval. A consolidação e formação dessas terras históricas ocorreram em um longo período entre os séculos XI e XIV, e foram lideradas por várias famílias feudais importantes, como os Duques de Spanheim , os Condes de Gorizia , os Condes de Celje e , finalmente, a Casa dos Habsburgos . Em um processo paralelo, uma colonização alemã intensiva diminuiu significativamente a extensão das áreas de língua eslovena. No século 15, o território étnico esloveno foi reduzido ao seu tamanho atual. [43]

No século 14, a maior parte do território da atual Eslovênia foi conquistada pelos Habsburgos . Os condes de Celje , uma família feudal desta área que em 1436 adquiriu o título de príncipes de estado, foram os poderosos competidores dos Habsburgos por algum tempo. Esta grande dinastia, importante a nível político europeu, tinha sua sede em território esloveno, mas morreu em 1456. Suas numerosas grandes propriedades posteriormente tornaram-se propriedade dos Habsburgos, que mantiveram o controle da área até o início do século XX . Patria del Friuli governou o atual oeste da Eslovênia até a tomada do poder veneziano em 1420.

O exército otomano lutando contra os Habsburgos na atual Eslovênia durante a Grande Guerra da Turquia .

No final da Idade Média, as Terras Eslovenas sofreram um sério revés econômico e demográfico por causa dos ataques turcos . Em 1515, uma revolta camponesa espalhou-se por quase todo o território esloveno. Em 1572 e 1573, a revolta dos camponeses croata-eslovenos causou estragos em toda a região. Essas revoltas, que muitas vezes resultaram em derrotas sangrentas, continuaram ao longo do século XVII. [43]

Período moderno [ editar ]

Após a dissolução da República de Veneza em 1797, a Eslovênia veneziana foi passada ao Império Austríaco. As Terras Eslovenas faziam parte das províncias da Ilíria administradas pela França e estabelecidas por Napoleão, o Império Austríaco e a Áustria-Hungria . Os eslovenos habitavam a maior parte de Carniola , a parte sul dos ducados da Caríntia e da Estíria , as áreas norte e leste do Litoral austríaco , bem como Prekmurje no Reino da Hungria . [44] A industrialização foi acompanhada pela construção de ferrovias para ligar cidades e mercados, mas a urbanização foi limitada.

Devido às oportunidades limitadas, entre 1880 e 1910 houve grande emigração, e cerca de 300.000 eslovenos (ou seja, 1 em 6) emigraram para outros países, [45] principalmente para os EUA, mas também para a América do Sul (a maior parte para a Argentina ), Alemanha, Egito e cidades maiores na Áustria-Hungria, especialmente Viena e Graz . A área dos Estados Unidos com a maior concentração de imigrantes eslovenos é Cleveland , Ohio. Os outros locais nos Estados Unidos onde muitos eslovenos se estabeleceram eram áreas com atividades industriais e de mineração substanciais: Pittsburgh , Chicago, Pueblo , Butte , norteMinnesota e o Vale do Lago Salgado . Os homens eram importantes como trabalhadores na indústria de mineração por causa de algumas das habilidades que trouxeram da Eslovênia. Apesar dessa emigração, a população da Eslovênia aumentou significativamente. [45] A alfabetização era excepcionalmente alta, em 80–90%. [45]

O século 19 também viu um renascimento da cultura em esloveno , acompanhado por uma busca nacionalista romântica por autonomia cultural e política. A ideia de uma Eslovênia Unida , apresentada pela primeira vez durante as revoluções de 1848 , tornou-se a plataforma comum da maioria dos partidos e movimentos políticos eslovenos na Áustria-Hungria. Durante o mesmo período, o iugoslavismo , uma ideologia que enfatizava a unidade de todos os povos eslavos do sul , se espalhou como uma reação ao nacionalismo pan-alemão e ao irredentismo italiano .

Primeira Guerra Mundial [ editar ]

As Batalhas de Isonzo ocorreram principalmente em áreas montanhosas acidentadas acima do rio Soča.

A Primeira Guerra Mundial trouxe pesadas baixas para os eslovenos, particularmente as doze Batalhas de Isonzo , que aconteceram na atual área da fronteira oeste da Eslovênia com a Itália. Centenas de milhares de recrutas eslovenos foram convocados para o exército austro-húngaro e mais de 30.000 deles morreram. Centenas de milhares de eslovenos do condado de Princely de Gorizia e Gradisca foram reassentados em campos de refugiados na Itália e na Áustria. Enquanto os refugiados na Áustria recebiam tratamento decente, os refugiados eslovenos nos campos italianos eram tratados como inimigos do Estado, e vários milhares morreram de desnutrição e doenças entre 1915 e 1918. [46] Áreas inteiras do litoral esloveno foram destruídos.

O Tratado de Rapallo de 1920 deixou aproximadamente 327.000 da população total de 1,3 milhão de eslovenos na Itália. [47] [48] Depois que os fascistas tomaram o poder na Itália, eles foram submetidos a uma política de violenta italianização fascista . Isso causou a emigração em massa de eslovenos, especialmente da classe média, do litoral esloveno e Trieste para a Iugoslávia e a América do Sul. Os que permaneceram organizaram várias redes conectadas de resistência passiva e armada. O mais conhecido foi o militante anti-fascista organização TIGR , formada em 1927 para lutar contra a opressão fascista das populações eslovenos e croatas naJulian March . [49] [50]

Reino dos Sérvios, Croatas e Eslovenos (mais tarde Reino da Iugoslávia) [ editar ]

A proclamação do Estado dos Eslovenos, Croatas e Sérvios na Praça do Congresso em Ljubljana em 20 de outubro de 1918

O Partido do Povo Esloveno lançou um movimento pela autodeterminação, exigindo a criação de um Estado eslavo do sul semi-independente sob o domínio dos Habsburgos . A proposta foi aceita pela maioria dos partidos eslovenos, e uma mobilização em massa da sociedade civil eslovena, conhecida como Movimento de Declaração , se seguiu. [51] Esta demanda foi rejeitada pelas elites políticas austríacas; mas após a dissolução do Império Austro-Húngaro no rescaldo da Primeira Guerra Mundial , o Conselho Nacional dos Eslovenos, Croatas e Sérvios assumiu o poder em Zagrebem 6 de outubro de 1918. Em 29 de outubro, a independência foi declarada por uma reunião nacional em Ljubljana e pelo parlamento croata, declarando o estabelecimento do novo Estado dos eslovenos, croatas e sérvios .

O mapa que mostra o atual território da Eslovênia, com fronteiras regionais tradicionais; as áreas de língua eslovena anexadas pela Itália após a Primeira Guerra Mundial são mostradas em listras

Em 1 de dezembro de 1918, o Estado dos eslovenos, croatas e sérvios fundiu-se com a Sérvia , tornando-se parte do novo reino dos sérvios, croatas e eslovenos ; em 1929 foi rebatizado de Reino da Iugoslávia . O principal território da Eslovênia, sendo o mais industrializado e ocidentalizado em comparação com outras partes menos desenvolvidas da Iugoslávia, tornou-se o principal centro de produção industrial: em comparação com a Sérvia, por exemplo, a produção industrial eslovena era quatro vezes maior; e era 22 vezes maior do que na Macedônia do Norte . O período entre guerras trouxe ainda mais industrialização na Eslovênia, com rápido crescimento econômico na década de 1920, seguido por um ajuste econômico relativamente bem-sucedido à crise econômica de 1929 eGrande Depressão .

Após um plebiscito em outubro de 1920, o sul da Caríntia, de língua eslovena, foi cedido à Áustria . Com o Tratado de Trianon , por outro lado, o Reino da Iugoslávia foi premiado com a região de Prekmurje habitada pela Eslovênia , anteriormente parte da Áustria-Hungria.

Os eslovenos que viviam em territórios sob o domínio dos estados vizinhos - Itália, Áustria e Hungria - foram submetidos à assimilação .

II Guerra Mundial [ editar ]

A Eslovênia foi a única nação européia atual que foi trissecionada e completamente anexada à Alemanha nazista e à Itália fascista durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. [52] Além disso, a região de Prekmurje no leste foi anexada à Hungria, e algumas aldeias no Vale do Baixo Sava foram incorporadas ao recém-criado Estado Independente fantoche nazista da Croácia (NDH).

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, a Alemanha nazista e a Hungria anexaram as áreas do norte (áreas marrons e verdes escuras, respectivamente), enquanto a Itália fascista anexou a área preta verticalmente hachurada (a parte ocidental preta sólida foi anexada pela Itália em 1920 com o Tratado de Rapallo ). Algumas aldeias foram incorporadas ao Estado Independente da Croácia . Depois de 1943, a Alemanha assumiu também a área ocupacional italiana.

As forças do Eixo invadiram a Iugoslávia em abril de 1941 e derrotaram o país em poucas semanas. A parte sul, incluindo Ljubljana , foi anexada à Itália, enquanto os nazistas conquistaram as partes norte e leste do país. Os nazistas tinham um plano de limpeza étnica dessas áreas, [53] e reassentaram ou expulsaram a população civil eslovena local para os estados fantoches da Sérvia de Nedić (7.500) e NDH (10.000). Além disso, cerca de 46.000 eslovenos foram expulsos para a Alemanha, incluindo crianças que foram separadas de seus pais e alocadas em famílias alemãs. [54] [55] Ao mesmo tempo, os alemães étnicos em Gottscheeenclave na zona de anexação italiana foram reassentados nas áreas controladas pelos nazistas, limpos de sua população eslovena. [56] Cerca de 30.000 a 40.000 eslovenos foram convocados para o exército alemão e enviados para a frente oriental. O esloveno foi banido da educação e seu uso na vida pública foi limitado ao mínimo absoluto. [52]

No centro-sul da Eslovênia, anexada pela Itália fascista e renomeada como Província de Liubliana , a Frente de Libertação Nacional da Eslovênia foi organizada em abril de 1941. Liderada pelo Partido Comunista, formou as unidades partidárias eslovenas como parte dos Partidários iugoslavos liderados pelo comunista líder Josip Broz Tito . [57] [58]

Partidários lutando pela região de Trieste e Primorje, 1945

Depois que a resistência começou no verão de 1941, a violência italiana contra a população civil eslovena também aumentou. As autoridades italianas deportaram cerca de 25.000 pessoas para os campos de concentração , o que equivale a 7,5% da população da sua zona de ocupação. Os mais famosos foram Rab e Gonars . Para conter a insurgência comunista, os italianos patrocinaram unidades anti-guerrilha locais, formadas principalmente pela população conservadora católica eslovena que se ressentia da violência revolucionária dos guerrilheiros. Após o armistício italiano de setembro de 1943, os alemães assumiram o controle da província de Liubliana e do litoral esloveno, incorporando-os ao que ficou conhecido como oZona de Operação da Região Costeira do Adriático . Eles uniram a contra-insurgência anticomunista eslovena na Guarda Nacional eslovena e nomearam um regime fantoche na província de Liubliana. A resistência anti-nazista, entretanto, se expandiu, criando suas próprias estruturas administrativas como base para a criação de um Estado esloveno dentro de uma nova Iugoslávia federal e socialista. [59] [60]

Adolf Hitler e Martin Bormann visitando Maribor em abril de 1941.

Em 1945, a Iugoslávia foi libertada pela resistência partidária e logo se tornou uma federação socialista conhecida como República Federal Popular da Iugoslávia . A Eslovênia ingressou na federação como uma república constituinte, liderada por sua própria liderança pró-comunista.

Aproximadamente 8% de toda a população eslovena morreu durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial . A pequena comunidade judaica, principalmente estabelecida na região de Prekmurje , morreu em 1944 no holocausto dos judeus húngaros . A minoria de língua alemã, correspondendo a 2,5% da população eslovena antes da Segunda Guerra Mundial , foi expulsa ou morta no rescaldo da guerra. Centenas de italianos e eslovenos da Ístria que se opunham ao comunismo foram mortos nos massacres de foibe e mais de 25.000 fugiram ou foram expulsos da Ístria eslovena após a guerra. [61]Cerca de 130.000 pessoas, na maioria adversários políticos e militares, foram executados após o fim da Segunda Guerra Mundial em maio e junho de 1945. [62]

Período socialista [ editar ]

Josip Broz Tito e Edvard Kardelj (à esquerda) em Dražgoše , Eslovênia, 1977.

Após o restabelecimento da Iugoslávia durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, a Eslovênia tornou-se parte da Iugoslávia Federal . Um estado socialista foi estabelecido, mas por causa da divisão Tito-Stalin em 1948, as liberdades econômicas e pessoais eram mais amplas do que nos países do Bloco de Leste . Em 1947, o Litoral Esloveno e a metade ocidental da Carniola Interior , que havia sido anexada pela Itália após a Primeira Guerra Mundial, foram anexados à Eslovênia.

Após o fracasso da coletivização forçada que foi tentada de 1949 a 1953, uma política de liberalização econômica gradual, conhecida como autogestão dos trabalhadores , foi introduzida sob o conselho e supervisão do teórico marxista esloveno e líder comunista Edvard Kardelj , o principal ideólogo da o caminho titoísta para o socialismo. Os oponentes suspeitos desta política, tanto de dentro como de fora do Partido Comunista, foram perseguidos e milhares foram enviados para Goli otok .

O final dos anos 1950 viu uma política de liberalização também na esfera cultural, e a passagem limitada da fronteira para as vizinhas Itália e Áustria foi permitida novamente. Até a década de 1980, a Eslovênia gozava de uma autonomia relativamente ampla dentro da federação. Em 1956, Josip Broz Tito , junto com outros líderes, fundou o Movimento dos Não-Alinhados . Particularmente na década de 1950, a economia da Eslovênia desenvolveu-se rapidamente e foi fortemente industrializada. Com a descentralização econômica da Iugoslávia em 1965-66, o produto interno da Eslovênia era 2,5 vezes a média das repúblicas iugoslavas.

A oposição ao regime foi limitada principalmente aos círculos intelectuais e literários, e tornou-se especialmente vocal após a morte de Tito em 1980, quando a situação econômica e política na Iugoslávia se tornou muito tensa. [43] Disputas políticas em torno de medidas econômicas ecoaram no sentimento público, já que muitos eslovenos sentiram que estavam sendo explorados economicamente, tendo que sustentar uma administração federal cara e ineficiente.

Eslovena Spring, democracia e independência [ editar ]

Em 1987, um grupo de intelectuais exigiu a independência eslovena na 57ª edição da revista Nova revija . As demandas por democratização e mais independência da Eslovênia foram deflagradas. Um movimento democrático de massas, coordenado pelo Comitê para a Defesa dos Direitos Humanos , empurrou os comunistas na direção de reformas democráticas.

Em setembro de 1989, várias emendas constitucionais foram aprovadas para introduzir a democracia parlamentar na Eslovênia. [63] [64] Em 7 de março de 1990, a Assembleia da Eslovênia mudou o nome oficial do estado para "República da Eslovênia". [65] [66] Em abril de 1990, as primeiras eleições democráticas na Eslovênia ocorreram, e o movimento de oposição unida DEMOS liderado por Jože Pučnik saiu vitorioso.

Unidades de Defesa Territorial da Eslovênia contra-atacam o tanque do Exército Nacional Iugoslavo que entrou na Eslovênia durante a Guerra dos Dez Dias de 1991

Os eventos revolucionários iniciais na Eslovênia antecederam as Revoluções de 1989 na Europa Oriental em quase um ano, mas passaram despercebidos pelos observadores internacionais. Em 23 de dezembro de 1990, mais de 88% do eleitorado votou por uma Eslovênia soberana e independente. [67] [68] Em 25 de junho de 1991, a Eslovênia tornou-se independente [4] através da aprovação dos documentos legais apropriados. [69] No dia 27 de junho no início da manhã, o Exército do Povo Iugoslavo despachou suas forças para evitar novas medidas para o estabelecimento de um novo país, o que levou à Guerra dos Dez Dias . [70] [71] Em 7 de julho, o Acordo de Brijunifoi assinado, implementando uma trégua e uma suspensão de três meses da aplicação da independência da Eslovênia. [72] No final do mês, os últimos soldados do Exército Iugoslavo deixaram a Eslovênia.

Em dezembro de 1991, uma nova constituição foi adotada, [69] seguida em 1992 pelas leis sobre desnacionalização e privatização . [73] Os membros da União Europeia reconheceram a Eslovênia como um estado independente em 15 de janeiro de 1992, e as Nações Unidas aceitaram-na como membro em 22 de maio de 1992. [74]

A Eslovénia aderiu à União Europeia em 1 de Maio de 2004. A Eslovénia tem um Comissário na Comissão Europeia e sete parlamentares eslovenos foram eleitos para o Parlamento Europeu nas eleições de 13 de Junho de 2004. Em 2004, a Eslovénia também aderiu à OTAN . Posteriormente, a Eslovênia conseguiu cumprir os critérios de Maastricht e aderiu à zona do euro (o primeiro país em transição a fazê-lo) em 1 de janeiro de 2007. [75] Foi o primeiro país pós-comunista a ocupar a Presidência do Conselho da União Europeia , por nos primeiros seis meses de 2008. Em 21 de julho de 2010, tornou-se membro da OCDE. [76]

A desilusão com as elites socioeconômicas domésticas nos níveis municipal e nacional foi expressa nos protestos eslovenos de 2012–2013 em uma escala mais ampla do que nos protestos menores de 15 de outubro de 2011 . [77] Em relação à resposta dos principais políticos às alegações feitas pela Comissão oficial para a Prevenção da Corrupção da República da Eslovênia , os juristas expressaram a necessidade de mudanças no sistema que limitariam a arbitrariedade política . [78] [ precisa do contexto ]

Geografia [ editar ]

Um mapa topográfico da Eslovênia

A Eslovênia está situada na Europa Central e Sudeste, tocando os Alpes e fazendo fronteira com o Mar Mediterrâneo. Encontra-se entre as latitudes 45 ° e 47 ° N , e longitudes 13 ° e 17 ° E . O 15º meridiano leste quase corresponde à linha média do país na direção oeste-leste. [79] O Centro Geométrico da República da Eslovênia está localizado nas coordenadas 46 ° 07'11.8 "N e 14 ° 48'55.2" E. [80] Situa-se em Slivna, no município de Litija . [81] O pico mais alto da Eslovênia é Triglav(2.864 m ou 9.396 pés); a altura média do país acima do nível do mar é de 557 m (1.827 pés).

Quatro grandes regiões geográficas europeias se encontram na Eslovênia: os Alpes , os Dinarides , a Planície da Panônia e o Mar Mediterrâneo. Embora na costa do Mar Adriático, perto do Mar Mediterrâneo, a maior parte da Eslovênia está na bacia de drenagem do Mar Negro . Os Alpes - incluindo os Alpes Julianos , os Alpes Kamnik-Savinja e a cadeia Karawank , bem como o maciço Pohorje - dominam o norte da Eslovênia ao longo de sua longa fronteira com a Áustria . A costa adriática da Eslovênia se estende por aproximadamente 47 quilômetros (29 milhas) [82] da Itália à Croácia.

O Monte Mangart , nos Alpes Julianos , é o terceiro pico mais alto da Eslovênia, depois de Triglav e Škrlatica .

O termo " topografia cárstica " refere-se ao planalto cársico do sudoeste da Eslovênia , uma região de calcário de rios subterrâneos, desfiladeiros e cavernas, entre Ljubljana e o Mar Mediterrâneo. Na planície da Panônia a leste e nordeste, em direção às fronteiras da Croácia e da Hungria, a paisagem é essencialmente plana. No entanto, a maior parte da Eslovênia é acidentada ou montanhosa, com cerca de 90% de sua superfície terrestre a 200 m (656 pés) ou mais acima do nível do mar .

Mais da metade da Eslovênia, que tem 11.823 km 2 ou 4.565 sq mi, é coberta por florestas; [83] ocupando o terceiro lugar na Europa, em porcentagem de área florestada , atrás da Finlândia e da Suécia. As áreas são maioritariamente cobertas por florestas de faias , abetos e carvalhos e têm uma capacidade de produção relativamente elevada. [84] Restos de florestas primitivas ainda podem ser encontrados, os maiores na área de Kočevje . Pastagem cobre 5,593 km 2 (2.159 MI quadrado) e campos e jardins (954 km 2 ou 368 sq mi). Existem 363 km 2 (140 sq mi) de pomares e 216 km 2 (83 sq mi) de vinhedos.

Geologia [ editar ]

Os runnels de solução (também conhecidos como rillenkarren) são uma característica cárstica no Planalto Cársico , como em muitas outras áreas cársticas do mundo.

A Eslovênia está em uma zona sísmica bastante ativa devido à sua posição na pequena placa do Adriático , que está espremida entre a placa da Eurásia ao norte e a placa da África ao sul e gira no sentido anti-horário. [85] Assim, o país está na junção de três importantes unidades geotectônicas : os Alpes ao norte, os Alpes Dináricos ao sul e a Bacia da Panônia a leste. [85] Os cientistas foram capazes de identificar 60 terremotos destrutivos no passado. Além disso, uma rede de estações sísmicas está ativa em todo o país. [85]

Muitas partes da Eslovênia têm uma rocha carbonática e sistemas extensos de cavernas foram desenvolvidos.

Regiões naturais [ editar ]

As primeiras regionalizações da Eslovênia foram feitas pelos geógrafos Anton Melik (1935–1936) e Svetozar Ilešič (1968). A nova regionalização de Ivan Gams dividiu a Eslovênia nas seguintes macrorregiões: [86]

Costa eslovena com penhascos

According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions. These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units (the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains) and climate types (submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate).[87] These are often quite interwoven.

Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park. There are 286 Natura 2000 designated protected areas, which include 36% of the country's land area, the largest percentage among European Union states.[88] Additionally, according to Yale University's Environmental Performance Index, Slovenia is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection efforts.[89]

Climate[edit]

Climate types of Slovenia 1970–2000 and climographs for selected settlements.

Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps and the Adriatic Sea. In the northeast, the continental climate type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails. In the coastal region, there is sub-Mediterranean climate. The effect of the sea on the temperature rates is also visible up the Soča Valley, while a severe Alpine climate is present in the high mountain regions. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country.[90][91]

Precipitation, often coming from Gulf of Genoa,[92] varies across the country as well, with over 3,500 mm (138 in) in some western regions and dropping down to 800 mm (31 in) in Prekmurje. Snow is quite frequent in winter and the record snow cover in Ljubljana was recorded in 1952 at 146 cm (57 in).

Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries. Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: the bora, the jugo, and the foehn. The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral. Whereas the jugo is humid and warm, the bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia. Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind.[93]

Waters[edit]

Lake Bohinj, largest Slovenian lake, one of the two springs of the Sava River

The territory of Slovenia mainly (16,423 square kilometers or 6,341 square miles, i.e. 81%) belongs to the Black Sea basin, and a smaller part (3,850 square kilometers or 1,490 square miles, i.e. 19%) belongs to the Adriatic Sea basin. These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mura River basin, the Drava River basin, the Sava River basin with Kolpa River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers.[94] In comparison with other developed countries, water quality in Slovenia is considered to be among the highest in Europe. One of the reasons is undoubtedly that most of the rivers rise on the mountainous territory of Slovenia. But this does not mean that Slovenia has no problems with surface water and groundwater quality, especially in areas with intensive farming.[95]

Biodiversity[edit]

Olm can be found in the Postojna cave and other caves in the country.

Slovenia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 13 June 1992 and became a party to the convention on 9 July 1996.[96] It subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 30 May 2002.

Slovenia is distinguished by an exceptionally wide variety of habitats,[97] due to the contact of geological units and biogeographical regions, and due to human influences. The country is home to four terrestrial ecoregions: Dinaric Mountains mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Alps conifer and mixed forests, and Illyrian deciduous forests.[98] Around 12.5% of the territory is protected with 35.5% in the Natura 2000 ecological network.[99] Despite this, because of pollution and environmental degradation, diversity has been in decline. Slovenia had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.78/10, ranking it 140th globally out of 172 countries.[100]

Animals[edit]

The biological diversity of the country is high, with 1% of the world's organisms on 0.004% of the Earth's surface area.[101] There are 75 mammal species, among them marmots, Alpine ibex, and chamois. There are numerous deer, roe deer, boar, and hares.[102] The edible dormouse is often found in the Slovenian beech forests. Trapping these animals is a long tradition and is a part of the Slovenian national identity.[103]

The Carniolan honey bee is native to Slovenia and is a subspecies of the western honey bee.

Some important carnivores include the Eurasian lynx,[104][105] European wild cats, foxes (especially the red fox), and European jackal.[106] There are hedgehogs, martens, and snakes such as vipers and grass snakes. According to recent estimates, Slovenia has c. 40–60 wolves[107] and about 450 brown bears.[108][109]

Slovenia is home to an exceptionally diverse number of cave species, with a few tens of endemic species.[110] Among the cave vertebrates, the only known one is the olm, living in Karst, Lower Carniola, and White Carniola.

The only regular species of cetaceans found in the northern Adriatic sea is the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).[111]

There are a wide variety of birds, such as the tawny owl, the long-eared owl, the eagle owl, hawks, and short-toed eagles. Other birds of prey have been recorded, as well as a growing number of ravens, crows and magpies migrating into Ljubljana and Maribor where they thrive.[112] Other birds include black and green woodpeckers and the white stork, which nests mainly in Prekmurje.

Modern Lipizzaner grazing

There are 13 domestic animals native to Slovenia,[113] of eight species (hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle).[114] Among these are the Karst Shepherd,[115] the Carniolan honeybee, and the Lipizzan horse.[114] They have been preserved ex situ and in situ.[116] The marble trout or marmorata (Salmo marmoratus) is an indigenous Slovenian fish.[117] Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout. Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish.

Fungi[edit]

More than 2,400 fungal species have been recorded from Slovenia[118] and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher. Many more remain to be discovered.

Plants[edit]

Slovenia is the third most-forested country in Europe,[119] with 58.3% of the territory covered by forests.[120] The forests are an important natural resource, and logging is kept to a minimum.[121] In the interior of the country are typical Central European forests, predominantly oak and beech. In the mountains, spruce, fir, and pine are more common. Pine trees grow on the Karst Plateau, although only one-third of the region is covered by pine forest. The lime/linden tree, common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol. The tree line is at 1,700 to 1,800 metres (5,600 to 5,900 feet).[122]

In the Alps, flowers such as Daphne blagayana, gentians (Gentiana clusii, Gentiana froelichi), Primula auricula, edelweiss (the symbol of Slovene mountaineering), Cypripedium calceolus, Fritillaria meleagris (snake's head fritillary), and Pulsatilla grandis are found.

Slovenia harbors many plants of ethnobotanically useful groups. Of 59 known species of ethnobotanical importance, some species such as Aconitum napellus, Cannabis sativa and Taxus baccata are restricted for use as per the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia.[123]

Government and politics[edit]

President Borut Pahor

Slovenia is a parliamentary democracy republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote and has an important integrative role.[124] The president is elected for five years and at maximum for two consecutive terms. He or she mainly has a representative role and is the commander-in-chief of the Slovenian armed forces.[125]

The executive and administrative authority in Slovenia is held by the Government of Slovenia (Vlada Republike Slovenije),[74] headed by the Prime Minister and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly (Državni zbor Republike Slovenije). The legislative authority is held by the bicameral Parliament of Slovenia, characterised by an asymmetric duality.[clarification needed][126] The bulk of power is concentrated in the National Assembly, which consists of ninety members. Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation, whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous Hungarian and Italian minorities. Election takes place every four years. The National Council (Državni svet Republike Slovenije), consisting of forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups, has a limited advisory and control power.[126] The 1992–2004 period was marked by the rule of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, which was responsible for gradual transition from the Titoist economy to the capitalist market economy. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach. The party's president Janez Drnovšek, who served as prime minister between 1992 and 2002, was one of the most influential Slovenian politicians of the 1990s,[127] alongside President Milan Kučan (who served between 1990 and 2002).[128][129]

The 2005–2008 period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU. During the first term of Janez Janša's government, for the first time after independence, the Slovenian banks saw their loan-deposit ratios veering out of control. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local business magnates.

After the onset of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis, the left-wing coalition that replaced Janša's government in the 2008 elections, had to face the consequences of the 2005–2008 over-borrowing. Attempts to implement reforms that would help economic recovery were met by student protesters, led by a student who later became a member of Janez Janša's SDS, and by the trade unions. The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Janez Janša attributed the boom of spending and overborrowing to the period of left-wing government; he proposed harsh austerity reforms which he had previously helped postpone. Generally, some economists estimate that both left and right parties contributed to over-loaning and managers' takeovers; the reason behind this was that each bloc tried to establish an economic elite which would support its political forces.[130]

Judiciary[edit]

Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges, who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas. The State Prosecutor is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences. The Constitutional Court, composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements.[43]

Military[edit]

Eurocopter Cougar of the Slovenian Army

The Slovenian Armed Forces provide military defence independently or within an alliance, in accordance with international agreements. Since conscription was abolished in 2003, it is organized as a fully professional standing army.[131] The Commander-in-Chief is the President of the Republic of Slovenia, while operational command is in the domain of the Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. In 2016, military spending was an estimated 0.91% of the country's GDP. Since joining NATO, the Slovenian Armed Forces have taken a more active part in supporting international peace. They have participated in peace support operations and humanitarian activities. Among others, Slovenian soldiers are a part of international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Afghanistan.[132]

Administrative divisions and traditional regions[edit]

Traditional regions of Slovenia
Borders of the Historical Habsburgian Lands in the Republic of Slovenia.png
1 Slovene Littoral; Carniola:
2a
Upper, 2b Inner, 2c Lower
3 Carinthia; 4 Styria; 5 Prekmurje

Municipalities[edit]

Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into 212 municipalities (eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities). The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia. Each municipality is headed by a mayor (župan), elected every four years by popular vote, and a municipal council (občinski svet). In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system. In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town (or city) councils.[133] Every municipality also has a Head of the Municipal Administration (načelnik občinske uprave), appointed by the mayor, who is responsible for the functioning of the local administration.[133]

Statistical regions: 1. Gorizia, 2. Upper Carniola, 3. Carinthia, 4. Drava, 5. Mura, 6. Central Slovenia, 7. Central Sava, 8. Savinja, 9. Coastal–Karst, 10. Inner Carniola–Karst, 11. Southeast Slovenia, 12. Lower Sava

Administrative districts[edit]

There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia. The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" (upravne enote), are only subdivisions of the national government administration and are named after their respective bases of government offices. They are headed by a Manager of the Unit (načelnik upravne enote), appointed by the Minister of Public Administration.

Traditional regions and identities[edit]

Traditional regions were based on the former Habsburg crown lands that included Carniola, Carinthia, Styria, and the Littoral. Stronger than with either the Carniola as a whole, or with Slovenia as the state, Slovenes historically tend to identify themselves with the traditional regions of Slovene Littoral, Prekmurje, and even traditional (sub)regions, such as Upper, Lower and, to a lesser extent, Inner Carniola.[134]

The capital city Ljubljana was historically the administrative center of Carniola and belonged to Inner Carniola,[135] except for the Šentvid district, which was in Upper Carniola and also where the border between German-annexed territory and the Italian Province of Ljubljana was during the Second World War.[135]

Statistical regions[edit]

The 12 statistical regions have no administrative function and are subdivided into two macroregions for the purpose of the Regional policy of the European Union.[136] These two macroregions are:

  • Eastern Slovenia (Vzhodna Slovenija – SI01), which groups the Mura, Drava, Carinthia, Savinja, Central Sava, Lower Sava, Southeast Slovenia, and Inner Carniola–Karst statistical regions.
  • Western Slovenia (Zahodna Slovenija – SI02), which groups the Central Slovenia, Upper Carniola, Gorizia, and Coastal–Karst statistical regions.

Economy[edit]

Since 2007 Slovenia has been part of the Eurozone (dark blue).
A proportional representation of Slovenia exports, 2019

Slovenia has a developed economy and is the richest Slavic country by nominal GDP,[137] and the second richest by GDP (PPP) behind the Czech Republic.[138] Slovenia is also among the top global economies in terms of human capital.[139] Slovenia was in the beginning of 2007 the first new member to introduce the euro as its currency, replacing the tolar. Since 2010, it has been member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.[140][141] There is a big difference in prosperity between the various regions. The economically wealthiest regions are the Central Slovenia region which includes the capital Ljubljana and the western Slovenian regions, as Goriška and Coastal–Karst, while the least wealthy regions are the Mura, the Central Sava and the Littoral–Inner Carniola.[142]

Economic growth[edit]

Loan-deposit ratio in Slovenia by years – including the 2005–2008 Boom Period.[143]

In 2004–06, the economy grew on average by nearly 5% a year in Slovenia; in 2007, it expanded by almost 7%. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction. The financial crisis of 2007–2010 and European sovereign-debt crisis had a significant impact on the domestic economy.[144] The construction industry was severely hit in 2010 and 2011.[145]

In 2009, Slovenian GDP per capita shrank by 8%, the biggest decline in the European Union after the Baltic countries and Finland. An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly aging population.[146]

In August 2012, the year-on-year contraction was 0.8%; however, 0.2% growth was recorded in the first quarter (in relation to the quarter before, after data was adjusted according to season and working days).[147] Year-on-year contraction has been attributed to the fall in domestic consumption and the slowdown in export growth. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity, to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of 2011,[148] to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms, to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.[149]

Due to the effects of the crisis, it was expected that several banks had to be bailed out by EU funds in 2013; however, needed capital was able to be covered by the country's own funds. Fiscal actions and legislations aiming on the reduction of spendings as well as several privatisations supported an economic recovery as from 2014.[150] The real economic growth rate was at 2.5% in 2016 and accelerated to 5% in 2017.[151] The construction sector has seen a recent increase,[151] and the tourism industry is expected to have continuous rising numbers.[152]

National debt[edit]

Slovenia's total national debt rose substantially during the Great Recession and was decreasing as of 2019; at the end of 2018 amounted to 32,223 billion euros, 70% of the GDP.[153]

Services and industry[edit]

A graphical depiction of Slovenia's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.

Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction.[154] Slovenia benefits from a well-educated workforce, well-developed infrastructure, and its location at the crossroads of major trade routes.[140]

The level of foreign direct investment (FDI) per capita in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU,[140] and the labor productivity and the competitiveness of the Slovenian economy is still significantly below the EU average.[155][156] Taxes are relatively high, the labor market is seen by business interests as being inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere.[157]

High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness.[158] The main industries are motor vehicles, electric and electronic equipment, machinery, pharmaceuticals, and fuels.[140] Examples of major Slovenian companies operating in Slovenia include the home appliance manufacturer Gorenje, the pharmaceutical companies Krka and Lek (Novartis' subsidiary), the oil distributing company Petrol Group, energy distribution company GEN-I and Revoz, a manufacturing subsidiary of Renault.[159][160][161]

Energy[edit]

In 2018, the net energy production was 12,262 GWh and consumption was 14,501 GWh. Hydroelectric plants produced 4,421 GWh, thermal plants produced 4,049 GWh, and the Krško Nuclear Power Plant produced 2,742 GWh (50% share that goes to Slovenia; other 50% goes to Croatia due to joint ownership). Domestic electricity consumption was covered 84.6% by domestic production; percentage is decreasing from year to year meaning Slovenia is more and more depending on electricity import.[162]

A new 600 MW block of Šoštanj thermal power plant finished construction and went online in the autumn of 2014.[163] The new 39.5 MW HE Krško hydro power plant was finished in 2013, and has since been the largest sole energy producer, accounting for of the gross energy production in 2018.[164] The 41.5 MW HE Brežice and 30.5 MW HE Mokrice hydro power plants were built on the Sava River in 2018 and the construction of ten more hydropower plants with a cumulative capacity of 338 MW is planned to be finished by 2030. A large pumped-storage hydro power plant Kozjak on the Drava River is in the planning stage.

At the end of 2018, at least 295 MWp of photovoltaic modules and 31,4 MW of biogas powerplants were installed. Compared to 2017, renewable energy sources contributed 5,6 percentage points more into whole energy consumption. There is interest to add more production in the area of solar and wind energy sources (subsidising schemes are increasing economic feasibility), but microlocation settlement procedures take enormous toll on the efficiency of this intitiatve (nature preservation vs. energy production facilities dilemma).[162]

Tourism[edit]

Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small. There has been no large-scale tourism and no acute environmental pressures;[165] in 2017, National Geographic Traveller's Magazine declared Slovenia as the country with the world's most sustainable tourism.[166]

Piran
Old town of Piran on Slovenian coast

The nation's capital, Ljubljana, has many important Baroque and Vienna Secession buildings, with several important works of the native born architect Jože Plečnik[167] and also his pupil, architect Edo Ravnikar.

At the northwestern corner of the country lie the Julian Alps with Lake Bled and the Soča Valley, as well as the nation's highest peak, Mount Triglav in the middle of Triglav National Park. Other mountain ranges include Kamnik–Savinja Alps, the Karawanks, and Pohorje, popular with skiers and hikers.[168]

The Karst Plateau in the Slovene Littoral gave its name to karst, a landscape shaped by water dissolving the carbonate bedrock, forming caves. The best-known caves are Postojna Cave and the UNESCO-listed Škocjan Caves. The region of Slovenian Istria meets the Adriatic Sea, where the most important historical monument is the Venetian Gothic Mediterranean town of Piran while the settlement of Portorož attracts crowds in summer.[169]

Lake Bled
Lake Bled with its island

The hills around Slovenia's second-largest town, Maribor, are renowned for their wine-making. The northeastern part of the country is rich with spas,[170] with Rogaška Slatina, Radenci, Čatež ob Savi, Dobrna, and Moravske Toplice growing in importance in the last two decades.[171]

Other popular tourist destinations include the historic cities of Ptuj and Škofja Loka, and several castles, such as Predjama Castle.[172][173]

Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism. Slovenia is the country with the highest percentage of casinos per 1,000 inhabitants in the European Union.[174] Perla in Nova Gorica is the largest casino in the region.[175]

Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: Italy, Austria, Germany, Croatia, Benelux, Serbia, Russia and Ukraine, followed by UK and Ireland.[176] European tourists create more than 90% of Slovenia's tourist income. In 2016, Slovenia was declared the world's first green country by the Netherlands-based organization Green Destinations.[177] On being declared the most sustainable country in 2016, Slovenia had a big part to play at the ITB Berlin to promote sustainable tourism.

Transport[edit]

Since Antiquity, geography has dictated transport routes in Slovenia. Significant mountain ranges, major rivers and proximity to the Danube played roles in the development of the area's transportation corridors. One recent particular advantage are the Pan-European transport corridors V (the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and X (linking Central Europe with the Balkans). This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring.[178]

Motorways in Slovenia in August 2020

Roads[edit]

The road freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part of transport in Slovenia at 80%.[179] Personal cars are much more popular than public road passenger transport, which has significantly declined.[179][180] Slovenia has a very high highway and motorway density compared to the European Union average.[181] The highway system, the construction of which was accelerated after 1994,[182] has slowly but steadily transformed Slovenia into a large conurbation.[183] Other state roads have been rapidly deteriorating because of neglect and the overall increase in traffic.[181]

Railways[edit]

Pendolino ETR 310 tilting train of Slovenian railways in Ljubljana Central train station

The existing Slovenian railways are out-of-date and have difficulty competing with the motorway network; partially also as a result of dispersed population settlement.[184] Due to this fact and the projected increase in traffic through the port of Koper, which is primarily by train, a second rail on the Koper-Divača route is in early stages of starting construction.[185] With a lack of financial assets, maintenance and modernisation of the Slovenian railway network have been neglected.[186] Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia.[187] The railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in the 1990s.[187] The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, and several other major European rail lines intersect in Slovenia.[186] All international transit trains in Slovenia serve the Ljubljana Railway Hub.[188]

Ports[edit]

The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper. It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport,[189] with almost 590,000 TEUs annually[190] and lines to all major world ports.[191][192] It is much closer to destinations east of the Suez than the ports of Northern Europe.[191] In addition, the maritime passenger traffic mostly takes place in Koper.[193] Two smaller ports used for the international passenger transport as well as cargo transport are located in Izola and Piran. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia.[194] Splošna plovba,[195] the only Slovenian shipping company, transports freight and is active only in foreign ports.[193]

Air[edit]

The Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport is the biggest international airport in the country

Air transport in Slovenia is quite low,[187] but has significantly grown since 1991.[196] Of the three international airports in Slovenia, Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport in central Slovenia is the busiest,[196] with connections to many major European destinations.[197] The Maribor Edvard Rusjan Airport is located in the eastern part of the country and the Portorož Airport in the western part.[196] The state-owned Adria Airways is the largest Slovenian airline; however in 2019 it declared bankruptcy and ceased operations.[196] Since 2003, several new carriers have entered the market, mainly low-cost airlines.[181] The only Slovenian military airport is the Cerklje ob Krki Air Base in the southwestern part of the country.[198] There are also 12 public airports in Slovenia.[196]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1921 1,054,919—    
1931 1,144,298+8.5%
1948 1,391,873+21.6%
1953 1,466,425+5.4%
1961 1,591,523+8.5%
1971 1,727,137+8.5%
1981 1,891,864+9.5%
1991 1,913,355+1.1%
2002 1,964,036+2.6%
2011 2,050,189+4.4%
2017 2,065,895+0.8%
As of 1 January
Population density in Slovenia by municipality. The four main urban areas are visible: Ljubljana and Kranj (center), Maribor (northeast) and the Slovene Istria (southwest).

With 101 inhabitants per square kilometer (262/sq mi), Slovenia ranks low among the European countries in population density (compared to 402/km2 (1042/sq mi) for the Netherlands or 195/km2 (505/sq mi) for Italy). The Inner Carniola–Karst Statistical Region has the lowest population density while the Central Slovenia Statistical Region has the highest.[199]

Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of its population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.[200] Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders.[201] The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration.[202] The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a referendum in 2011.[146] In addition, the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant.[201] The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2014 was estimated at 1.33 children born/woman, which is lower than the replacement rate of 2.1.[203] The majority of children are born to unmarried women (in 2016, 58.6% of all births were outside of marriage).[204] In 2018, life expectancy at birth was 81.1 years (78.2 years male, and 84 years female).[205]

In 2009, the suicide rate in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard.[206] Nonetheless, from 2000 until 2010, the rate has decreased by about 30%. The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced.[207]

Urbanisation[edit]

Depending on definition, between 65% and 79% of people live in wider urban areas.[208] According to OECD definition of rural areas none of the Slovene statistical regions is mostly urbanised, meaning that 15% or less of the population lives in rural communities. According to this definition statistical regions are classified:

The only large town is the capital, Ljubljana. Other (medium-sized) towns include Maribor, Celje, and Kranj.[210][211] Overall, there are eleven urban municipalities in Slovenia.


Languages[edit]

The official language in Slovenia is Slovene, which is a member of the South Slavic language group. In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment.[212][213] This statistic ranks Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of the predominant mother tongue.[214]

Slovene is a highly diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects,[215] with different degrees of mutual intelligibility. Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven[216][217][218] dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.[219] Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine[220] or as eight.[221]

Front cover of a bilingual passport in Slovene and Italian

Hungarian and Italian, spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual. In 2002 around 0.2% of the Slovenian population spoke Italian and around 0.4% spoke Hungarian as their native language. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities (whereof 3 are officially bilingual). Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities (all of them officially bilingual).

Romani,[222] spoken in 2002 as the native language by 0.2% of people, is a legally protected language in Slovenia. Romani-speakers mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community.[223]

German, which used to be the largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (around 4% of the population in 1921), is now the native language of only around 0.08% of the population, the majority of whom are more than 60 years old.[213] Gottscheerish or Granish, the traditional German dialect of Gottschee County, faces extinction.[224]

A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, or Montenegrin) as their native language. These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav republics from the 1960s to the late 1980s, and their descendants. In 2002, 0.4% of the Slovenian population declared themselves to be native speakers of Albanian and 0.2% native speakers of Macedonian.[213] Czech, the fourth-largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (after German, Hungarian, and Serbo-Croatian), is now the native language of a few hundred residents of Slovenia.[213]

Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia ranks among the top European countries. The most taught foreign languages are English, German, Italian, French and Spanish. As of 2007, 92% of the population between the age of 25 and 64 spoke at least one foreign language and around 71.8% of them spoke at least two foreign languages, which was the highest percentage in the European Union.[225] According to the Eurobarometer survey, as of 2005 the majority of Slovenes could speak Croatian (61%) and English (56%).[226]:21

A reported 42% of Slovenes could speak German, which was one of the highest percentages outside German-speaking countries.[226] Italian is widely spoken on the Slovenian Coast and in some other areas of the Slovene Littoral. Around 15% of Slovenians can speak Italian, which is (according to the Eurobarometer pool) the third-highest percentage in the European Union, after Italy and Malta.[227]

Immigration[edit]

In 2015, about 12% (237,616 people) of the population in Slovenia was born abroad.[228] About 86% of the foreign-born population originated from other countries of former Yugoslavia as (in descending order) Bosnia-Herzegovina, followed by immigrants from Croatia, Serbia, North Macedonia, and Kosovo.[228]

By the beginning of 2017, there were about 114,438 people with foreign citizenship residing in the country making up 5.5% of the total population. Of these foreigners, 76% had citizenships of the other countries from former Yugoslavia (excluding Croatia). Additionally 16.4% had EU-citizenships and 7.6% had citizenships of other countries.[228]

Ethnic composition of Slovenia
(according to the 2002 census)[1]
Slovene
83.06%
Serb
1.98%
Croat
1.81%
Bosniak
1.10%
other minorities
4.85%
undeclared or unknown
8.9%

According to the 2002 census, Slovenia's main ethnic group are Slovenes (83%), however their share in the total population is continuously decreasing due to their relatively low fertility rate. At least 13% (2002) of the population were immigrants from other parts of Former Yugoslavia and their descendants.[229] They have settled mainly in cities and suburbanised areas.[230] Relatively small but protected by the Constitution of Slovenia are the Hungarian and the Italian ethnic minority.[231][232][233] A special position is held by the autochthonous and geographically dispersed Roma ethnic community.[234][235]

The number of people immigrating into Slovenia rose steadily from 1995[236] and has been increasing even more rapidly in recent years. After Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, the annual number of immigrants doubled by 2006 and increased by half yet again by 2009.[237] In 2007, Slovenia had one of the fastest growing net migration rates in the European Union.[236]

Emigration[edit]

As to emigration, between 1880 and 1918 (World War I) many men left Slovenia to work in mining areas in other nations. The United States in particular has been a common choice for emigration, with the 1910 US Census showing that there were already "183,431 persons in the USA of Slovenian mother tongue".[dubious ] But there may have been many more, because a good number avoided anti-Slavic prejudice and "identified themselves as Austrians." Favorite localities before 1900 were Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, as well as Omaha, Nebraska, Joliet, Illinois, Cleveland, Ohio, and rural areas of Iowa. After 1910, they settled in Utah (Bingham Copper Mine), Colorado (especially Pueblo), and Butte, Montana. These areas attracted first many single men (who often boarded with Slovenian families). After locating work and having sufficient money, the men sent back for their wives and families to join them.[238]

Religion[edit]

The National Shrine Mary Help of Christians at Brezje.

Before World War II, 97% of the population declared itself Catholic (Roman Rite), around 2.5% as Lutheran, and around 0.5% of residents identified themselves as members of other denominations.[213] After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization. After a decade of persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards churches. After 1990, the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Catholic. In 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics which means a drop of more than 1% annually.[239] The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite. A small number of Greek Catholics live in the White Carniola region.[240]

The 2018 Eurobarometer data shows 73.4% of population identifying as Catholic[3] that fell to 72.1% in the 2019 Eurobarometer survey.[241] According to the Catholic Church data, the Catholic population fell from 78.04% in 2009 to 72.11% in 2019[242]

Religion in Slovenia (2019)[241]

  Roman Catholic (72.1%)
  None (18%)
  Orthodox (3.7%)
  Protestant (0.9%)
  Other Christian (1%)
  Muslim (3%)
  Other religion (3%)
  Undeclared (2%)

Despite a relatively small number of Protestants (less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is historically significant given that the Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Primoz Trubar, a theologian in the Lutheran tradition, was one of the most influential Protestant Reformers in Slovenia. Protestantism was extinguished in the Counter-Reformation implemented by the Habsburg dynasty, which controlled the region. It only survived in the easternmost regions due to protection of Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist themselves. Today, a significant Lutheran minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje, where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota.[243]

The third largest denomination, with around 2.2% of the population, is the Eastern Orthodox Church, with most adherents belonging to the Serbian Orthodox Church while a minority belongs to the Macedonian and other Eastern Orthodox churches.[citation needed]

According to the 2002 census, Islam is the second largest religious denomination in the country, with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia.[244]

Slovenia has long been home to a Jewish community. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust, Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.[245]

In the 2002, around 10% of Slovenes declared themselves as atheists, another 10% professed no specific denomination, and around 16% decided not to answer the question about their religious affiliation. According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010,[246] 32% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 36% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 26% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".[246]

Education[edit]

University of Ljubljana administration building
University of Maribor administration building

Slovenia's education ranks as the 12th best in the world and 4th best in the European Union, being significantly higher than the OECD average, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment.[247] Among people age 25 to 64, 12% have attended higher education, while on average Slovenes have 9.6 years of formal education. According to an OECD report, 83% of adults ages 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high school degree, well above the OECD average of 74%; among 25- to 34-year-olds, the rate is 93%.[248] According to the 1991 census there is 99.6% literacy in Slovenia. Lifelong learning is also increasing.[249]

Primary[edit]

Responsibility for education oversight at primary and secondary level in Slovenia lies with the Ministry of Education and Sports. After non-compulsory pre-school education, children enter the nine-year primary school at the age of six.[250] Primary school is divided into three periods, each of three years. In the academic year 2006–2007 there were 166,000 pupils enrolled in elementary education and more than 13,225 teachers, giving a ratio of one teacher per 12 pupils and 20 pupils per class.[249]

Secondary[edit]

After completing elementary school, nearly all children (more than 98%) go on to secondary education, either vocational, technical or general secondary programmes (gimnazija). The latter concludes with matura, the final exam that allows the graduates to enter a university. 84% of secondary school graduates go on to tertiary education.[249]

Tertiary[edit]

Among several universities in Slovenia, the best ranked is the University of Ljubljana, ranking among the first 500 or the first 3% of the world's best universities according to the ARWU.[251][252] Two other public universities include the University of Maribor[253] in Styria region and the University of Primorska in Slovene Littoral.[254] In addition, there is a private University of Nova Gorica[255] and an international EMUNI University.[256]

Culture[edit]

The Sower (1907), by the Impressionist painter Ivan Grohar, became a metaphor for Slovenes[257][258] and was a reflection of the transition from a rural to an urban culture.[259]

Heritage[edit]

Slovenia's architectural heritage includes 2,500 churches, 1,000 castles, ruins, and manor houses, farmhouses, and special structures for drying hay, called hayracks (kozolci).[260]

Four natural and cultural sites in Slovenia are on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list. Škocjan Caves and its karst landscape are a protected site[261] as the old forests in the area of Goteniški Snežnik and Kočevski Rog in the SE Slovenia. The Idrija Mercury mining site is of world importance, as are the prehistoric pile dwellings in the Ljubljana Marshes.[262][citation needed]

The most picturesque church for photographers is the medieval and Baroque building on Bled Island. The castle above the lake is a museum and restaurant with a view. Near Postojna there is a fortress called Predjama Castle, half hidden in a cave. Museums in Ljubljana and elsewhere feature unique items such as the Divje Babe Flute and the oldest wheel in the world. Ljubljana has medieval, Baroque, Art Nouveau, and modern architecture. The architect Plečnik's architecture and his innovative paths and bridges along the Ljubljanica are notable and on UNESCO tentative list.

Cuisine[edit]

Potica as part of traditional Slovenian Easter breakfast

Slovenian cuisine is a mixture of Central European cuisine (especially Austrian and Hungarian), Mediterranean cuisine and Balkan cuisine. Historically, Slovenian cuisine was divided into town, farmhouse, cottage, castle, parsonage and monastic cuisines. Due to the variety of Slovenian cultural and natural landscapes, there are more than 40 distinct regional cuisines.[citation needed]

Ethnologically, the most characteristic Slovene dishes were one-pot dishes, such as ričet, Istrian stew (jota), minestrone (mineštra), and žganci buckwheat spoonbread; in the Prekmurje region there is also bujta repa, and prekmurska gibanica pastry. Pršut prosciutto is known as (pršut) in the Slovene Littoral. The nut roll (potica) has become a symbol of Slovenia, especially among the Slovene diaspora in the United States. Soups were added to the traditional one-pot meals and various kinds of porridge and stew only in relatively recent history.

Each year since 2000, the Roasted Potato Festival has been organized by the Society for the Recognition of Roasted Potatoes as a Distinct Dish, attracting thousands of visitors. Roasted potatoes, which have been traditionally served in most Slovenian families only on Sundays—preceded by a meat-based soup, such as beef or chicken soup—have been depicted on a special edition of post marks by the Post of Slovenia on 23 November 2012.[263] The best known sausage is kranjska klobasa.

Slovenia has been awarded the European Region of Gastronomy title for the year 2021.[264]

Dance[edit]

Historically the most notable Slovenian ballet dancers and choreographers were Pino Mlakar (1907‒2006),[265] who in 1927 graduated from the Rudolf Laban Choreographic Institute, and there met his future wife, balerina Maria Luiza Pia Beatrice Scholz (1908‒2000). Together they worked as a leading dancer and a choreographer in Dessau (1930–1932), Zürich (1934–1938), and State opera in München (1939‒1944).[266] Their plan to build a Slovenian dance center at Rožnik Hill after the World War II was supported by the minister of culture, Ferdo Kozak, but was cancelled by his successor.[267] Pino Mlakar was also a full professor at the Academy for Theatre, Radio, Film and Television (AGRFT) of the University of Ljubljana. Between 1952 in 1954 they again led State opera ballet in Munich.[266] A Mary Wigman modern dance school was founded in the 1930s by her student, Meta Vidmar, in Ljubljana.[268]

Festivals, book fairs, and other events[edit]

A number of music, theater, film, book, and children's festivals take place in Slovenia each year, including the music festivals Ljubljana Summer Festival and Lent Festival, the stand-up comedy Punch Festival, the children's Pippi Longstocking Festival, and the book festivals Slovene book fair and Frankfurt after the Frankfurt.

The most notable music festival of Slovene music was historically the Slovenska popevka festival. Between 1981 and 2000 the Novi Rock festival was notable for bringing rock music across Iron curtain from the West to the Slovenian and then Yugoslav audience. The long tradition of jazz festivals in Titoist Yugoslavia began with the Ljubljana Jazz Festival which has been held annually in Slovenia since 1960.[269]

Film[edit]

Slovene film actors and actresses historically include Ida Kravanja, who played her roles as Ita Rina in the early European films, and Metka Bučar.[270] After the WW II, one of the most notable film actors was Polde Bibič, who played a number of roles in many films that were well received in Slovenia, including Don't Cry, Peter (1964), On Wings of Paper (1968), Kekec's Tricks (1968), Flowers in Autumn (1973), The Widowhood of Karolina Žašler (1976), Heritage (1986), Primož Trubar (1985), and My Dad, The Socialist Kulak (1987). Many of these were directed by Matjaž Klopčič. He also performed in television and radio drama.[271] Altogether, Bibič played over 150 theatre and over 30 film roles.[271]

Feature film and short film production in Slovenia historically includes Karol Grossmann, František Čap, France Štiglic, Igor Pretnar, Jože Pogačnik, Peter Zobec, Matjaž Klopčič, Boštjan Hladnik, Dušan Jovanović, Vitan Mal, Franci Slak, and Karpo Godina as its most established filmmakers. Contemporary film directors Filip Robar - Dorin, Jan Cvitkovič, Damjan Kozole, Janez Lapajne, Mitja Okorn, and Marko Naberšnik are among the representatives of the so-called "Renaissance of Slovenian cinema". Slovene screenwriters, who are not film directors, include Saša Vuga and Miha Mazzini. Women film directors include Polona Sepe, Hanna A. W. Slak, and Maja Weiss.[272]

Literature[edit]

Authors[edit]

Today, notable authors include Slavoj Žižek, Mladen Dolar, Alenka Zupančič as well as Boris Pahor, a German Nazi concentration camp survivor, who opposed Italian Fascism and Titoist Communism.[273][274]

Literary history[edit]

France Prešeren, best-known Slovenian poet

History of Slovene literature began in the 16th century with Primož Trubar and other Protestant Reformers. Poetry in Slovene achieved its highest level with the Romantic poet France Prešeren (1800–1849). In the 20th century, the Slovene literary fiction went through several periods: the beginning of the century was marked by the authors of the Slovene Modernism, with the most influential Slovene writer and playwright, Ivan Cankar; it was then followed by expressionism (Srečko Kosovel), avantgardism (Anton Podbevšek, Ferdo Delak) and social realism (Ciril Kosmač, Prežihov Voranc) before World War II, the poetry of resistance and revolution (Karel Destovnik Kajuh, Matej Bor) during the war, and intimism (Poems of the Four, 1953), post-war modernism (Edvard Kocbek), and existentialism (Dane Zajc) after the war.[citation needed]

Postmodernist authors include Boris A. Novak, Marko Kravos, Drago Jančar, Evald Flisar, Tomaž Šalamun, and Brina Svit. Among the post-1990 authors best known are Aleš Debeljak, Miha Mazzini, and Alojz Ihan. There are several literary magazines that publish Slovene prose, poetry, essays, and local literary criticism.[citation needed]

Music[edit]

"Zdravljica" (A Toast; part) with rejection mark from Austrian censorship (due to potential revolutionary content); the music of Zdravljica is now the Slovenian national anthem.

The Slovenian Philharmonics, established in 1701 as part of Academia operosorum Labacensis, is among the oldest such institutions in Europe. Music of Slovenia historically includes numerous musicians and composers, such as the Renaissance composer Jacobus Gallus (1550–1591), who greatly influenced Central European classical music, the Baroque composer Janez Krstnik Dolar (ca. 1620–1673), and the violin virtuoso Giuseppe Tartini.[citation needed]

During the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music, including wandering minnesingers. By the time of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, music was used to proselytize. The first Slovenian hymnal, Eni Psalmi, was published in 1567. This period saw the rise of musicians like Jacobus Gallus and Jurij Slatkonja.[275]

In 1701, Johann Berthold von Höffer (1667–1718), a nobleman and amateur composer from Ljubljana, founded the Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensis, as one of the oldest such institutions in Europe, based on Italian models.[276]

Composers of Slovenian Lieder and art songs include Emil Adamič (1877–1936), Fran Gerbič (1840–1917), Alojz Geržinič (1915–2008), Benjamin Ipavec (1829–1908), Davorin Jenko (1835–1914), Anton Lajovic (1878–1960), Kamilo Mašek (1831–1859), Josip Pavčič (1870–1949), Zorko Prelovec (1887–1939), and Lucijan Marija Škerjanc (1900–1973).

In the early 20th century, impressionism was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj and Slavko Osterc. Avant-garde classical music arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek, Dane Škerl, Primož Ramovš and Ivo Petrić, who also conducted the Slavko Osterc Ensemble. Jakob Jež, Darijan Božič, Lojze Lebič and Vinko Globokar have since composed enduring works, especially Globokar's L'Armonia, an opera.[citation needed]

Modern composers include Uroš Rojko, Tomaž Svete, Brina Jež-Brezavšček, Božidar Kantušer and Aldo Kumar. Kumar's Sonata z igro 12 (A sonata with a play 12), a set of variations on a rising chromatic scale, is particularly notable.

The Slovene National Opera and Ballet Theatre serves as the national opera and ballet house.

Traditional folk music[edit]

Harmony singing is a deep rooted tradition in Slovenia, and is at least three-part singing (four voices), while in some regions even up to eight-part singing (nine voices). Slovenian folk songs, thus, usually resounds soft and harmonious, and are very seldom in minor. Traditional Slovenian folk music is performed on Styrian harmonica (the oldest type of accordion), fiddle, clarinet, zithers, flute, and by brass bands of alpine type. In eastern Slovenia, fiddle and cimbalon bands are called velike goslarije.

Modern folk (Slovenian country) music[edit]

Folk musician Lojze Slak

From 1952 on, the Slavko Avsenik's band began to appear in broadcasts, movies, and concerts all over the West Germany, inventing the original "Oberkrainer" country sound that has become the primary vehicle of ethnic musical expression not only in Slovenia, but also in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and in the Benelux, spawning hundreds of Alpine orchestras in the process. The band produced nearly 1000 original compositions, an integral part of the Slovenian-style polka legacy. Many musicians followed Avsenik's steps, including Lojze Slak.[277][278][279]

Slovenska popevka[edit]

A similarly high standing in Slovene culture, like the Sanremo Music Festival has had in Italian culture, was attributed to the Slovenska popevka, a specific genre of popular Slovene music.[280]

Popular music[edit]

Among pop, rock, industrial, and indie musicians the most popular in Slovenia include Laibach, an early 1980s industrial music group as well as Siddharta, an alternative rock band formed in 1995.

With more than 15 million views for the official a cappella "Africa" performance video since its publishing on YouTube in May 2009 until September 2013[281] that earned them kudos from the song's co-writer, David Paich,[282] Perpetuum Jazzile is the group from Slovenia that is internationally most listened online. Other Slovenian bands include a historically progressive rock ones that were also popular in Titoist Yugoslavia, such as Buldožer and Lačni Franz, which inspired later comedy rock bands including Zmelkoow, Slon in Sadež and Mi2.[283] With exception of Terrafolk that made appearances worldwide, other bands, such as Avtomobili, Zaklonišče Prepeva, Šank Rock, Big Foot Mama, Dan D, and Zablujena generacija, are mostly unknown outside the country. Slovenian metal bands include Noctiferia (death metal), Negligence (thrash metal), Naio Ssaion (gothic metal), and Within Destruction (deathcore).[284]

Singer-songwriters[edit]

Slovenian post-WWII singer-songwriters include Frane Milčinski (1914–1988), Tomaž Pengov whose 1973 album Odpotovanja is considered to be the first singer-songwriter album in former Yugoslavia,[285] Tomaž Domicelj, Marko Brecelj, Andrej Šifrer, Eva Sršen, Neca Falk, and Jani Kovačič. After 1990, Adi Smolar, Iztok Mlakar, Vita Mavrič, Vlado Kreslin, Zoran Predin, Peter Lovšin, and Magnifico have been popular in Slovenia, as well. In the 21st century, there have been many successful artsists from Slovenia. They include country musician Manu, Eurovision finalists zalagasper, Nika Zorjan, Omar Naber and Raiven.

Theatre[edit]

In addition to the main houses, which include Slovene National Theatre, Ljubljana and Maribor National Drama Theatre, a number of small producers are active in Slovenia, including physical theatre (e.g. Betontanc), street theatre (e.g. Ana Monró Theatre), theatresports championship Impro League, and improvisational theatre (e.g. IGLU Theatre). A popular form is puppetry, mainly performed in the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre. Theater has a rich tradition in Slovenia, starting with the 1867 first ever Slovene-language drama performance.[citation needed]

Visual arts, architecture and design[edit]

Slovenia's visual arts, architecture, and design are shaped by a number of architects, designers, painters, sculptors, photographers, graphics artists, as well as comics, illustration and conceptual artists. The most prestigious institutions exhibiting works of Slovene visual artists are the National Gallery of Slovenia and the Museum of Modern Art.[citation needed]

Architecture

Modern architecture in Slovenia was introduced by Max Fabiani, and in the mid-war period, Jože Plečnik and Ivan Vurnik.[286] In the second half of the 20th century, the national and universal style were merged by the architects Edvard Ravnikar and first generation of his students: Milan Mihelič, Stanko Kristl, Savin Sever. Next generation is mainly still active Marko Mušič, Vojteh Ravnikar, Jurij Kobe and groups of younger architects.

Selected works of Jože Plečnik which shaped Ljubljana during the inter-war period were inscribed on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 2021.[287]

Conceptual art

A number of conceptual visual art groups formed, including OHO, Group 69, and IRWIN. Nowadays, the Slovene visual arts are diverse, based on tradition, reflect the influence of neighboring nations and are intertwined with modern European movements.[288]

Design

Internationally most notable Slovenian design items include the 1952 Rex chair, a Scandinavian design-inspired wooden chair, by interior designer Niko Kralj that was given in 2012 a permanent place in Designmuseum, Denmark, the largest museum of design in Scandinavia, and is included in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art MOMA in New York City, as well.

An industrial design item that has changed the international ski industry is Elan SCX by Elan company. Even before the Elan SCX, Elan skis were depicted in two films, the 1985 James Bond film series part A View to a Kill with Roger Moore, and Working Girl where Katharine Parker (Sigourney Weaver) was depicted as skiing on the RC ELAN model skis and poles.

Sculpture
The sculpture of the poet Valentin Vodnik (1758–1819) was created by Alojz Gangl in 1889 as part of Vodnik Monument, the first Slovene national monument.

The renewal of Slovene sculpture begun with Alojz Gangl (1859–1935) who created sculptures for the public monuments of the Carniolan polymath Johann Weikhard von Valvasor and Valentin Vodnik, the first Slovene poet and journalist, as well as The Genius of the Theatre and other statues for the Slovenian National Opera and Ballet Theatre building.[289] The development of sculpture after World War II was led by a number of artists, including brothers Boris and Zdenko Kalin, Jakob Savinšek stayed with figural art. Younger sculptors, for example Janez Boljka, Drago Tršar and particularly Slavko Tihec, moved towards abstract forms. Jakov Brdar and Mirsad Begić returned to human figures.

Graphics

During World War II, numerous graphics were created by Božidar Jakac, who helped establish the post-war Academy of Visual Arts in Ljubljana.

Smrekar's illustration of Martin Krpan

In 1917 Hinko Smrekar illustrated Fran Levstik's book about the well-known Slovene folk hero Martin Krpan. The children's books illustrators include a number of women illustrators, such as Marlenka Stupica, Marija Lucija Stupica, Ančka Gošnik Godec, Marjanca Jemec Božič, and Jelka Reichman.

Painting

Historically, painting and sculpture in Slovenia was in the late 18th and the 19th century marked by Neoclassicism (Matevž Langus), Biedermeier (Giuseppe Tominz) and Romanticism (Mihael Stroj). The first art exhibition in Slovenia was organized in the late 19th century by Ivana Kobilica, a woman-painter who worked in realistic tradition. Impressionist artists include Matej Sternen, Matija Jama, Rihard Jakopič, Ivan Grohar whose The Sower (Slovene: Sejalec) was depicted on the €0.05 Slovenian euro coins, and Franc Berneker, who introduced the impressionism to Slovenia. Espressionist painters include Veno Pilon and Tone Kralj whose picture book, reprinted thirteen times, is now the most recognisable image of the folk hero Martin Krpan.[290] Some of the best known painters in the second half of the 20th century were Zoran Mušič, Gabrijel Stupica and Marij Pregelj.

Photography

In 1841, Janez Puhar (1814–1864) invented a process for photography on glass, recognized on 17 June 1852 in Paris by the Académie Nationale Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale.[291] Gojmir Anton Kos was a notable realist painter and photographer between First World War and WW II.

The first photographer from Slovenia whose work was published by National Geographic magazine is Arne Hodalič.[292]

Sports[edit]

Alpine skier Tina Maze, a double Olympic gold medalist and the overall winner of the 2012–13 World Cup season

Slovenia is a natural sports venue, with many Slovenians actively practicing sports.[293] A variety of sports are played in Slovenia on a professional level,[294] with top international successes in handball, basketball, volleyball, association football, ice hockey, rowing, swimming, tennis, boxing, climbing, road cycling and athletics. Prior to World War II, gymnastics and fencing used to be the most popular sports in Slovenia, with athletes like Leon Štukelj and Miroslav Cerar gaining gold Olympic medals.[295] Association football gained popularity in the interwar period. After 1945, basketball, handball and volleyball have become popular among Slovenians, and from the mid-1970s onward, winter sports have, as well. Since 1992, Slovenian sportspeople have won 45 Olympic medals, including ten gold medals, and 24 Paralympic medals with four golds.[296][297]

Individual sports are also very popular in Slovenia, including tennis and mountaineering, which are two of the most widespread sporting activities in Slovenia. Several Slovenian extreme and endurance sportsmen have gained an international reputation, including the mountaineer Tomaž Humar, the mountain skier Davo Karničar, the ultramarathon swimmer Martin Strel and the ultracyclist Jure Robič.[citation needed] Past and current winter sports athletes include alpine skiers, such as Mateja Svet, Bojan Križaj, Ilka Štuhec and double Olympic gold medalist Tina Maze,[298][299] the cross-country skier Petra Majdič,[300] and ski jumpers, such as Primož Peterka and Peter Prevc.[301] Boxing has gained popularity since Jan Zaveck won the IBF Welterweight World Champion title in 2009.[302]

In cycling, Primož Roglič became the first Slovenian to win a Grand Tour when he won the 2019 Vuelta a España.[303] In 2020, Tadej Pogačar won the Tour de France, the world's most competitive cycling race, while Primož Roglič finished second.[304]

Prominent team sports in Slovenia include football, basketball, handball, volleyball, and ice hockey. The men's national football team has qualified for one European Championship (2000) and two World Cups (2002 and 2010).[305] Of Slovenian clubs, NK Maribor played three times in the group stages of the UEFA Champions League.[306] The men's national basketball team has participated at 13 EuroBaskets, winning the gold medal in the 2017 edition,[307] and at three FIBA World Championships.[308] Slovenia also hosted the EuroBasket 2013.[309] The men's national handball team has qualified for three Olympics, nine IHF World Championships, including their third-place finish in 2017,[310] and twelve European Championships. Slovenia was the hosts of the 2004 European Championship, where the national team won the silver medal.[311] Slovenia's most prominent handball team, RK Celje, won the EHF Champions League in the 2003–04 season.[311] In women's handball, RK Krim won the Champions League in 2001 and 2003.[312] The national volleyball team has won the silver medal in the 2015 and 2019 editions of the European Volleyball Championship.[313] The national ice hockey team has played at 27 Ice Hockey World Championships (with 9 appearances in top division), and has participated in the 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympic Games.[314]

See also[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Perko, Drago, Ciglic, Rok, Zorn, Matija (eds.), The Geography of Slovenia: Small But Diverse (Cham, Springer, 2020).
  • Stanić, Stane, Slovenia (London, Flint River Press, 1994).
  • Oto Luthar (ed.), The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. With contributions by Oto Luthar, Igor Grdina, Marjeta Šašel Kos, Petra Svoljšak, Peter Kos, Dušan Kos, Peter Štih, Alja Brglez and Martin Pogačar (Frankfurt am Main etc., Peter Lang, 2008).
  • The World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places, O–S Oman to Syria (Chicago, World Book, 2011).

External links[edit]

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