Carolina do Norte

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Carolina do Norte
Estado da carolina do norte
Apelido (s): 
Old North State; Estado de Tar Heel
Lema (s): 
Esse quam videri : [1] "Ser, em vez de parecer"
Hino: O Velho Estado do Norte
Map of the United States with North Carolina highlighted
Mapa dos Estados Unidos com a Carolina do Norte em destaque
PaísEstados Unidos
Antes da condição de estadoProvíncia da Carolina do Norte
Admitido no sindicato21 de novembro de 1789 (12)
CapitalRaleigh
A maior cidadeCharlotte
Maiores áreas metropolitanas e urbanasGrande Charlotte
Governo
 •  GovernadorRoy Cooper ( D )
 •  Tenente GovernadorMark Robinson ( R )
 •  Câmara altaSenado
 •  Câmara baixaCâmara dos Representantes
JudiciárioSuprema Corte da Carolina do Norte
Senadores americanosRichard Burr ( R )
Thom Tillis ( R )
Delegação da Câmara dos EUA
  • 8 republicanos
  • 5 democratas
( lista )
Área
 • Total53.819 sq mi (139.390 km 2 )
 • Terra48.711 sq mi (126.161 km 2 )
 • Água1.972 sq mi (5.108 km 2 ) 9,5%
Classificação de área28º
Dimensões
 • Comprimento500 [2]  mi (804 km)
 • Largura184 mi (296 km)
Elevação
700 pés (210 m)
Elevação mais alta6.684 pés (2.037 m)
Elevação mais baixa
(Oceano Atlântico [3] )
0 pés (0 m)
População
 (2020)
 • Total10.453.948
 • Classificação
 • Densidade214,6 / sq mi (82,9 / km 2 )
 • Classificação de densidadeDia 15
 •  Renda familiar média
$ 52.752 [5]
 • Classificação de renda
39º
Demônimo (s)Caroline do Norte (oficial);
Tar Heel (coloquial)
Língua
 •  Língua oficialInglês [6]
 •  Língua faladaEm 2010 [7]
  • Inglês 90,70%
  • Espanhol 6,93%
  • Outros 2,73%
Fuso horárioUTC − 05: 00 ( Leste )
 • Verão ( DST )UTC − 04: 00 ( EDT )
Abreviatura USPS
NC
Código ISO 3166US-NC
Abreviatura tradicionalNC
Latitude33 ° 50 ′ N a 36 ° 35 ′ N
Longitude75 ° 28 ′ W a 84 ° 19 ′ W
Local na rede Internetwww .nc .gov
Símbolos estaduais da Carolina do Norte
Flag of North Carolina.svg
Seal of North Carolina.svg
Insígnia viva
PássaroCardeal
BorboletaRabo de andorinha de tigre oriental
PeixeTambor vermelho
FlorDogwood em flor
InsetoAbelha ocidental
MamíferoEsquilo cinza oriental
MarsupialGambá da Virgínia
RéptilTartaruga de caixa oriental
ÁrvorePinho
Insígnia inanimada
BebidaLeite
Coresvermelho e azul
DançaShag
ComidaUva scuppernong e batata doce
FóssilDentes de Megalodon
GemstoneEsmeralda
MineralOuro
LemaEsse quam videri
("Ser, em vez de parecer") [1]
RochaGranito
ConchaChapéu escocês
SloganPrimeiro em vôo; Primeiro em liberdade (não oficial)
Canção" O Velho Estado do Norte "
De outrosSapo: Sapo Pinheiro Barrens
Marcador de rota estadual
North Carolina state route marker
Bairro estadual
North Carolina quarter dollar coin
Lançado em 2001
Listas de símbolos estaduais dos Estados Unidos

Carolina do Norte ( / ˌ k ær ə l n ə / ( escute )About this sound ) é um estado no sudeste da região dos Estados Unidos. A Carolina do Norte é a 28ª maior e a 9ª mais populosa dos 50 Estados Unidos . Faz fronteira com a Virgínia ao norte, o Oceano Atlântico a leste, Geórgia e Carolina do Sul ao sul e Tennessee a oeste. Raleigh é a capital do estadoe Charlotte é sua maior cidade. A área metropolitana de Charlotte , com uma população estimada de 2.569.213 em 2018, é a área metropolitana mais populosa da Carolina do Norte, a 23ª mais populosa dos Estados Unidos e o maior centro bancário do país depois da cidade de Nova York . [8] A área estatística combinada Raleigh-Durham-Cary é a segunda maior área metropolitana do estado, com uma população estimada de 2.079.687 em 2019, e abriga o maior parque de pesquisa dos Estados Unidos, o Research Triangle Park .

As primeiras descobertas de ocupação humana na Carolina do Norte datam de 10.000 anos atrás, encontradas em Hardaway Site . A Carolina do Norte era habitada por tribos de nativos americanos Carolina , Iroquoia e Siouan, antes da chegada dos europeus. A Carolina do Norte foi estabelecida como uma colônia real em 1729 e foi uma das Treze Colônias . A Carolina do Norte foi nomeada em homenagem ao rei Carlos I da Inglaterra, que primeiro formou a colônia inglesa, Carolus sendo "Charles" em latim. O Halifax ResolveA resolução adotada pela Carolina do Norte em 12 de abril de 1776 foi o primeiro pedido formal de independência da Grã-Bretanha entre as colônias americanas durante a Revolução Americana . [9]

Em 21 de novembro de 1789, a Carolina do Norte se tornou o 12º estado a ratificar a constituição dos Estados Unidos . No período que antecedeu a Guerra Civil Americana , a Carolina do Norte declarou sua secessão da União em 20 de maio de 1861, tornando-se o décimo dos onze estados a aderir aos Estados Confederados da América . Após a Guerra Civil, o estado foi restaurado à União em 4 de julho de 1868. [10] Em 17 de dezembro de 1903, Orville e Wilbur Wright pilotaram com sucesso o primeiro vôo sustentado do mundo de uma aeronave motorizada e mais pesada que o ar em Kitty Hawk em Outer Banks da Carolina do Norte. A Carolina do Norte usa o slogan "First in Flight" nas placas estaduais para comemorar essa conquista, ao lado de um novo design alternativo com o slogan "First in Freedom" em referência à Declaração de Mecklenburg e às Resoluções de Halifax .

A Carolina do Norte é definida por uma ampla gama de elevações e paisagens. De oeste a leste, a elevação da Carolina do Norte desce dos Montes Apalaches até o Piemonte e a planície costeira do Atlântico . O Monte Mitchell na Carolina do Norte com 6.684 pés (2.037  m) é o ponto mais alto da América do Norte a leste do rio Mississippi . [11] A maior parte do estado cai na zona de clima subtropical úmido ; no entanto, a parte montanhosa ocidental do estado tem um clima subtropical de terras altas .

História

Nativos americanos, perdeu colônia, e assentamento permanente

Cerimônia dos guerreiros de Secotan na Carolina do Norte. Aquarela pintada pelo colono inglês John White em 1585.
Uma placa em homenagem ao primeiro indígena convertido ao cristianismo, Manteo , na colônia Roanoke

A Carolina do Norte foi habitada por pelo menos dez mil anos por culturas indígenas pré-históricas sucessivas . O Sítio Hardaway viu grandes períodos de ocupação datando de 10.000 anos aC. Antes de 200 DC, as pessoas estavam construindo plataformas de terraplenagem , que eram usadas para fins cerimoniais e religiosos. Povos que se sucederam, incluindo aqueles da cultura do Mississippian dos Apalaches do Sul , estabelecida por volta de 1000 DC no Piemonte e região montanhosa, continuou a construir este estilo de montes. Em contraste com alguns dos maiores centros da cultura clássica do Mississippi (conforme observado abaixo), no que ficou conhecido como Carolinas ocidentais, nordeste da Geórgia e sudeste do Tennessee, a maioria das cidades maiores tinha apenas um monte de plataforma central. Os assentamentos menores não tiveram nenhum, mas se desenvolveram perto das cidades mais proeminentes. Esta área ficou conhecida como a terra natal do povo histórico Cherokee, que se acredita ter migrado ao longo do tempo da área dos Grandes Lagos .

Nos 500-700 anos que precederam o contato com a Europa, a cultura do Mississippi construiu cidades grandes e complexas e manteve extensas redes comerciais regionais. Sua maior cidade era Cahokia , que tinha vários montes para diferentes propósitos, uma sociedade altamente estratificada, e estava localizada no atual sudoeste de Illinois, perto do rio Mississippi. A política nativa da cultura do Mississippi se desfez e se reformou como novos grupos, como os Catawba, devido a uma série de eventos desestabilizadores conhecidos como "zona de estilhaçamento do Mississippian". Conforme descrito pelo antropólogo Robbie Ethridge, a zona de fragmentação do Mississippian era uma área de grande instabilidade, no que hoje é o Sul dos Estados Unidos, causada pela instabilidade dos chefes do Mississippian, alta mortalidade por novas doenças da Eurásia, construção de uma economia capitalista global baseada no comércio de escravos nativos americanos, e o surgimento de "sociedades escravistas militaristas" nativas. [12]

Tribos historicamente documentados na região da Carolina do Norte incluem a Carolina Algonquian -Falando tribos das áreas costeiras, como o chowanoc , Roanoke , Pamlico , Machapunga , Coree , e Cabo índios medo , que foram os primeiros encontrada pelo Inglês; os Meherrin , Cherokee e Tuscarora, do interior, de língua iroquesa ; e tribos do sudeste Siouan , como Cheraw , Waxhaw , Saponi , Waccamaw eCatawba do Piemonte.

No final do século 16, os primeiros exploradores espanhóis viajando para o interior registraram encontros com pessoas da cultura do Mississippi em Joara , uma chefia regional próxima ao que mais tarde se desenvolveu como Morganton . Registros de Hernando de Soto atestam seu encontro com eles em 1540. Em 1567, o capitão Juan Pardo liderou uma expedição para reivindicar a área para a colônia espanhola e estabelecer outra rota para chegar às minas de prata no México. Pardo fez uma base de inverno em Joara, que rebatizou de Cuenca . Sua expedição construiu o Forte San Juane deixou um contingente de 30 homens lá, enquanto Pardo viajava mais longe. Suas forças construíram e guarneceram cinco outros fortes. Ele voltou por uma rota diferente para Santa Elena em Parris Island, Carolina do Sul , então um centro da Flórida espanhola . Na primavera de 1568, os nativos mataram todos, exceto um dos soldados espanhóis e queimaram os seis fortes no interior, incluindo o do Forte San Juan. Embora os espanhóis nunca tenham voltado ao interior, esse esforço marcou a primeira tentativa européia de colonização do interior do que veio a ser os Estados Unidos. Um jornal do século 16 do escriba de Pardo Bandera, e achados arqueológicos desde 1986 em Joara, confirmaram o assentamento. [13] [14]

John White retorna para encontrar a colônia abandonada

Assentamento Anglo-European

Em 1584, Elizabeth I concedeu um foral a Sir Walter Raleigh , que dá nome à capital do estado, para terras na atual Carolina do Norte (então parte do território da Virgínia ). [15] Foi o segundo território americano que os ingleses tentaram colonizar. Raleigh estabeleceu duas colônias na costa no final da década de 1580, mas ambas falharam. O destino da " Colônia Perdida " da Ilha Roanoke continua sendo um dos mistérios mais debatidos da história americana. Virginia Dare , a primeira criança inglesa a nascer na América do Norte, nasceu na Ilha Roanoke em 18 de agosto de 1587; Dare County tem o nome dela.

Mapa da costa da Virgínia e da Carolina do Norte, desenhado de 1585 a 1586 por Theodor de Bry , com base no mapa de John White da Colônia Roanoke

Já em 1650, os colonos da colônia da Virgínia haviam se mudado para a área de Albemarle Sound . Em 1663, o rei Carlos II da Inglaterra concedeu uma carta para iniciar uma nova colônia no continente norte-americano; isso geralmente estabeleceria as fronteiras da Carolina do Norte. Ele a chamou de Carolina em homenagem a seu pai, Charles  I . [16] Em 1665, uma segunda carta foi emitida para tentar resolver questões territoriais. Em 1710, devido a disputas sobre governança, a colônia da Carolina começou a se dividir em Carolina do Norte e Carolina do Sul . Esta se tornou uma colônia da coroa em 1729.

Mais tarde, nos anos 1700, uma série de epidemias de varíola varreu o Sul, causando muitas fatalidades entre os nativos americanos, que não tinham imunidade à nova doença (ela havia se tornado endêmica ao longo dos séculos na Europa). [17] De acordo com o historiador Russel Thornton, "A epidemia de 1738 matou metade dos Cherokee , com outras tribos da área sofrendo igualmente." [18]

Período colonial e guerra revolucionária

Mansão do governador real reconstruída Tryon Palace , em New Bern

Depois dos espanhóis no século 16, os primeiros colonos europeus permanentes da Carolina do Norte foram colonos ingleses que migraram para o sul da Virgínia . Este último cresceu rapidamente e a terra estava menos disponível. Nathaniel Batts foi documentado como um dos primeiros desses migrantes da Virgínia. Ele se estabeleceu ao sul do rio Chowan e a leste do Great Dismal Swamp em 1655. [19] Em 1663, esta área do nordeste da província de Carolina , conhecida como Albemarle Settlements , estava passando por uma colonização inglesa em grande escala. [20] Durante o mesmo período, o monarca inglês Carlos  II deu a província aoLords Proprietors , um grupo de nobres que ajudaram a restaurá-lo ao trono em 1660. A nova província de Carolina foi nomeada em homenagem e memória de seu pai, Carlos  I (latim: Carolus ). Uma grande revolta aconteceu no estado em 1711, conhecida como Rebelião de Cary . Em 1712, a Carolina do Norte se tornou uma colônia separada. Exceto pelas propriedades do conde Granville , tornou-se uma colônia real dezessete anos depois. [21]

Em junho de 1718, o pirata Barba Negra comandou sua nau capitânia, a Queen Anne's Revenge , encalhada em Beaufort Inlet, Carolina do Norte, no atual condado de Carteret . Após o encalhe, sua tripulação e suprimentos foram transferidos para navios menores. Em novembro de 1718, depois de apelar ao governador da Carolina do Norte, que prometeu abrigo e perdão, Barba Negra foi morto em uma emboscada por tropas da Virgínia. [22] Em 1996, a Intersal, Inc., uma empresa privada, descobriu os restos de um navio que provavelmente seria o Queen Anne's Revenge , que foi adicionado ao Registro Nacional de Locais Históricos dos Estados Unidos . [23]

A Carolina do Norte tornou-se uma das Treze Colônias Inglesas e com o território da Carolina do Sul era originalmente conhecido como a Província da Carolina do Norte . As partes norte e sul da província original separaram-se em 1729. Originalmente colonizada por pequenos agricultores, às vezes tendo alguns escravos, que eram orientados para a agricultura de subsistência, a colônia carecia de grandes cidades ou vilas. Os piratas ameaçaram os assentamentos costeiros, mas em 1718 os piratas foram capturados e mortos. O crescimento foi forte em meados do século 18, quando a economia atraiu imigrantes escoceses-irlandeses , quacres , ingleses e alemães . A maioria dos colonos da Carolina do Norte geralmente apoiava a Revolução Americana , embora houvesse um pequeno número de legalistas . Os legalistas na Carolina do Norte eram em menor número do que em algumas outras colônias, como Geórgia, Carolina do Sul, Delaware e Nova York.

Durante a época colonial, Edenton serviu como capital do estado a partir de 1722, seguida por New Bern tornando-se a capital em 1766. A construção do Palácio Tryon , que serviu de residência e escritórios do governador provincial William Tryon , começou em 1767 e foi concluída em 1771. Em 1788, Raleigh foi escolhida como sede da nova capital, pois sua localização central a protegia de ataques costeiros. Oficialmente estabelecida em 1792 como sede de condado e capital do estado, a cidade foi nomeada em homenagem a Sir Walter Raleigh , patrocinador de Roanoke , a "colônia perdida" na Ilha Roanoke . [24]A população da colônia mais que quadruplicou de 52.000 em 1740 para 270.000 em 1780 devido à alta imigração da Virgínia, Maryland e Pensilvânia , além de imigrantes do exterior. [25]

As diferenças nos padrões de povoamento do leste e oeste da Carolina do Norte, ou da planície costeira do Atlântico e planaltos, afetaram a vida política, econômica e social do estado do século 18 até o século 20. O leste da Carolina do Norte foi colonizado principalmente por imigrantes da Inglaterra rural e das Terras Altas da Escócia . O interior do Piemonte e a região montanhosa do oeste da Carolina do Norte foram colonizados principalmente por protestantes escoceses-irlandeses , ingleses e alemães , os chamados " cohee". Chegando durante a metade do século 18, os escoceses-irlandeses do que é hoje a Irlanda do Norte foram o maior grupo de imigrantes não ingleses antes da Revolução; os servos contratados ingleses eram esmagadoramente o maior grupo de imigrantes antes da Revolução. [26] [27] [28] [29] Durante a Guerra Revolucionária Americana , os ingleses e escoceses do leste da Carolina do Norte tenderam a permanecer leais à Coroa britânica, por causa de negócios de longa data e conexões pessoais com a Grã-Bretanha. Ingleses, galeses, escoceses -Os colonos irlandeses e alemães do oeste da Carolina do Norte tenderam a favorecer a independência americana da Grã-Bretanha.

A maioria dos colonos ingleses havia chegado como servos contratados, contratando-se como trabalhadores por um período fixo para pagar a passagem. Nos primeiros anos, a linha entre os servos contratados e os escravos ou trabalhadores africanos era fluida. Alguns africanos foram autorizados a ganhar sua liberdade antes que a escravidão se tornasse um status vitalício. A maioria das famílias de cor livres formadas na Carolina do Norte antes da Revolução descendia de uniões ou casamentos entre mulheres brancas livres e homens escravos ou livres africanos ou afro-americanos. Porque as mães eram livres, seus filhos nasceram livres. Muitos migraram ou eram descendentes de migrantes da Virgínia colonial. [30]À medida que o fluxo de trabalhadores contratados para a colônia diminuía com a melhoria das condições econômicas na Grã-Bretanha , os fazendeiros importavam mais escravos e as delimitações legais do estado entre o status de livre e escravo se tornavam mais rígidas, efetivamente endurecendo o último em uma casta racial. O crescimento e a prosperidade da economia baseavam-se no trabalho escravo, voltado principalmente para a produção de fumo.

Em 12 de abril de 1776, a colônia se tornou a primeira a instruir seus delegados ao Congresso Continental a votarem pela independência da Coroa britânica, por meio da Resolução Halifax aprovada pelo Congresso Provincial da Carolina do Norte . A data deste evento é memorizada na bandeira e no selo do estado . Ao longo da Guerra Revolucionária, uma feroz guerra de guerrilha eclodiu entre bandos de colonos pró-independência e pró-britânicos. Em alguns casos, a guerra também foi uma desculpa para resolver rancores e rivalidades privadas.

Durante a Guerra Revolucionária , a Carolina do Norte teve cerca de 7.800 homens ingressando no Exército Continental sob o comando do General George Washington ; e outros 10.000 serviram em unidades de milícias locais sob líderes como o general Nathanael Greene . [31] Houve alguma ação militar, especialmente em 1780-81. Muitos homens da fronteira carolinianos se mudaram para o oeste pelas montanhas, para o distrito de Washington (mais tarde conhecido como Tennessee ), mas em 1789, após a Revolução, o estado foi persuadido a renunciar às suas terras do oeste. Ele os cedeu ao governo nacional para que o Território do Noroeste pudesse ser organizado e administrado nacionalmente.

Uma importante vitória americana na guerra ocorreu em King's Mountain, ao longo da fronteira entre Carolina do Norte e Carolina do Sul; em 7 de outubro de 1780, uma força de 1.000 homens da montanha do oeste da Carolina do Norte (incluindo o que é hoje o estado do Tennessee ) e do sudoeste da Virgínia subjugou uma força de cerca de 1.000 soldados britânicos liderados pelo major Patrick Ferguson . A maioria dos soldados que lutaram pelo lado britânico nesta batalha eram Carolinianos que permaneceram leais à Coroa (eles foram chamados de "Conservadores" ou Legalistas). A vitória americana em Kings Mountain deu vantagem aos colonos que favoreciam a independência americana e impediu o Exército britânico de recrutar novos soldados dos conservadores.

Primeiro Regimento de Maryland segurando a linha no Tribunal da Batalha de Guilford

A estrada para Yorktown e a independência da América da Grã-Bretanha passava pela Carolina do Norte. Enquanto o Exército Britânico se movia para o norte após as vitórias em Charleston e Camden, Carolina do Sul , a Divisão Sul do Exército Continental e a milícia local se preparavam para enfrentá-los. Após a vitória do General Daniel Morgan sobre o Comandante da Cavalaria Britânica Banastre Tarleton na Batalha de Cowpens em 17 de janeiro de 1781, o comandante do sul Nathanael Greene liderou o Lord Charles Cornwallis britânicoatravés do coração da Carolina do Norte, e longe da base de abastecimento desta última em Charleston, Carolina do Sul. Esta campanha é conhecida como "A corrida para o Dan" ou "A corrida para o rio". [21]

Na Batalha de Cowan's Ford , Cornwallis encontrou resistência ao longo das margens do rio Catawba em Cowan's Ford em 1 de fevereiro de 1781, em uma tentativa de engajar as forças do general Morgan durante uma retirada tática. [32] Morgan havia se mudado para a parte norte do estado para se juntar às forças recém-recrutadas do general Greene. Os generais Greene e Cornwallis finalmente se encontraram na Batalha de Guilford Courthouse no atual Greensboro em 15 de março de 1781. Embora as tropas britânicas mantivessem o campo no final da batalha, suas baixas nas mãos do Exército Continental numericamente superior foram paralisantes . Após esta " vitória de Pirro", Cornwallis escolheu se mudar para a costa da Virgínia para obter reforços e permitir que a Marinha Real protegesse seu exército maltratado. Esta decisão resultaria na derrota final de Cornwallis em Yorktown, Virgínia , mais tarde em 1781. A vitória dos Patriots lá garantiu Independência americana. Em 21 de novembro de 1789, a Carolina do Norte se tornou o décimo segundo estado a ratificar a constituição dos Estados Unidos .

Período Antebellum

Depois de 1800, o algodão e o tabaco tornaram-se importantes culturas de exportação. A metade oriental do estado, especialmente a região da Planície Costeira, desenvolveu uma sociedade escravista baseada em um sistema de plantação e trabalho escravo . Os proprietários de grandes propriedades exerciam um poder político e socioeconômico significativo na Carolina do Norte antes da guerra. Eles colocaram seus interesses acima dos dos fazendeiros "yeoman" geralmente não escravos da Carolina do Norte. Embora a posse de escravos fosse ligeiramente menos concentrada em comparação com alguns outros estados do sul, de acordo com o censo de 1860, mais de 330.000 pessoas, ou 33% da população de um total de 992.622 pessoas, eram afro-americanos escravizados. [33]Eles viveram e trabalharam principalmente em plantações nas regiões de Piemonte e Planície Costeira do estado. Além disso, 30.463 negros livres viviam no estado. [33] Eles também estavam concentrados principalmente na planície costeira oriental, especialmente em cidades portuárias como Wilmington e New Bern, onde uma variedade de empregos estavam disponíveis. A maioria eram descendentes de afro-americanos livres que migraram junto com vizinhos da Virgínia durante o século XVIII. A maioria eram descendentes de sindicatos das classes trabalhadoras entre mulheres brancas, servas contratadas ou livres, e africanos, contratados, escravos ou livres. [34]

Mapa das estradas e ferrovias da Carolina do Norte, 1854

Após a Revolução Americana, os quakers e menonitas trabalharam para persuadir os proprietários de escravos a libertar seus escravos. Alguns foram inspirados por seus esforços e pela linguagem da Revolução para providenciar a alforria de seus escravos. O número de pessoas de cor livres aumentou acentuadamente nas primeiras décadas após a Revolução. [35] Muitas pessoas de cor livres migraram para a fronteira, junto com seus vizinhos europeu-americanos, onde o sistema social era mais flexível. Em 1810, quase três por cento da população livre consistia de pessoas de cor livres, que somavam pouco mais de 10.000. As áreas ocidentais da Carolina do Norte eram principalmente famílias brancas de ascendência europeia , especialmenteScotch-Irish , que administrava pequenas fazendas de subsistência. No início do período nacional, o estado se tornou um centro da democracia jeffersoniana e jacksoniana , com forte presença Whig , especialmente na parte oeste do estado. Após a revolta de escravos de Nat Turner em 1831, a Carolina do Norte e outros estados do sul reduziram os direitos dos negros livres. Em 1835, a legislatura retirou seu direito de voto.

Em meados do século, as áreas rurais e comerciais do estado foram conectadas pela construção de uma estrada de tábuas de madeira de 129 milhas (208 km), conhecida como "ferrovia do fazendeiro", de Fayetteville no leste até Betânia (noroeste de Winston-Salem ) . [21] Em 25 de outubro de 1836, a construção começou na Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad [36] para conectar a cidade portuária de Wilmington com a capital do estado de Raleigh . Em 1840, o edifício do capitólio do estado em Raleigh foi concluído e ainda está de pé.

Em 1849, a ferrovia da Carolina do Norte foi criada por ato da legislatura para estender essa ferrovia a oeste de Greensboro , High Point e Charlotte . Durante a Guerra Civil, o trecho Wilmington-Raleigh da ferrovia seria vital para o esforço de guerra confederado; suprimentos enviados para Wilmington seriam transportados por ferrovia através de Raleigh para a capital confederada de Richmond, Virgínia .

American Civil War

Tropas da União capturam Forte Fisher , 1865

Em 1860, a Carolina do Norte era um estado escravista, no qual um terço da população total do estado estava escravizado. O estado não votou para ingressar na Confederação até que o presidente Abraham Lincoln o convocou para invadir seu estado irmão, [37] a Carolina do Sul , tornando-se o último ou penúltimo estado a ingressar oficialmente na Confederação. O título de "último a ingressar na Confederação" foi contestado; embora a secessão informal do Tennessee em 7 de maio de 1861 tenha precedido a secessão oficial da Carolina do Norte em 20 de maio, [38] [39] a legislatura do Tennessee não votou formalmente pela separação até 8 de junho de 1861. [40]

Cerca de 125.000 soldados da Carolina do Norte serviram no Exército Confederado e cerca de 15.000 soldados da Carolina do Norte (negros e brancos) serviram em regimentos do Exército da União , junto com muitos outros homens que deixaram o estado para ingressar em regimentos da União em outros lugares. [41] Mais de 30.000 soldados da Carolina do Norte morreram de doenças, ferimentos no campo de batalha ou fome. [42] Eleito em 1862, o governador Zebulon Baird Vance tentou manter a autonomia do estado contra o presidente confederado Jefferson Davis em Richmond . O governo estadual estava relutante em apoiar as demandas do governo nacional em Richmond, e o estado era palco de apenas pequenas batalhas. Em 1865, o condado de Durham viu a maior rendição individual de soldados confederados quando Joseph E. Johnston rendeu o exército do Tennessee e todas as forças confederadas restantes ainda ativas na Carolina do Norte, Carolina do Sul, Geórgia e Flórida, totalizando 89.270 soldados.

Após a secessão, alguns norte-carolinianos se recusaram a apoiar a Confederação. Alguns dos fazendeiros, principalmente nas montanhas do estado e na região oeste do Piemonte, permaneceram neutros durante a Guerra Civil, com outros apoiando secretamente a causa da União durante o conflito. [43] Aproximadamente 15.000 norte-carolinianos (tanto negros quanto brancos) de todo o estado se alistariam no Exército da União . Vários escravos também fugiram para as linhas da União, onde se tornaram essencialmente livres.

Tropas confederadas de todas as partes da Carolina do Norte serviram em praticamente todas as principais batalhas do Exército da Virgínia do Norte , o exército mais famoso da Confederação. A maior batalha travada na Carolina do Norte foi em Bentonville , que foi uma tentativa fútil do general confederado Joseph Johnston de retardar o avanço do general William Tecumseh Sherman através das Carolinas na primavera de 1865. [21] Em abril de 1865, após perder o Na batalha de Morrisville , Johnston se rendeu a Sherman em Bennett Place , onde hoje é Durham . Wilmington, cidade portuária da Carolina do Norte, foi o último porto confederado a cair para a União, em fevereiro de 1865, depois que a União venceu a Segunda Batalha do Forte Fisher , sua principal defesa rio abaixo.

Sítio histórico de Bennett Place em Durham

O primeiro soldado Confederado a ser morto na Guerra Civil foi o Soldado Henry Wyatt da Carolina do Norte, na Batalha de Big Bethel em junho de 1861. Na Batalha de Gettysburg em julho de 1863, o 26º Regimento da Carolina do Norte participou da Carga de Pickett / Pettigrew e avançou o mais longe nas linhas do norte de qualquer regimento confederado. Durante a Batalha de Chickamauga , o 58º Regimento da Carolina do Norte avançou mais longe do que qualquer outro regimento em Snodgrass Hill para empurrar para trás as forças restantes da União do campo de batalha. No Tribunal de Justiça de Appomattox, na Virgínia, em abril de 1865, o 75º Regimento da Carolina do Norte, uma unidade de cavalaria, disparou os últimos tiros do Exército Confederado da Virgínia do Nortena Guerra Civil. Por muitos anos, alguns carolinianos do Norte orgulhosamente se gabaram de ter sido "o primeiro em Betel, o mais distante em Gettysburg e Chickamauga e o último em Appomattox".

Reconstrução era até o final do século 19

Após o colapso da Confederação em 1865, a Carolina do Norte, junto com o resto dos ex-Estados Confederados, foi colocada sob controle direto dos militares dos EUA e foi destituída de seu governo constitucional e representação no Congresso dos Estados Unidos no que agora é referido a como a era da Reconstrução . Para recuperar seus direitos, o estado teve que fazer concessões a Washington, uma das quais foi a ratificação da Décima Terceira Emenda . Republicanos do Congresso durante a reconstrução, comumente chamados de " republicanos radicais", constantemente pressionou por novas constituições para cada um dos estados do sul que enfatizassem os direitos iguais para os afro-americanos. Em 1868, uma convenção constitucional restaurou o governo estadual da Carolina do Norte. Embora a Décima Quinta Emenda também tenha sido adotada no mesmo ano, ela permaneceu na maioria dos casos, ineficaz por quase um século, sem falar nos grupos paramilitares e seus linchamentos impunemente.

As eleições de abril de 1868 após a convenção constitucional levaram a uma vitória por pouco de um governo dominado pelos republicanos, com 19 afro-americanos ocupando cargos na legislatura estadual da Carolina do Norte . Na tentativa de colocar as reformas em vigor, o novo governador republicano William W. Holden declarou lei marcial em qualquer condado que supostamente não cumpria a lei e a ordem usando a passagem da Lei Shoffner .

Uma coalizão do Partido Republicano de libertos negros, carpinteiros do norte e malandros locais controlou o governo estadual por três anos. Os democratas conservadores brancos recuperaram o controle da legislatura estadual em 1870, em parte pela violência da Ku Klux Klan e pelo terrorismo nas urnas, para suprimir o voto dos negros. Os republicanos foram eleitos para o governo até 1876, quando os camisas vermelhas , uma organização paramilitar que surgiu em 1874 e era aliada do Partido Democrata , ajudaram a suprimir o voto dos negros. Mais de 150 negros americanos foram assassinados na violência eleitoral em 1876.

Os ciclos da dívida pós-guerra civil levaram as pessoas a mudar da agricultura de subsistência para a agricultura de commodities. Nesse período, o notório sistema Crop-Lien se desenvolveu e foi financeiramente difícil para brancos e negros sem terra, devido a altos montantes de usura. Também devido ao impulso para a agricultura de commodities, o free range foi encerrado. Antes dessa época, as pessoas cercavam suas plantações e faziam com que seus animais alimentassem nas áreas ao ar livre. Após o fim da liberdade, as pessoas agora cercavam seus animais e mantinham suas plantações ao ar livre. [ citação necessária ]

Os democratas foram eleitos para a legislatura e o gabinete do governador, mas os populistas atraíram eleitores descontentes com eles. Em 1896, uma coalizão birracial, Populista-Republicana Fusionista, conquistou o cargo de governador e aprovou leis que estenderiam a franquia eleitoral a negros e brancos pobres. Os democratas recuperaram o controle da legislatura em 1896 e aprovaram leis para impor Jim Crow e a segregação racial das instalações públicas. Os eleitores do 2º distrito congressional da Carolina do Norte elegeram um total de quatro congressistas afro-americanos durante esses anos do final do século XIX.

As tensões políticas eram tão altas que um pequeno grupo de democratas brancos em 1898 planejava assumir o governo de Wilmington se seus candidatos não fossem eleitos. Na Insurreição de Wilmington de 1898 , mais de 1.500 homens brancos atacaram o jornal negro e a vizinhança, mataram vários homens e expulsaram o prefeito e os vereadores republicanos brancos. Eles instalaram seu próprio povo e elegeram Alfred M. Waddell como prefeito, no único golpe de estado na história dos Estados Unidos. [44]

Em 1899, a legislatura estadual aprovou uma nova constituição, com requisitos de poll tax e testes de alfabetização para registro de eleitor, o que privou a maioria dos negros americanos do estado. [45] A exclusão da votação teve amplos efeitos: significava que os negros americanos não podiam servir em júris ou em qualquer cargo local. Depois de uma década de supremacia branca , muitas pessoas esqueceram que a Carolina do Norte já teve prósperos americanos negros de classe média. [46] Os cidadãos negros não tinham voz política no estado até depois da Lei dos Direitos Civis de 1964 e da Lei dos Direitos de Voto de 1965foram passados ​​para fazer cumprir seus direitos constitucionais. Só em 1992 é que outro afro-americano foi eleito Representante dos EUA pela Carolina do Norte.

Precoce através de meados do século 20

Bebedouro segregado durante a era Jim Crow , Halifax , 1938

Após a era da reconstrução, a Carolina do Norte tornou-se um estado de partido único, dominado pelo Partido Democrata . O estado continuou principalmente com uma economia baseada no tabaco , têxteis de algodão e agricultura de commodities. Grandes vilas e cidades permaneceram em poucos números. No entanto, uma importante base industrial surgiu no final do século 19 e início do século 20, nos condados da Tríade do Piemonte , baseada em fábricas de algodão estabelecidas na linha de outono . Ferrovias foram construídas para conectar as novas cidades em industrialização. O estado foi o local do primeiro voo bem-sucedido controlado, movido e sustentado mais pesado que o ar , pelos irmãos Wright , perto de Kitty Hawkem 17 de dezembro de 1903. Na primeira metade do século 20, muitos afro-americanos deixaram o estado em busca de melhores oportunidades para o Norte, na Grande Migração . Sua saída mudou as características demográficas de muitas áreas.

A Carolina do Norte foi duramente atingida pela Grande Depressão , mas os programas do New Deal de Franklin D. Roosevelt para algodão e tabaco ajudaram significativamente os agricultores. Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial , a economia do estado cresceu rapidamente, com destaque para o crescimento de cidades como Charlotte, Raleigh e Durham na região de Piemonte. Raleigh, Durham e Chapel Hill formam o Triângulo de Pesquisa , uma área importante de universidades e pesquisa científica e técnica avançada.

No final dos anos 1960, estimulados em parte pela inclinação cada vez mais à esquerda dos democratas nacionais, os brancos conservadores começaram a votar em candidatos nacionais republicanos e, gradualmente, em mais republicanos locais. O Greensboro Sit-ins desempenhou um papel crucial no Movimento dos Direitos Civis para trazer igualdade total aos negros americanos.

Final do século 20 ao presente

Desde a década de 1970, a Carolina do Norte tem visto aumentos constantes no crescimento populacional. Esse crescimento ocorreu principalmente nas áreas metropolitanas localizadas no Piedmont Crescent , em lugares como Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, Winston-Salem e Durham. [47] A área metropolitana de Charlotte experimentou um grande crescimento principalmente devido às suas finanças, bancos e indústrias de tecnologia. [48]

Na década de 1990, Charlotte havia se tornado um importante centro bancário regional e nacional. Em direção à área de Raleigh, o estado da Carolina do Norte, a Duke University e a University of North Carolina em Chapel Hill ajudaram o Triângulo de Pesquisa a atrair uma força de trabalho instruída e a desenvolver mais empregos. [49]

O turismo também foi um boom para a economia da Carolina do Norte, com as pessoas migrando para Outer Banks e áreas de praia costeiras, bem como para as Montanhas Blue Ridge ancoradas por Asheville .

Geografia

Veado no rio Eno, que atravessa a região de Piemonte na Carolina do Norte
Tipos climáticos de Köppen da Carolina do Norte

A Carolina do Norte faz fronteira com a Carolina do Sul no sul, Geórgia no sudoeste, Tennessee no oeste, Virgínia no norte e o Oceano Atlântico no leste. O Censo dos Estados Unidos coloca a Carolina do Norte na divisão do Atlântico Sul da região sul . [50]

A Carolina do Norte consiste em três regiões geográficas principais: a planície costeira do Atlântico , ocupando a porção leste do estado; a região central de Piemonte e a região montanhosa a oeste, que faz parte dos Montes Apalaches . A planície costeira consiste em áreas definidas mais especificamente conhecidas como Outer Banks , uma cadeia de ilhas de barreira estreitas e arenosas separadas do continente por sons ou enseadas, incluindo Albemarle Sound e Pamlico Sound , o lar nativo da armadilha de vênus , e o planície costeira interna, onde os pinheiros de folha longa são nativos.

Tantos navios foram perdidos ao largo do Cabo Hatteras que a área é conhecida como o " Cemitério do Atlântico "; mais de mil navios afundaram nessas águas desde que os registros começaram em 1526. O mais famoso deles é o Queen Anne's Revenge (nau capitânia do pirata Barba Negra ), que encalhou na enseada de Beaufort em 1718. [51]

A planície costeira faz a transição para a região de Piemonte ao longo da linha de queda da costa atlântica , a elevação em que as cachoeiras aparecem pela primeira vez em riachos e rios. A região de Piemonte, no centro da Carolina do Norte, é a região mais populosa do estado, contendo as seis maiores cidades do estado em população. [52] Consiste em campos suavemente ondulados, freqüentemente interrompidos por colinas ou cordilheiras baixas. Cadeias de montanhas e picos pequenos, isolados e profundamente erodidos estão localizados no Piemonte, incluindo as Montanhas Sauratown , Pilot Mountain , Uwharrie Mountains , Crowder's Mountain , King's Pinnacle , Brushy Mountains e oMontanhas do Sul . O Piemonte varia de cerca de 300 pés (91 m) de elevação no leste a cerca de 1.500 pés (460 m) no oeste.

A seção oeste do estado faz parte das Montanhas Blue Ridge da maior cordilheira dos Apalaches . Entre as subfaixas das Blue Ridge Mountains localizadas no estado estão as Great Smoky Mountains e as Black Mountains . [53] [54] As Montanhas Negras são as mais altas do leste dos Estados Unidos e culminam no Monte Mitchell em 6.684 pés (2.037 m), o ponto mais alto a leste do rio Mississippi . [54] [55]

A Carolina do Norte possui 17 grandes bacias hidrográficas. As cinco bacias a oeste das Montanhas Blue Ridge fluem para o Golfo do México , enquanto as restantes fluem para o Oceano Atlântico. [56] Das 17 bacias, 11 se originam dentro do estado da Carolina do Norte, mas apenas quatro estão contidas inteiramente dentro da fronteira do estado - a bacia do Cape Fear , a Neuse , a White Oak e a bacia do Tar - Pamlico . [57]

Flora e fauna

Clima

A elevação acima do nível do mar é a maior responsável pela mudança de temperatura em todo o estado, com as regiões montanhosas sendo as mais frescas o ano todo. O clima também é influenciado pelo Oceano Atlântico e pela Corrente do Golfo , principalmente na planície costeira. Essas influências tendem a causar temperaturas mais quentes no inverno ao longo da costa, onde as temperaturas apenas ocasionalmente caem abaixo do ponto de congelamento à noite. A planície costeira tem em média 2,5 cm de neve ou gelo por ano e, em muitos anos, pode não haver neve ou gelo. [58]

O Oceano Atlântico exerce menos influência no clima da região de Piemonte, que tem verões mais quentes e invernos mais frios do que ao longo da costa, embora o máximo diário médio ainda esteja abaixo de 32 ° C (90 ° F) na maioria dos locais. [58]

A Carolina do Norte tem clima severo tanto no verão quanto no inverno, com o verão trazendo ameaças de furacões , tempestades tropicais , chuvas fortes e inundações. [59] Furacões destrutivos que atingiram a Carolina do Norte incluem o furacão Fran , o furacão Florence , o furacão Floyd , o furacão Hugo e o furacão Hazel , sendo este último a tempestade mais forte a atingir o estado, como uma categoria  4 em 1954. Furacão Isabel classifica-se como o mais destrutivo do século 21. [60] [61]

A Carolina do Norte tem em média menos de 20 tornados por ano, muitos deles produzidos por furacões ou tempestades tropicais ao longo da planície costeira. Tornados causados ​​por trovoadas são um risco, especialmente na parte leste do estado. O oeste do Piemonte é frequentemente protegido pelas montanhas, que tendem a dissipar as tempestades à medida que tentam atravessá-la; as tempestades freqüentemente se formarão mais ao leste. Um fenômeno conhecido como " represamento de ar frio " freqüentemente ocorre na parte noroeste do estado, o que pode enfraquecer as tempestades, mas também pode levar a grandes eventos de gelo no inverno. [62]

Em abril de 2011, ocorreu o pior surto de tornado da história da Carolina do Norte. Trinta tornados confirmados pousaram, principalmente no leste de Piemonte e Sandhills, matando pelo menos 24 pessoas. [63] [64] Em setembro de 2019, o furacão Dorian atingiu a área.

Temperaturas altas e baixas normais mensais ( Fahrenheit ) para várias cidades da Carolina do Norte.
Cidade Jan Fev Mar Abr Poderia Junho Jul Agosto Set Out Nov Dez
Asheville [65] 47/27 51/30 59/35 68/43 75/51 81/60 84/64 83/63 77/56 68/45 59/36 49/29
Boone [66] 42/21 45/23 52/29 61/37 69/46 76/54 79/58 78/57 72/50 63/39 54/31 45/24
Cabo Hatteras [67] 52/39 54/40 59/45 66/53 74/61 81/69 85/74 84/73 80/69 72/60 64/51 56/43
Charlotte[65] 51/30 55/33 63/39 72/47 79/56 86/64 89/68 88/67 81/60 72/49 62/39 53/32
Fayetteville[68] 54/33 59/35 66/42 75/50 82/59 89/68 91/72 90/70 84/64 75/52 67/43 56/35
Greensboro[68] 48/30 53/32 61/39 70/47 78/56 85/65 88/69 86/68 80/61 70/49 61/40 51/32
Raleigh[68] 51/31 55/34 63/40 72/48 80/57 87/66 90/70 88/69 82/62 73/50 64/41 54/33
Wilmington[69] 56/36 60/38 66/44 74/52 81/60 87/69 90/73 88/71 84/66 76/55 68/45 59/38
Climate data for North Carolina
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 86
(30)
90
(32)
100
(38)
102
(39)
107
(42)
108
(42)
109
(43)
110
(43)
109
(43)
102
(39)
90
(32)
87
(31)
110
(43)
Average high °F (°C) 49.9
(9.9)
53.7
(12.1)
61.8
(16.6)
71.0
(21.7)
78.1
(25.6)
85.2
(29.6)
88.1
(31.2)
86.8
(30.4)
80.8
(27.1)
71.6
(22.0)
62.5
(16.9)
52.5
(11.4)
70.2
(21.2)
Daily mean °F (°C) 39.2
(4.0)
42.3
(5.7)
49.5
(9.7)
58.1
(14.5)
66.1
(18.9)
74.1
(23.4)
77.5
(25.3)
76.3
(24.6)
69.9
(21.1)
59.4
(15.2)
50.4
(10.2)
41.7
(5.4)
58.7
(14.8)
Average low °F (°C) 28.4
(−2.0)
30.9
(−0.6)
37.2
(2.9)
45.2
(7.3)
54.0
(12.2)
63.0
(17.2)
66.8
(19.3)
65.8
(18.8)
58.9
(14.9)
47.2
(8.4)
38.3
(3.5)
30.8
(−0.7)
47.2
(8.4)
Record low °F (°C) −34
(−37)
−31
(−35)
−29
(−34)
0
(−18)
13
(−11)
22
(−6)
30
(−1)
29
(−2)
23
(−5)
5
(−15)
−22
(−30)
−33
(−36)
−34
(−37)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.7
(94)
3.5
(89)
4.2
(110)
3.5
(89)
3.8
(97)
4.3
(110)
4.8
(120)
4.7
(120)
4.3
(110)
3.3
(84)
3.3
(84)
3.5
(89)
46.9
(1,196)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 2.0
(5.1)
1.4
(3.6)
0.6
(1.5)
0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.8
(2.0)
5
(12.7)
Source 1: "North Carolina Climate Data according USA.com". (averages)
Source 2: "North Carolina Climate Office". Archived from the original on December 31, 2020. Retrieved December 27, 2019. (extremes)

Parks and recreation

The Blue Ridge Mountains of the Shining Rock Wilderness Area

North Carolina provides a large range of recreational activities, from swimming at the beach to skiing in the mountains. North Carolina offers fall colors, freshwater and saltwater fishing, hunting, birdwatching, agritourism, ATV trails, ballooning, rock climbing, biking, hiking, skiing, boating and sailing, camping, canoeing, caving (spelunking), gardens, and arboretums. North Carolina has theme parks, aquariums, museums, historic sites, lighthouses, elegant theaters, concert halls, and fine dining.[70][71]

North Carolinians enjoy outdoor recreation utilizing numerous local bike paths, 34 state parks, and 14 national parks. National Park Service units include the Appalachian National Scenic Trail, the Blue Ridge Parkway, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, Cape Lookout National Seashore, Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site at Flat Rock, Fort Raleigh National Historic Site at Manteo, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Guilford Courthouse National Military Park in Greensboro, Moores Creek National Battlefield near Currie in Pender County, the Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail, Old Salem National Historic Site in Winston-Salem, the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail, and Wright Brothers National Memorial in Kill Devil Hills.

National Forests include Uwharrie National Forest in central North Carolina, Croatan National Forest in Eastern North Carolina, Pisgah National Forest in the western mountains, and Nantahala National Forest in the southwestern part of the state.

Most populous counties

In 2020, the U.S. Census Bureau released its annual population estimate counts for North Carolina's counties. Wake County has the largest population, while Mecklenburg County has the second largest population in North Carolina.[72]

Largest combined statistical areas

North Carolina has three major Combined Statistical Areas with populations of more than 1.6 million (U.S. Census Bureau 2018 estimates):[73]

  • Charlotte Metro: Charlotte–Concord–Gastonia, North Carolina–South Carolina population 2,728,933[73]
  • Research Triangle: Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, North Carolina population 2,238,315[73]
  • Piedmont Triad: Greensboro–Winston-Salem–High Point, North Carolina population 1,677,551[73]

Major cities

In 2018, the U.S. Census Bureau released 2018 population estimate counts for North Carolina's cities with populations above 70,000. Charlotte has the largest population in the state, while Raleigh has the highest population density of North Carolina's largest cities.[74]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790393,751
1800478,10321.4%
1810556,52616.4%
1820638,82914.8%
1830737,98715.5%
1840753,4192.1%
1850869,03915.3%
1860992,62214.2%
18701,071,3617.9%
18801,399,75030.7%
18901,617,94915.6%
19001,893,81017.1%
19102,206,28716.5%
19202,559,12316.0%
19303,170,27623.9%
19403,571,62312.7%
19504,061,92913.7%
19604,556,15512.2%
19705,082,05911.5%
19805,881,76615.7%
19906,628,63712.7%
20008,049,31321.4%
20109,535,48318.5%
202010,439,3889.5%
Source: 1910–2020[76]
North Carolina population density map (2010)

The United States Census Bureau determined the population of North Carolina was 10,439,388 at the 2020 U.S. census.[77][78] Based on numbers in 2012 of the people residing in North Carolina 58.5% were born there; 33.1% were born in another state; 1.0% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s); and 7.4% were foreign-born.[79]

Race and ethnicity

Ethnic composition as of the 2020 census
Race and Ethnicity[80] Alone Total
Non-Hispanic White/Anglo 60.5% 60.5
 
63.9% 63.9
 
African American 20.2% 20.2
 
21.8% 21.8
 
Hispanic or Latino[a] 10.7% 10.7
 
Asian 3.3% 3.3
 
4.0% 4
 
Native American 1.0% 1
 
2.5% 2.5
 
Pacific Islander 0.1% 0.1
 
0.2% 0.2
 
Other 0.4% 0.4
 
1.1% 1.1
 
Historical racial demographics
Racial composition 1990[81] 2000[82] 2010[83]
White 75.6% 72.1% 68.5%
Black 22.0% 21.6% 21.4%
Asian 0.8% 1.4% 2.2%
Native 1.2% 1.2% 1.3%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.1% 0.1%
Other race 0.5% 2.3% 4.3%
Two or more races 1.3% 2.3%

At the 2010 U.S. census,[84] the racial composition of North Carolina was: White: 68.5% (65.3% non-Hispanic white, 3.2% White Hispanic), Black or African American: 21.5%, Latin and Hispanic American of any race: 8.4%, some other race: 4.3%, Multiracial American: 2.2%, Asian American: 2.2%, and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 1%. In 2020, North Carolina like much of the U.S. experienced a decline in its non-Hispanic white population; at the 2020 census, non-Hispanic whites were 62.2%, Blacks or African Americans 20.5%, American Indian and Alaska Natives 1.2%, Asians 3.3%, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders 0.1%, people from other race 5.9%, and multiracial Americans 6.8%.[85]

Languages

Top 15 Non-English Languages Spoken in North Carolina
Language Percentage of population
(as of 2010)[86]
Spanish 6.93%
French 0.32%
German 0.27%
Chinese (including Mandarin) 0.27%
Vietnamese 0.24%
Arabic 0.17%
Korean 0.16%
Tagalog 0.13%
Hindi 0.12%
Gujarati, Russian, and Hmong (tied) 0.11%
Italian and Japanese (tied) 0.08%
Cherokee 0.01%[87]

North Carolina is home to a spectrum of different dialects of Southern American English and Appalachian English.

In 2010, 89.66% (7,750,904) of North Carolina residents age five and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 6.93% (598,756) spoke Spanish, 0.32% (27,310) French, 0.27% (23,204) German, and Chinese (which includes Mandarin) was spoken as a main language by 0.27% (23,072) of the population five and older. In total, 10.34% (893,735) of North Carolina's population age five and older spoke a mother language other than English.[86] In 2019, 87.7% of the population aged 5 and older spoke English and 12.3% spoke another language. The most common non-English language was Spanish at the 2019 American Community Survey.[88]

Religion

Religion in North Carolina (2014)[89]
Religion Percent
Evangelical Protestant
35%
Unaffiliated
20%
Mainline Protestant
19%
Historically Black Protestant
12%
Catholic
9%
Mormon
1%
Eastern Orthodox
1%
Jehovah's Witness
1%
Jewish
1%
Other faith
1%

North Carolina residents since the colonial era have historically been overwhelmingly Protestant—first Anglican, then Baptist and Methodist. In 2010, the Southern Baptist Convention was the single largest Christian denomination, with 4,241 churches and 1,513,000 members. The second largest was the United Methodist Church, with 660,000 members and 1,923 churches. The third was the Roman Catholic Church, with 428,000 members in 190 parishes. The fourth largest was the Presbyterian Church (USA), with 186,000 members and 710 congregations; this denomination was brought by Scots-Irish immigrants who settled the backcountry in the colonial era.[90]

In 1845, the Baptists split into regional associations of the Northern United States and Southern U.S., over the issue of slavery. These new associations were the Northern Baptist Convention (today the American Baptist Churches USA) and Southern Baptist Convention. By the late 19th century, the largest Protestant denomination in North Carolina were Baptists. After emancipation, black Baptists quickly set up their own independent congregations in North Carolina and other states of the South, as they wanted to be free of white supervision.[91][92][93] Black Baptists developed their own state and national associations, such as the National Baptist Convention.[92] Other primarily African American Baptist conventions which grew in the state since the 20th century were the Progressive National Baptist Convention and Full Gospel Baptist Church Fellowship.

Methodists (the second largest group among North Carolinian Protestants) were divided along racial lines in the United Methodist Church and African Methodist Episcopal Church. The Methodist tradition tends to be strong in the northern Piedmont, especially in populous Guilford County. Other prominent Protestant groups in North Carolina as of the Pew Research Center's 2014 study were non/interdenominational Protestants and Pentecostalism. The Assemblies of God and Church of God in Christ are the largest Pentecostal denominations operating in the state, while notable minorities include Oneness Pentecostals primarily affiliated with the United Pentecostal Church International.

The state also has a special history with the Moravian Church, as settlers of this faith (largely of German origin) settled in the Winston-Salem area in the 18th and 19th centuries. Presbyterians, historically Scots-Irish, have had a strong presence in Charlotte and in Scotland County.

A wide variety of non-Christian faiths are practiced by other residents in the state, including: Judaism, Islam, Baháʼí, Buddhism, and Hinduism. The rapid influx of Northerners and immigrants from Latin America is steadily increasing ethnic and religious diversity within the state. The number of Roman Catholics and Jews in the state has increased, along with general religious diversity as a whole. There are also a substantial number of Quakers in Guilford County and northeastern North Carolina. Many universities and colleges in the state have been founded on religious traditions, and some currently maintain that affiliation, including:[94]

The state also has several major seminaries, including the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary in Wake Forest, and the Hood Theological Seminary (AME Zion) in Salisbury.

Economy

North Carolina's 2018 total gross state product was $496 billion.[95] Based on American Community Survey 2010–2014 data, North Carolina's median household income was $46,693. It ranked forty-first out of fifty states plus the District of Columbia for median household income. North Carolina had the fourteenth highest poverty rate in the nation at 17.6%, with 13% of families were below the poverty line.[96]

The state has a very diverse economy because of its great availability of hydroelectric power,[citation needed] its pleasant climate, and its wide variety of soils. The state ranks third among the South Atlantic states in population, but leads the region in industry and agriculture.[97][98] North Carolina leads the nation in the production of tobacco.[99] Charlotte, the state's largest city, is a major textile and trade center. According to a Forbes article written in 2013, Employment in the "Old North State" has gained many different industry sectors. Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) industries in the area surrounding North Carolina's capital have grown 17.9 percent since 2001. Raleigh ranked the third best city for technology in 2020 due to the state's growing technology sector.[100] In 2010, North Carolina's total gross state product was $424.9 billion,[101] while the state debt in November 2012, according to one source, totalled $2.4 billion,[102] while according to another, was in 2012 $57.8 billion.[103] In 2011, the civilian labor force was at around 4.5 million with employment near 4.1 million.

North Carolina is the leading U.S. state in production of flue-cured tobacco and sweet potatoes, and comes second in the farming of pigs and hogs, trout, and turkeys.[104][105] In the three most recent USDA surveys (2002, 2007, 2012), North Carolina also ranked second in the production of Christmas trees.[104][106][107]

North Carolina has 15 metropolitan areas,[108] and in 2010 was chosen as the third-best state for business by Forbes Magazine, and the second-best state by chief executive officer Magazine.[109] Since 2000, there has been a clear division in the economic growth of North Carolina's urban and rural areas. While North Carolina's urban areas have enjoyed a prosperous economy with steady job growth, low unemployment, and rising wages, many of the state's rural counties have suffered from job loss, rising levels of poverty, and population loss as their manufacturing base has declined. According to one estimate, one-half of North Carolina's 100 counties have lost population since 2010, primarily due to the poor economy in many of North Carolina's rural areas. However, the population of the state's urban areas is steadily increasing.[110]

Arts and culture

North Carolina has traditions in art, music, and cuisine. The nonprofit arts and culture industry generates $1.2 billion in direct economic activity in North Carolina, supporting more than 43,600 full-time equivalent jobs and generating $119 million in revenue for local governments and the state of North Carolina.[111] North Carolina established the North Carolina Museum of Art as the first major museum collection in the country to be formed by state legislation and funding[112] and continues to bring millions into the NC economy.[113] Also see this list of museums in North Carolina.

One of the more famous arts communities in the state is Seagrove, the handmade-pottery capital of the U.S., where artisans create handcrafted pottery inspired by the same traditions that began in this community more than two hundred years ago.

Music

North Carolina boasts a large number of noteworthy jazz musicians, some among the most important in the history of the genre. These include: John Coltrane, (Hamlet, High Point); Thelonious Monk (Rocky Mount); Billy Taylor (Greenville); Woody Shaw (Laurinburg); Lou Donaldson (Durham); Max Roach (Newland); Tal Farlow (Greensboro); Albert, Jimmy and Percy Heath (Wilmington); Nina Simone (Tryon); and Billy Strayhorn (Hillsborough).

Fiddlin' Bill Hensley, mountain fiddler, Asheville, 1937

North Carolina is also famous for its tradition of old-time music, and many recordings were made in the early 20th century by folk-song collector Bascom Lamar Lunsford. Musicians such as the North Carolina Ramblers helped solidify the sound of country music in the late 1920s, while the influential bluegrass musician Doc Watson also hailed from North Carolina. Both North and South Carolina are hotbeds for traditional rural blues, especially the style known as the Piedmont blues.

Ben Folds Five originated in Winston-Salem, and Ben Folds still records and resides in Chapel Hill.

The British band Pink Floyd is named, in part, after Chapel Hill bluesman Floyd Council.

The Research Triangle area has long been a well-known center for folk, rock, metal, jazz and punk.[114] James Taylor grew up around Chapel Hill, and his 1968 song "Carolina in My Mind" has been called an unofficial anthem for the state.[115][116][117] Other famous musicians from North Carolina include J. Cole, DaBaby, Shirley Caesar, Roberta Flack, Clyde McPhatter, Nnenna Freelon, Warren Haynes, Jimmy Herring, Michael Houser, Eric Church, Future Islands, Randy Travis, Ryan Adams, Ronnie Milsap, Anthony Hamilton, The Avett Brothers and Luke Combs.

Metal and punk acts such as Corrosion of Conformity, Between the Buried and Me, and Nightmare Sonata are native to North Carolina.

EDM producer Porter Robinson hails from Chapel Hill.

North Carolina is the home of more American Idol finalists than any other state: Clay Aiken (season two), Fantasia Barrino (season three), Chris Daughtry (season five), Kellie Pickler (season five), Bucky Covington (season five), Anoop Desai (season eight), Scotty McCreery (season ten), and Caleb Johnson (season thirteen). North Carolina also has the most American Idol winners with Barrino, McCreery, and Johnson.

In the mountains, the Brevard Music Center hosts choral, operatic, orchestral, and solo performances during its annual summer schedule.

North Carolina has five professional opera companies: Opera Carolina in Charlotte, NC Opera in Raleigh, Greensboro Opera in Greensboro, Piedmont Opera in Winston-Salem, and Asheville Lyric Opera in Asheville. Academic conservatories and universities also produce fully staged operas, such as the A. J. Fletcher Opera Institute of the University of North Carolina School of the Arts in Winston-Salem, the Department of Music of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and UNC Greensboro.

Among others, there are three high-level symphonic orchestras: NC Symphony in Raleigh, Charlotte Symphony, and Winston-Salem Symphony. The NC Symphony holds the North Carolina Master Chorale. The Carolina Ballet is headquartered in Raleigh, and there is also the Charlotte Ballet.

The state boasts three performing arts centers: DPAC in Durham, Duke Energy Center for the Performing Arts in Raleigh, and the Blumenthal Performing Art Centers in Charlotte. They feature concerts, operas, recitals, and traveling Broadway musicals.

Also, see the North Carolina Music Hall of Fame.

Shopping

North Carolina has a variety of shopping choices. SouthPark Mall in Charlotte is currently the largest in the Carolinas, with almost two million square feet. Other major malls in Charlotte include Northlake Mall and Carolina Place Mall in nearby suburb Pineville. Other major malls throughout the state include Hanes Mall in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, The Thruway Center in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, Crabtree Valley Mall, North Hills Mall, and Triangle Town Center in Raleigh; Friendly Center and Four Seasons Town Centre in Greensboro; Oak Hollow Mall in High Point; Concord Mills in Concord; Valley Hills Mall in Hickory; Cross Creek Mall in Fayetteville; and The Streets at Southpoint in Durham and Independence Mall in Wilmington, North Carolina, and Tanger Outlets in Charlotte, Nags Head, Blowing Rock, and Mebane, North Carolina.

Cuisine and agriculture

A culinary staple of North Carolina is pork barbecue. There are strong regional differences and rivalries over the sauces and methods used in making the barbecue. The common trend across Western North Carolina is the use of premium grade Boston butt. Western North Carolina pork barbecue uses a tomato-based sauce, and only the pork shoulder (dark meat) is used. Western North Carolina barbecue is commonly referred to as Lexington barbecue after the Piedmont Triad town of Lexington, home of the Lexington Barbecue Festival, which attracts more than 100,000 visitors each October.[118][119] Eastern North Carolina pork barbecue uses a vinegar-and-red-pepper-based sauce and the "whole hog" is cooked, thus integrating both white and dark meat.

Krispy Kreme, an international chain of doughnut stores, was started in North Carolina; the company's headquarters are in Winston-Salem. Pepsi-Cola was first produced in 1898 in New Bern. A regional soft drink, Cheerwine, was created and is still based in the city of Salisbury. Despite its name, the hot sauce Texas Pete was created in North Carolina; its headquarters are also in Winston-Salem. The Hardee's fast-food chain was started in Rocky Mount. Another fast-food chain, Bojangles', was started in Charlotte, and has its corporate headquarters there. A popular North Carolina restaurant chain is Golden Corral. Started in 1973, the chain was founded in Fayetteville, with headquarters located in Raleigh. Popular pickle brand Mount Olive Pickle Company was founded in Mount Olive in 1926. Fast casual burger chain Hwy 55 Burgers, Shakes & Fries also makes its home in Mount Olive. Cook Out, a popular fast-food chain featuring burgers, hot dogs, and milkshakes in a wide variety of flavors, was founded in Greensboro in 1989 and has begun expanding outside of North Carolina. In 2013, Southern Living named Durham–Chapel Hill the South's "Tastiest City".

Over the last decade, North Carolina has become a cultural epicenter and haven for internationally prize-winning wine (Noni Bacca Winery), internationally prized cheeses (Ashe County), "L'institut International aux Arts Gastronomiques: Conquerront Les Yanks les Truffes, January 15, 2010" international hub for truffles (Garland Truffles), and beer making, as tobacco land has been converted to grape orchards while state laws regulating alcohol by volume (ABV) in beer allowed a jump from six to fifteen percent. The Yadkin Valley in particular has become a strengthening market for grape production, while Asheville recently won the recognition of being named "Beer City USA". Asheville boasts the largest number of breweries per capita of any city in the United States. Recognized and marketed brands of beer in North Carolina include Highland Brewing, Duck Rabbit Brewery, Mother Earth Brewery, Weeping Radish Brewery, Big Boss Brewing, Foothills Brewing, Carolina Brewing Company, Lonerider Brewing, and White Rabbit Brewing Company.

North Carolina has large grazing areas for beef and dairy cattle. Truck farms can be found in North Carolina. A truck farm is a small farm where fruits and vegetables are grown to be sold at local markets. The state's shipping, commercial fishing, and lumber industries are important to its economy. Service industries, including education, health care, private research, and retail trade, are also important. Research Triangle Park, a large industrial complex located in the Raleigh-Durham area, is one of the major centers in the country for electronics and medical research.[citation needed]

Tobacco was one of the first major industries to develop after the Civil War. Many farmers grew some tobacco, and the invention of the cigarette made the product especially popular. Winston-Salem is the birthplace of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJR), founded by R. J. Reynolds in 1874 as one of sixteen tobacco companies in the town. By 1914 it was selling 425 million packs of Camels a year. Today it is the second-largest tobacco company in the U.S. (behind Altria Group). RJR is an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Reynolds American Inc., which in turn is 42% owned by British American Tobacco.[120]

Ships named for the state

USS North Carolina on permanent display in Wilmington

Several ships have been named after the state, most famously USS North Carolina in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II. Now decommissioned, she is part of the USS North Carolina Battleship Memorial in Wilmington. Another USS North Carolina, a nuclear attack submarine, was commissioned in Wilmington on May 3, 2008.[121]

State parks

The state maintains a group of protected areas known as the North Carolina State Park System, which is managed by the North Carolina Division of Parks & Recreation (NCDPR), an agency of the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR).

Armed forces installations

Troopers of the 82nd Airborne Division training on Fort Bragg, March 2011

Fort Bragg, near Fayetteville and Southern Pines, is a large and comprehensive military base and is the headquarters of the XVIII Airborne Corps, 82nd Airborne Division, and the U.S. Army Special Operations Command. Serving as the air wing for Fort Bragg is Pope Field, also located near Fayetteville.

Located in Jacksonville, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, combined with nearby bases Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point, MCAS New River, Camp Geiger, Camp Johnson, Stone Bay and Courthouse Bay, makes up the largest concentration of Marines and sailors in the world. MCAS Cherry Point is home of the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing. Located in Goldsboro, Seymour Johnson Air Force Base is home of the 4th Fighter Wing and 916th Air Refueling Wing. One of the busiest air stations in the United States Coast Guard is located at the Coast Guard Air Station in Elizabeth City. Also stationed in North Carolina is the Military Ocean Terminal Sunny Point in Southport.

On January 24, 1961, a B-52G broke up in midair and crashed after suffering a severe fuel loss, near Goldsboro, dropping two nuclear bombs in the process without detonation.[122] In 2013, it was revealed that three safety mechanisms on one bomb had failed, leaving just one low-voltage switch preventing detonation.[123]

Tourism

Charlotte is the most-visited city in the state, attracting 28.3 million visitors in 2018.[124] Area attractions include Carolina Panthers NFL football team and Charlotte Hornets basketball team, Carowinds amusement park, Charlotte Motor Speedway, U.S. National Whitewater Center, Discovery Place, Great Wolf Lodge, Sea Life Aquarium, Bechtler Museum of Modern Art, Billy Graham Library, Carolinas Aviation Museum, Harvey B. Gantt Center for African-American Arts + Culture, Levine Museum of the New South, McColl Center for Art + Innovation, Mint Museum, and the NASCAR Hall of Fame.

Every year the Appalachian Mountains attract several million tourists to the western part of the state, including the historic Biltmore Estate. The scenic Blue Ridge Parkway and Great Smoky Mountains National Park are the two most visited national park and unit in the United States with more than 25 million visitors in 2013.[125] The City of Asheville is consistently voted as one of the top places to visit and live in the United States, known for its rich art deco architecture, mountain scenery and outdoor activities.[126][127]

In Raleigh, many tourists visit the Capital, African American Cultural Complex, Contemporary Art Museum of Raleigh, Gregg Museum of Art & Design at NCSU, Haywood Hall House & Gardens, Marbles Kids Museum, North Carolina Museum of Art, North Carolina Museum of History, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame, Raleigh City Museum, J. C. Raulston Arboretum, Joel Lane House, Mordecai House, Montfort Hall, and the Pope House Museum. The Carolina Hurricanes NHL hockey team is also located in the city.

In the ConoverHickory area, Hickory Motor Speedway, RockBarn Golf and Spa, home of the Greater Hickory Classic at Rock Barn; Catawba County Firefighters Museum, and SALT Block attract many tourists to Conover. Hickory which has Valley Hills Mall.

The Piedmont Triad, or center of the state, is home to Krispy Kreme, Mayberry, Texas Pete, the Lexington Barbecue Festival, and Moravian cookies. The internationally acclaimed North Carolina Zoo in Asheboro attracts visitors to its animals, plants, and a 57-piece art collection along five miles (8 km) of shaded pathways in the world's largest-land-area natural-habitat park. Seagrove, in the central portion of the state, attracts many tourists along Pottery Highway (NC Hwy 705). MerleFest in Wilkesboro attracts more than 80,000 people to its four-day music festival; and Wet 'n Wild Emerald Pointe water park in Greensboro is another attraction.

The Outer Banks and surrounding beaches attract millions of people to the Atlantic beaches every year.

The mainland northeastern part of the state, having recently adopted the name the Inner Banks, is also known as the Albemarle Region, for the Albemarle Settlements, some of the first settlements on North Carolina's portion of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The regions historic sites are connected by the Historic Albemarle Tour.

Education

Primary and secondary education

A lesson at New Kituwah Academy on the Qualla Boundary in North Carolina. This bilingual language immersion school, operated by the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, teaches the same curriculum as other state elementary schools

Elementary and secondary public schools are overseen by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. The North Carolina Superintendent of Public Instruction is the secretary of the North Carolina State Board of Education, but the board, rather than the superintendent, holds most of the legal authority for making public education policy. In 2009, the board's chairman also became the "chief executive officer" for the state's school system.[128] North Carolina has 115 public school systems, each of which is overseen by a local school board.[129][130] A county may have one or more systems within it. The largest school systems in North Carolina are the Wake County Public School System, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, Guilford County Schools, Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools, and Cumberland County Schools.[131] In total there are 2,425 public schools in the state, including over 200 charter schools.[132] North Carolina Schools were segregated until the Brown v. Board of Education trial and the release of the Pearsall Plan.

Previously the SAT was the dominant university entrance examination students took. In 2004 76% of NC high school students took the SAT. In 2012 state law changed which required 11th grade students to take the ACT. The SAT testing rate fell to 46% in 2019. Because students now can take that test for free, the ACT became the dominant university entrance examination. This also caused SAT average scores to rise, as in 1996 North Carolina was 48th nationally in SAT scores, but the profile of students taking the SAT has gotten smaller.[133]

Colleges and universities

In 1795, North Carolina opened the first public university in the United States—the University of North Carolina (now named the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).[134] More than 200 years later, the University of North Carolina system encompasses 17 public universities including North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, North Carolina Central University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, East Carolina University, Western Carolina University, Winston-Salem State University, the University of North Carolina at Asheville, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, the University of North Carolina at Pembroke, UNC Wilmington, Elizabeth City State University, Appalachian State University, Fayetteville State University, and UNC School of the Arts, and .[135] Along with its public universities, North Carolina has 58 public community colleges in its community college system. The largest university in North Carolina is currently North Carolina State University, with more than 34,000 students.[136]

Old Well at UNC-Chapel Hill
Duke Chapel at Duke University
Wait Chapel at Wake Forest University
The Joyner Library clock tower at East Carolina University
The New Quad at UNC Charlotte

North Carolina is also home to many well-known private colleges and universities, including Duke University,[137] Wake Forest University,[138] Pfeiffer University, Lees-McRae College, Davidson College, Barton College, North Carolina Wesleyan College, Elon University, Guilford College, Livingstone College, Salem College, Shaw University (the first historically black college or university in the South), Laurel University, William Peace University, Meredith College, Methodist University, Belmont Abbey College (the only Catholic college in the Carolinas), Campbell University, University of Mount Olive, Montreat College, High Point University, Lenoir-Rhyne University (the only Lutheran university in North Carolina) and Wingate University.

Tree map depicting post-secondary education institutions in North Carolina. Each is sized by its relative share of degrees awarded. The colors noted in the key below refer to the type of institution. From left to right, these are 1) Public, 4+ year, 2) Public, 2 year 3) Private, not-for-profit 4+ year 4) Private, for-profit 4+ year, 5) Private, for-profit, 2 year 6) Private, for-profit, <2 year 7) Private, non-profit, 2 year 8) Private, non-profit, <2 year.

Health

The residents of North Carolina have a lower life expectancy than the U.S. national average of life expectancy. According to the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, in 2014, males in North Carolina lived an average of 75.4 years compared to the national average of 76.7 years. Females in North Carolina lived an average of 80.2 years compared to the national average of 81.5 years. Male life expectancy in North Carolina between 1980 and 2014 increased by an average of 6.9 years, slightly higher than the male national average of a 6.7 year increase. Life expectancy for females in North Carolina between 1980 and 2014 increased by 3.2 years, lower that the female national average of a 3.9 year increase.[139]

Using 2017–2019 data, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation calculated that life expectancy for North Carolina counties ranged from 71.4 years for Swain County to 82.3 years for Orange County. Life expectancy for the state as a whole was 78.1 years.[140] Life expectancy for the United States as a whole in 2019 was 78.8 years.[141]

Transportation

A North Carolina license plate

Transportation systems in North Carolina consist of air, water, road, rail, and public transportation including intercity rail via Amtrak and light rail in Charlotte. North Carolina has the second-largest state highway system in the country as well as the largest ferry system on the east coast.[142]

North Carolina's airports serve destinations throughout the United States and international destinations in Canada, Europe, Central America, and the Caribbean. In 2013 Charlotte Douglas International Airport, which serves as the second busiest hub for American Airlines, ranked as the 23rd busiest airport in the world.[143]

North Carolina has a growing passenger rail system with Amtrak serving most major cities. Charlotte is also home to North Carolina's only light rail system known as the Lynx.

Media

Early newspapers were established in the eastern part of North Carolina in the mid-18th century. The Fayetteville Observer, established in 1816, is the oldest newspaper still in publication in North Carolina. The Wilmington Star-News, established 1867, is the oldest continuously running newspaper. As of January 1, 2020, there were approximately 240 North Carolina newspapers in publication in the state of North Carolina.[144]

Government and politics

North Carolina registered voters as of October 9, 2021[145]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
Democratic 2,494,362 34.85%
Unaffiliated 2,439,850 34.09%
Republican 2,176,605 30.41%
Libertarian 47,211 0.66%
Constitution 0 -
Green 0 -
Total 7,158,028 100%

The government of North Carolina is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. These consist of the Council of State (led by the Governor), the bicameral legislature (called the General Assembly), and the state court system (headed by the North Carolina Supreme Court). The state constitution delineates the structure and function of the state government. North Carolina has 13 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and two seats in the U.S. Senate.[citation needed]

North Carolina's party loyalties have undergone a series of important shifts in the last few years: While the 2010 midterms saw Tar Heel voters elect a bicameral Republican majority legislature for the first time in more than a century, North Carolina has also become a Southern swing state in presidential races. Since Southern Democrat Jimmy Carter's comfortable victory in the state in 1976, the state had consistently leaned Republican in presidential elections until Democrat Barack Obama narrowly won the state in 2008. In the 1990s, Democrat Bill Clinton came within a point of winning the state in 1992 and also only narrowly lost the state in 1996. In the early 2000s, Republican George W. Bush easily won the state by more than 12 points.[citation needed]

By 2008, demographic shifts, population growth, and increased liberalization in densely populated areas such as the Research Triangle, Charlotte, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Fayetteville, and Asheville, propelled Barack Obama to victory in North Carolina, the first Democrat to win the state since 1976. In 2012, North Carolina was again considered a competitive swing state, with the Democrats even holding their 2012 Democratic National Convention in Charlotte. However, Republican Mitt Romney ultimately eked out a two-point win in North Carolina, the only 2012 swing state Obama lost, and one of only two states (along with Indiana) to flip from Obama in 2008 to the GOP in 2012. Furthermore, Republican Donald Trump carried the state in 2016 and 2020.[citation needed]

In 2012, the state elected a Republican governor (Pat McCrory) and lieutenant governor (Dan Forest) for the first time in more than two decades, while also giving the Republicans veto-proof majorities in both the State House of Representatives and the State Senate. Several U.S. House of Representatives seats flipped control in 2012, with the Republicans holding nine seats to the Democrats' four. In the 2014 mid-term elections, Republican David Rouzer won the state's seventh congressional district seat, increasing the congressional delegation party split to 10–3 in favor of the GOP.[citation needed]

North Carolina Republicans won 10 of the 13 seats in 2016, when Democrats got 47 percent of the statewide vote. In 2018 Republicans took nine, with one seat undecided, even though Democrats got 48 percent of the overall vote.[146] The undecided election in North Carolina's 9th congressional district was because the bipartisan State Election Board refused in February 2019 to certify the results, after an investigation found evidence of widespread ballot fraud committed by Republican operatives.[147]

Gerrymandering

Because of gerrymandering in redistricting after the 2010 census, Democrats have been underrepresented in the state and Congressional delegations since 2012, although they have sometimes represented more than half the state's population.[146] The state was sued for racially gerrymandering the districts, which resulted in minority voting power being diluted in some areas, resulting in skewed representation. The federal court ordered redistricting in 2015.[146] Two suits challenging the state congressional district map were led by "two dozen voters, the state Democratic Party, the state chapter of the League of Women Voters, and the interest group Common Cause".[146] They contend that the redistricting resulted in deliberate under-representation of a substantial portion of voters. This case reached the United States Supreme Court in March 2019, which also heard a related partisan gerrymandering case from Maryland.[146]

Sports

North Carolina is home to four major league sports franchises: the Carolina Panthers of the National Football League, the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association, and Charlotte FC of Major League Soccer are based in Charlotte, while the Raleigh-based Carolina Hurricanes play in the National Hockey League. The Panthers and Hurricanes are the only two major professional sports teams that have the same geographical designation while playing in different metropolitan areas. The Hurricanes are the only major professional team from North Carolina to have won a league championship, having captured the Stanley Cup in 2006. North Carolina is also home to two other top-level professional teams in less prominent sports—the Charlotte Hounds of Major League Lacrosse and the North Carolina Courage of the National Women's Soccer League.

While North Carolina has no Major League Baseball team, it does have numerous Minor League Baseball teams, with the highest level of play coming from the Triple-A Charlotte Knights and Durham Bulls. Additionally, North Carolina has minor league teams in other team sports including soccer and ice hockey, most notably North Carolina FC and the Charlotte Checkers, both of which play in the second tier of their respective sports.

In addition to professional team sports, North Carolina has a strong affiliation with NASCAR and stock-car racing, with Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord hosting two Cup Series races every year. Charlotte also hosts the NASCAR Hall of Fame, while Concord is the home of several top-flight racing teams, including Hendrick Motorsports, Roush Fenway Racing, Richard Petty Motorsports, Stewart-Haas Racing, and Chip Ganassi Racing. Numerous other tracks around North Carolina host races from low-tier NASCAR circuits as well.

Golf is a popular summertime leisure activity, and North Carolina has hosted several important professional golf tournaments. Pinehurst Resort in Pinehurst has hosted a PGA Championship, Ryder Cup, two U.S. Opens, and one U.S. Women's Open. The Wells Fargo Championship is a regular stop on the PGA Tour and is held at Quail Hollow Club in Charlotte, and Quail Hollow has also played host to the PGA Championship. The Wyndham Championship is played annually in Greensboro at Sedgefield Country Club.

College sports are also popular in North Carolina, with 18 schools competing at the Division I level. The Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) is headquartered in Greensboro, and both the ACC Football Championship Game (Charlotte) and the ACC Men's Basketball Tournament (Greensboro) were most recently held in North Carolina. Additionally, the city of Charlotte is home to the National Junior College Athletics Association's (NJCAA) headquarters.[148] College basketball is very popular in North Carolina, buoyed by the Tobacco Road rivalries between ACC members North Carolina, Duke, North Carolina State, and Wake Forest. The ACC Championship Game and the Duke's Mayo Bowl are held annually in Charlotte's Bank of America Stadium, featuring teams from the ACC and the Southeastern Conference. Additionally, the state has hosted the NCAA Men's Basketball Final Four on two occasions, in Greensboro in 1974 and in Charlotte in 1994.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and partial ancestry

References

  1. ^ a b In 1893 the North Carolina General Assembly adopted the Latin words "Esse Quam Videri" as the state motto and directed that these words be placed with the state's Coat of Arms and the date "20 May 1775" upon the great seal.
  2. ^ "North Carolina Climate and Geography". NC Kids Page. North Carolina Department of the Secretary of State. May 8, 2006. Archived from the original on November 4, 2006. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
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Bibliography

  • Lefler, Hugh (numerous editions since 1934). North Carolina History Told by Contemporaries . University of North Carolina Press.
  • Jones, H. G. (1984). North Carolina Illustrated, 1524–1984. University of North Carolina Press.
  • North Carolina Manual. Published biennially by the Department of the Secretary of State since 1941.
  • The Religion in North Carolina Digital Collection. A grant-funded project to provide digital access to publications of and about religious bodies in North Carolina. Partner institutions at Duke University, UNC-Chapel Hill, and Wake Forest University contributed the largest portion of the items in this collection, but the collection is enriched by unique materials from libraries and archives throughout North Carolina. The materials in this collection include local church histories, periodicals, clergy biographies, cookbooks, event programs, directories, and much more.

Further reading

  • James, Clay; Orr, Douglas, eds. (1971). North Carolina Atlas: Portrait of a Changing Southern State.
  • Christensen, Rob (2008). The Paradox of Tar Heel Politics. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Cooper, Christopher A.; Knotts, H. Gibbs, eds. (2008). The New Politics of North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Crow; Jeffrey J.; Tise, Larry E. (1979). Writing North Carolina History. Online.
  • Eamon, Tom (2014). The Making of a Southern Democracy: North Carolina Politics from Kerr Scott to Pat McCrory. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Fleer, Jack D. (1994). North Carolina Government & Politics. Online political science textbook.
  • Hawks, Francis L. (1857). History of North Carolina, Volumes I and II.
  • Kersey, Marianne M.; Coble, Ran, eds. (1989). North Carolina Focus: An Anthology on State Government, Politics, and Policy. 2d ed. Raleigh: North Carolina Center for Public Policy Research.
  • Lefler, Hugh Talmage (1963). A Guide to the Study and Reading of North Carolina History. Online.
  • Lefler, Hugh Talmage; Newsome, Albert Ray (1954, 1963, 1973). North Carolina: The History of a Southern State. Standard textbook.
  • Link, William A. (2009). North Carolina: Change and Tradition in a Southern State. History by leading scholar.
  • Luebke, Paul (1990). Tar Heel Politics: Myths and Realities.
  • Powell, William S. (1979–88). Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. Vol. 1, A-C; vol. 2, D-G; vol. 3, H-K.
  • Powell, William S. (1958). North Carolina Fiction, 1734–1957: An Annotated Bibliography.
  • Powell, William S. (1989). North Carolina through Four Centuries. Standard textbook.
  • Powell, William S.; Mazzocchi, Jay, eds. (2006). Encyclopedia of North Carolina.
  • Ready, Milton. (2005). The Tar Heel State: A History of North Carolina.
  • Thuesen, Sarah Caroline. (2013). Greater Than Equal: African American Struggles for Schools and Citizenship in North Carolina, 1919–1965. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.
  • WPA Federal Writers' Project (1939). North Carolina: A Guide to the Old North State. Famous WPA guide to every town.

External links

General

History

Government and education

Other

Preceded by
New York
List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Ratified Constitution on November 21, 1789 (12th)
Succeeded by
Rhode Island

Coordinates: 35°33′21″N 79°23′16″W / 35.5557°N 79.3877°W / 35.5557; -79.3877 (State of North Carolina)