Partido Republicano (Estados Unidos)

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Partido republicano
AbreviaçãoGOP (Grand Old Party)
PresidenteRonna McDaniel ( MI )
Líder da minoria no SenadoMitch McConnell ( KY )
Líder da minoria da casaKevin McCarthy ( CA )
FundadoresAlvan E. Bovay [1]
Horace Greeley
Edwin D. Morgan
Henry Jarvis Raymond
Amos Tuck
Fundado20 de março de 1854 ; 167 anos atrás Ripon, Wisconsin , EUA (1854-03-20)
Precedido porWhig Party (maioria)
Free Soil Party
Liberty Party
Anti-Nebraska Party Festa
norte-americana
Quartel general310 First Street SE
Washington, DC 20003
Ala do estudanteRepublicanos universitários
Ala jovemJovens Republicanos,
Idade da Adolescência, Republicanos
Ala femininaFederação Nacional das Mulheres Republicanas
Asa ultramarinaRepublicanos no Exterior
Associação (2021)Increase36.132.743 [2]
Ideologia
Filiação europeiaPartido Conservador e Reformista Europeu [8] (parceiro regional)
Afiliação internacionalUnião Democrata Internacional [9]
Afiliação regionalUnião Democrata da Ásia-Pacífico [10]
Cores  vermelho
Senado
50/100 [a]
Câmara dos Representantes
212/435
Governos estaduais
27/50
Câmaras estaduais superiores
1.091 / 1.972
Câmaras estaduais inferiores
2.915 / 5.411
Governos territoriais
1/6
Câmaras superiores territoriais
12/97
Câmaras Territoriais inferiores
9/91
Símbolo eleitoral
Republican Disc.svg
Local na rede Internet
gop.com

O Partido Republicano , também conhecido como GOP (" Grande Velho Partido "), é um dos dois maiores partidos políticos contemporâneos dos Estados Unidos , junto com seu principal rival histórico, o Partido Democrata .

O GOP foi fundado em 1854 por oponentes da Lei Kansas-Nebraska , [11] que permitiu a expansão potencial da escravidão para os territórios ocidentais. O partido apoiou a reforma econômica e o liberalismo clássico enquanto se opunha à expansão da escravidão. [12] [13] Abraham Lincoln foi o primeiro presidente republicano. Sob a liderança de Lincoln e de um Congresso Republicano, a escravidão foi proibida nos Estados Unidos em 1865. O Partido Republicano era geralmente dominante durante os períodos do Terceiro e Quarto Sistema de Partidos . Estava fortemente comprometido com o protecionismoe tarifas em sua fundação, mas cresceu mais a favor do livre comércio no século XX.

Depois de 1912, o Partido Republicano começou a passar por uma mudança ideológica para a direita . [14] Seguindo o Civil Rights Act de 1964 e o Voting Rights Act de 1965 , a base central do partido mudou, com os estados do sul se tornando republicanos mais confiáveis na política presidencial. [15] Após a decisão da Suprema Corte de 1973 no caso Roe v. Wade , o Partido Republicano se opôs ao aborto em sua plataforma partidária e aumentou seu apoio entre os evangélicos . [16] Sua ideologia do século 21 é o conservadorismo americano , que incorpora tanto o conservadorismo social quantoconservadorismo fiscal . O GOP apóia impostos mais baixos, capitalismo de mercado livre , restrições à imigração , [17] [18] [19] aumento dos gastos militares , direitos de armas , restrições ao aborto , desregulamentação e restrições aos sindicatos . [20]

No século 21, a base demográfica inclina-se para os homens, [21] [22] pessoas que vivem em áreas rurais , membros da Geração Silenciosa e americanos brancos , particularmente cristãos evangélicos brancos . [23] Seu candidato presidencial mais recente foi Donald Trump , que serviu como o 45º presidente dos Estados Unidos de 2017 a 2021.

Houve 19 presidentes republicanos, a maioria de um partido político. No início de 2021, o GOP controlava 27 governos estaduais, 30 legislaturas estaduais e 23 trifectas de governos estaduais (governo e ambas as câmaras legislativas). Seis dos nove juízes da Suprema Corte dos EUA em exercício foram nomeados por presidentes republicanos.

História

século 19

Abraham Lincoln , 16º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1861-1865) e o primeiro republicano a ocupar o cargo

O Partido Republicano foi fundado nos estados do norte em 1854 por forças contrárias à expansão da escravidão, ex- Whigs e ex- Free Soilers . O Partido Republicano rapidamente se tornou a principal oposição ao dominante Partido Democrata e ao brevemente popular Partido Know Nothing . O partido surgiu da oposição à Lei Kansas-Nebraska , que revogou o Compromisso de Missouri e abriu o Território do Kansas e o Território do Nebraska para escravidão e futura admissão como estados escravistas. [24] [25] Os republicanos pediram modernização econômica e social. Eles denunciaram a expansão da escravidão como um grande mal, mas não pediram seu fim nos estados do sul. A primeira reunião pública do movimento geral anti-Nebraska , na qual o nome republicano foi proposto, foi realizada em 20 de março de 1854, na Little White Schoolhouse em Ripon, Wisconsin . [26] O nome foi parcialmente escolhido para homenagear o Partido Democrático-Republicano de Thomas Jefferson . [27] A primeira convenção oficial do partido foi realizada em 6 de julho de 1854, em Jackson, Michigan . [28]

Charles R. Jennison , um líder da milícia antiescravista associado aos Jayhawkers do Kansas e um dos primeiros políticos republicanos da região

O partido emergiu do grande realinhamento político de meados da década de 1850. O historiador William Gienapp argumenta que o grande realinhamento da década de 1850 começou antes do colapso dos Whigs e foi causado não por políticos, mas por eleitores em nível local. As forças centrais eram etnoculturais, envolvendo tensões entre protestantes pietistas versus católicos litúrgicos , luteranos e episcopais em relação ao catolicismo, proibição e nativismo . Aboliçãodesempenhou um papel, mas foi menos importante no início. O Partido Know Nothing incorporou as forças sociais em ação, mas sua liderança fraca foi incapaz de solidificar sua organização, e os republicanos o separaram. O nativismo era tão poderoso que os republicanos não puderam evitá-lo, mas o minimizaram e voltaram a ira dos eleitores contra a ameaça de que os proprietários de escravos comprariam boas terras onde a escravidão fosse permitida. O realinhamento foi poderoso porque forçou os eleitores a trocar de partido, como tipificado pela ascensão e queda do Know Nothings, a ascensão do Partido Republicano e as divisões no Partido Democrata. [29] [30]

Na Convenção Nacional Republicana de 1856 , o partido adotou uma plataforma nacional enfatizando a oposição à expansão da escravidão nos territórios dos Estados Unidos. [31] Enquanto candidato republicano John C. Frémont perdeu a 1856 Estados Unidos eleição presidencial de Democrata doughface James Buchanan , Buchanan só conseguiu vencer quatro dos catorze estados do norte, ganhando seu estado natal, Pensilvânia restritiva. [32] [33]

Os republicanos estavam ansiosos pelas eleições de 1860 . [34] O ex- deputado de Illinois , Abraham Lincoln, passou vários anos construindo apoio dentro do partido, fazendo forte campanha para Frémont em 1856 e concorrendo ao Senado em 1858 , perdendo para o democrata Stephen A. Douglas, mas ganhando atenção nacional pelos debates Lincoln-Douglas ele produziu. [33] [35] Na Convenção Nacional Republicana de 1860 , Lincoln consolidou o apoio entre os oponentes do senador de Nova York William H. Seward, um abolicionista feroz que alguns republicanos temiam que fosse radical demais para estados cruciais como a Pensilvânia e Indiana , bem como aqueles que desaprovavam seu apoio aos imigrantes irlandeses. [34] Lincoln venceu na terceira votação e foi eleito presidente na eleição geral em uma revanche contra Douglas. Lincoln não estava na cédula em um único estado do sul, e mesmo se a votação para os democratas não tivesse sido dividida entre Douglas, John C. Breckinridge e John Bell , os republicanos ainda teriam vencido, mas sem o voto popular . [34] O resultado da eleição ajudou a iniciar a Guerra Civil Americanaque durou de 1861 até 1865. [36]

A eleição de 1864 uniu os democratas de guerra com o Partido Republicano e viu Lincoln e o senador democrata do Tennessee , Andrew Johnson, serem indicados na chapa do National Union Party ; [32] Lincoln foi reeleito. [37] Sob a liderança do Congresso republicano, a Décima Terceira Emenda da Constituição dos Estados Unidos - que proibia a escravidão nos Estados Unidos - foi aprovada pelo Senado em 1864 e pela Câmara em 1865; foi ratificado em dezembro de 1865. [38]

Reconstrução, o padrão-ouro e a Era Dourada

Ulysses S. Grant , 18º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1869-1877)

Os republicanos radicais durante a presidência de Lincoln sentiram que ele não estava indo longe o suficiente em sua erradicação da escravidão e se opuseram a seu plano de dez por cento . Os republicanos radicais aprovaram o projeto de lei Wade-Davis em 1864, que buscava fazer cumprir o Juramento do Ironclad para todos os ex- confederados . Lincoln vetou o projeto de lei, acreditando que colocaria em risco a reintegração pacífica dos estados confederados aos Estados Unidos. [39]

Following the assassination of Lincoln, Johnson ascended to the presidency and was deplored by Radical Republicans. Johnson was vitriolic in his criticisms of the Radical Republicans during a national tour ahead of the 1866 midterm elections.[40] In his view, Johnson saw Radical Republicanism as the same as secessionism, both being two extremist sides of the political spectrum.[40] Anti-Johnson Republicans won a two-thirds majority in both chambers of Congress following the elections, which helped lead the way toward his impeachment and near ouster from office in 1868.[40] That same year, former Union ArmyO general Ulysses S. Grant foi eleito o próximo presidente republicano.

Grant era um republicano radical que criou algumas divisões dentro do partido, algumas como o senador de Massachusetts Charles Sumner e o senador de Illinois Lyman Trumbull se opuseram à maioria de suas políticas reconstrucionistas . [41] Outros encontraram desprezo com a corrupção em grande escala presente na administração de Grant , com a facção Stalwart emergente defendendo Grant e o sistema de despojos , enquanto os Mestiços pressionavam por uma reforma do serviço civil . [42] Os republicanos que se opuseram a Grant se ramificaram para formar oPartido Republicano Liberal , nomeando Horace Greeley em 1872 . O Partido Democrata tentou capitalizar essa divisão no Partido Republicano co-nomeando Greeley sob a bandeira de seu partido. As posições de Greeley provaram ser inconsistentes com as do Partido Republicano Liberal que o indicou, com Greeley apoiando altas tarifas, apesar da oposição do partido. [43] Grant foi facilmente reeleito.

A eleição geral de 1876 teve uma conclusão contenciosa quando ambos os partidos reivindicaram a vitória, apesar de três estados do sul ainda não terem declarado oficialmente um vencedor no final do dia das eleições. A repressão aos eleitores ocorreu no sul para diminuir o voto republicano em preto e branco, o que deu aos oficiais repatriados controlados pelos republicanos razão suficiente para declarar que fraude, intimidação e violência contaminaram os resultados dos estados. Eles continuaram lançando votos democratas suficientes para que o republicano Rutherford B. Hayes fosse declarado o vencedor. [44] Ainda assim, os democratas se recusaram a aceitar os resultados e uma Comissão Eleitoralconstituído por parlamentares foi instituído para decidir quem seria o eleitor dos estados. Depois que a Comissão votou segundo as linhas do partido a favor de Hayes, os democratas ameaçaram atrasar a contagem dos votos eleitorais indefinidamente para que nenhum presidente fosse empossado em 4 de março. Isso resultou no Compromisso de 1877 e Hayes finalmente tornou-se presidente. [45]

James G. Blaine , 28º e 31º Secretário de Estado (1881; 1889–1892)

Hayes dobrou para baixo no padrão ouro , que tinha sido assinado em lei por Grant com a Lei de Cunhagem de 1873 , como uma solução para a economia americana deprimida após o Pânico de 1873 . Ele também acreditava que as notas verdes representavam uma ameaça; dólares sendo dinheiro impresso durante a Guerra Civil que não era lastreado em espécie , ao qual Hayes se opôs como um defensor do dinheiro forte . Hayes procurou reabastecer o suprimento de ouro do país, o que em janeiro de 1879 foi bem-sucedido, já que o ouro era mais frequentemente trocado por dólares em comparação com os dólares sendo trocados por ouro. [46] Antes das eleições gerais de 1880 , republicanoJames G. Blaine concorreu à indicação do partido apoiando o impulso do padrão ouro de Hayes e apoiando suas reformas civis. Ambos ficando aquém da indicação, Blaine e seu oponente John Sherman apoiaram o republicano James A. Garfield , que concordou com a ação de Hayes em favor do padrão ouro, mas se opôs aos seus esforços de reforma civil. [47] [48]

Garfield foi eleito, mas assassinado no início de seu mandato, no entanto, sua morte ajudou a criar apoio para a Lei de Reforma do Serviço Civil de Pendleton , que foi aprovada em 1883; [49] o projeto foi transformado em lei pelo presidente republicano Chester A. Arthur , que sucedeu Garfield.

William McKinley , 25º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1897–1901)

Blaine mais uma vez concorreu à presidência, vencendo a indicação, mas perdendo para o democrata Grover Cleveland em 1884 , o primeiro democrata eleito presidente desde Buchanan. Os republicanos dissidentes, conhecidos como Mugwumps , desertaram de Blaine devido à corrupção que atormentou sua carreira política. [50] [51] Cleveland aderiu à política do padrão-ouro, que facilitou a maioria dos republicanos, [52] mas entrou em conflito com o partido devido ao surgimento do imperialismo americano . [53] O republicano Benjamin Harrison conseguiu recuperar a presidência de Cleveland em 1888 . Durante sua presidência, Harrison assinou oDependent and Disability Pension Act , que estabeleceu pensões para todos os veteranos do Sindicato que haviam servido por mais de 90 dias e estavam impossibilitados de realizar trabalhos manuais. [54]

A maioria dos republicanos apoiou a anexação do Havaí , sob o novo governo do republicano Sanford B. Dole , e Harrison, após sua perda em 1892 para Cleveland, tentou aprovar um tratado anexando o Havaí antes que Cleveland fosse empossado novamente. [55] Cleveland se opôs à anexação, embora os democratas estivessem divididos geograficamente sobre o assunto, com a maioria dos democratas do nordeste provando ser as vozes mais fortes da oposição. [56]

In 1896, Republican William McKinley's platform supported the gold standard and high tariffs, having been the creator and namesake for the McKinley Tariff of 1890. Though having been divided on the issue prior to the 1896 Republican National Convention, McKinley decided to heavily favor the gold standard over free silver in his campaign messaging, but promised to continue bimetallism to ward off continued skepticism over the gold standard, which had lingered since the Panic of 1893.[57][58] Democrat William Jennings Bryanprovou ser um adepto devoto do movimento da prata livre, que custou a Bryan o apoio de instituições democratas como Tammany Hall , o New York World e uma grande maioria do apoio da classe alta e média do Partido Democrata. [59] McKinley derrotou Bryan e devolveu a Casa Branca ao controle republicano até 1912 .

século 20

Theodore Roosevelt , 26º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1901–1909)
Herbert Hoover , 31º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1929–1933)

O realinhamento de 1896 cimentou os republicanos como o partido das grandes empresas, enquanto Theodore Roosevelt acrescentou mais apoio às pequenas empresas ao abraçar a quebra da confiança . Ele escolheu a dedo seu sucessor William Howard Taft em 1908 , mas eles se tornaram inimigos quando o partido se dividiu ao meio. Taft derrotou Roosevelt para a nomeação de 1912 e Roosevelt concorreu com a chapa de seu novo Partido Progressivo ("Bull Moose") . Ele pediu reformas sociais , muitas das quais foram posteriormente defendidas pelos democratas do New Deal na década de 1930. Ele perdeu e quando a maioria de seus apoiadores voltou ao GOP, eles descobriram que não concordavam com o novopensamento econômico conservador , levando a uma mudança ideológica para a direita no Partido Republicano. [60] Os republicanos retornaram à Casa Branca ao longo da década de 1920, operando em plataformas de normalidade, eficiência orientada para os negócios e tarifas elevadas. A plataforma nacional do partido evitou a menção à proibição , em vez de emitir um vago compromisso com a lei e a ordem. [61]

Warren G. Harding , Calvin Coolidge e Herbert Hoover foram eleitos em 1920 , 1924 e 1928 , respectivamente. O escândalo do Teapot Dome ameaçou prejudicar o partido, mas Harding morreu e a oposição se fragmentou em 1924. As políticas pró-negócios da década pareciam produzir uma prosperidade sem precedentes até que a Queda de Wall Street em 1929 anunciou a Grande Depressão . [62]

Era do New Deal, a maioria moral e a revolução republicana

Dwight D. Eisenhower e Richard Nixon , 34º e 37º presidentes dos Estados Unidos (1953–1961; 1969–1974).

A coalizão do New Deal do democrata Franklin D. Roosevelt controlou a política americana pela maior parte das três décadas seguintes, excluindo a presidência de dois mandatos do republicano Dwight D. Eisenhower . Depois que Roosevelt assumiu o cargo em 1933, a legislação do New Deal passou pelo Congresso e a economia subiu drasticamente desde seu ponto mais baixo no início de 1933. No entanto, o desemprego de longa duração permaneceu um obstáculo até 1940. Nas eleições de meio de mandato de 1934, 10 senadores republicanos caíram para derrota, deixando o GOP com apenas 25 senadores contra 71 democratas. A Câmara dos Representantes também tinha maioria esmagadora de democratas. [63]

O Partido Republicano se dividiu em uma "Velha Direita" majoritária (baseada no meio-oeste) e uma ala liberal baseada no nordeste que apoiou grande parte do New Deal. A Velha Direita atacou fortemente o "Segundo New Deal" e disse que representava a guerra de classes e o socialismo . Roosevelt foi reeleito com uma vitória esmagadora em 1936; no entanto, quando seu segundo mandato começou, a economia entrou em declínio, as greves dispararam e ele falhou em assumir o controle da Suprema Corte e expulsar os conservadores do sul do Partido Democrata. Os republicanos tiveram um grande retorno nas eleições de 1938 e tiveram novas estrelas em ascensão, como Robert A. Taft, de Ohio, à direita e Thomas E. Dewey, de Nova Yorkà esquerda. [64] Os conservadores do sul se juntaram à maioria dos republicanos para formar a coalizão conservadora , que dominou as questões internas no Congresso até 1964. Ambos os partidos se dividiram em questões de política externa, com os isolacionistas anti-guerra dominantes no Partido Republicano e os intervencionistas que queriam parar Adolf Hitler é dominante no Partido Democrata. Roosevelt ganhou um terceiro e quarto mandatos em 1940 e 1944, respectivamente. Os conservadores aboliram a maior parte do New Deal durante a guerra, mas não tentaram acabar com a Previdência Social ou as agências que regulamentavam os negócios. [65]

O historiador George H. Nash argumenta:

Ao contrário do bloco "moderado", internacionalista e predominantemente oriental de republicanos que aceitaram (ou pelo menos consentiram) parte da "Revolução Roosevelt" e as premissas essenciais da política externa do presidente Harry S. Truman , a direita republicana no fundo era contra-revolucionário. Anti-coletivistas, anticomunistas, anti-New Deal, apaixonadamente comprometidos com o governo limitado, economia de mercado livre e prerrogativas do Congresso (em oposição às executivas), os conservadores republicanos foram obrigados desde o início a travar uma guerra constante em duas frentes: contra os democratas liberais de fora e os republicanos "eu também" de dentro. [66]

Depois de 1945, a ala internacionalista do Partido Republicano cooperou com a política externa de Truman na Guerra Fria , financiou o Plano Marshall e apoiou a OTAN, apesar do continuado isolacionismo da Velha Direita. [67]

A segunda metade do século 20 viu a eleição ou sucessão dos presidentes republicanos Dwight D. Eisenhower , Richard Nixon , Gerald Ford , Ronald Reagan e George HW Bush . Eisenhower derrotou o líder conservador, o senador Robert A. Taft, para a nomeação de 1952, mas os conservadores dominaram as políticas internas do governo Eisenhower. Os eleitores gostaram de Eisenhower muito mais do que do Partido Republicano e ele se mostrou incapaz de mudar o partido para uma posição mais moderada. Desde 1976, o liberalismo praticamente desapareceu do Partido Republicano, com exceção de alguns redutos do nordeste. [68] Os historiadores citam a eleição presidencial dos Estados Unidos de 1964e sua respectiva Convenção Nacional Republicana de 1964 como uma mudança significativa, que viu a ala conservadora, comandada pelo senador Barry Goldwater do Arizona , lutar contra o governador liberal de Nova York Nelson Rockefeller e sua facção republicana de mesmo nome Rockefeller pela indicação presidencial do partido. Com Goldwater prestes a vencer, Rockefeller, instado a mobilizar sua facção liberal, cedeu: "Você está olhando para isso, amigo. Sou tudo o que resta". [69] [70] Embora Goldwater tenha perdido em um deslizamento de terra, Reagan se tornaria conhecido como um apoiador proeminente durante toda a campanha, entregando o " A Time for Choose"discurso para ele. Ele iria se tornar governador da Califórnia dois anos depois e, em 1980 , ganharia a presidência. [71]

Ronald Reagan , 40º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1981–1989)

A presidência de Reagan , que durou de 1981 a 1989, constituiu o que ficou conhecido como a " Revolução Reagan ". [72] Foi visto como uma mudança fundamental desde a estagflação da década de 1970 que a precedeu, com a introdução da Reaganomics destinada a cortar impostos, priorizar a desregulamentação do governo e transferir o financiamento da esfera doméstica para o militar para controlar a União Soviética , utilizando a dissuasão teoria . Um momento decisivo no mandato de Reagan foi seu discurso na então Berlim Ocidental, onde exigiu que o secretário-geral soviético Mikhail Gorbachev "Derrube essa parede! ", referindo-se ao Muro de Berlim construído para separar Berlim Ocidental e Oriental . [73] [74]

Depois de deixar o cargo em 1989, Reagan se tornou um icônico republicano conservador. Os candidatos presidenciais republicanos frequentemente afirmavam compartilhar suas opiniões e pretendiam estabelecer a si mesmos e suas políticas como os herdeiros mais apropriados para seu legado. [75]

O vice-presidente Bush teve uma vitória esmagadora nas eleições gerais de 1988 . No entanto, seu mandato veria uma divisão dentro do Partido Republicano. A visão de Bush de liberalização econômica e cooperação internacional com nações estrangeiras viu a negociação e assinatura do Acordo de Livre Comércio da América do Norte (Nafta) e o início conceitual da Organização Mundial do Comércio . [76] O político e empresário independente Ross Perot condenou o NAFTA e profetizou que levaria à terceirização de empregos americanos para o México , enquanto o democrata Bill Clinton encontrou um acordo nas políticas de Bush. [77]Bush perdeu a reeleição em 1992 com 37 por cento dos votos populares , com Clinton obtendo uma pluralidade de 43 por cento e Perot em terceiro com 19 por cento. Embora seja discutível se a candidatura de Perot custou a reeleição de Bush, Charlie Cook do The Cook Political Report atesta que as mensagens de Perot tiveram mais peso entre os eleitores republicanos e conservadores em geral. [78] Perot formou o Partido da Reforma e aqueles que foram ou se tornariam republicanos proeminentes tiveram uma breve adesão, como o ex- Diretor de Comunicações da Casa Branca Pat Buchanan e mais tarde o presidente Donald Trump . [79]

Na Revolução Republicana de 1994 , o partido - liderado pela Minoria Câmara Whip Newt Gingrich , que fez campanha no " Contrato com a América " - ganhou maiorias em ambas as câmaras do Congresso, ganhou 12 governadores e recuperou o controle de 20 legislaturas estaduais. Foi a primeira vez que o Partido Republicano obteve a maioria na Câmara desde 1952 . [80] Gingrich foi nomeado presidente da Câmara e, nos primeiros 100 dias da maioria republicana, todas as proposições apresentadas no Contrato com a América foram aprovadas, com exceção dos limites de mandato para membros do Congresso. [81] [82]Uma chave para o sucesso de Gingrich em 1994 foi nacionalizar a eleição, [80] por sua vez, Gingrich se tornou uma figura nacional durante as eleições para a Câmara de 1996 , com muitos líderes democratas proclamando que Gingrich era um radical zeloso. [83] [84] Os republicanos mantiveram sua maioria pela primeira vez desde 1928, apesar da passagem presidencial de Bob Dole - Jack Kemp perder facilmente para o presidente Clinton nas eleições gerais . No entanto, o perfil nacional de Gingrich provou ser um prejuízo para o Congresso Republicano, que gozava de aprovação da maioria entre os eleitores, apesar da relativa impopularidade de Gingrich. [83]

Depois que Gingrich e os republicanos chegaram a um acordo com Clinton sobre a Lei do Orçamento Equilibrado de 1997 , incluindo cortes de impostos adicionais, a maioria republicana da Câmara teve dificuldade em se reunir em uma nova agenda antes das eleições de meio de mandato de 1998 . [85] Durante o impeachment em andamento de Bill Clinton em 1998, Gingrich decidiu fazer da má conduta de Clinton a mensagem do partido que se dirigia para o meio de mandato, acreditando que isso aumentaria sua maioria. A estratégia se mostrou equivocada e os republicanos perderam cinco cadeiras, embora seja debatido se isso foi devido à má comunicação ou à popularidade de Clinton proporcionando um efeito coattail . [86]Gingrich foi destituído do poder do partido devido ao desempenho, acabando por decidir renunciar por completo ao Congresso. Pouco tempo depois, parecia que o representante da Louisiana Bob Livingston se tornaria seu sucessor. Livingston, no entanto, deixou de ser considerado e renunciou ao Congresso após relatórios prejudiciais de assuntos ameaçarem a agenda legislativa da Casa Republicana se ele fosse servir como Presidente do Parlamento. [87] O representante de Illinois Dennis Hastert foi promovido a palestrante no lugar de Livingston, e serviu nessa posição até 2007. [88]

século 21

Uma chapa republicana de George W. Bush e Dick Cheney venceu as eleições presidenciais de 2000 e 2004 . [89] Bush fez campanha como um " conservador compassivo " em 2000, querendo atrair melhor os imigrantes e eleitores minoritários. [90] O objetivo era priorizar programas de reabilitação de drogas e auxílio para a reentrada de prisioneiros na sociedade, um movimento com a intenção de capitalizar as iniciativas de crime mais duras do presidente Bill Clinton , como o projeto de lei criminal de 1994 aprovado sob sua administração. A plataforma não conseguiu ganhar muita força entre os membros do partido durante sua presidência. [91]

Com a posse de Bush como presidente, o Partido Republicano permaneceu bastante coeso durante grande parte dos anos 2000, já que tanto os fortes libertários econômicos quanto os conservadores sociais se opunham aos democratas, que eles viam como o partido de um governo inchado, secular e liberal. [92] Este período viu a ascensão de "conservadores pró-governo" - uma parte central da base de Bush - um grupo considerável de republicanos que defendia o aumento dos gastos do governo e maiores regulamentações que cobrissem tanto a economia e a vida pessoal das pessoas quanto para uma política externa ativista e intervencionista . [93] Grupos de pesquisa, como o Pew Research Centerdescobriram que os conservadores sociais e os defensores do livre mercado continuaram sendo os outros dois grupos principais dentro da coalizão de apoio do partido, com todos os três sendo aproximadamente iguais em número. [94] [95] No entanto, os libertários e conservadores com tendências libertárias cada vez mais achavam falhas no que viam como a restrição dos republicanos às liberdades civis vitais, enquanto o bem - estar corporativo e a dívida nacional aumentaram consideravelmente sob o mandato de Bush. [96] Em contraste, alguns conservadores sociais expressaram insatisfação com o apoio do partido a políticas econômicas que conflitavam com seus valores morais. [97]

O Partido Republicano perdeu sua maioria no Senado em 2001, quando o Senado ficou dividido igualmente; no entanto, os republicanos mantiveram o controle do Senado devido ao voto de desempate do vice-presidente republicano Dick Cheney . Os democratas ganharam o controle do Senado em 6 de junho de 2001, quando o senador republicano Jim Jeffords de Vermont mudou sua filiação partidária para o democrata. Os republicanos recuperaram a maioria no Senado nas eleições de 2002. As maiorias republicanas na Câmara e no Senado foram mantidas até que os democratas recuperaram o controle de ambas as câmaras nas eleições de meio de mandato de 2006 . [98] [99]

George HW Bush , 41º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1989-1993)
George W. Bush , 43º presidente dos Estados Unidos (2001–2009)
O ex-presidente George HW Bush era pai do ex-presidente George W. Bush. (Apenas um outro filho de um presidente foi eleito presidente, a saber, John Quincy Adams .)

Em 2008 , o senador republicano John McCain, do Arizona, e a governadora Sarah Palin, do Alasca, foram derrotados pelos senadores democratas Barack Obama e Joe Biden, de Illinois e Delaware , respectivamente. [100]

Os republicanos tiveram sucesso eleitoral na onda eleitoral de 2010 , que coincidiu com a ascensão do movimento Tea Party , [101] [102] [103] [104] um movimento de protesto anti-Obama de conservadores fiscais . [105] Membros do movimento exigiam impostos mais baixos e uma redução da dívida nacional dos Estados Unidos e do déficit orçamentário federal por meio da redução dos gastos do governo . [106] [107] Também foi descrito como um movimento constitucional popular [108]composto por uma mistura de ativismo libertário , populista de direita e conservador . Esse sucesso começou com a vitória frustrada de Scott Brown na eleição especial para o Senado de Massachusetts para uma vaga ocupada por décadas pelos irmãos democratas Kennedy . [109] Nas eleições de novembro , os republicanos retomaram o controle da Câmara, aumentaram o número de assentos no Senado e ganharam a maioria dos governos. [110] O Tea Party viria a influenciar fortemente o Partido Republicano, em parte devido à substituição dos republicanos do establishment por republicanos do estilo Tea Party. [105]

Quando Obama e Biden ganharam a reeleição em 2012 , derrotando um bilhete Mitt Romney - Paul Ryan , [111] os republicanos perderam sete assentos na Câmara nas eleições legislativas de novembro , mas ainda mantiveram o controle daquela câmara. [112] No entanto, os republicanos não foram capazes de obter o controle do Senado, continuando seu status de minoria com uma perda líquida de dois assentos. [113] Após a perda, alguns republicanos proeminentes protestaram contra seu próprio partido. [114] [115] [116]Uma eleição post-mortem de 2012 pelo Partido Republicano concluiu que o partido precisava fazer mais em nível nacional para atrair votos de minorias e eleitores jovens. [117] Em março de 2013, Presidente do Comitê Nacional, Reince Priebusfez um relatório contundente sobre os fracassos eleitorais do partido em 2012, pedindo aos republicanos que se reinventassem e endossassem oficialmente a reforma da imigração. Ele disse: "Não há um motivo para termos perdido. Nossa mensagem era fraca; nosso jogo de chão era insuficiente; não estávamos inclusivos; estávamos atrasados ​​tanto em dados quanto no digital, e nosso processo primário e de debate precisava ser melhorado." Ele propôs 219 reformas que incluíram uma campanha de marketing de US $ 10 milhões para alcançar mulheres, minorias e gays, bem como definir uma temporada primária mais curta e controlada e criar melhores instalações de coleta de dados. [118]

Após as eleições de meio de mandato de 2014 , o Partido Republicano assumiu o controle do Senado ganhando nove assentos. [119] Com um total final de 247 cadeiras (57%) na Câmara e 54 cadeiras no Senado, os republicanos finalmente alcançaram sua maior maioria no Congresso desde o 71º Congresso em 1929. [120]

A era Trump

Donald Trump , 45º presidente dos Estados Unidos (2017–2021)

A eleição do republicano Donald Trump para a presidência em 2016 marcou uma mudança populista no Partido Republicano. [121] A derrota de Trump da candidata democrata Hillary Clinton foi inesperada, já que as pesquisas mostraram Clinton liderando a corrida. [122] A vitória de Trump foi alimentada por vitórias estreitas em três estados - Michigan , Pensilvânia e Wisconsin - que tradicionalmente faziam parte da parede azul democrata por décadas. De acordo com a NBC News, "Trump’s power famously came from his 'silent majority'—working-class white voters who felt mocked and ignored by an establishment loosely defined by special interests in Washington, news outlets in New York and tastemakers in Hollywood. He built trust within that base by abandoning Republican establishment orthodoxy on issues like trade and government spending in favor of a broader nationalist message".[123][124]

After the 2016 elections, Republicans maintained a majority in the Senate, House, and state governorships, wielding newly acquired executive power with Trump's election as president. The Republican Party controlled 69 of 99 state legislative chambers in 2017, the most it had held in history;[125] and at least 33 governorships, the most it had held since 1922.[126] The party had total control of government (legislative chambers and governorship) in 25 states,[127][128] the most since 1952;[129] the opposing Democratic Party had full control in only five states.[130]Após os resultados das eleições de meio de mandato de 2018 , os republicanos perderam o controle da Câmara, mas mantiveram o controle do Senado. [131]

Ao longo de seu mandato, Trump nomeou três juízes para a Suprema Corte : Neil Gorsuch substituindo Antonin Scalia , Brett Kavanaugh substituindo Anthony Kennedy e Amy Coney Barrett substituindo Ruth Bader Ginsburg - o maior número de nomeações de qualquer presidente em um único mandato desde o colega republicano Richard Nixon . Trump foi visto como solidificando uma maioria conservadora de 6-3 . [132] [133] Ele nomeou 260 juízes no total, criando maiorias gerais nomeadas pelos republicanos em todos os ramos do judiciário federal, exceto para oCourt of International Trade by the time he left office, shifting the judiciary to the right. Other notable achievements during his presidency included passing the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act in 2017, moving the U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem, creating the United States Space Force – the first new independent military service since 1947 – and brokering the Abraham Accords, a series of normalization agreements between Israel and various Arab states.[134][135][136][137]

Trump sofreu impeachment em 18 de dezembro de 2019, sob a acusação de abuso de poder e obstrução do Congresso . [138] [139] Ele foi absolvido pelo Senado em 5 de fevereiro de 2020. [140] 195 dos 197 republicanos na Câmara votaram contra as acusações sem nenhum voto a favor; os dois republicanos que se abstiveram devido a razões externas não relacionadas ao impeachment em si. [141] 52 dos 53 republicanos no Senado também votaram contra as acusações, absolvendo Trump com sucesso, com apenas o senador Mitt Romney de Utah discordando e votando a favor de uma das acusações (abuso de poder). [142] [143] Following his refusal to concede his loss in the 2020 elections, which led to the U.S. Capitol being stormed by his supporters on January 6, 2021, the House impeached Trump for a second time on charges of incitement of insurrection, making him the only federal officeholder in the history of the United States to be impeached twice.[144][145] He left office on January 20, 2021, but the impeachment trial continued into the early weeks of the Biden administration, with Trump being ultimately acquitted a second time by the Senate on February 13, 2021.[146] Seven Republican Senators voted to convict, including Romney once again, Richard Burr, Bill Cassidy, Susan Collins, Lisa Murkowski, Ben Sasse and Pat Toomey. Their states' respective Republican parties condemned them for doing so. Additionally, Republican U.S. Representative Liz Cheney was censured by her state GOP for her impeachment vote in the House.[147][148] In response to Trump's efforts to overturn the 2020 elections and the subsequent storming of the U.S. Capitol, dozens of Republican former members of the Bush administration made their abandonment of the party public, calling it the "cult of Trump."[149] In 2021, the party used Trump's false assertions of a stolen election as justification to impose new voting restrictions in its favor, and to remove Cheney from her House Republican Conference leadership position.[150][151][152]

Name and symbols

1874 Nast cartoon featuring the first notable appearance of the Republican elephant[153]
The red, white and blue Republican elephant, still a primary logo for many state GOP committees
The circa 2013 GOP logo

The party's founding members chose the name Republican Party in the mid-1850s as homage to the values of republicanism promoted by Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party.[154] The idea for the name came from an editorial by the party's leading publicist, Horace Greeley, who called for "some simple name like 'Republican' [that] would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery".[155] The name reflects the 1776 republican values of civic virtue and opposition to aristocracy and corruption.[156]É importante notar que "republicano" tem uma variedade de significados ao redor do mundo e o Partido Republicano evoluiu de forma que os significados nem sempre se alinham. [157] [158]

O termo "Grand Old Party" é um apelido tradicional do Partido Republicano e a abreviatura "GOP" é uma designação comumente usada. O termo se originou em 1875 no Registro do Congresso , referindo-se ao partido associado à defesa militar bem-sucedida da União como "este velho partido nobre". No ano seguinte, em um artigo no Cincinnati Commercial , o termo foi modificado para "grande festa antiga". O primeiro uso da abreviatura é datado de 1884. [159]

The traditional mascot of the party is the elephant. A political cartoon by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important use of the symbol.[160] An alternate symbol of the Republican Party in states such as Indiana, New York and Ohio is the bald eagle as opposed to the Democratic rooster or the Democratic five-pointed star.[161][162] In Kentucky, the log cabin is a symbol of the Republican Party (not related to the gay Log Cabin Republicans organization).[163]

Tradicionalmente, a festa não tinha identidade de cor consistente. [164] [165] [166] Após a eleição de 2000 , a cor vermelha passou a ser associada aos republicanos. Durante e depois da eleição, as principais redes de transmissão usaram o mesmo esquema de cores para o mapa eleitoral: os estados vencidos pelo candidato republicano George W. Bush foram coloridos de vermelho e os estados vencidos pelo candidato democrata Al Gore foram coloridos de azul. Devido à disputa de semanas sobre os resultados das eleições, essas associações de cores tornaram-se firmemente arraigadas, persistindo nos anos subsequentes. Embora a atribuição de cores aos partidos políticos seja não oficial e informal, a mídia passou a representar os respectivos partidos políticos usando essas cores. O partido e seus candidatos também passaram a abraçar a cor vermelha. [167]

Posições políticas

Políticas econômicas

Calvin Coolidge , 30º presidente dos Estados Unidos (1923–1929)

Republicans believe that free markets and individual achievement are the primary factors behind economic prosperity. Republicans frequently advocate in favor of fiscal conservatism during Democratic administrations; however, they have shown themselves willing to increase federal debt when they are in charge of the government (the implementation of the Bush tax cuts, Medicare Part D and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 are examples of this willingness).[168][169][170] Despite pledges to roll back government spending, Republican administrations have, since the late 1960s, sustained or increased previous levels of government spending.[171][172]

Os republicanos modernos defendem a teoria da economia do lado da oferta , que sustenta que as taxas de impostos mais baixas aumentam o crescimento econômico. [173] Muitos republicanos se opõem a taxas de impostos mais altas para quem ganha mais , que eles acreditam serem injustamente direcionadas para aqueles que criam empregos e riqueza. Eles acreditam que os gastos privados são mais eficientes do que os gastos do governo. Os legisladores republicanos também buscaram limitar o financiamento para a fiscalização e cobrança de impostos . [174]

Os republicanos acreditam que os indivíduos devem assumir a responsabilidade por suas próprias circunstâncias. Eles também acreditam que o setor privado é mais eficaz em ajudar os pobres por meio da caridade do que o governo por meio de programas de bem-estar e que os programas de assistência social costumam causar dependência do governo. [ citação necessária ]

Republicans believe corporations should be able to establish their own employment practices, including benefits and wages, with the free market deciding the price of work. Since the 1920s, Republicans have generally been opposed by labor union organizations and members. At the national level, Republicans supported the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, which gives workers the right not to participate in unions. Modern Republicans at the state level generally support various right-to-work laws, which prohibit union security agreements requiring all workers in a unionized workplace to pay dues or a fair-share fee, regardless of if they are members of the union or not.[175]

Most Republicans oppose increases in the minimum wage, believing that such increases hurt businesses by forcing them to cut and outsource jobs while passing on costs to consumers.[176]

The party opposes a single-payer health care system, describing it as socialized medicine. The Republican Party has a mixed record of supporting the historically popular Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid programs,[177] whereas it has sought to repeal the Affordable Care Act since its introduction in 2010,[178] and opposed expansions of Medicaid.[179]

Environmental policies

Os democratas (azul) e os republicanos (vermelho) há muito divergem nas opiniões sobre a importância de abordar a mudança climática, com a diferença aumentando no final da década de 2010 principalmente devido ao aumento da participação dos democratas em mais de 30 pontos, enquanto as opiniões republicanas mudaram relativamente pouco. [180]
(A descontinuidade resultou da mudança na pesquisa em 2015, de recitar "aquecimento global" para "mudança climática".)

Historically, progressive leaders in the Republican Party supported environmental protection. Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was a prominent conservationist whose policies eventually led to the creation of the National Park Service.[181] While Republican President Richard Nixon was not an environmentalist, he signed legislation to create the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and had a comprehensive environmental program.[182] However, this position has changed since the 1980s and the administration of President Ronald Reagan, que rotulou os regulamentos ambientais de um fardo para a economia. [183] Desde então, os republicanos têm cada vez mais assumido posições contra a regulamentação ambiental, com alguns republicanos rejeitando o consenso científico sobre a mudança climática . [183] [184] [185] [186]

In 2006, then-California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger broke from Republican orthodoxy to sign several bills imposing caps on carbon emissions in California. Then-President George W. Bush opposed mandatory caps at a national level. Bush's decision not to regulate carbon dioxide as a pollutant was challenged in the Supreme Court by 12 states,[187] with the court ruling against the Bush administration in 2007.[188] Bush also publicly opposed ratification of the Kyoto Protocols[183][189] which sought to limit greenhouse gas emissions and thereby combat climate change; sua posição foi duramente criticada por cientistas do clima. [190]

The Republican Party rejects cap-and-trade policy to limit carbon emissions.[191] In the 2000s, Senator John McCain proposed bills (such as the McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act) that would have regulated carbon emissions, but his position on climate change was unusual among high-ranking party members.[183] Some Republican candidates have supported the development of alternative fuels in order to achieve energy independence for the United States. Some Republicans support increased oil drilling in protected areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a position that has drawn criticism from activists.[192]

Muitos republicanos durante a presidência de Barack Obama se opuseram às novas regulamentações ambientais de seu governo, como aquelas sobre as emissões de carbono do carvão. Em particular, muitos republicanos apoiaram a construção do oleoduto Keystone ; esta posição foi apoiada por empresas, mas oposta por grupos de povos indígenas e ativistas ambientais. [193] [194] [195]

According to the Center for American Progress, a non-profit liberal advocacy group, more than 55% of congressional Republicans were climate change deniers in 2014.[196][197] PolitiFact in May 2014 found "relatively few Republican members of Congress ... accept the prevailing scientific conclusion that global warming is both real and man-made." The group found eight members who acknowledged it, although the group acknowledged there could be more and that not all members of Congress have taken a stance on the issue.[198][199]

De 2008 a 2017, o Partido Republicano passou de "debater como combater a mudança climática causada pelo homem para argumentar que ela não existe", de acordo com o The New York Times . [200] Em janeiro de 2015, o Senado dos EUA liderado por republicanos votou 98-1 para aprovar uma resolução reconhecendo que "a mudança climática é real e não é uma farsa"; no entanto, uma emenda afirmando que "a atividade humana contribui significativamente para a mudança climática" foi apoiada por apenas cinco senadores republicanos. [201]

Imigração

In the period 1850–1870, the Republican Party was more opposed to immigration than Democrats, in part because the Republican Party relied on the support of anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant parties, such as the Know-Nothings, at the time. In the decades following the Civil War, the Republican Party grew more supportive of immigration, as it represented manufacturers in the northeast (who wanted additional labor) whereas the Democratic Party came to be seen as the party of labor (which wanted fewer laborers to compete with). Starting in the 1970s, the parties switched places again, as the Democrats grew more supportive of immigration than Republicans.[202]

Republicans are divided on how to confront illegal immigration between a platform that allows for migrant workers and a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants (supported more by the Republican establishment), versus a position focused on securing the border and deporting illegal immigrants (supported by populists). In 2006, the White House supported and Republican-led Senate passed comprehensive immigration reform that would eventually allow millions of illegal immigrants to become citizens, but the House (also led by Republicans) did not advance the bill.[203] After the defeat in the 2012 presidential election, particularly among Latinos, several Republicans advocated a friendlier approach to immigrants. However, in 2016 the field of candidates took a sharp position against illegal immigration, with leading candidate Donald Trump proposing building a wall along the southern border. Proposals calling for immigration reform with a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants have attracted broad Republican support in some[which?] polls. In a 2013 poll, 60% of Republicans supported the pathway concept.[204]

Foreign policy and national defense

Some, including neoconservatives,[who?] in the Republican Party support unilateralism on issues of national security, believing in the ability and right of the United States to act without external support in matters of its national defense. In general, Republican thinking on defense and international relations is heavily influenced by the theories of neorealism and realism, characterizing conflicts between nations as struggles between faceless forces of an international structure as opposed to being the result of the ideas and actions of individual leaders. The realist school's influence shows in Reagan's "Evil Empire" stance on the Soviet Union and George W. Bush's Axis of evil stance.[citation needed]

Some, including paleoconservatives and right-wing populists,[205][206][207] call for non-interventionism and an America First foreign policy. This faction gained strength starting in 2016 with the rise of Donald Trump.

Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, many[who?] in the party have supported neoconservative policies with regard to the War on Terror, including the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The George W. Bush administration took the position that the Geneva Conventions do not apply to unlawful combatants, while other[which?] prominent Republicans strongly oppose the use of enhanced interrogation techniques, which they view as torture.[208]

Republicans have frequently advocated for restricting foreign aid as a means of asserting the national security and immigration interests of the United States.[209][210][211]

The Republican Party generally supports a strong alliance with Israel and efforts to secure peace in the Middle East between Israel and its Arab neighbors.[212][213] In recent years, Republicans have begun to move away from the two-state solution approach to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[214][215] In a 2014 poll, 59% of Republicans favored doing less abroad and focusing on the country's own problems instead.[216]

According to the 2016 platform,[217] the party's stance on the status of Taiwan is: "We oppose any unilateral steps by either side to alter the status quo in the Taiwan Straits on the principle that all issues regarding the island's future must be resolved peacefully, through dialogue, and be agreeable to the people of Taiwan." In addition, if "China were to violate those principles, the United States, in accord with the Taiwan Relations Act, will help Taiwan defend itself".

Social policies

The Republican Party is generally associated with social conservative policies, although it does have dissenting centrist and libertarian factions. The social conservatives support laws that uphold their traditional values, such as opposition to same-sex marriage, abortion, and marijuana.[218] Most conservative Republicans also oppose gun control, affirmative action, and illegal immigration.[218][219]

Abortion and embryonic stem cell research

A majority of the party's national and state candidates are anti-abortion and oppose elective abortion on religious or moral grounds. While many advocate exceptions in the case of incest, rape or the mother's life being at risk, in 2012 the party approved a platform advocating banning abortions without exception.[220] There were not highly polarized differences between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party prior to the Roe v. Wade 1973 Supreme Court ruling (which made prohibitions on abortion rights unconstitutional), but after the Supreme Court ruling, opposition to abortion became an increasingly key national platform for the Republican Party.[16][221][222] As a result, Evangelicals gravitated towards the Republican Party.[16][221]

Most Republicans oppose government funding for abortion providers, notably Planned Parenthood.[223] This includes support for the Hyde Amendment.

Until its dissolution in 2018, Republican Majority for Choice, an abortion rights PAC, advocated for amending the GOP platform to include pro-abortion rights members.[224]

Although Republicans have voted for increases in government funding of scientific research, members of the Republican Party actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond the original lines because it involves the destruction of human embryos.[225][226][227][228]

Affirmative action

Republicans are generally against affirmative action for women and some minorities, often describing it as a "quota system" and believing that it is not meritocratic and is counter-productive socially by only further promoting discrimination.[229] The GOP's official stance supports race-neutral admissions policies in universities, but supports taking into account the socioeconomic status of the student. The 2012 Republican National Committee platform stated, "We support efforts to help low-income individuals get a fair chance based on their potential and individual merit; but we reject preferences, quotas, and set-asides, as the best or sole methods through which fairness can be achieved, whether in government, education or corporate boardrooms…Merit, ability, aptitude, and results should be the factors that determine advancement in our society.”[230][231][232]

Gun ownership

Republicans generally support gun ownership rights and oppose laws regulating guns. Party members and Republican-leaning independents are twice more likely to own a gun than Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents.[233]

The National Rifle Association, a special interest group in support of gun ownership, has consistently aligned itself with the Republican Party. Following gun control measures under the Clinton administration, such as the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, the Republicans allied with the NRA during the Republican Revolution in 1994.[234] Since then, the NRA has consistently backed Republican candidates and contributed financial support, such as in the 2013 Colorado recall election which resulted in the ousting of two pro-gun control Democrats for two anti-gun control Republicans.[235]

In contrast, George H. W. Bush, formerly a lifelong NRA member, was highly critical of the organization following their response to the Oklahoma City bombing authored by CEO Wayne LaPierre, and publicly resigned in protest.[236]

Drugs

Republicans have historically supported the War on Drugs, as well as oppose legalization or decriminalization of drugs, including marijuana.[237][238] The opposition to the legalization of marijuana has softened over time.[239][240]

LGBT issues

Republicans have historically opposed same-sex marriage, while being divided on civil unions and domestic partnerships. During the 2004 election, George W. Bush campaigned prominently on a constitutional amendment to prohibit same-sex marriage; many believe it helped George W. Bush win re-election in 2004.[241][242] In both 2004[243] and 2006,[244] President Bush, Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, and House Majority Leader John Boehner promoted the Federal Marriage Amendment, a proposed constitutional amendment which would legally restrict the definition of marriage to heterosexual couples.[245][246][247] In both attempts, the amendment failed to secure enough votes to invoke cloture and thus ultimately was never passed. As more states legalized same-sex marriage in the 2010s, Republicans increasingly supported allowing each state to decide its own marriage policy.[248] As of 2014, most state GOP platforms expressed opposition to same-sex marriage.[249] The 2016 GOP Platform defined marriage as "natural marriage, the union of one man and one woman," and condemned the Supreme Court's ruling legalizing same-sex marriages.[250][251] The 2020 platform retained the 2016 language against same-sex marriage.[252][253][254]

However, public opinion on this issue within the party has been changing.[255][242] Following his election as president in 2016, Donald Trump stated that he had no objection to same-sex marriage or to the Supreme Court decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, but at the same time promised to appoint a Supreme Court justice to roll back the constitutional right.[242][256] In office, Trump was the first sitting Republican president to recognize LGBT Pride Month.[257] Conversely, the Trump administration banned transgender individuals from service in the United States military and rolled back other protections for transgender people which had been enacted during the previous Democratic presidency.[258]

The Republican Party platform previously opposed the inclusion of gay people in the military and opposed adding sexual orientation to the list of protected classes since 1992.[259][260][261] The Republican Party opposed the inclusion of sexual preference in anti-discrimination statutes from 1992 to 2004.[262] The 2008 and 2012 Republican Party platform supported anti-discrimination statutes based on sex, race, age, religion, creed, disability, or national origin, but both platforms were silent on sexual orientation and gender identity.[263][264] The 2016 platform was opposed to sex discrimination statutes that included the phrase "sexual orientation."[265][266]

The Log Cabin Republicans is a group within the Republican Party that represents LGBT conservatives and allies and advocates for LGBT rights and equality.[267]

Voting requirements

Virtually all restrictions on voting have in recent years been implemented by Republicans. Republicans, mainly at the state level, argue that the restrictions (such as purging voter rolls, limiting voting locations, and limiting early and mail voting) are vital to prevent voter fraud, claiming that voter fraud is an underestimated issue in elections. Polling has found majority support for early voting, automatic voter registration and voter ID laws among the general population.[268][269][270] Research has indicated that voter fraud is very uncommon, and civil and voting rights organizations often accuse Republicans of enacting restrictions to influence elections in the party's favor. Many laws or regulations restricting voting enacted by Republicans have been successfully challenged in court, with court rulings striking down such regulations and accusing Republicans of establishing them with partisan purpose.[271][272]

After the Supreme Court decision in Shelby County v. Holder rolled back aspects of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Republicans introduced cuts to early voting, purges of voter rolls and imposition of strict voter ID laws.[273] In defending their restrictions to voting rights, Republicans have made false and exaggerated claims about the extent of voter fraud in the United States; all existing research indicates that it is extremely rare.[274][275] After Joe Biden won the 2020 presidential election and Donald Trump refused to concede while he and his Republican allies made false claims of fraud, Republicans launched a nationwide effort to restrict voting rights at the state level.[276][277][278]

The 2016 Republican platform advocated proof of citizenship as a prerequisite for registering to vote and photo ID as a prerequisite when voting.[279]

Composition

This map shows the vote in the 2004 presidential election by county.[A]
This map shows the vote in the 2020 presidential election by county.[B]

In the Party's early decades, its base consisted of northern white Protestants and African Americans nationwide. Its first presidential candidate, John C. Frémont, received almost no votes in the South. This trend continued into the 20th century. Following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, the southern states became more reliably Republican in presidential politics, while northeastern states became more reliably Democratic.[280][281][282][283][284][285][286][287] Studies show that southern whites shifted to the Republican Party due to racial conservatism.[286][288][289]

While scholars agree that a racial backlash played a central role in the racial realignment of the two parties, there is a dispute as to the extent in which the racial realignment was a top-driven elite process or a bottom-up process.[290] The "Southern Strategy" refers primarily to "top-down" narratives of the political realignment of the South which suggest that Republican leaders consciously appealed to many white southerners' racial grievances in order to gain their support. This top-down narrative of the Southern Strategy is generally believed to be the primary force that transformed Southern politics following the civil rights era. Scholar Matthew Lassiter argues that "demographic change played a more important role than racial demagoguery in the emergence of a two-party system in the American South".[291][292] Historians such as Matthew Lassiter, Kevin M. Kruse and Joseph Crespino, have presented an alternative, "bottom-up" narrative, which Lassiter has called the "suburban strategy." This narrative recognizes the centrality of racial backlash to the political realignment of the South,[290] but suggests that this backlash took the form of a defense of de facto segregation in the suburbs rather than overt resistance to racial integration and that the story of this backlash is a national rather than a strictly southern one.[293][294][295][296]

The Party's 21st-century base consists of groups such as older white men; white, married Protestants; rural residents; and non-union workers without college degrees, with urban residents, ethnic minorities, the unmarried and union workers having shifted to the Democratic Party. The suburbs have become a major battleground.[297] According to a 2015 Gallup poll, 25% of Americans identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. In comparison, 30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in 1991.[298] In 2016, The New York Times noted that the Republican Party was strong in the South, the Great Plains, and the Mountain States.[299] The 21st century Republican Party also draws strength from rural areas of the United States.[300]

Towards the end of the 1990s and in the early 21st century, the Republican Party increasingly resorted to "constitutional hardball" practices.[301][302][303]

A number of scholars have asserted that the House speakership of Republican Newt Gingrich played a key role in undermining democratic norms in the United States, hastening political polarization, and increasing partisan prejudice.[304][305][306][307][308] According to Harvard University political scientists Daniel Ziblatt and Steven Levitsky, Gingrich's speakership had a profound and lasting impact on American politics and the health of American democracy. They argue that Gingrich instilled a "combative" approach in the Republican Party, where hateful language and hyper-partisanship became commonplace, and where democratic norms were abandoned. Gingrich frequently questioned the patriotism of Democrats, called them corrupt, compared them to fascists, and accused them of wanting to destroy the United States. Gingrich was also involved in several major government shutdowns.[308][309][310][311]

Scholars have also characterized Mitch McConnell's tenure as Senate Minority Leader and Senate Majority Leader during the Obama presidency as one where obstructionism reached all-time highs.[312] Political scientists have referred to McConnell's use of the filibuster as "constitutional hardball", referring to the misuse of procedural tools in a way that undermines democracy.[301][308][313][314] McConnell delayed and obstructed health care reform and banking reform, which were two landmark pieces of legislation that Democrats sought to pass (and in fact did pass[315]) early in Obama's tenure.[316][317] By delaying Democratic priority legislation, McConnell stymied the output of Congress. Political scientists Eric Schickler and Gregory J. Wawro write, "by slowing action even on measures supported by many Republicans, McConnell capitalized on the scarcity of floor time, forcing Democratic leaders into difficult trade-offs concerning which measures were worth pursuing. That is, given that Democrats had just two years with sizeable majorities to enact as much of their agenda as possible, slowing the Senate's ability to process even routine measures limited the sheer volume of liberal bills that could be adopted."[317]

McConnell's refusal to hold hearings on Supreme Court nominee Merrick Garland during the final year of Obama's presidency was described by political scientists and legal scholars as "unprecedented",[318][319] a "culmination of this confrontational style",[320] a "blatant abuse of constitutional norms",[321] and a "classic example of constitutional hardball."[314]

After the 2020 United States presidential election was declared for Biden, President Donald Trump's refusal to concede and demands of Republican state legislatures and officials to ignore the popular vote of the states was described as "unparalleled" in American history[322] and "profoundly antidemocratic".[323] Some journalists and foreign officials have also referred to Trump as a fascist in the aftermath of the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol.[324][325][326]

Following the storming of the Capitol, a survey conducted by the American Enterprise Institute found that 56% of Republicans agreed with the statement, "The traditional American way of life is disappearing so fast that we may have to use force to save it," compared to 36% of respondents overall. Sixty percent of white evangelical Republicans agreed with the statement.[327][328][329]

Ideology and factions

In 2018, Gallup polling found that 69% of Republicans described themselves as "conservative", while 25% opted for the term "moderate", and another 5% self-identified as "liberal".[330]

When ideology is separated into social and economic issues, a 2020 Gallup poll found that 61% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents called themselves "socially conservative", 28% chose the label "socially moderate", and 10% called themselves "socially liberal".[331] On economic issues, the same 2020 poll revealed that 65% of Republicans (and Republican leaners) chose the label "economic conservative" to describe their views on fiscal policy, while 26% selected the label "economic moderate", and 7% opted for the "economic liberal" label.[331]

The modern Republican Party includes conservatives,[3] centrists,[4] fiscal conservatives, libertarians,[5] neoconservatives,[5] paleoconservatives,[332] right-wing populists,[6][7] and social conservatives.[333][334][335]

In addition to splits over ideology, the 21st-century Republican Party can be broadly divided into establishment and anti-establishment wings.[336][337] Nationwide polls of Republican voters in 2014 by the Pew Center identified a growing split in the Republican coalition, between "business conservatives" or "establishment conservatives" on one side and "steadfast conservatives" or "populist conservatives" on the other.[338]

Talk radio

In the 21st century, conservatives on talk radio and Fox News, as well as online media outlets such as the Daily Caller and Breitbart News, became a powerful influence on shaping the information received and judgments made by rank-and-file Republicans.[339][340] They include Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Larry Elder, Glenn Beck, Mark Levin, Dana Loesch, Hugh Hewitt, Mike Gallagher, Neal Boortz, Laura Ingraham, Dennis Prager, Michael Reagan, Howie Carr and Michael Savage, as well as many local commentators who support Republican causes while vocally opposing the left.[341][342][343][344] Vice President Mike Pence also had an early career in conservative talk radio, hosting The Mike Pence Show in the late 1990s before successfully running for Congress in 2000.[345]

In recent years, pundits through podcasting and radio shows like Ben Shapiro and Steven Crowder have also gained fame with a consistently younger audience through outlets such as The Daily Wire and Blaze Media.[citation needed]

Business community

The Republican Party has traditionally been a pro-business party. It garners major support from a wide variety of industries from the financial sector to small businesses. Republicans are about 50 percent more likely to be self-employed and are more likely to work in management.[346][better source needed]

A survey cited by The Washington Post in 2012 stated that 61 percent of small business owners planned to vote for Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Small business became a major theme of the 2012 Republican National Convention.[347]

Demographics

In 2006, Republicans won 38% of the voters aged 18–29.[348] In a 2018 study, members of the Silent and Baby Boomer generations were more likely to express approval of Trump's presidency than those of Generation X and Millennials.[349]

Low-income voters are more likely to identify as Democrats while high-income voters are more likely to identify as Republicans.[350] In 2012, Obama won 60% of voters with income under $50,000 and 45% of those with incomes higher than that.[351] Bush won 41% of the poorest 20% of voters in 2004, 55% of the richest twenty percent and 53% of those in between. In the 2006 House races, the voters with incomes over $50,000 were 49% Republican while those with incomes under that amount were 38% Republican.[348]

Gender

Since 1980, a "gender gap" has seen stronger support for the Republican Party among men than among women. Unmarried and divorced women were far more likely to vote for Democrat John Kerry than for Republican George W. Bush in the 2004 presidential election.[352] In 2006 House races, 43% of women voted Republican while 47% of men did so.[348] In the 2010 midterms, the "gender gap" was reduced, with women supporting Republican and Democratic candidates equally (49%–49%).[353][354] Exit polls from the 2012 elections revealed a continued weakness among unmarried women for the GOP, a large and growing portion of the electorate.[355] Although women supported Obama over Mitt Romney by a margin of 55–44% in 2012, Romney prevailed amongst married women, 53–46%.[356] Obama won unmarried women 67–31%.[357] According to a December 2019 study, "white women are the only group of female voters who support Republican Party candidates for president. They have done so by a majority in all but 2 of the last 18 elections".[358]

Education

In 2012, the Pew Research Center conducted a study of registered voters with a 35–28 Democrat-to-Republican gap. They found that self-described Democrats had an eight-point advantage over Republicans among college graduates and a fourteen-point advantage among all post-graduates polled. Republicans had an eleven-point advantage among white men with college degrees; Democrats had a ten-point advantage among women with degrees. Democrats accounted for 36% of all respondents with an education of high school or less; Republicans accounted for 28%. When isolating just white registered voters polled, Republicans had a six-point advantage overall and a nine-point advantage among those with a high school education or less.[359] Following the 2016 presidential election, exit polls indicated that "Donald Trump attracted a large share of the vote from whites without a college degree, receiving 72 percent of the white non-college male vote and 62 percent of the white non-college female vote." Overall, 52% of voters with college degrees voted for Hillary Clinton in 2016, while 52% of voters without college degrees voted for Trump.[360]

Ethnicity

Republicans have been winning under 15% of the black vote in recent national elections (1980 to 2016). The party abolished chattel slavery under Abraham Lincoln, defeated the Slave Power, and gave blacks the legal right to vote during Reconstruction in the late 1860s. Until the New Deal of the 1930s, blacks supported the Republican Party by large margins.[361] Black delegates were a sizable share of southern delegates to the national Republican convention from Reconstruction until the start of the 20th century when their share began to decline.[362] Black voters began shifting away from the Republican Party after the close of Reconstruction through the early 20th century, with the rise of the southern-Republican lily-white movement.[363] Blacks shifted in large margins to the Democratic Party in the 1930s, when major Democratic figures such as Eleanor Roosevelt began to support civil rights and the New Deal offered them employment opportunities. They became one of the core components of the New Deal coalition. In the South, after the Voting Rights Act to prohibit racial discrimination in elections was passed by a bipartisan coalition in 1965, blacks were able to vote again and ever since have formed a significant portion (20–50%) of the Democratic vote in that region.[364]

In the 2010 elections, two African-American Republicans—Tim Scott and Allen West—were elected to the House of Representatives.[365]

In recent decades, Republicans have been moderately successful in gaining support from Hispanic and Asian American voters. George W. Bush, who campaigned energetically for Hispanic votes, received 35% of their vote in 2000 and 39% in 2004.[366] The party's strong anti-communist stance has made it popular among some minority groups from current and former Communist states, in particular Cuban Americans, Korean Americans, Chinese Americans and Vietnamese Americans. The 2007 election of Bobby Jindal as Governor of Louisiana was hailed as pathbreaking.[367] Jindal became the first elected minority governor in Louisiana and the first state governor of Indian descent.[368] According to John Avlon, in 2013, the Republican party was more ethnically diverse at the statewide elected official level than the Democratic Party was; GOP statewide elected officials included Latino Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and African-American U.S. senator Tim Scott of South Carolina.[369]

In 2012, 88% of Romney voters were white while 56% of Obama voters were white.[370] In the 2008 presidential election, John McCain won 55% of white votes, 35% of Asian votes, 31% of Hispanic votes and 4% of African American votes.[371] In the 2010 House election, Republicans won 60% of the white votes, 38% of Hispanic votes and 9% of the African American vote.[372]

As of 2020, Republican candidates had lost the popular vote in seven out of the last eight presidential elections.[373] Since 1992, the only time they won the popular vote in a presidential election is the 2004 United States presidential election. Demographers have pointed to the steady decline (as a percentage of the eligible voters) of its core base of older, rural white men.[374][375][376][377] However, Donald Trump managed to increase nonwhite support to 26% of his total votes in the 2020 election — the highest percentage for a GOP presidential candidate since 1960.[378][379]

Religious beliefs

Religion has always played a major role for both parties, but in the course of a century, the parties' religious compositions have changed. Religion was a major dividing line between the parties before 1960, with Catholics, Jews, and southern Protestants heavily Democratic and northeastern Protestants heavily Republican. Most of the old differences faded away after the realignment of the 1970s and 1980s that undercut the New Deal coalition.[380] Voters who attended church weekly gave 61% of their votes to Bush in 2004; those who attended occasionally gave him only 47%; and those who never attended gave him 36%. Fifty-nine percent of Protestants voted for Bush, along with 52% of Catholics (even though John Kerry was Catholic). Since 1980, a large majority of evangelicals has voted Republican; 70–80% voted for Bush in 2000 and 2004 and 70% for Republican House candidates in 2006. Jews continue to vote 70–80% Democratic. Democrats have close links with the African American churches, especially the National Baptists, while their historic dominance among Catholic voters has eroded to 54–46 in the 2010 midterms.[381] The mainline traditional Protestants (Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians and Disciples) have dropped to about 55% Republican (in contrast to 75% before 1968).

Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Utah and neighboring states voted 75% or more for George W. Bush in 2000.[382] Members of the Mormon faith had a mixed relationship with Donald Trump during his tenure, despite 67% of them voting for him in 2016 and 56% of them supporting his presidency in 2018, disapproving of his personal behavior such as that shown during the Access Hollywood controversy.[383] Their opinion on Trump hadn't affected their party affiliation, however, as 76% of Mormons in 2018 expressed preference for generic Republican congressional candidates.[384]

While Catholic Republican leaders try to stay in line with the teachings of the Catholic Church on subjects such as abortion, euthanasia, embryonic stem cell research and same-sex marriage, they differ on the death penalty and contraception.[385] Pope Francis' 2015 encyclical Laudato si' sparked a discussion on the positions of Catholic Republicans in relation to the positions of the Church. The Pope's encyclical on behalf of the Catholic Church officially acknowledges a man-made climate change caused by burning fossil fuels.[386] The Pope says the warming of the planet is rooted in a throwaway culture and the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet in pursuit of short-term economic gains. According to The New York Times, Laudato si' put pressure on the Catholic candidates in the 2016 election: Jeb Bush, Bobby Jindal, Marco Rubio and Rick Santorum.[387] With leading Democrats praising the encyclical, James Bretzke, a professor of moral theology at Boston College, has said that both sides were being disingenuous: "I think it shows that both the Republicans and the Democrats ... like to use religious authority and, in this case, the Pope to support positions they have arrived at independently ... There is a certain insincerity, hypocrisy I think, on both sides".[388] While a Pew Research poll indicates Catholics are more likely to believe the Earth is warming than non-Catholics, 51% of Catholic Republicans believe in global warming (less than the general population) and only 24% of Catholic Republicans believe global warming is caused by human activity.[389]

In 2016, a slim majority of Orthodox Jews voted for the Republican Party, following years of growing Orthodox Jewish support for the party due to its social conservatism and increasingly pro-Israel foreign policy stance.[390] An exit poll conducted by the Associated Press for 2020 found 35% of Muslims voted for Donald Trump.[391]

Republican presidents

As of 2021, there have been a total of 19 Republican presidents.

# President Portrait State Presidency
start date
Presidency
end date
Time in office
16 Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865) Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg Illinois March 4, 1861 April 15, 1865[b] 4 years, 42 days
18 Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885) Ulysses S Grant by Brady c1870-restored.jpg Illinois March 4, 1869 March 4, 1877 8 years, 0 days
19 Rutherford B. Hayes (1822–1893) President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg Ohio March 4, 1877 March 4, 1881 4 years, 0 days
20 James A. Garfield (1831–1881) James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg Ohio March 4, 1881 September 19, 1881[b] 199 days
21 Chester A. Arthur (1829–1886) Chester A. Arthur portrait c1882.jpg New York September 19, 1881 March 4, 1885 3 years, 166 days
23 Benjamin Harrison (1833–1901) Benjamin Harrison, head and shoulders bw photo, 1896.jpg Indiana March 4, 1889 March 4, 1893 4 years, 0 days
25 William McKinley (1843–1901) Mckinley.jpg Ohio March 4, 1897 September 14, 1901[b] 4 years, 194 days
26 Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) President Roosevelt - Pach Bros.jpg New York September 14, 1901 March 4, 1909 7 years, 171 days
27 William Howard Taft (1857–1930) William Howard Taft, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing front.jpg Ohio March 4, 1909 March 4, 1913 4 years, 0 days
29 Warren G. Harding (1865–1923) Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg Ohio March 4, 1921 August 2, 1923[b] 2 years, 151 days
30 Calvin Coolidge (1872–1933) Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777 (cropped).jpg Massachusetts August 2, 1923 March 4, 1929 5 years, 214 days
31 Herbert Hoover (1874–1964) President Hoover portrait.jpg California March 4, 1929 March 4, 1933 4 years, 0 days
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890–1969) Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg Kansas January 20, 1953 January 20, 1961 8 years, 0 days
37 Richard Nixon (1913–1994) Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679 (3x4).jpg California January 20, 1969 August 9, 1974[c] 5 years, 201 days
38 Gerald Ford (1913–2006) Gerald Ford presidential portrait (cropped 2).jpg Michigan August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977 2 years, 164 days
40 Ronald Reagan (1911–2004) Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981-cropped.jpg California January 20, 1981 January 20, 1989 8 years, 0 days
41 George H. W. Bush (1924–2018) George H. W. Bush presidential portrait (cropped 2).jpg Texas January 20, 1989 January 20, 1993 4 years, 0 days
43 George W. Bush (born 1946) George-W-Bush.jpeg Texas January 20, 2001 January 20, 2009 8 years, 0 days
45 Donald Trump (born 1946) Donald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg New York January 20, 2017 January 20, 2021 4 years, 0 days

Current Supreme Court Justices appointed by Republican presidents

As of January 2021, six of the nine seats are filled by Justices appointed by Republican Presidents George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Donald Trump.

Portrait Justice Senate Vote Since President
Clarence Thomas, official SCOTUS portrait, crop.jpg Clarence Thomas

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

52–48 October 3, 1991 George H. W. Bush
Official roberts CJ.jpg John Roberts Jr.

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

78–22 September 29, 2005 George W. Bush
Samuel Alito official photo (cropped).jpg Samuel Alito Jr.

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

58–42 January 31, 2006
Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch Official Portrait (cropped).jpg Neil Gorsuch

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

54–45 April 10, 2017 Donald Trump
Associate Justice Brett Kavanaugh Official Portrait.jpg Brett Kavanaugh

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

50–48 October 6, 2018
Amy Coney Barrett.png Amy Coney Barrett

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

52–48 October 27, 2020

Recent electoral history

In congressional elections: 1950–present

United States
Congressional Elections
House Election year No. of
overall House seats won
+/– Presidency No. of
overall Senate seats won
+/–[392] Senate Election year
1950
199 / 435
Increase 28 Harry S. Truman
47 / 96
Increase 5 1950
1952
221 / 435
Increase 22 Dwight D. Eisenhower
49 / 96
Increase 2 1952
1954
203 / 435
Decrease 18
47 / 96
Decrease 2 1954
1956
201 / 435
Decrease 2
47 / 96
Steady 0 1956
1958
153 / 435
Decrease 48
34 / 98
Decrease 13 1958
1960
175 / 435
Increase 22 John F. Kennedy
35 / 100
Increase 1 1960
1962
176 / 435
Increase 1
34 / 100
Decrease 3 1962
1964
140 / 435
Decrease 36 Lyndon B. Johnson
32 / 100
Decrease 2 1964
1966
187 / 435
Increase 47
38 / 100
Increase 3 1966
1968
192 / 435
Increase 5 Richard Nixon
42 / 100
Increase 5 1968
1970
180 / 435
Decrease 12
44 / 100
Increase 2 1970
1972
192 / 435
Increase 12
41 / 100
Decrease 2 1972
1974
144 / 435
Decrease 48 Gerald Ford
38 / 100
Decrease 3 1974
1976
143 / 435
Decrease 1 Jimmy Carter
38 / 100
Increase 1 1976
1978
158 / 435
Increase 15
41 / 100
Increase 3 1978
1980
192 / 435
Increase 34 Ronald Reagan
53 / 100
Increase 12 1980
1982
166 / 435
Decrease 26
54 / 100
Steady 0 1982
1984
182 / 435
Increase 16
53 / 100
Decrease 2 1984
1986
177 / 435
Decrease 5
45 / 100
Decrease 8 1986
1988
175 / 435
Decrease 2 George H. W. Bush
45 / 100
Decrease 1 1988
1990
167 / 435
Decrease 8
44 / 100
Decrease 1 1990
1992
176 / 435
Increase 9 Bill Clinton
43 / 100
Steady 0 1992
1994
230 / 435
Increase 54
53 / 100
Increase 8 1994
1996
227 / 435
Decrease 3
55 / 100
Increase 2 1996
1998
223 / 435
Decrease 4
55 / 100
Steady 0 1998
2000
221 / 435
Decrease 2 George W. Bush
50 / 100
Decrease 4[393] 2000
2002
229 / 435
Increase 8
51 / 100
Increase 2 2002
2004
232 / 435
Increase 3
55 / 100
Increase 4 2004
2006
202 / 435
Decrease 30
49 / 100
Decrease 6 2006
2008
178 / 435
Decrease 21 Barack Obama
41 / 100
Decrease 8 2008
2010
242 / 435
Increase 63
47 / 100
Increase 6 2010
2012
234 / 435
Decrease 8
45 / 100
Decrease 2 2012
2014
247 / 435
Increase 13
54 / 100
Increase 9 2014
2016
241 / 435
Decrease 6 Donald Trump
52 / 100
Decrease 2 2016
2018
200 / 435
Decrease 41
53 / 100
Increase 2 2018
2020
213 / 435
Increase 14 Joe Biden
50 / 100
Decrease 3 2020

In presidential elections: 1856–present

Election Candidate Votes Vote % Electoral votes +/– Result
1856 John C. Frémont 1,342,345 33.1
114 / 296
Increase114 Lost
1860 Abraham Lincoln 1,865,908 39.8
180 / 303
Increase66 Won
1864 Abraham Lincoln 2,218,388 55.0
212 / 233
Increase32 Won
1868 Ulysses S. Grant 3,013,421 52.7
214 / 294
Increase2 Won
1872 Ulysses S. Grant 3,598,235 55.6
286 / 352
Increase72 Won
1876 Rutherford B. Hayes 4,034,311 47.9
185 / 369
Decrease134 Won[C]
1880 James A. Garfield 4,446,158 48.3
214 / 369
Increase29 Won
1884 James G. Blaine 4,856,905 48.3
182 / 401
Decrease32 Lost
1888 Benjamin Harrison 5,443,892 47.8
233 / 401
Increase51 Won[D]
1892 Benjamin Harrison 5,176,108 43.0
145 / 444
Decrease88 Lost
1896 William McKinley 7,111,607 51.0
271 / 447
Increase126 Won
1900 William McKinley 7,228,864 51.6
292 / 447
Increase21 Won
1904 Theodore Roosevelt 7,630,457 56.4
336 / 476
Increase44 Won
1908 William Howard Taft 7,678,395 51.6
321 / 483
Decrease15 Won
1912 William Howard Taft 3,486,242 23.2
8 / 531
Decrease313 Lost[E]
1916 Charles E. Hughes 8,548,728 46.1
254 / 531
Increase246 Lost
1920 Warren G. Harding 16,144,093 60.3
404 / 531
Increase150 Won
1924 Calvin Coolidge 15,723,789 54.0
382 / 531
Decrease22 Won
1928 Herbert Hoover 21,427,123 58.2
444 / 531
Increase62 Won
1932 Herbert Hoover 15,761,254 39.7
59 / 531
Decrease385 Lost
1936 Alf Landon 16,679,543 36.5
8 / 531
Decrease51 Lost
1940 Wendell Willkie 22,347,744 44.8
82 / 531
Increase74 Lost
1944 Thomas E. Dewey 22,017,929 45.9
99 / 531
Increase17 Lost
1948 Thomas E. Dewey 21,991,292 45.1
189 / 531
Increase90 Lost
1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower 34,075,529 55.2
442 / 531
Increase253 Won
1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower 35,579,180 57.4
457 / 531
Increase15 Won
1960 Richard Nixon 34,108,157 49.6
219 / 537
Decrease238 Lost
1964 Barry Goldwater 27,175,754 38.5
52 / 538
Decrease167 Lost
1968 Richard Nixon 31,783,783 43.4
301 / 538
Increase249 Won
1972 Richard Nixon 47,168,710 60.7
520 / 538
Increase219 Won
1976 Gerald Ford 38,148,634 48.0
240 / 538
Decrease280 Lost
1980 Ronald Reagan 43,903,230 50.7
489 / 538
Increase249 Won
1984 Ronald Reagan 54,455,472 58.8
525 / 538
Increase36 Won
1988 George H. W. Bush 48,886,097 53.4
426 / 538
Decrease99 Won
1992 George H. W. Bush 39,104,550 37.4
168 / 538
Decrease258 Lost
1996 Bob Dole 39,197,469 40.7
159 / 538
Decrease9 Lost
2000 George W. Bush 50,456,002 47.9
271 / 538
Increase112 Won[F]
2004 George W. Bush 62,040,610 50.7
286 / 538
Increase15 Won
2008 John McCain 59,948,323 45.7
173 / 538
Decrease113 Lost
2012 Mitt Romney 60,933,504 47.2
206 / 538
Increase33 Lost
2016 Donald Trump 62,984,828 46.1
304 / 538
Increase98 Won[G]
2020 Donald Trump 74,216,154 46.9
232 / 538
Decrease72 Lost

Groups supporting the Republican Party

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Republicans are the minority party in the Senate because of Vice President Kamala Harris's tie-breaking vote, as independents Bernie Sanders and Angus King caucus with the 48 Democrats, effectively making the Senate 50–50.
  2. ^ a b c d Died in office.
  3. ^ Resigned from office.
  1. ^ All major Republican geographic constituencies are visible: red dominates the map—showing Republican strength in the rural areas—while the denser areas (i.e. cities) are blue. Notable exceptions include the Pacific coast, New England, the Southern United States, areas with high Native American populations and the heavily Hispanic parts of the southwest
  2. ^ Similar to the 2004 map, Republicans dominate in rural areas, making improvements in the Appalachian states, namely Kentucky, where the party won all but two counties; and West Virginia, where every county in the state voted Republican. The party also improved in many rural counties in Iowa, Wisconsin and other midwestern states. Contrarily, the party suffered substantial losses in urbanized areas such Dallas, Harris, Fort Bend, and Tarrant counties in Texas and Orange and San Diego counties in California, all of which were won in 2004, but lost in 2020
  3. ^ Although Hayes won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden won a majority of the popular vote.
  4. ^ Although Harrison won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Grover Cleveland won a plurality of the popular vote.
  5. ^ Taft finished in third place in both the electoral and popular vote, behind Progressive Theodore Roosevelt.
  6. ^ Although Bush won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Al Gore won a plurality of the popular vote.
  7. ^ Although Trump won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Hillary Clinton won a plurality of the popular vote.

References

  1. ^ The Origin of the Republican Party by Prof. A. F. Gilman, Ripon College, WI, 1914.
  2. ^ Winger, Richard. "March 2021 Ballot Access News Print Edition". Ballot Access News. Retrieved April 1, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Paul Gottfried, Conservatism in America: Making Sense of the American Right, p. 9, "Postwar conservatives set about creating their own synthesis of free-market capitalism, Christian morality, and the global struggle against Communism." (2009); Gottfried, Theologies and moral concern (1995) p. 12.
  4. ^ a b Siegel, Josh (July 18, 2017). "Centrist Republicans and Democrats meet to devise bipartisan healthcare plan". The Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on May 5, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Miller, William J. (2013). The 2012 Nomination and the Future of the Republican Party. Lexington Books. p. 39.
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