Moscou

Da Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Ir para navegação Pular para pesquisar

Moscou
Москва
Moscow International Business Center
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
Bolshoi Theatre
The main building of Moscow State University
View of the Moskva River and the Moscow Kremlin in evening
View of Red Square
De cima para baixo, da esquerda para a direita: MIBC ; Catedral de Cristo Salvador ; Teatro Bolshoi ; o edifício principal da MSU ; Kremlin de Moscou e o rio Moskva ; quadrado vermelho
Hino: " My Moscow "
Russia Moscow locator map.svg
Coordenadas: 55 ° 45′21 ″ N 37 ° 37′2 ″ E / 55.75583°N 37.61722°E / 55.75583; 37.61722Coordenadas : 55 ° 45′21 ″ N 37 ° 37′2 ″ E  / 55.75583°N 37.61722°E / 55.75583; 37.61722
PaísRússia
Distrito FederalCentral [1]
Região econômicaCentral [2]
Mencionado pela primeira vez1147 [3]
Governo
 • CorpoDuma da cidade [4]
 •  Prefeito [5]Sergey Sobyanin [5]
Área
 • Total2.561,5 km 2 (989,0 mi quadrados)
População
 • Estimativa 
(2018) [7]
12.506.468
 • Classificação
Fuso horárioUTC + 3 ( MSK  [8] )Edit this on Wikidata
Código ISO 3166RU-MOW
Matrículas77, 177, 777; 97, 197, 797; 99, 199, 799
OKTMO ID45000000
Línguas oficiaisRusso [9]
Local na rede Internetmos.ru

Moscovo ( / m ɒ s k / MOS -koh , US principalmente / m ɒ s k / MOS -kow ; [10] [11] russo: Москва , . Tr Moscovo , IPA:  [mɐskva] ( escutar )About this sound ) é a capital e a maior cidade da Rússia . A cidade fica às margens do rio Moskva, na Rússia Central, com uma população estimada em 12,4 milhões de residentes dentro dos limites da cidade, [12] mais de 17 milhões de residentes na área urbana, [13] e mais de 20 milhões de residentes na área metropolitana . [14] A cidade cobre uma área de 2.511 quilômetros quadrados (970 sq mi), enquanto a área urbana cobre 5.891 quilômetros quadrados (2.275 sq mi), [13] e a área metropolitana cobre mais de 26.000 quilômetros quadrados (10.000 sq mi). [14] Moscou está entre as maiores cidades do mundo , sendo a maior cidade inteiramente da Europa , a maior área urbana da Europa, [13] a maior área metropolitanana Europa, [14] e a maior cidade em área terrestre do continente europeu. [15]

Documentada pela primeira vez em 1147, Moscou cresceu e se tornou uma cidade próspera e poderosa que serviu como capital do Grão-Ducado que leva seu nome . Quando o Grão-Ducado de Moscou evoluiu para o czarismo da Rússia , Moscou ainda permaneceu como o centro político e econômico durante a maior parte da história do czarismo. Quando o czarismo foi reformado no Império Russo , a capital foi transferida de Moscou para São Petersburgo, diminuindo a influência da cidade. A capital foi então transferida de volta para Moscou após a Revolução de Outubro e a cidade foi trazida de volta como o centro político da SFSR russa e depois da União Soviética . [16]Após a dissolução da União Soviética , Moscou permaneceu como a capital da Federação Russa contemporânea e recém-criada .

Como a megacidade mais setentrional e fria do mundo, e com uma história que data de mais de oito séculos, Moscou é governada como uma cidade federal (desde 1993 [17] ) que serve como o centro político, econômico, cultural e científico da Rússia e Europa Oriental . Como uma cidade do mundo alfa , [18] Moscou tem uma das maiores economias urbanas do mundo . A cidade é um dos destinos turísticos que mais crescem no mundo, [19] e é uma das cidades mais visitadas da Europa . Moscou é o lar do quarto maior número de bilionários de qualquer cidade do mundo, [20]e tem o maior número de bilionários de qualquer cidade da Europa. O Centro Internacional de Negócios de Moscou é um dos maiores centros financeiros da Europa e do mundo, e possui alguns dos arranha-céus mais altos da Europa . Os moscovitas desfrutam de serviços digitais públicos mais do que em qualquer outro lugar da Europa [21] e dos melhores serviços de governo eletrônico do mundo. [22] Moscou foi a cidade-sede dos Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 1980 e uma das cidades-sede da Copa do Mundo FIFA 2018 . [23]

Como o centro histórico da Rússia, Moscou é o lar de vários artistas, cientistas e figuras do esporte russos devido à presença de seus vários museus, instituições acadêmicas e políticas e teatros. A cidade abriga vários locais do Patrimônio Mundial da UNESCO e é conhecida por sua exibição de arquitetura russa , especialmente sua histórica Praça Vermelha , e edifícios como a Catedral de São Basílio e o Kremlin de Moscou , do qual este último serve como sede do poder do Governo da Rússia . Moscou é o lar de muitas empresas russas em vários setores e é servida por uma rede de trânsito abrangente, que incluiquatro aeroportos internacionais , nove terminais ferroviários, um sistema de bonde , um sistema de monotrilho e, principalmente, o metrô de Moscou , o sistema de metrô mais movimentado da Europa e um dos maiores sistemas de trânsito rápido do mundo. A cidade tem mais de 40% de seu território coberto por vegetação, o que a torna uma das cidades mais verdes da Europa e do mundo. [15] [24]

Etimologia

Acredita-se que o nome da cidade seja derivado do nome do Rio Moskva . [25] [26] Foram propostas várias teorias sobre a origem do nome do rio. Os povos Finno-Ugric Merya e Muroma , que estavam entre as várias tribos pré-eslavas que originalmente habitavam a área, chamavam o rio supostamente Mustajoki , em inglês: Black river . Foi sugerido que o nome da cidade deriva deste termo. [27] [28]

O mais linguisticamente bem fundamentado e amplamente aceito é da raiz proto-balto-eslava * mŭzg - / muzg - do proto-indo-europeu * meu - "molhado", [26] [29] [30] então o nome Moskva pode significar um rio em um pântano ou pântano. [25] Seus cognatos incluem russo : музга , muzga "piscina, poça", lituano : mazgoti e letão : mazgāt "lavar", sânscrito : májjati "afogar-se",Latim : mergō "mergulhar, mergulhar". [25] [29] Em muitos países eslavos, Moskov é um sobrenome, mais comum na Bulgária , Rússia, Ucrânia e Macedônia do Norte . [31] Além disso, existem lugares com nomes semelhantes na Polônia, como Mozgawa . [25] [26] [29]

A forma original em russo antigo do nome é reconstruída como * Москы , * Mosky , [25] [26], portanto, foi um dos poucos substantivos ū -stem eslavos . Tal como acontece com outros substantivos dessa declinação, ele vinha sofrendo uma transformação morfológica no estágio inicial do desenvolvimento da língua, como resultado as primeiras menções escritas no século 12 foram Московь , Moskovĭ ( caso acusativo ), Москви , Moskvi ( caso locativo ), Москвe / Москвѣ , Moskve / Moskvě ( caso genitivo) [25] [26] Das últimas formas veio o nome russo moderno Москва , Moskva , que é o resultado da generalização morfológica com os numerosos substantivos ā -stem eslavos .

No entanto, a forma Moskovĭ deixou alguns traços em muitos outros idiomas, como inglês: Moscou , alemão : Moskau , francês : Moscou , georgiano : მოსკოვი , letão : Maskava , turco otomano : Moskov , bashkir : Мәскәү , tártaro : Mäskäw , cazaque : Мәскеу , Mäskew , Chuvash : Мускав , Muskav, etc. De maneira semelhante, o nome latino Moscóvia foi formado, mais tarde ele se tornou um nome coloquial para a Rússia, usado na Europa Ocidental nos séculos XVI-XVII. Dele também vieram a Moscóvia e a Moscovita inglesas . [32]

Várias outras teorias (de origem céltica , iraniana , caucasiana ), tendo pouco ou nenhum fundamento científico, são agora amplamente rejeitadas pelos lingüistas contemporâneos. [25] [26]

Outros nomes

Moscou adquiriu uma série de epítetos , mais se referindo ao seu tamanho e status proeminente dentro da nação: A Terceira Roma ( Третий Рим ), o Whitestone One ( Белокаменная ), o Primeiro Trono ( Первопрестольная ), o Forty Soroks ( Сорок Сороков ) ( "sorok" significa "quarenta, muitos" e "um distrito ou paróquia" em russo antigo ). Moscou também é uma das doze cidades heróicas . O demonym para um residente de Moscou é " москвич " ( moskvich ) para homem ou " москвичка "( moskvichka ) para feminino, traduzido em inglês como moscovita . O nome" Moscou "é abreviado como" MSK "( МСК em russo). [ carece de fontes? ]

História

Pré-história

Escavações arqueológicas mostram que o local da atual Moscou e a área circundante são habitadas desde tempos imemoriais. Entre as primeiras descobertas estão relíquias da cultura Lyalovo, que os especialistas atribuem ao período Neolítico , a última fase da Idade da Pedra . [33]

Eles confirmam que os primeiros habitantes da área foram caçadores e coletores. Por volta de 950 DC, duas tribos eslavas, Vyatichi e Krivichi , se estabeleceram aqui. Possivelmente, o Vyatichi formou o núcleo da população indígena de Moscou. [34]

História inicial (1147-1283)

Vladimir-Suzdal , um principado na periferia nordeste da Rus ' de Kiev , tornou-se o Grão-Ducado de Moscou.

A primeira referência conhecida a Moscou data de 1147 como ponto de encontro de Yuri Dolgoruky e Sviatoslav Olgovich . Na época, era uma pequena cidade na fronteira oeste do Principado Vladimir-Suzdal. A crônica diz: "Venha, meu irmão, a Moskov" ( Приди ко мне, брате, в Москов ). [35]

Em 1156, Knyaz Yury Dolgoruky fortificou a cidade com uma cerca de madeira e um fosso. Durante a invasão mongol da Rus 'de Kiev , os mongóis comandados por Batu Khan queimaram a cidade e mataram seus habitantes. [ citação necessária ]

O forte de madeira na Moskvě "no rio Moscou" foi herdado por Daniel , o filho mais novo de Alexander Nevsky , na década de 1260, na época considerado o menos valioso dos bens de seu pai. Daniel ainda era uma criança na época, e o grande forte era governado por tiuns (deputados), nomeados pelo tio paterno de Daniel, Yaroslav de Tver . [ citação necessária ]

Daniel atingiu a maioridade na década de 1270 e se envolveu nas lutas pelo poder do principado com sucesso duradouro, aliando-se a seu irmão Dmitry em sua tentativa de governar Novgorod . A partir de 1283, ele atuou como governante de um principado independente ao lado de Dmitry, que se tornou Grão-Duque de Vladimir. Daniel recebeu o crédito de fundar os primeiros mosteiros de Moscou, dedicados à Epifania do Senhor e a São Daniel. [36]

Grão-Ducado (1283-1547)

Kremlenagrad.jpg Facial Chronicle - b.10, p.049 - Tokhtamysh at Moscow.jpg Mikhail Feodorovich Izbranie.jpg
O Kremlin de Moscou no final do século 16 O cerco de Moscou quadrado vermelho

Daniel governou Moscou como Grão-duque até 1303 e estabeleceu-a como uma cidade próspera que eclipsaria seu principado pai de Vladimir na década de 1320.

Na margem direita do rio Moskva, a uma distância de cinco milhas (8,0 quilômetros) do Kremlin, o mais tardar em 1282, Daniel fundou o primeiro mosteiro com a igreja de madeira de São Daniel-Estilita, que agora é o Danilov Mosteiro. Daniel morreu em 1303, aos 42 anos. Antes da sua morte, tornou-se monge e, segundo o seu testamento, foi sepultado no cemitério do Mosteiro de São Daniel.

Moscou foi bastante estável e próspera por muitos anos e atraiu um grande número de refugiados de toda a Rússia. Os Rurikidas mantinham grandes propriedades ao praticar a primogenitura , pela qual todas as terras eram passadas para os filhos mais velhos, em vez de dividi-las entre todos os filhos. Em 1304, Yury de Moscou disputou com Mikhail de Tver o trono do principado de Vladimir . Ivan I acabou derrotando Tver para se tornar o único cobrador de impostos dos governantes mongóis , tornando Moscou a capital de Vladimir-Suzdal . Ao prestar um grande tributo, Ivan ganhou uma importante concessão do Khan .

Catedral Spassky (o edifício existente mais antigo de Moscou), construída c. 1357

Enquanto o Khan da Horda de Ouro inicialmente tentava limitar a influência de Moscou, quando o crescimento do Grão-Ducado da Lituânia começou a ameaçar toda a Rússia, o Khan fortaleceu Moscou para contrabalançar a Lituânia, permitindo que ela se tornasse uma das cidades mais poderosas da Rússia . Em 1380, o príncipe Dmitry Donskoy de Moscou liderou um exército russo unido para uma importante vitória sobre os mongóis na Batalha de Kulikovo . Posteriormente, Moscou assumiu o papel principal na libertação da Rússia do domínio mongol. Em 1480, Ivan III tinha finalmente quebrado os russos livre do controle Tatar, e Moscou se tornou a capital de um império que acabaria por abranger toda a Rússia eSibéria e partes de muitas outras terras.

A Torre Spasskaya , construída em 1491

Em 1462, Ivan III (1440-1505) tornou-se Grande Príncipe de Moscou (então parte do estado medieval de Moscóvia). Ele começou a lutar contra os tártaros, ampliou o território da Moscóvia e enriqueceu sua capital. Em 1500, tinha uma população de 100.000 habitantes e era uma das maiores cidades do mundo. Ele conquistou o muito maior principado de Novgorod ao norte, que havia sido aliado dos hostis lituanos. Assim, ele ampliou o território sete vezes, de 430.000 para 2.800.000 quilômetros quadrados (170.000 para 1.080.000 milhas quadradas). Ele assumiu o controle da antiga " Crônica de Novgorod " e a transformou em um veículo de propaganda de seu regime. [37] [38]

O Kremlin de Moscou original foi construído no século XIV. Foi reconstruído por Ivan, que na década de 1480 convidou arquitetos da Itália renascentista , como Petrus Antonius Solarius , que projetou a nova muralha do Kremlin e suas torres, e Marco Ruffo, que projetou o novo palácio para o príncipe. As paredes do Kremlin, como agora aparecem, são aquelas projetadas por Solarius, concluídas em 1495. A Grande Torre do Sino do Kremlin foi construída em 1505–08 e aumentada para sua altura atual em 1600.

Um assentamento comercial, ou posad , cresceu a leste do Kremlin, na área conhecida como Zaradye (Зарядье). Na época de Ivan III, a Praça Vermelha , originalmente chamada de Campo Oco (Полое поле), apareceu.

Em 1508-1516, o arquiteto italiano Aleviz Fryazin (Novy) providenciou a construção de um fosso na frente da parede oriental, que ligaria o Moskva e Neglinnaya e seria preenchido com água de Neglinnaya. Este fosso, conhecido como fosso de Alevizov e tendo um comprimento de 541 metros (1.775 pés), largura de 36 metros (118 pés) e uma profundidade de 9,5 a 13 metros (31-43 pés), era revestido com calcário e, em 1533, cercado em ambos os lados com paredes baixas de tijolos dentados de quatro metros de espessura (13 pés).

Czarismo (1547-1721)

Catedral de São Basílio , construída em 1561

Nos séculos 16 e 17, as três defesas circulares foram construídas: Kitay-gorod (Китай-город), a Cidade Branca (Белый город) e a Cidade Terrestre (Земляной город). No entanto, em 1547, dois incêndios destruíram grande parte da cidade e, em 1571, os tártaros da Crimeia capturaram Moscou , queimando tudo, exceto o Kremlin. [39] Os anais registram que apenas 30.000 de 200.000 habitantes sobreviveram.

Vista de Moscou do século 17 (desenho de 1922 de Apollinary Vasnetsov )

Os tártaros da Crimeia atacaram novamente em 1591, mas desta vez foram impedidos por novas paredes de defesa, construídas entre 1584 e 1591 por um artesão chamado Fyodor Kon . Em 1592, uma muralha de terra externa com 50 torres foi erguida ao redor da cidade, incluindo uma área na margem direita do Rio Moscou. Como uma linha externa de defesa, uma cadeia de mosteiros fortemente fortificados foi estabelecida para além das muralhas ao sul e leste, principalmente a Novodevichy e Donskoy , Danilov , Simonov , Novospasskiy e Andronikov mosteiros, a maioria dos que agora abrigam museus. De suas muralhas, a cidade tornou-se poeticamente conhecida comoBielokamennaya , o "White-Walled". Os limites da cidade marcados pelas muralhas construídas em 1592 são agora marcados pelo anel do jardim .

Três portões quadrados existiam no lado leste da parede do Kremlin, que no século 17 eram conhecidos como Konstantino-Eleninsky, Spassky, Nikolsky (devido seus nomes aos ícones de Constantino e Helena, o Salvador e São Nicolau que pairavam sobre eles). Os dois últimos ficavam em frente à Praça Vermelha, enquanto o portão Konstantino-Elenensky ficava atrás da Catedral de São Basílio.

Plano "Sigismundo" de Moscou (1610), em homenagem a Sigismundo III da Polônia , é o último plano de cidade compilado antes da destruição da cidade em 1612 pela retirada das tropas polonesas e subsequentes mudanças na rede de ruas. Orientação: o norte está à direita, o oeste no topo

A fome na Rússia de 1601–03 matou talvez 100.000 em Moscou. De 1610 a 1612, as tropas da Comunidade polonesa-lituana ocuparam Moscou, enquanto seu governante Sigismundo III tentava assumir o trono russo. Em 1612, o povo de Nizhny Novgorod e outras cidades russas comandadas pelo príncipe Dmitry Pozharsky e Kuzma Minin se levantaram contra os ocupantes poloneses, sitiaram o Kremlin e os expulsaram . Em 1613, o Zemsky sobor elegeu Michael Romanov czar, estabelecendo a dinastia Romanov. O século 17 foi rico em levantes populares, como a libertação de Moscou dos invasores poloneses-lituanos (1612), a Revolta do Sal (1648), a Revolta do Cobre (1662) e a Revolta de Moscou de 1682 .

Durante a primeira metade do século 17, a população de Moscou dobrou de cerca de 100.000 para 200.000. Ele se expandiu para além de suas muralhas no final do século XVII. Estima-se que, em meados do século XVII, 20% dos habitantes dos subúrbios de Moscou eram oriundos do Grão-Ducado da Lituânia , praticamente todos eles sendo expulsos de sua terra natal para Moscou por invasores moscovitas. [40] Em 1682, havia 692 famílias estabelecidas ao norte das muralhas, por ucranianos e bielorrussos raptados de suas cidades natais no decorrer da Guerra Russo-Polonesa (1654-1667) . Esses novos arredores da cidade ficaram conhecidos como Meshchanskaya sloboda , em homenagem à Rutêniameshchane "pessoas da cidade". O termo meshchane (мещане) adquiriu conotações pejorativas na Rússia do século 18 e hoje significa "pequeno burguês" ou "filisteu tacanho". [41]

A cidade inteira do final do século 17, incluindo os slobodas que cresceram fora das muralhas da cidade, estão contidos no que é hoje o Okrug Administrativo Central de Moscou .

Numerosos desastres se abateram sobre a cidade. A epidemia de peste devastou Moscou em 1570–1571, 1592 e 1654–1656. [42] A praga matou mais de 80% das pessoas em 1654-55. Os incêndios queimaram grande parte da cidade de madeira em 1626 e 1648. [43] Em 1712, Pedro, o Grande, transferiu seu governo para a recém-construída São Petersburgo, na costa do Báltico. Moscou deixou de ser a capital da Rússia, exceto por um breve período de 1728 a 1732, sob a influência do Conselho Privado Supremo .

Império (1721-1917)

Panorama of Moscow in 1819-1823
Uma vista panorâmica de Moscou da Torre Spasskaya em 1819-1823
Frente ribeirinha de Moskva no século 19

Depois de perder o status de capital do império, a população de Moscou inicialmente diminuiu, de 200.000 no século 17 para 130.000 em 1750. Mas depois de 1750, a população cresceu mais de dez vezes durante o período restante do Império Russo, chegando a 1,8 milhão em 1915. A praga russa de 1770 a 1772 matou até 100.000 pessoas em Moscou. [44]

Livrarias da Ponte Novospassky no século XVII, de Apollinary Vasnetsov

Por volta de 1700, a construção de estradas de paralelepípedos havia começado. Em novembro de 1730, a iluminação pública permanente foi introduzida e, em 1867, muitas ruas tinham iluminação a gás. Em 1883, perto dos Portões de Prechistinskiye, lâmpadas de arco foram instaladas. Em 1741, Moscou foi cercada por uma barricada de 40 quilômetros de comprimento, a barreira Kamer-Kollezhskiy, com 16 portões nos quais o pedágio da alfândega era cobrado. Sua linha é traçada hoje por uma série de ruas chamadas val(“Muralhas”). Entre 1781 e 1804 foi construído o encanamento Mytischinskiy (o primeiro na Rússia). Em 1813, após a destruição de grande parte da cidade durante a ocupação francesa, foi criada uma Comissão para a Construção da Cidade de Moscou. Lançou um grande programa de reconstrução, incluindo um replanejamento parcial do centro da cidade. Entre muitos edifícios construídos ou reconstruídos nesta época estavam o Grande Palácio do Kremlin e o Arsenal do Kremlin , a Universidade de Moscou , o Moscow Manege (Escola de Equitação) e o Teatro Bolshoi . Em 1903, o abastecimento de água de Moskvoretskaya foi concluído.

No início do século 19, o arco do portão Konstantino-Elenensky era pavimentado com tijolos, mas o Portão Spassky era o portão principal do Kremlin e usado para entradas reais. Deste portão, pontes de madeira e (seguindo as melhorias do século 17) pontes de pedra se estendiam pelo fosso. Livros foram vendidos nesta ponte e plataformas de pedra foram construídas nas proximidades para armas - "raskats". O Canhão do Czar estava localizado na plataforma do Lobnoye mesto .

A estrada que conecta Moscou a São Petersburgo, agora a rodovia M10 , foi concluída em 1746, seu final em Moscou seguindo a antiga estrada de Tver , que existia desde o século XVI. Tornou-se conhecido como Peterburskoye Schosse depois de ter sido pavimentado na década de 1780. O Palácio Petrovsky foi construído em 1776-1780 por Matvey Kazakov .

Napoleão se retirando da cidade durante o incêndio de Moscou , após a fracassada invasão francesa da Rússia

Quando Napoleão invadiu a Rússia em 1812, os moscovitas foram evacuados. Suspeita-se que o incêndio em Moscou foi principalmente o efeito da sabotagem russa. O Grande Armée de Napoleão foi forçado a recuar e quase foi aniquilado pelo devastador inverno russo e pelos ataques esporádicos das forças militares russas. Cerca de 400.000 soldados de Napoleão morreram durante esse tempo. [45]

Praça da Catedral durante a coroação de Alexandre I , 1802, por Fyodor Alekseyev

A Universidade Estadual de Moscou foi fundada em 1755. Seu prédio principal foi reconstruído após o incêndio de 1812 por Domenico Giliardi . O jornal Moskovskiye Vedomosti apareceu a partir de 1756, originalmente em intervalos semanais, e a partir de 1859 como um jornal diário.

A Rua Arbat já existia desde pelo menos o século 15, mas se desenvolveu em uma área de prestígio durante o século 18. Foi destruído no incêndio de 1812 e foi totalmente reconstruído no início do século XIX.

Na década de 1830, o general Alexander Bashilov planejou a primeira grade regular das ruas da cidade ao norte do Palácio Petrovsky. O campo Khodynka ao sul da rodovia foi usado para treinamento militar. A estação ferroviária de Smolensky (precursora do atual Terminal Ferroviário Belorussky ) foi inaugurada em 1870. O Parque Sokolniki , no século 18 a casa dos falcoeiros do czar bem fora de Moscou, tornou-se contígua à cidade em expansão no final do século 19 e foi desenvolvida em um parque público municipal em 1878. O Terminal Ferroviário suburbano de Savyolovsky foi construído em 1902. Em janeiro de 1905, a instituição do Governador da Cidade, ou Prefeito, foi oficialmente apresentado em Moscou, e Alexander Adrianov se tornou o primeiro prefeito oficial de Moscou.

Quando Catarina II assumiu o poder em 1762, a sujeira da cidade e o cheiro de esgoto foram descritos por observadores como um sintoma de estilos de vida desordenados de russos de classe baixa recém-chegados das fazendas. As elites pediram melhorias no saneamento, o que se tornou parte dos planos de Catherine para aumentar o controle sobre a vida social. Os sucessos políticos e militares nacionais de 1812 a 1855 acalmaram os críticos e validaram os esforços para produzir uma sociedade mais esclarecida e estável. Falou-se menos sobre o cheiro e as más condições de saúde pública. No entanto, na esteira dos fracassos da Rússia na Guerra da Criméia em 1855-56, a confiança na capacidade do Estado de manter a ordem nas favelas diminuiu e as demandas por melhoria da saúde pública colocaram a sujeira de volta na agenda. [46]

Período soviético (1917-1991)

Desfile soviético em frente ao Hotel Moskva na Praça Manezhnaya , 1964
Planta da cidade de Moscou, 1917
Celebração do Dia da Vitória na Praça Vermelha, 9 de maio de 1975
Vídeo externo
video icon Canção do filme soviético "Nova Moscou"

Após o sucesso da Revolução Russa de 1917 , Vladimir Lenin , temendo uma possível invasão estrangeira, mudou a capital de Petrogrado para Moscou em 12 de março de 1918. [47] O Kremlin mais uma vez se tornou a sede do poder e o centro político do novo Estado.

Com a mudança de valores imposta pela ideologia comunista , a tradição de preservação do patrimônio cultural foi quebrada. Sociedades de preservação independentes, mesmo aquelas que defendiam apenas marcos seculares, como a OIRU, com sede em Moscou, foram dissolvidas no final da década de 1920. Uma nova campanha anti-religiosa, lançada em 1929, coincidiu com a coletivização dos camponeses; a destruição de igrejas nas cidades atingiu o pico por volta de 1932. Em 1937, várias cartas foram escritas ao Comitê Central do Partido Comunista da União Soviética para rebatizar Moscou para "Stalindar" ou "Stalinodar", uma carta de um idoso aposentado cujo sonho era " viver em Stalinodar "e havia escolhido o nome para representar o" presente "(dar) do gênio de Stalin. [48]Stalin rejeitou esta sugestão, e depois que ela foi sugerida novamente a ele por Nikolai Yezhov , ele ficou indignado, dizendo "Para que eu preciso disso?". Isso ocorreu após Stalin proibir a renomeação de lugares em seu nome em 1936. [49]

Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial , o Comitê de Defesa do Estado Soviético e o Estado-Maior do Exército Vermelho estavam localizados em Moscou. Em 1941, 16 divisões de voluntários nacionais (mais de 160.000 pessoas), 25 batalhões (18.000 pessoas) e 4 regimentos de engenharia foram formados entre os moscovitas. Entre outubro de 1941 e janeiro de 1942, o Grupo Central do Exército Alemão foi detido nos arredores da cidade e, em seguida, expulso durante a Batalha de Moscou. Muitas fábricas foram evacuadas, junto com grande parte do governo, e a partir de 20 de outubro a cidade foi declarada em estado de sítio. Seus habitantes remanescentes construíram e mantiveram defesas antitanque, enquanto a cidade era bombardeada do ar. Em 1º de maio de 1944, foi instituída uma medalha "Pela defesa de Moscou" e em 1947 outra medalha "Em memória do 800º aniversário de Moscou".

As baixas alemãs e soviéticas durante a batalha de Moscou têm sido objeto de debate, já que várias fontes fornecem estimativas um tanto diferentes. O total de baixas entre 30 de setembro de 1941 e 7 de janeiro de 1942 é estimado entre 248.000 e 400.000 para a Wehrmacht e entre 650.000 e 1.280.000 para o Exército Vermelho. [50] [51] [52]

Durante os anos do pós-guerra, houve uma grave crise imobiliária, resolvida com a invenção de apartamentos em arranha-céus . Existem mais de 11.000 desses blocos de apartamentos padronizados e pré-fabricados, abrigando a maioria da população de Moscou, tornando-a, de longe, a cidade com o maior número de prédios altos. [53] Os apartamentos foram construídos e parcialmente mobiliados na fábrica antes de serem erguidos e empilhados em colunas altas. O popular filme cômico da era soviética Ironia do Destino parodia esse método de construção.

A cidade de Zelenogrado foi construída em 1958 a 37 quilômetros (23 milhas) do centro da cidade ao noroeste, junto com o Leningradskoye Shosse , e incorporada como um dos okrugs administrativos de Moscou . A Universidade Estadual de Moscou mudou-se para seu campus em Sparrow Hills em 1953.

Em 1959, Nikita Khrushchev lançou sua campanha anti-religiosa . Em 1964, mais de 10 mil igrejas em 20 mil foram fechadas (principalmente nas áreas rurais) e muitas foram demolidas. Dos 58 mosteiros e conventos em funcionamento em 1959, apenas dezesseis permaneceram em 1964; das cinquenta igrejas de Moscou em operação em 1959, trinta foram fechadas e seis demolidas.

Em 8 de maio de 1965, devido ao vigésimo aniversário da vitória na Segunda Guerra Mundial , Moscou recebeu o título de Cidade Heroica . Em 1980, sediou os Jogos Olímpicos de verão .

O MKAD (anel viário) foi inaugurado em 1961. Ele tinha quatro pistas com 109 quilômetros (68 milhas) ao longo dos limites da cidade. O MKAD marcou os limites administrativos da cidade de Moscou até a década de 1980, quando os subúrbios remotos além do anel viário começaram a ser incorporados. Em 1980, sediou os Jogos Olímpicos de Verão , boicotados pelos Estados Unidos e vários outros países ocidentais devido ao envolvimento da União Soviética no Afeganistão no final de 1979. Em 1991, Moscou foi palco de uma tentativa de golpe de comunistas conservadores que se opunham ao reformas liberais de Mikhail Gorbachev .

A história recente (1991-presente)

Vista da ponte flutuante no Parque Zaryadye , com a Praça Vermelha e o Kremlin de Moscou à distância
Rua Tverskaya , a principal rua radial da cidade

Quando a URSS foi dissolvida no mesmo ano, Moscou continuou sendo a capital do SFSR russo (em 25 de dezembro de 1991, o SFSR russo foi renomeado Federação Russa ). Desde então, uma economia de mercado surgiu em Moscou, produzindo uma explosão de varejo, serviços, arquitetura e estilos de vida no estilo ocidental.

A cidade continuou a crescer durante os anos 1990 a 2000, sua população crescendo de menos de nove para mais de dez milhões. Mason e Nigmatullina argumentam que os controles de crescimento urbano da era soviética (antes de 1991) produziram um desenvolvimento metropolitano controlado e sustentável, tipificado pelo cinturão verde construído em 1935. Desde então, no entanto, tem havido um crescimento dramático da expansão suburbana de baixa densidade, criada pela grande demanda por residências unifamiliares em oposição a apartamentos lotados. Em 1995–1997, o anel viário MKAD foi alargado das primeiras quatro para dez faixas.

Em dezembro de 2002, Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo se tornou a primeira estação de metrô de Moscou aberta além dos limites do MKAD. O terceiro anel viário , intermediário entre o anel de jardim do início do século 19 e o anel viário externo da era soviética, foi concluído em 2004. O cinturão verde está se tornando cada vez mais fragmentado e cidades-satélite estão aparecendo na orla. As dachas de verão estão sendo convertidas em residências durante o ano todo e, com a proliferação de automóveis, há um congestionamento de tráfego pesado. [54] Várias igrejas antigas e outros exemplos de patrimônio arquitetônico que foram demolidos durante a era Stalin foram restaurados, como a Catedral de Cristo Salvador. Na década de 2010, a administração de Moscou lançou alguns projetos de longa duração, como o programa de requalificação urbana Moja Ulitsa (em inglês: My Street ) [55] ou a renovação da Residência. [56]

Por sua expansão territorial em 1 de julho de 2012 para sudoeste no Oblast de Moscou , a área da capital mais que dobrou, passando de 1.091 para 2.511 quilômetros quadrados (421 para 970 sq mi), resultando em Moscou se tornando a maior cidade do continente europeu por área; também ganhou uma população adicional de 233.000 pessoas. [57] [58]

Geografia

Localização

Imagem de satélite de Moscou e seus subúrbios próximos

Moscou está situada às margens do rio Moskva , que flui por pouco mais de 500 km através da planície do Leste Europeu, no centro da Rússia. 49 pontes atravessam o rio e seus canais dentro dos limites da cidade. A elevação de Moscou no Centro de Exposições de Toda a Rússia (VVC), onde a principal estação meteorológica de Moscou está situada, é de 156 metros (512 pés). O altiplano de Teplostanskaya é o ponto mais alto da cidade, com 255 metros (837 pés). [59] A largura da cidade de Moscou (não limitando MKAD ) de oeste a leste é de 39,7 km (24,7 milhas), e o comprimento de norte a sul é de 51,8 km (32,2 milhas).

Tempo

Moscou serve como ponto de referência para o fuso horário usado na maior parte da Rússia europeia , Bielo- Rússia e República da Crimeia . As áreas operam no que é referido nos padrões internacionais como Moscow Standard Time (MSK, МСК ) , que é 3 horas antes do UTC , ou UTC + 3 . O horário de verão não é mais observado. De acordo com a longitude geográfica, o meio-dia solar médio em Moscou ocorre às 12h30. [60]

Clima

VDNKh depois da chuva

Moscou tem um clima continental úmido ( Köppen : Dfb) com invernos longos e frios (embora na média para os padrões russos), geralmente durando de meados de novembro ao final de março, e verões quentes. Os climas continentais mais extremos na mesma latitude - como partes do Leste do Canadá ou da Sibéria - têm invernos muito mais frios do que Moscou, sugerindo que ainda há moderação significativa do Oceano Atlântico, apesar do fato de Moscou estar longe do mar. O tempo pode variar muito, com temperaturas variando de −25 ° C (−13 ° F) na cidade e −30 ° C (−22 ° F) nos subúrbios a acima de 5 ° C (41 ° F) no inverno, e de 10 a 35 ° C (50 a 95 ° F) no verão. [61]

As altas temperaturas típicas nos meses quentes de junho, julho e agosto ficam em torno de confortáveis ​​20 a 26 ° C (68 a 79 ° F), mas durante as ondas de calor (que podem ocorrer entre maio e setembro), as altas temperaturas diurnas costumam ultrapassar 30 ° C (86 ° F), às vezes por uma ou duas semanas de cada vez. No inverno, as temperaturas médias normalmente caem para aproximadamente −10 ° C (14 ° F), embora quase todo inverno haja períodos de calor com temperaturas diurnas subindo acima de 0 ° C (32 ° F) e períodos de resfriamento com temperaturas noturnas caindo abaixo de −20 ° C (−4 ° F). Esses períodos geralmente duram cerca de uma ou duas semanas. A temporada de cultivo em Moscou normalmente dura 156 dias, geralmente em torno de 1 ° de maio a 5 de outubro. [62]

A temperatura mais alta já registrada foi 38,2 ° C (100,8 ° F) [63] na estação meteorológica VVC e 39,0 ° C (102,2 ° F) no centro de Moscou e aeroporto Domodedovo em 29 de julho de 2010 durante o incomum Hemisfério Norte de 2010 ondas de calor de verão . Recorde de altas temperaturas foram registradas para janeiro, março, abril, maio, julho, agosto, novembro e dezembro em 2007-2014. [64] A temperatura média de julho de 1981 a 2010 é de 19,2 ° C (66,6 ° F). A temperatura mais baixa já registrada foi −42,1 ° C (−43,8 ° F) em janeiro de 1940. A neve, que está presente por cerca de cinco meses por ano, geralmente começa a cair em meados de outubro, enquanto a cobertura de neve cai em novembro e derrete no início de abril.

Em média, Moscou tem 1.731 horas de sol por ano, variando de uma baixa de 8% em dezembro a 52% de maio a agosto. [65] Esta grande variação anual é devido à formação de nuvens convectivas. No inverno, o ar úmido do Atlântico se condensa no interior frio do continente, resultando em condições muito nubladas. No entanto, essa mesma influência continental resulta em verões consideravelmente mais ensolarados do que cidades oceânicas de latitude semelhante, como Edimburgo . Entre 2004 e 2010, a média ficou entre 1800 e 2000 horas com tendência a mais sol nos meses de verão, até um recorde de 411 horas em julho de 2014, 79% do sol possível. Dezembro de 2017 foi o mês mais escuro em Moscou desde o início dos registros, com apenas seis minutos de sol. [66] [67]

As temperaturas no centro de Moscou costumam ser significativamente mais altas do que nos arredores e subúrbios próximos, especialmente no inverno. Por exemplo, se a temperatura média de fevereiro no nordeste de Moscou é de -6,7 ° C (19,9 ° F), nos subúrbios é de cerca de -9 ° C (16 ° F). [68] A diferença de temperatura entre o centro de Moscou e as áreas próximas do Oblast de Moscou às vezes pode ser superior a 10 ° C (18 ° F) nas noites geladas de inverno.

Dados climáticos para os normais de Moscou ( VVC ) de 1981 a 2010, registros de 1879 - o presente
Mês Jan Fev Mar Abr Poderia Junho Jul Agosto Set Out Nov Dez Ano
Registro de alta ° C (° F) 8,6
(47,5)
8,3
(46,9)
19,7
(67,5)
28,9
(84,0)
33,2
(91,8)
34,9
(94,8)
38,2
(100,8)
37,3
(99,1)
32,3
(90,1)
24,0
(75,2)
16,2
(61,2)
9,6
(49,3)
38,2
(100,8)
Média alta ° C (° F) −4
(25)
-3,7
(25,3)
2,6
(36,7)
11,3
(52,3)
18,6
(65,5)
22,0
(71,6)
24,3
(75,7)
21,9
(71,4)
15,7
(60,3)
8,7
(47,7)
0,9
(33,6)
-3
(27)
9,6
(49,3)
Média diária ° C (° F) -6,5
(20,3)
-6,7
(19,9)
-1
(30)
6,7
(44,1)
13,2
(55,8)
17,0
(62,6)
19,2
(66,6)
17,0
(62,6)
11,3
(52,3)
5,6
(42,1)
-1,2
(29,8)
-5,2
(22,6)
5,8
(42,4)
Média baixa ° C (° F) -9,1
(15,6)
-9,8
(14,4)
-4,4
(24,1)
2,2
(36,0)
7,7
(45,9)
12,1
(53,8)
14,4
(57,9)
12,5
(54,5)
7,4
(45,3)
2,7
(36,9)
-3,3
(26,1)
-7,6
(18,3)
2,1
(35,8)
Registro de ° C baixo (° F) −42,1
(−43,8)
−38,2
(−36,8)
−32,4
(−26,3)
−21
(−6)
-7,5
(18,5)
-2,3
(27,9)
1,3
(34,3)
-1,2
(29,8)
-8,5
(16,7)
-16,1
(3,0)
−32,8
(−27,0)
−38,8
(−37,8)
−42,1
(−43,8)
Precipitação média mm (polegadas) 52
(2,0)
41
(1,6)
35
(1,4)
37
(1,5)
49
(1,9)
80
(3,1)
85
(3,3)
82
(3,2)
68
(2,7)
71
(2,8)
55
(2,2)
52
(2,0)
707
(27,7)
Média de dias chuvosos 0,8 0,7 3 9 13 14 15 15 15 12 6 2 105,5
Média de dias de neve 18 15 9 1 0,1 0 0 0 0,1 2 10 17 72,2
Média de humidade relativa (%) 83 80 74 67 64 70 74 77 81 81 84 85 77
Média de horas de sol mensais 33 72 128 170 265 279 271 238 147 78 32 18 1.731
Porcentagem de luz do sol possível 14 27 35 40 53 53 52 51 38 24 13 8 34
Índice ultravioleta médio 0 1 2 3 5 6 6 5 3 1 1 0 3
Fonte: thermograph.ru [69] , pogoda.ru.net [70] [71] , meteoweb.ru [72] e Weather Atlas [73]

A mudança do clima

Abaixo está a tabela de normais de 1961–1990. A temperatura anual aumentou de 5,0 ° C (41,0 ° F) [74] para 5,8 ° C (42,4 ° F) nos novos valores normais de 1981-2010. Em 2019, a temperatura média anual atingiu um máximo recorde de 7,8 ° C (46,0 ° F) [75]

Dados climáticos para os normais de Moscou ( VVC ) 1961-1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −6.3
(20.7)
−4.2
(24.4)
1.5
(34.7)
10.4
(50.7)
18.4
(65.1)
21.7
(71.1)
23.1
(73.6)
21.5
(70.7)
15.4
(59.7)
8.2
(46.8)
1.1
(34.0)
−3.5
(25.7)
8.9
(48.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.3
(15.3)
−7.7
(18.1)
−2.2
(28.0)
5.8
(42.4)
13.1
(55.6)
16.6
(61.9)
18.2
(64.8)
16.4
(61.5)
11.1
(52.0)
5.1
(41.2)
−1.2
(29.8)
−6.1
(21.0)
5.0
(41.0)
Average low °C (°F) −12.3
(9.9)
−11.1
(12.0)
−5.6
(21.9)
1.7
(35.1)
7.6
(45.7)
11.5
(52.7)
13.5
(56.3)
12.0
(53.6)
7.1
(44.8)
2.0
(35.6)
−3.3
(26.1)
−8.6
(16.5)
1.2
(34.2)
Source: [74][76][77][78]

Mudanças recentes no clima regional de Moscou, uma vez que está nas latitudes médias do hemisfério norte, são frequentemente citadas por cientistas do clima como evidência do aquecimento global [ carece de fontes? ] , Embora, por definição, a mudança climática seja global, não regional. Durante o verão, o calor extremo é frequentemente observado na cidade (2001, 2002, 2003, 2010 , 2011). Junto com a parte sul da Rússia Central , [79] [80] após os últimos anos de estações quentes de verão, o clima da cidade recebe a classificação de verão quentetendências. O inverno também se tornou significativamente mais ameno: por exemplo, a temperatura média de janeiro no início de 1900 era de -12,0 ° C (10,4 ° F), enquanto agora é de cerca de -7,0 ° C (19,4 ° F). [81] No final de janeiro-fevereiro costuma ser mais frio, com geadas chegando a −30,0 ° C (−22,0 ° F) algumas noites por ano (2006, 2010, 2011, 2012 e 2013).

A última década foi a mais quente da história das observações meteorológicas de Moscou. As mudanças de temperatura na cidade são mostradas na tabela abaixo:

Dados climáticos para Moscou (2009–2018, VVC )
Mês Jan Fev Mar Abr Poderia Junho Jul Agosto Set Out Nov Dez Ano
Média alta ° C (° F) -6
(21)
-3,6
(25,5)
2,4
(36,3)
11,4
(52,5)
20,1
(68,2)
22,6
(72,7)
25,8
(78,4)
23,9
(75,0)
16,7
(62,1)
7,9
(46,2)
2,1
(35,8)
-2,4
(27,7)
10,2
(50,4)
Média diária ° C (° F) -7,9
(17,8)
-6
(21)
-1
(30)
6,9
(44,4)
14,7
(58,5)
17,6
(63,7)
20,7
(69,3)
18,9
(66,0)
12,9
(55,2)
5,5
(41,9)
0,7
(33,3)
-3,9
(25,0)
6,6
(43,9)
Média baixa ° C (° F) -9,7
(14,5)
-8,3
(17,1)
-4,5
(23,9)
2,3
(36,1)
9,4
(48,9)
12,5
(54,5)
15,6
(60,1)
13,8
(56,8)
9,1
(48,4)
3,1
(37,6)
-0,7
(30,7)
-5,4
(22,3)
3,1
(37,6)
Média de horas de sol mensais 37 65 142 213 274 299 323 242 171 88 33 14 1.901
Fonte: weatheronline.co.uk [82]
Direção do vento em Moscou de 2002 a 2012 (valores médios)
Norte Nordeste leste Sudeste Sulista Sudoeste Oeste Noroeste
15% 6,8% 7,8% 12,2% 12,6% 14,6% 16,4% 14,5%
Fonte: world-weather.ru

Demografia

População

População histórica
AnoPop.±%
18971.038.625-    
19262,019,500+94.4%
19394,137,000+104.9%
19595,032,000+21.6%
19706,941,961+38.0%
19797,830,509+12.8%
19898,967,332+14.5%
200210,382,754+15.8%
201011,503,501+10.8%
201812,506,468+8.7%
202112,593,000+0.7%
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.
Population of Moscow by year

According to the results of the 2010 Census, the population of Moscow was 11,503,501;[83] up from 10,382,754 recorded in the 2002 Census.[84]

Ethnic groups in Moscow, 2010 census[83]

(excluding migrant workers and illegal immigrants)

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Russians 9,930,410 91.6%
Ukrainians 154,104 1.4%
Tatars 149,043 1.4%
Armenians 106,466 1.0%
Azerbaijanis 57,123 0.5%
Jews 53,145 0.5%
Belarusians 39,225 0.4%
Georgians 38,934 0.4%
Uzbeks 35,595 0.3%
Tajiks 27,280 0.2%
Moldovans 21,699 0.2%
Others 234,804 2.2%
  • 668,409 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[85]

The official population of Moscow is based on those holding "permanent residency". According to Russia's Federal Migration Service, Moscow holds 1.8 million official "guests" who have temporary residency on the basis of visas or other documentation, giving a legal population of 13.3 million. The number of Illegal immigrants, the vast majority originating from Central Asia, is estimated to be an additional 1 million people,[86] giving a total population of about 14.3 million.

Total fertility rate:[87]

  • 2010 - 1.25
  • 2014 - 1.34
  • 2015 - 1.41
  • 2016 - 1.46
  • 2017 - 1.38
  • 2018 - 1.41
  • 2019 - 1.50
  • 2020 - 1.47
    • Births (2016): 145,252 (11.8 per 1000)
    • Deaths (2016): 123,623 (10.0 per 1000)

Religion

Religion in Moscow (2020)[88][89]
Russian Orthodoxy
55%
Atheism and irreligion
28%
Islam
8%
Other religions
3%
Other Christians
2%
Undeclared
4%
Clockwise from left: The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, demolished during the Soviet period and reconstructed from 1990–2000; Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception; Moscow Cathedral Mosque; and Moscow Choral Synagogue

Christians form the majority of the city's population; most of whom adhere Russian Orthodox Church. The Patriarch of Moscow serves as the head of the church and resides in the Danilov Monastery. Moscow was called the "city of 40 times 40 churches"—prior to 1917. Moscow is Russia's capital of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which has been the country's traditional religion.

Other religions practiced in Moscow include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Yazidism, and Rodnovery. The Moscow Mufti Council claimed that Muslims numbered around 1.5 million of 10.5 million of the city's population in 2010;[90] There are four mosques in the city.[91]

Cityscape

Architecture

Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow, a masterpiece of Russian architecture

Moscow's architecture is world-renowned. Moscow is the site of Saint Basil's Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes, as well as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Seven Sisters. The first Kremlin was built in the middle of the 12th century.

Medieval Moscow's design was of concentric walls and intersecting radial thoroughfares. This layout, as well as Moscow's rivers, helped shape Moscow's design in subsequent centuries.

The Kremlin was rebuilt in the 15th century. Its towers and some of its churches were built by Italian architects, lending the city some of the aurae of the renaissance. From the end of the 15th century, the city was embellished by masonry structures such as monasteries, palaces, walls, towers, and churches.

The city's appearance had not changed much by the 18th century. Houses were made of pine and spruce logs, with shingled roofs plastered with sod or covered by birch bark. The rebuilding of Moscow in the second half of the 18th century was necessitated not only by constant fires but also the needs of the nobility. Much of the wooden city was replaced by buildings in the classical style.[92]

For much of its architectural history, Moscow was dominated by Orthodox churches. However, the overall appearance of the city changed drastically during Soviet times, especially as a result of Joseph Stalin's large-scale effort to "modernize" Moscow. Stalin's plans for the city included a network of broad avenues and roadways, some of them over ten lanes wide, which, while greatly simplifying movement through the city, were constructed at the expense of a great number of historical buildings and districts. Among the many casualties of Stalin's demolitions was the Sukharev Tower, a longtime city landmark, as well as mansions and commercial buildings The city's newfound status as the capital of a deeply secular nation, made religiously significant buildings especially vulnerable to demolition. Many of the city's churches, which in most cases were some of Moscow's oldest and most prominent buildings, were destroyed; some notable examples include the Kazan Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. During the 1990s, both were rebuilt. Many smaller churches, however, were lost.[93]

GUM department store, facing the Red Square
Ostankino Tower, the tallest freestanding structure in Europe, and the eighth-tallest in the world

While the later Stalinist period was characterized by the curtailing of creativity and architectural innovation, the earlier post-revolutionary years saw a plethora of radical new buildings created in the city. Especially notable were the constructivist architects associated with VKHUTEMAS, responsible for such landmarks as Lenin's Mausoleum. Another prominent architect was Vladimir Shukhov, famous for Shukhov Tower, just one of many hyperboloid towers designed by Shukhov. It was built between 1919 and 1922 as a transmission tower for a Russian broadcasting company.[94] Shukhov also left a lasting legacy to the Constructivist architecture of early Soviet Russia. He designed spacious elongated shop galleries, most notably the GUM department store on Red Square,[94] bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults.

Zhivopisny Bridge, the highest cable-stayed bridge in Europe

Perhaps the most recognizable contributions of the Stalinist period are the so-called Seven Sisters, seven massive skyscrapers scattered throughout the city at about an equal distance from the Kremlin. A defining feature of Moscow's skyline, their imposing form was allegedly inspired by the Manhattan Municipal Building in New York City, and their style—with intricate exteriors and a large central spire—has been described as Stalinist Gothic architecture. All seven towers can be seen from most high points in the city; they are among the tallest constructions in central Moscow apart from the Ostankino Tower, which, when it was completed in 1967, was the highest free-standing land structure in the world and today remains the world's seventy-second tallest, ranking among buildings such as the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, Taipei 101 in Taiwan and the CN Tower in Toronto.[95]

The Soviet goal of providing housing for every family, and the rapid growth of Moscow's population, led to the construction of large, monotonous housing blocks. Most of these date from the post-Stalin era and the styles are often named after the leader then in power (Brezhnev, Khrushchev, etc.). They are usually badly maintained.

Although the city still has some five-story apartment buildings constructed before the mid-1960s, more recent apartment buildings are usually at least nine floors tall, and have elevators. It is estimated that Moscow has over twice as many elevators as New York City and four times as many as Chicago. Moslift, one of the city's major elevator operating companies, has about 1500 elevator mechanics on call, to release residents trapped in elevators.[96]

Stalinist-era buildings, mostly found in the central part of the city, are massive and usually ornamented with Socialist realism motifs that imitate classical themes. However, small churches—almost always Eastern Orthodox– found across the city provide glimpses of its past. The Old Arbat Street, a tourist street that was once the heart of a bohemian area, preserves most of its buildings from prior to the 20th century. Many buildings found off the main streets of the inner city (behind the Stalinist façades of Tverskaya Street, for example) are also examples of bourgeois architecture typical of Tsarist times. Ostankino Palace, Kuskovo, Uzkoye and other large estates just outside Moscow originally belong to nobles from the Tsarist era, and some convents, and monasteries, both inside and outside the city, are open to Muscovites and tourists.

Modern methods of skyscraper construction were implemented in the city for the first time with the ambitious MIBC.

Attempts are being made to restore many of the city's best-kept examples of pre-Soviet architecture. These restored structures are easily spotted by their bright new colors and spotless façades. There are a few examples of notable, early Soviet avant-garde work too, such as the house of the architect Konstantin Melnikov in the Arbat area. Many of these restorations were criticized for alleged disrespect of historical authenticity. Facadism is also widely practiced.[97] Later examples of interesting Soviet architecture are usually marked by their impressive size and the semi-Modernist styles employed, such as with the Novy Arbat project, familiarly known as "false teeth of Moscow" and notorious for the wide-scale disruption of a historic area in central Moscow involved in the project.

Plaques on house exteriors will inform passers-by that a well-known personality once lived there. Frequently, the plaques are dedicated to Soviet celebrities not well known outside (or often, like with decorated generals and revolutionaries, now both inside) of Russia. There are also many "museum houses" of famous Russian writers, composers, and artists in the city.

Moscow's skyline is quickly modernizing, with several new towers under construction. In recent years, the city administration has been widely criticized for heavy destruction that has affected many historical buildings. As much as a third of historic Moscow has been destroyed in the past few years[98] to make space for luxury apartments and hotels.[99] Other historical buildings, including such landmarks as the 1930 Moskva hotel and the 1913 department store Voyentorg, have been razed and reconstructed anew, with the inevitable loss of historical value. Critics blame the government for not enforcing conservation laws: in the last 12 years more than 50 buildings with monument status were torn down, several of those dating back to the 17th century.[100] Some critics also wonder if the money used for the reconstruction of razed buildings could not be used for the renovation of decaying structures, which include many works by architect Konstantin Melnikov[101] and Mayakovskaya metro station.

Some organizations, such as Moscow Architecture Preservation Society[102] and Save Europe's Heritage,[103] are trying to draw the international public attention to these problems.[104]

Panoramic view of Moscow

Parks and landmarks

There are 96 parks and 18 gardens in Moscow, including four botanical gardens. There are 450 square kilometres (170 sq mi) of green zones besides 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) of forests.[105] Moscow is a very green city, if compared to other cities of comparable size in Western Europe and North America; this is partly due to a history of having green "yards" with trees and grass, between residential buildings. There are on average 27 square meters (290 sq ft) of parks per person in Moscow compared with 6 for Paris, 7.5 in London and 8.6 in New York.[106]

Gorky Park (officially the Central Park of Culture and Rest named after Maxim Gorky), was founded in 1928. The main part (689,000 square metres or 170 acres)[106] along the Moskva river contains estrades, children's attractions (including the Observation Wheel water ponds with boats and water bicycles), dancing, tennis courts and other sports facilities. It borders the Neskuchny Garden (408,000 square metres or 101 acres), the oldest park in Moscow and a former imperial residence, created as a result of the integration of three estates in the 18th century. The Garden features the Green Theater, one of the largest open amphitheaters in Europe, able to hold up to 15 thousand people.[107] Several parks include a section known as a "Park of Culture and Rest", sometimes alongside a much wilder area (this includes parks such as Izmaylovsky, Fili and Sokolniki). Some parks are designated as Forest Parks (lesopark).

Dream Island, the largest indoor theme park in Europe

Izmaylovsky Park, created in 1931, is one of the largest urban parks in the world along with Richmond Park in London. Its area of 15.34 square kilometres (5.92 sq mi) is six times greater than that of Central Park in New York.[106]

Sokolniki Park, named after the falcon hunting that occurred there in the past, is one of the oldest parks in Moscow and has an area of 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). A central circle with a large fountain is surrounded by birch, maple and elm tree alleys. A labyrinth composed of green paths lies beyond the park's ponds.

Losiny Ostrov National Park ("Elk Island" National Park), with a total area of more than 116 square kilometres (45 sq mi), borders Sokolniki Park and was Russia's first national park. It is quite wild, and is also known as the "city taiga" – elk can be seen there.

The Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye is a World Heritage Site.

Tsytsin Main Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, founded in 1945 is the largest in Europe.[108] It covers the territory of 3.61 square kilometres (1.39 sq mi) bordering the All-Russia Exhibition Center and contains a live exhibition of more than 20 thousand species of plants from around the world, as well as a lab for scientific research. It contains a rosarium with 20 thousand rose bushes, a dendrarium, and an oak forest, with the average age of trees exceeding 100 years. There is a greenhouse taking up more than 5,000 square metres (53,820 square feet) of land.[106]

The All-Russian Exhibition Center (Всероссийский выставочный центр), formerly known as the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (VSKhV) and later Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy (VDNKh), though officially named a "permanent trade show", is one of the most prominent examples of Stalinist-era monumental architecture. Among the large spans of a recreational park, areas are scores of elaborate pavilions, each representing either a branch of Soviet industry and science or a USSR republic. Even though during the 1990s it was, and for some part still is, misused as a gigantic shopping center (most of the pavilions are rented out for small businesses), it still retains the bulk of its architectural landmarks, including two monumental fountains (Stone Flower and Friendship of Nations) and a 360 degrees panoramic cinema. In 2014 the park returned to the name Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy, and in the same year huge renovation works had been started.[109]

Lilac Park, founded in 1958, has a permanent sculpture display and a large rosarium. Moscow has always been a popular destination for tourists. Some of the more famous attractions include the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site, Moscow Kremlin and Red Square,[110] which was built between the 14th and 17th centuries.[111] The Church of the Ascension at Kolomenskoye, which dates from 1532, is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site and another popular attraction.[112]

Near the new Tretyakov Gallery there is a sculpture garden, Museon, often called "the graveyard of fallen monuments" that displays statues of the former Soviet Union that were removed from their place after its dissolution.

Other attractions include the Moscow Zoo, a zoological garden in two sections (the valleys of two streams) linked by a bridge, with nearly a thousand species and more than 6,500 specimens.[113] Each year, the zoo attracts more than 1.2 million visitors.[113] Many of Moscow's parks and landscaped gardens are protected natural environments.

Zaryadye31.jpg GL(176155)(10).webp Victory park on Poklonnaya Hill1.jpg
Zaryadye Park VDNKh Victory park on Poklonnaya Hill

Moscow rings

Moscow's road system is centered roughly on the Kremlin at the heart of the city. From there, roads generally span outwards to intersect with a sequence of circular roads ("rings").

  1. The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso (Boulevard Ring), was built at the former location of the 16th-century city wall around what used to be called Bely Gorod (White Town).[114] The Bulvarnoye Koltso is technically not a ring; it does not form a complete circle, but instead a horseshoe-like arc that begins at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and ends at the Yauza River.
  2. The second primary ring, located outside the bell end of the Boulevard Ring, is the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring). Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a 16th-century wall that used to encompass part of Moscow.[114]
    Moscow as viewed from the International Space Station, January 29, 2014
  3. The Third Ring Road, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway.
  4. The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, was planned, but cancelled in 2011. It will be replaced by a system of chordal highways.

Aside from aforementioned hierarchy, line 5 of Moscow Metro is a circle-shaped looped subway line (hence the name Koltsevaya Liniya, "ring line"), which is located between the Sadovoye Koltso and Third Transport Ring.

September 10, 2016, Moscow Central Circle renovated railroad (former Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga) was introduced as 14th line of Moscow Metro. The railroad itself was in use since 1907, but before the renovation, it was a non-electrified railroad for transit needs of fueled locomotives only.

Another circle metro line - Big Circle Line (Bolshaya Koltsevaya Liniya) is under construction and will be finished about 2023.

The outermost ring within Moscow is the Moscow Ring Road (often called MKAD, acronym word for Russian Московская Кольцевая Автомобильная Дорога), which forms the cultural boundary of the city, was established in the 1950s. It is to note the method of building the road (usage of ground elevation instead of concrete columns throughout the whole way) formed a wall-like barrier that obstacles building roads under the MKAD highway itself).

  • Before 2012 expansion of Moscow, MKAD was considered an approximate border for Moscow boundaries.

Outside Moscow, some of the roads encompassing the city continue to follow this circular pattern seen inside city limits, with the notable examples of Betonka roads (highways A107 and A108), originally made of concrete pads.

In order to reduce transit traffic on MKAD, the new ring road (called CKAD - Centralnaya Koltsevaya Avtomobilnaya Doroga, Central Ring Road) is under construction now.

Transport rings in Moscow

Length Name Type
9 km Boulevard Ring – Bulvarnoye Koltso (not a full ring) Road
16 km Garden Ring – Sadovoye Koltso ("B") Road
19 km Koltsevaya Line (Line 5) Metro
35 km Third Ring Road – Third Transport Ring – Tretye Transportnoye Koltso (TTK) Road
54 km Little Ring of the Moscow Railway, re-opened as Moscow Central Ring (MCC) – Line 14 Railway
20.2 km Bolshaya Koltsevaya line – Line 11 Metro
109 km Moscow Automobile Ring Road – Moskovskaya Koltsevaya Avtomobilnaya Doroga (MKAD) Road

Culture

One of the most notable art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallery, which was founded by Pavel Tretyakov, a wealthy patron of the arts who donated a large private collection to the city.[115] The Tretyakov Gallery is split into two buildings. The Old Tretyakov gallery, the original gallery in the Tretyakovskaya area on the south bank of the Moskva River, houses works in the classic Russian tradition.[116] The works of famous pre-Revolutionary painters, such as Ilya Repin, as well as the works of early Russian icon painters can be found here. Visitors can even see rare originals by early 15th-century iconographer Andrei Rublev.[116] The New Tretyakov gallery, created in Soviet times, mainly contains the works of Soviet artists, as well as of a few contemporary paintings, but there is some overlap with the Old Tretyakov Gallery for early 20th-century art. The new gallery includes a small reconstruction of Vladimir Tatlin's famous Monument to the Third International and a mixture of other avant-garde works by artists like Kazimir Malevich and Wassily Kandinsky. Socialist realism features can also be found within the halls of the New Tretyakov Gallery.

Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, which was founded by, among others, the father of Marina Tsvetaeva. The Pushkin Museum is similar to the British Museum in London in that its halls are a cross-section of exhibits on world civilisations, with many copies of ancient sculptures. However, it also hosts paintings from every major Western era; works by Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso are present in the museum's collection.

The State Historical Museum of Russia (Государственный Исторический музей) is a museum of Russian history located between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers is several million. The Polytechnical Museum,[117] founded in 1872 is the largest technical museum in Russia, offering a wide array of historical inventions and technological achievements, including humanoid automata from the 18th century and the first Soviet computers. Its collection contains more than 160,000 items.[118] The Borodino Panorama[119] museum located on Kutuzov Avenue provides an opportunity for visitors to experience being on a battlefield with a 360° diorama. It is a part of the large historical memorial commemorating the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 over Napoleon's army, that includes also the triumphal arch, erected in 1827. There is also a military history museum that includes statues, and military hardware.

Moscow is the heart of the Russian performing arts, including ballet and film, with 68 museums[120] 103[121] theaters, 132 cinemas and 24 concert halls. Among Moscow's theaters and ballet studios is the Bolshoi Theatre and the Malyi Theatre[122] as well as Vakhtangov Theatre and Moscow Art Theatre.

The Moscow International Performance Arts Center,[123] opened in 2003, also known as Moscow International House of Music, is known for its performances in classical music. It has the largest organ in Russia installed in Svetlanov Hall.

There are also two large circuses in Moscow: Moscow State Circus and Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard[124] named after Yuri Nikulin.

Memorial Museum of Astronautics under the Monument to the Conquerors of Space at the end of Cosmonauts Alley is the central memorial place for the Russian space officials.

The Mosfilm studio was at the heart of many classic films, as it is responsible for both artistic and mainstream productions.[125] However, despite the continued presence and reputation of internationally renowned Russian filmmakers, the once prolific native studios are much quieter. Rare and historical films may be seen in the Salut cinema, where films from the Museum of Cinema[126] collection are shown regularly.

The Shchusev State Museum of Architecture is the national museum of Russian architecture by the name of the architect Alexey Shchusev near the Kremlin area.

Moscow will get its own branch of the Hermitage Museum in 2024, with authorities having agreed upon the final project, to be executed by Hani Rashid, co-founder of New York-based 'Asymptote Architecture' - the same bureau that's behind the city's stock market building, the Busan-based World Business Center Solomon Tower and the Strata Tower in Abu-Dhabi.[127]

Sports

Over 500 Olympic sports champions lived in the city by 2005.[128] Moscow is home to 63 stadiums (besides eight football and eleven light athletics maneges), of which Luzhniki Stadium is the largest and the 4th biggest in Europe (it hosted the 1998–99 UEFA Cup, 2007–08 UEFA Champions League finals, the 1980 Summer Olympics, and the 2018 FIFA World Cup with 7 games total, including the final). Forty other sport complexes are located within the city, including 24 with artificial ice. The Olympic Stadium was the world's first indoor arena for bandy and hosted the Bandy World Championship twice.[129] Moscow was again the host of the competition in 2010, this time in Krylatskoye.[130] That arena has also hosted the World Speed Skating Championships. There are also seven horse racing tracks in Moscow,[105] of which Central Moscow Hippodrome,[131] founded in 1834, is the largest.

CSKA Arena during a game of KHL, considered to be the second-best ice hockey league in the world

Moscow was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, with the yachting events being held at Tallinn, in present-day Estonia. Large sports facilities and the main international airport, Sheremetyevo Terminal 2, were built in preparation for the 1980 Summer Olympics. Moscow had made a bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. However, when final voting commenced on July 6, 2005, Moscow was the first city to be eliminated from further rounds. The Games were awarded to London.

The most titled ice hockey team in the Soviet Union and in the world, HC CSKA Moscow comes from Moscow. Other big ice hockey clubs from Moscow are HC Dynamo Moscow, which was the second most titled team in the Soviet Union, and HC Spartak Moscow.

The most titled Soviet, Russian, and one of the most titled Euroleague clubs, is the basketball club from Moscow PBC CSKA Moscow. Moscow hosted the EuroBasket in 1953 and 1965.

Moscow had more winners at the USSR and Russian Chess Championship than any other city.

The most titled volleyball team in the Soviet Union and in Europe (CEV Champions League) is VC CSKA Moscow.

In football, FC Spartak Moscow has won more championship titles in the Russian Premier League than any other team. They were second only to FC Dynamo Kyiv in Soviet times. PFC CSKA Moscow became the first Russian football team to win a UEFA title, the UEFA Cup (present-day UEFA Europa League). FC Lokomotiv Moscow, FC Dynamo Moscow and FC Torpedo Moscow are other professional football teams also based in Moscow.

Moscow houses other prominent football, ice hockey, and basketball teams. Because sports organisations in the Soviet Union were once highly centralized, two of the best Union-level teams represented defence and law-enforcing agencies: the Armed Forces (CSKA) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Dinamo). There were army and police teams in most major cities. As a result, Spartak, CSKA, and Dinamo were among the best-funded teams in the USSR.

The Rhythmic Gymnastics Palace after Irina Vilner-Usmanova is located in the Luzniki Olympic Complex. The building works started in 2017 and the opening ceremony took place on June 18, 2019. The investor of the Palace is the billionaire Alisher Usmanov, husband of the former gymnast and gymnastics coach Irina Viner-Usmanova. The total surface of the building is 23,500 m2, that include 3 fitness rooms, locker rooms, rooms reserved to referees and coaches, saunas, a canteen and a cafeteria, 2 ball halls, a Medical center, a hall reserved to journalists and a hotel for athletes.[132]

Because of Moscow's cold local climate, winter sports have a following. Many of Moscow's large parks offer marked trails for skiing and frozen ponds for skating.

The Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, which hosted games of the 2018 FIFA World Cup

Moscow hosts the annual Kremlin Cup, a popular tennis tournament on both the WTA and ATP tours. It is one of the ten Tier-I events on the women's tour and a host of Russian players feature every year.

SC Olimpiyskiy hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2009, the first and so far the only Eurovision Song Contest arranged in Russia.

Slava Moscow is a professional rugby club, competing in the national Professional Rugby League. Former rugby league heavyweights RC Lokomotiv have entered the same league as of 2011. The Luzhniki Stadium also hosted the 2013 Rugby World Cup Sevens.

In bandy, one of the most successful clubs in the world is 20 times Russian League champions Dynamo Moscow. They have also won the World Cup thrice and European Cup six times.

MFK Dinamo Moskva is one of the major futsal clubs in Europe, having won the Futsal Champions League title once.

When Russia was selected to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup, the Luzhniki Stadium got an increased capacity, by almost 10,000 new seats, in addition to a further two stadiums that have been built: the Dynamo Stadium, and the Spartak Stadium, although the first one later was dismissed from having World Cup matches.

Football clubs

Club Founded League League Rank Stadium
Spartak Moscow 1922 Premier League 1st Otkrytiye Arena
CSKA Moscow 1911 Premier League 1st VEB Arena
Lokomotiv Moscow 1923 Premier League 1st RZD Arena
Dynamo Moscow 1923 Premier League 1st VTB Arena
Chertanovo Moscow 1993 FNL 2nd Arena Chertanovo
Torpedo Moscow 1924 FNL 2nd Eduard Streltsov Stadium

Entertainment

Arbat Street, in the historical centre of Moscow

The city is full of clubs, restaurants, and bars. Tverskaya Street is also one of the busiest shopping streets in Moscow.

The adjoining Tretyakovsky Proyezd, also south of Tverskaya Street, in Kitai-gorod, is host to upmarket boutique stores such as Bulgari, Tiffany & Co., Armani, Prada and Bentley.[133] Nightlife in Moscow has moved on since Soviet times and today the city has many of the world's largest nightclubs. Clubs, bars, creative spaces and restaurants-turned-into-dancefloors are flooding Moscow streets with new openings every year. The hottest area is located around the old chocolate factory, where bars, nightclubs, galleries, cafés and restaurants are placed.[134]

Dream Island is an amusement park in Moscow that opened on February 29, 2020.[135][136] It is the largest indoor theme park in Europe. The park covers 300,000 square meters. During the construction of the park 150 acres of nature trees unique and rare animals and birds and plants on the peninsula was destroyed. The appearance is in the style of a fairytale castle similar to Disneyland. The park has 29 unique attractions with many rides, as well as pedestrian malls with fountains and cycle paths. The complex includes a landscaped park along with a concert hall, a cinema, a hotel, a children's sailing school, restaurants and shops.

Authorities

Moscow authorities

According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Moscow is an independent federal subject of the Russian Federation, the so-called city of federal importance.

The Mayor of Moscow is the leading official in the executive, leading the Government of Moscow, which is the highest organ of executive power. The Moscow City Duma is the City Duma (city council or local parliament) and local laws must be approved by it. It includes 45 members who are elected for a five-year term on Single-mandate constituency basis.

From 2006 to 2012, direct elections of the mayor were not held due to changes in the Charter of the city of Moscow, the mayor was appointed by presidential decree. The first direct elections from the time of the 2003 vote were to be held after the expiration of the current mayor in 2015, however, in connection with his resignation of his own free will, they took place in September 2013.

Local administration is carried out through eleven prefectures, uniting the districts of Moscow into administrative districts on a territorial basis, and 125 regional administrations. According to the law "On the organization of local self-government in the city of Moscow", since the beginning of 2003, the executive bodies of local self-government are municipalities, representative bodies are municipal assemblies, whose members are elected in accordance with the Charter of the intracity municipality.

Federal authorities

In Moscow, as in a city endowed with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the legislative, executive and judicial federal authorities of the country are located, with the exception of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, which has been located in Saint Petersburg since 2008.

The supreme executive authority - the Government of the Russian Federation - is located in the House of the Government of the Russian Federation on Krasnopresnenskaya embankment in the center of Moscow. The State Duma sits on Okhotny Ryad. The Federation Council is located in a building on Bolshaya Dmitrovka. The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation are also located in Moscow.

In addition, the Moscow Kremlin is the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. The president's working residence in the Kremlin is located in the Senate Palace.

Safety

A BMW 5 Series of the Moscow Police on patrol

According to the ranking of the safest cities made by The Economist Moscow occupies the 37th position with a score of 68,5 points percent.[137] The general level of crime is quite low.[138] More than 170,000 surveillance cameras in Moscow are connected to the facial recognition system. The authorities recognized the successful two-month experiment with automatic recognition of faces, gender and age of people in real time - and then they deployed the system to the whole city. The network of video surveillance unites access video cameras (95% of residential apartment buildings in the capital), cameras in the territory and in buildings of schools and kindergartens, at the MCC stations, stadiums, public transport stops and bus stations, in parks, underground passages.[139]

The emergency numbers are the same as in all the other regions of Russia: 112 is the Single Emergency Number, 101 is the number of the Fire Service and Ministry of Emergency Situations, 102 is the Police one, 103 is the ambulance one, 104 is the Emergency Gas number.[140] Moscow's EMS is the second most efficient one among the world's megacities, as reported by PwC during the presentation of the international study Analysis of EMS Efficiency in Megacities of the World.[141]

Administrative divisions

Federal city of Moscow Coat of arms of Moscow
City administrative divisions
12
City districts
125
City settlements
21
Territorial change of Moscow from 1922 to 1995
Moscow is divided into 12 administrative districts:
Msk all districts.svg
  1. Central Administrative Okrug
  2. Northern Administrative Okrug
  3. North-Eastern Administrative Okrug
  4. Eastern Administrative Okrug
  5. South-Eastern Administrative Okrug
  6. Southern Administrative Okrug
  7. South-Western Administrative Okrug
  8. Western Administrative Okrug
  9. North-Western Administrative Okrug
  10. Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug
  11. Novomoskovsky Administrative Okrug
  12. Troitsky Administrative Okrug

The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor (Sergey Sobyanin). The city of Moscow is divided into twelve administrative okrugs and 125 districts.

The Russian capital's town-planning development began to show as early as the 12th century when the city was founded. The central part of Moscow grew by consolidating with suburbs in line with medieval principles of urban development when strong fortress walls would gradually spread along the circle streets of adjacent new settlements. The first circular defence walls set the trajectory of Moscow's rings, laying the groundwork for the future planning of the Russian capital.

The following fortifications served as the city's circular defense boundaries at some point in history: the Kremlin walls, Zemlyanoy Gorod (Earthwork Town), the Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart, the Garden Ring, and the small railway ring. The Moscow Ring Road (MKAD) has been Moscow's boundary since 1960. Also in the form of a circle are the main Moscow subway line, the Ring Line, and the so-called Third Automobile Ring, which was completed in 2005. Hence, the characteristic radial-circle planning continues to define Moscow's further development. However, contemporary Moscow has also engulfed a number of territories outside the MKAD, such as Solntsevo, Butovo, and the town of Zelenograd. A part of Moscow Oblast's territory was merged into Moscow on July 1, 2012; as a result, Moscow is no longer fully surrounded by Moscow Oblast and now also has a border with Kaluga Oblast.[142] In all, Moscow gained about 1,500 square kilometers (580 sq mi) and 230,000 inhabitants. Moscow's Mayor Sergey Sobyanin lauded the expansion that will help Moscow and the neighboring region, a "mega-city" of twenty million people, to develop "harmonically".[57]

All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coats of arms and flags as well as individual heads of the area.

In addition to the districts, there are Territorial Units with Special Status. These usually include areas with small or no permanent populations. Such is the case with the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, the Botanical Garden, large parks, and industrial zones. In recent years, some territories have been merged with different districts. There are no ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Chinatowns that exist in some North American and East Asian cities. And although districts are not designated by income, as with most cities, those areas that are closer to the city center, metro stations or green zones are considered more prestigious.[143]

Moscow also hosts some of the government bodies of Moscow Oblast, although the city itself is not a part of the oblast.[144]

Economy

Overview

Largest private companies based
in Moscow

(ranked by 2019 revenues)
Moscow corporation Russia
1 Lukoil 1
2 X5 Retail Group 3
3 Novatek 6
4 Nornickel 9
5 UC Rusal 11
6 Sibur 13
7 SUEK 15
8 MTS 17
9 Metalloinvest 18
10 EuroChem 21
11 MegaFon 22
12 M.video 24
13 TMK 25
14 Mechel 26
Source: Forbes[145]
Moscow International Business Center, one of the largest financial centres of Europe and the world

Moscow has one of the largest municipal economies in Europe and it accounts more than one-fifth of Russia's gross domestic product (GDP).[146] As of 2017, the nominal GRP in Moscow reached ₽15.7 trillion[147][148] $270 billion (~$0.7 trillion in Purchasing Power[149]),[150] US$22,000 per capita(~$60,000 per capita in Purchasing Power[149][151])

Moscow has the lowest unemployment rate of all federal subjects of Russia, standing at just 1% in 2010, compared to the national average of 7%. The average gross monthly wage in the city is ₽60,000[152] (US$2,500 in Purchasing Power[153]), which is almost twice the national average of ₽34,000[154] (US$1,400 in Purchasing Power[153]), and the highest among the federal subjects of Russia.

Moscow is home to the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world,[155] and has the highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe. It is the financial center of Russia and home to the country's largest banks and many of its largest companies, such as oil giant Rosneft. Moscow accounts for 17% of retail sales in Russia and for 13% of all construction activity in the country.[156][157] Since the 1998 Russian financial crisis, business sectors in Moscow have shown exponential rates of growth. Many new business centers and office buildings have been built in recent years, but Moscow still experiences shortages in office space. As a result, many former industrial and research facilities are being reconstructed to become suitable for office use. Overall, economic stability has improved in recent years; nonetheless, crime and corruption still hinder business development.

Industry

Primary industries in Moscow include the chemical, metallurgy, food, textile, furniture, energy production, software development and machinery industries.

The Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant is one of the leading producers of military and civil helicopters in the world. Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center produces various space equipment, including modules for space stations Mir, Salyut and the ISS as well as Proton launch vehicles and military ICBMs. Sukhoi, Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Tupolev and Yakovlev aircraft design bureaus also situated in Moscow. NPO Energomash, producing the rocket engines for Russian and American space programs, as well as Lavochkin design bureau, which built fighter planes during WWII, but switched to space probes since the Space Race, are in nearby Khimki, an independent city in Moscow Oblast that have largely been enclosed by Moscow from its sides. Automobile plants ZiL and AZLK, as well as the Voitovich Rail Vehicle plant, are situated in Moscow and Metrovagonmash metro wagon plant is located just outside the city limits. The Poljot Moscow watch factory produces military, professional and sport watches well known in Russia and abroad. Yuri Gagarin in his trip into space used "Shturmanskie" produced by this factory.

The Electrozavod factory was the first transformer factory in Russia. The Kristall distillery[158] is the oldest distillery in Russia producing vodka types, including "Stolichnaya" while wines are produced at Moscow wine plants, including the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery.[159] The Moscow Jewelry Factory[160] and the Jewellerprom[161] are producers of jewellery in Russia; Jewellerprom used to produce the exclusive Order of Victory, awarded to those aiding the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II.

There are other industries located just outside the city of Moscow, as well as microelectronic industries in Zelenograd, including Ruselectronics companies.

Gazprom, the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and the largest Russian company, has head offices also in Moscow, as well as other oil, gas, and electricity companies.

Moscow hosts headquarters of the many of telecommunication and technology companies, including 1C, ABBYY, Beeline, Kaspersky Lab, Mail.Ru Group, MegaFon, MTS, Rambler&Co, Rostelecom, Yandex, and Yota.

Some industry is being transferred out of the city to improve the ecological state of the city.

Cost of living

During Soviet times, apartments were lent to people by the government according to the square meters-per-person norm (some groups, including people's artists, heroes and prominent scientists had bonuses according to their honors). Private ownership of apartments was limited until the 1990s, when people were permitted to secure property rights to the places they inhabited. Since the Soviet era, estate owners have had to pay the service charge for their residences, a fixed amount based on persons per living area.

The price of real estate in Moscow continues to rise. Today, one could expect to pay $4,000 on average per square meter (11 sq ft) on the outskirts of the city[162] or US$6,500–$8,000 per square meter in a prestigious district. The price sometimes may exceed US$40,000 per square meter in a flat.[163][164][165] It costs about US$1,200 per month to rent a one-bedroom apartment and about US$1,000 per month for a studio in the center of Moscow.

A typical one-bedroom apartment is about thirty square metres (320 square feet), a typical two-bedroom apartment is forty-five square metres (480 square feet), and a typical three-bedroom apartment is seventy square metres (750 square feet). Many cannot move out of their apartments, especially if a family lives in a two-room apartment originally granted by the state during the Soviet era. Some city residents have attempted to cope with the cost of living by renting their apartments while staying in dachas (country houses) outside the city.

In 2006, Mercer Human Resources Consulting named Moscow the world's most expensive city for expatriate employees, ahead of perennial winner Tokyo, due to the stable Russian ruble as well as increasing housing prices within the city.[166] Moscow also ranked first in the 2007 edition and 2008 edition of the survey. However, Tokyo has overtaken Moscow as the most expensive city in the world, placing Moscow at third behind Osaka in second place.[167]

In 2008, Moscow ranked top on the list of most expensive cities for the third year in a row.[168]

In 2014, according to Forbes, Moscow was ranked the 9th most expensive city in the world. Forbes ranked Moscow the 2nd most expensive city the year prior.[169]

In 2019 the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living survey put Moscow to 102nd place in the biannual ranking of 133 most expensive cities.[170] ECA International's Cost of Living 2019 Survey ranked Moscow #120 among 482 locations worldwide.[171]

Public utilities

Heating

Heating of buildings in Moscow, like in other cities in Russia is done using central heating system. Before 2004, state unitary enterprises were responsible to produce and supply heat to the clients by the operation of heating stations and heating distribution system of Mosgorteplo, Mosteploenergo and Teploremontnaladka which gave service to the heating substations in the north-eastern part of the city. Clients were divided between the various enterprises based on their geographical location. A major reform launched in 2004 consolidated the various companies under the umbrella of MIPC which became the municipal heat supplier. Its subsidiaries were the newly transformed Joint-stock companies. The city's main source of heating is the power station of Mosenergo which was reformed in 2005, when around ten subsidiaries were separated from it. One of the newly independent companies was the District Heating Network Company (MTK) (Russian: Московская теплосетевая компания). In 2007 the Government of Moscow bought controlling stakes in the company.[172]

Education

There are 1,696 high schools in Moscow, as well as 91 colleges.[105] Besides these, there are 222 institutions of higher education, including 60 state universities[105] and the Lomonosov Moscow State University, which was founded in 1755.[173] The main university building located in Vorobyovy Gory (Sparrow Hills) is 240 metres (790 ft) tall and when completed, was the tallest building on the continent.[174] The university has over 30,000 undergraduate and 7,000 postgraduate students, who have a choice of twenty-nine faculties and 450 departments for study. Additionally, approximately 10,000 high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia. Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11,000 international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to become fluent in the Russian language.[175]

The I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University named after Ivan Sechenov or formerly known as Moscow Medical Academy (1stMSMU) is a medical university situated in Moscow, Russia. It was founded in 1785 as the faculty of the Moscow State University. It is a Russian Federal Agency for Health and Social Development. It is one of the largest medical universities in Russia and Europe. More than 9200 students are enrolled in 115 academic departments. It offers courses for post-graduate studies.

The Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (formerly known as Russian State Medical University) is a medical higher education institution in Moscow, Russia founded in 1906. It is fully accredited and recognized by Russia's Ministry of Education and Science and is currently under the authority of the Ministry of Health and Social Development. Named after Russian surgeon and pedagogue N.I. Pirogov (1810-1888), it is one of the largest medical institutions and the first university in Russia to allow women to acquire degrees.

Moscow is one of the financial centers of the Russian Federation and CIS countries and is known for its business schools. Among them are the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation; Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; The State University of Management, and the National Research University - Higher School of Economics. They offer undergraduate degrees in management, finance, accounting, marketing, real estate, and economic theory, as well as Masters programs and MBAs. Most of them have branches in other regions of Russia and countries around the world.

Bauman Moscow State Technical University, founded in 1830, is located in the center of Moscow and provides 18,000 undergraduate and 1,000 postgraduate students with an education in science and engineering, offering technical degrees.[176]

The Moscow Conservatory building

The Moscow Conservatory,[177] founded in 1866, is a prominent music school in Russia whose graduates include Sergey Rachmaninoff, Alexander Scriabin, Aram Khachaturian, Mstislav Rostropovich, and Alfred Schnittke.

The Gerasimov All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography, abbreviated as VGIK, is the world's oldest educational institution in Cinematography, founded by Vladimir Gardin in 1919. Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Aleksey Batalov were among its most distinguished professors and Mikhail Vartanov, Sergei Parajanov, Andrei Tarkovsky, Nikita Mikhalkov, Eldar Ryazanov, Alexander Sokurov, Yuriy Norshteyn, Aleksandr Petrov, Vasily Shukshin, Konrad Wolf among graduates.

Moscow State Institute of International Relations, founded in 1944, remains Russia's best- known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six schools focused on international relations. Approximately 4,500 students make up the university's student body and over 700,000 Russian and foreign-language books—of which 20,000 are considered rare—can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations.[178]

Other institutions are the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, also known as Phystech, the Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex, founded in 1988 by Russian eye surgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov, the Moscow Aviation Institute, the Moscow Motorway Institute (State Technical University), and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology has taught numerous Nobel Prize winners, including Pyotr Kapitsa, Nikolay Semyonov, Lev Landau and Alexander Prokhorov, while the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute is known for its research in nuclear physics.[179] The highest Russian military school is the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

Although Moscow has a number of famous Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards engineering or the fundamental sciences, in recent years Moscow has seen a growth in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in business and management. Many state institutions have expanded their education scope and introduced new courses or departments. Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration. Student exchange programs with numerous countries, specially with the rest of Europe, have also become widespread in Moscow's universities, while schools within the Russian capital also offer seminars, lectures, and courses for corporate employees and businessmen.

Moscow is one of the largest science centers in Russia. The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located in Moscow as well as research and applied science institutions. The Kurchatov Institute, Russia's leading research and development institution in the fields of nuclear energy, where the first nuclear reactor in Europe was built, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematics are all situated in Moscow.

There are 452 libraries in the city, including 168 for children.[105] The Russian State Library,[180] founded in 1862, is the national library of Russia. The library is home to over 275 km (171 mi) of shelves and 42 million items, including over 17 million books and serial volumes, 13 million journals, 350,000 music scores and sound records, and 150,000 maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Items in 247 languages account for 29% of the collection.[181][182]

The State Public Historical Library, founded in 1863, is the largest library specialising in Russian history. Its collection contains four million items in 112 languages (including 47 languages of the former USSR), mostly on Russian and world history, heraldry, numismatics, and the history of science.[183]

In regard to primary and secondary education, in 2011, Clifford J. Levy of The New York Times wrote, "Moscow has some strong public schools, but the system as a whole is dispiriting, in part because it is being corroded by the corruption that is a post-Soviet scourge. Parents often pay bribes to get their children admitted to better public schools. There are additional payoffs for good grades."[184]

Transportation

Metro

Moscow Metro route map with planned stations
Mayakovskaya station opened in 1938.

The Moscow Metro system is famous for its art, murals, mosaics, and ornate chandeliers. It started operation in 1935 and immediately became the centrepiece of the transportation system. More than that it was a Stalinist device to awe and reward the populace, and give them an appreciation of Soviet realist art. It became the prototype for future Soviet large-scale technologies. Lazar Kaganovich was in charge; he designed the subway so that citizens would absorb the values and ethos of Stalinist civilisation as they rode. The artwork of the 13 original stations became nationally and internationally famous. For example, the Sverdlov Square subway station featured porcelain bas-reliefs depicting the daily life of the Soviet peoples, and the bas-reliefs at the Dynamo Stadium sports complex glorified sports and the physical prowess of the powerful new "Homo Sovieticus" (Soviet man).[185]

The metro was touted as the symbol of the new social order—a sort of Communist cathedral of engineering modernity.[186] Soviet workers did the labour and the art work, but the main engineering designs, routes, and construction plans were handled by specialists recruited from the London Underground. The Britons called for tunnelling instead of the "cut-and-cover" technique, the use of escalators instead of lifts, and designed the routes and the rolling stock.[187] The paranoia of Stalin and the NKVD was evident when the secret police arrested numerous British engineers for espionage—that is for gaining an in-depth knowledge of the city's physical layout. Engineers for the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company were given a show trial and deported in 1933, ending the role of British business in the USSR.[188]

Today, the Moscow Metro comprises twelve lines, mostly underground with a total of 203 stations. The Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world; for instance the Park Pobedy station, completed in 2003, at 84 metres (276 ft) underground, has the longest escalators in Europe. The Moscow Metro is the busiest metro system in Europe, as well as one of the world's busiest metro systems, serving about ten million passengers daily (300,000,000 people every month).[189] Facing serious transportation problems, Moscow has plans for expanding its Metro. In 2016, the authorities launched a new circle metro railway that contributed to solving transportation issues, namely daily congestion at Koltsevaya Line.[190]

Due to treatment of Metro stations as possible canvas for art, characterized by fact workers of Moscow would get to see every day, many Stalin-era metro stations were built in different "custom" designs (where each station's design would be, initially, a massive installation on a certain theme. For example, Elektrozavodskaya station was themed solely after nearby lightbulb factory and ceramic ribbed lightbulb sockets);[191] the tradition of "Grand Designs" and, basically, decorating metro stations as single-themed installations, was restored in late 1979.

More recently, Moscow mayor Sergei Sobyanin has introduced comforts ranging from WiFi and USB ports and Apple Pay — while opening new stations at a breakneck pace.[192]

In the Russian capital, there are over 20 thousand Wi-Fi access points, in student dormitories, in parks, cultural and sports institutions, and within the Garden Ring and the Third Transport Ring. The structure of the Wi-Fi network allows citizens to use the Internet without re-authorization. [193]

Moscow’s metro is one of the world’s busiest, handling 2.6 billion passengers in 2019 [194]

Monorail

Two trains of the Moscow Monorail arriving at a monorail station

The Moscow Metro operates a short monorail line. The line connects Timiryazevskaya metro station and Ulitsa Sergeya Eisensteina, passing close to VDNH. The line opened in 2004. No additional fare is needed (first metro-monorail transfer in 90 minutes does not charge).

Bus, trolleybus and electric bus

Moscow has the largest fleet of electric buses in Europe, with 500 operating as of October 2020.[195]

As Metro stations outside the city center are far apart in comparison to other cities, up to 4 kilometres (2.5 mi), a bus network radiates from each station to the surrounding residential zones. Moscow has a bus terminal for long-range and intercity passenger buses (Central Bus Terminal) with a daily turnover of about 25 thousand passengers serving about 40% of long-range bus routes in Moscow.[196]

Every major street in the city is served by at least one bus route. Many of these routes are doubled by a trolleybus route and have trolley wires over them.

With the total line length of almost 600 kilometres (370 miles) of a single wire, 8 depots, 104 routes, and 1740 vehicles, the Moscow trolleybus system was the largest in the world. But municipal authority, headed by Sergey Sobyanin, began to destroy trolleybus system in Moscow at 2014 due to corruption and planned replacement of trolleybuses by electric buses. At 2018 Moscow trolleybus system has only 4 depots and dozens of kilometers of unused wires. Almost all trolleybus wires inside Garden Ring (Sadovoe Koltso) was cut in 2016–2017 due to the reconstruction of central streets ("Moya Ulitsa"). Opened on November 15, 1933, it is also the world's 6th oldest operating trolleybus system.

In 2018 the vehicle companies Kamaz and GAZ have won the Mosgortrans tender for delivering 200 electric buses and 62 ultra-fast charging stations to the city transport system. The manufacturers will be responsible for the quality and reliable operation of the buses and charging stations for the next 15 years. The city will be procuring only electric buses as of 2021, replacing the diesel bus fleet gradually. Moscow will become the leader amongst the European cities in terms of electric and gas fuel share in public transport by 2019, according to expectations.[197]

Moscow cable car

Cable cars passing across the Moskva River and the Luzhniki Stadium

On November 26, 2018, the mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin took part in the ceremony to open the cable car above the Moskva River. The cable car will connect the Luzhniki sports complex with Sparrow Hills and Kosygin Street.

The journey from the well-known viewpoint on Vorobyovy Gory to Luzhniki Stadium will last for five minutes instead of 20 minutes that one would have to spend on the same journey by car. The cable car will work every day from 11 a.m. till 11 p.m.

The cable car is 720 meters long. It was built to transport 1,600 passengers per hour in all weathers. There 35 closed capsules designed by Porsche Design Studio to transport passengers. The booths are equipped with media screens, LED lights, hooks for bikes, skis and snowboards. Passengers will also be able to use audio guides in English, German, Chinese and Russian.

Tram

A Vityaz-M tram passing by the Tverskaya Zastava Square
Tram map of Moscow

Moscow has an extensive tram system, which first opened in 1899.[198] The newest line was built in 1984. Its daily usage by Muscovites is low, making up for approximately 5% of trips because many vital connections in the network have been withdrawn. Trams still remain important in some districts as feeders to Metro stations. The trams also provide important cross links between metro lines, for example between Universitet station of Sokolnicheskaya Line (#1 red line) and Profsoyuznaya station of Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line (#6 orange line) or between Voykovskaya and Strogino.

There are three tram networks in the city:

  • Krasnopresnenskoye depot network with the westernmost point at Strogino (depot location) and the easternmost point near platform Dmitrovskaya. This network became separated in 1973, but until 1997 it could easily have been reconnected by about one kilometre (0.62 miles) of track and three switches. The network has the highest usage in Moscow and no weak points based on turnover except to-depot lane (passengers serviced by bus) and tram ring at Dmitrovskaya (because now it is neither a normal transfer point nor a repair terminal).
  • The Apakov depot services the south-western part from the Varshavsky lane – Simferopolsky boulevard in the east to the Universitet station in the west and Boulevard lane at the center. This network is connected only by the four-way Dubininskaya and Kozhevnicheskaya streets. A second connection by Vostochnaya (Eastern) street was withdrawn in 1987 due to fire at Dinamo plant and has not been recovered, and remains lost (Avtozavodsky bridge) at 1992. The network may be serviced anyway by another depot (now route 35, 38).
  • Main three depot networks with railway gate and tram-repair plant.

In addition, tram advocates have suggested that the new rapid transit services (metro to City, Butovo light metro, Monorail) would be more effective as at-grade tram lines and that the problems with trams are only due to poor management and operation, not the technical properties of trams. New tram models have been developed for the Moscow network despite the lack of expansion.

Taxi

Commercial taxi services and route taxis are in widespread use. In the mid-2010s, service platforms such as Yandex.Taxi, Uber and Gett displaced many private drivers and small service providers and were in 2015 servicing more than 50% of all taxi orders in Moscow.[199][200]

Railway

Komsomolskaya Square known as Three Station Square thanks to three ornate rail terminal situated there: Leningradsky, Yaroslavsky, and Kazansky

Several train stations serve the city. Moscow's nine rail terminals (or vokzals) are:

The high-speed Sapsan train links Moscow with Saint Petersburg.

The terminals are located close to the city center, along with the metro ringline 5 or close to it, and connect to a metroline to the centre of town. Each station handles trains from different parts of Europe and Asia.[201] There are many smaller railway stations in Moscow. As train tickets are cheap, they are the preferred mode of travel for Russians, especially when departing to Saint Petersburg, Russia's second-largest city. Moscow is the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which traverses nearly 9,300 kilometres (5,800 mi) of Russian territory to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast.

Suburbs and satellite cities are connected by commuter elektrichka (electric rail) network. Elektrichkas depart from each of these terminals to the nearby (up to 140 km or 87 mi) large railway stations.

During the 2010s, the Little Ring of the Moscow Railway was converted to be used for frequent passenger service; it is fully integrated with Moscow Metro; the passenger service started on September 10, 2016. There is a connecting railway line on the North side of the town that connects Belorussky terminal with other railway lines. This is used by some suburban trains.

Moscow Central Circle

A 81-765 Moscow train on Shelepikha

The Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga formed a ring around the now-downtown Moscow since 1903, but only served as non-electrified, fueled locomotive-only railway prior to reconstruction into MCC in 2010's.

The Moscow Central Circle is a 54-kilometre-long (34 mi) urban-metro railway orbital line that encircles historical Moscow. It was built alongside Little Ring of the Moscow Railway, taking some of its tracks into itself as well. M.C.C. was opened for passenger use on September 10, 2016. MOZD is integrated as "Line 14 of Moscow Metro", and, while using railway-sized trains, can be perceived as "S-train-design circle line".

The line is operated by the Moscow Government owned company MKZD through the Moscow Metro, with the Federal Government owned Russian Railways selected as the operation subcontractor. The track infrastructure and most platforms are owned by Russian Railways, while most station buildings are owned by MKZD. However, in S-bahn way, Moscow unified tickets "Ediniiy" and "Troika" are accepted by MCC stations. There is one zero-fee interchange for any ticket used on Moscow Metro station less than 90 minutes before entering an MCC station (and vice versa: a passenger of MCC gets 1 free interchange to Moscow Metro within 90 minutes after entering MCC station)

Moscow Central Diameters

An EG2Tv train arriving at the Moscow Belorussky railway station

Another system, which forms "genuine S-Bahn" as in "suburbia-city-suburbia"-designed railway, is the Moscow Central Diameters, a pass-through railways system, created by constructing bypasses from "vokzals" final stations (e.g. by avoiding the central stations of already existing Moscow Railway, used for both intercity and urban-suburban travel before)[202] and forming a train line across Moscow's centre.

Out of 5 projected lines, first 2 lines were completed and launched on 2019-11-21 (e.g. November 21, 2019).

While using the same rails as "regular" suburban trains to vokzals, MCD trains ("Ivolga" model) got distinguishing features (shape; red cabin, different windows, lesser amount of seats; big red "MЦΔ" train logo (informally "ЯИЦА" train logo, due to overlap of letter M and a window: without upper left corner, M letter can be interpreted as ЯИ letters, and Δ letter can be both interpreted as stylized Д or as stylized А)).

Roads

Intersection at Tverskaya Zastava Square

There are over 2.6 million cars in the city daily. Recent years have seen growth in the number of cars, which have caused traffic jams and lack of parking space to become major problems.

The Moscow Ring Road (MKAD), along with the Third Transport Ring and the cancelled Fourth Transport Ring, is one of only three freeways that run within Moscow city limits. There are several other roadway systems that form concentric circles around the city.

Air

There are five primary commercial airports serving Moscow: Sheremetyevo (SVO), Domodedovo (DME), Vnukovo (VKO), Zhukovsky (ZIA), Ostafyevo (OSF).

Sheremetyevo, the busiest airport in Russia, is ranked as the fifth-busiest airport in Europe.

Sheremetyevo International Airport is the most globally connected, handling 60% of all international flights.[203] It is also a home to all SkyTeam members, and the main hub for Aeroflot (itself a member of SkyTeam). Domodedovo International Airport is the leading airport in Russia in terms of passenger throughput, and is the primary gateway to long-haul domestic and CIS destinations and its international traffic rivals Sheremetyevo. Most of Star Alliance members use Domodedovo as their international hub. Vnukovo International Airport handles flights of Turkish Airlines, Lufthansa, Wizz Air and others. Ostafyevo International Airport caters primarily to business aviation.

Moscow's airports vary in distances from the MKAD beltway: Domodedovo is the farthest at 22 km (14 mi); Vnukovo is 11 km (7 mi); Sheremetyevo is 10 km (6 mi); and Ostafievo, the nearest, is about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from MKAD.[203]

There are a number of smaller airports close to Moscow (19 in Moscow Oblast) such as Myachkovo Airport, that are intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters.[204]

Water

Moscow has two passenger terminals, (South River Terminal and North River Terminal or Rechnoy vokzal), on the river and regular ship routes and cruises along the Moskva and Oka rivers, which are used mostly for entertainment. The North River Terminal, built in 1937, is the main hub for long-range river routes. There are three freight ports serving Moscow.

Sharing system

As of 2020, Moscow has the largest fleet of carsharing vehicles in the world, with more than 30,000 cars.[205]

Moscow has different vehicle sharing options that are sponsored by the local government. There are several car sharing companies which are in charge of providing cars to the population. To drive the automobiles, the user has to book them through the app of the owning company. In 2018 the mayor Sergey Sobyanin said Moscow's car sharing system has become the biggest in Europe in terms of vehicle fleet.[206] Every day about 25,000 people use this service. In the end of the same year Moscow carsharing became the second in the world in therms of fleet with 16.5K available vehicles.[207] Another sharing system is bike sharing (Velobike) of a fleet formed by 3000 traditional and electrical bicycles.[208] The Delisamokat is a new sharing service that provides electrical scooters.[209] There are companies that provide different vehicles to the population in proximity to Moscow's big parks.

Future development

The 2020 development concept of Moscow International Business Center and its adjacent territory implies the construction of even more skyscrapers during the period of 2020–2027.[210][211]

In 1992, the Moscow government began planning a projected new part of central Moscow, the Moscow International Business Center, with the goal of creating a zone, the first in Russia, and in all of Eastern Europe,[212] that will combine business activity, living space and entertainment. Situated in Presnensky District and located at the Third Ring, the Moscow City area is under intense development. The construction of the MIBC takes place on the Krasnopresnenskaya embankment. The whole project takes up to one square kilometre (250 acres). The area is the only spot in downtown Moscow that can accommodate a project of this magnitude. Today, most of the buildings there are old factories and industrial complexes.

The Federation Tower, completed in 2016, is the second-tallest building in Europe. It is planned to include a water park and other recreational facilities; business, office, entertainment and residential buildings, a transport network and a new site for the Moscow government. The construction of four new metro stations in the territory has been completed, two of which have opened and two others are reserved for future metro lines crossing MIBC, some additional stations were planned.

Major thoroughfares through MIBC are the Third Ring and Kutuzovsky Prospekt.

Three metro stations were initially planned for the Filyovskaya Line. The station Delovoi Tsentr opened in 2005 and was later renamed Vystavochnaya in 2009. The branch extended to the Mezhdunarodnaya station in 2006, and all work on the third station, Dorogomilovskaya (between Kiyevskaya and Delovoi Tsentr), has been postponed. There are plans to extend the branch as far as the Savyolovskaya station, on the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line. It should be noted this line 4 of Moscow Metro had longest time intervals between train arrivals (approximately 8 minutes for Mezhdunarodnaya and Vystavochnaya branch of line 4) throughout 2010's. However, Vystavochnaya has been expanded with Line 8A platforms (segment of future Line 11), and Mezhdunarodnaya has been upgraded with line 14 platform.

Media

Moscow is home to nearly all of Russia's nationwide television networks, radio stations, newspapers, and magazines.

Newspapers

English-language media include The Moscow Times and Moscow News, which are, respectively, the largest[213] and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russia. Kommersant, Vedomosti and Novaya Gazeta are Russian-language media headquartered in Moscow. Kommersant and Vedomosti are among the country's leading and oldest Russian-language business newspapers.

TV and radio

The RTRN building

Other media in Moscow include the Echo of Moscow, the first Soviet and Russian private news radio and information agency, and NTV, one of the first privately owned Russian television stations. The total number of radio stations in Moscow in the FM band is near 50.

Moscow television networks:

Moscow radio stations:

  • "Russian (Russkoye) Radio"
  • "Europa Plus"
  • "DFM"
  • "NRJ (Russia)"
  • "Radio Maximum"
  • "Voice of Russia (in English)"
  • "Radio Freedom (Svoboda)"
  • "Megapolis FM"
  • "Radio Kultura (Culture)"
  • "Pioneer FM"
  • "Zvezda"
  • "Komsomolskaya Pravda"
  • "Orpheus"
  • "Monte Carlo"
  • "Love Radio"
  • "The Main" Главная
  • "Govorit Moskva"
  • "Radio Dacha"
  • "Nashe Radio"
  • "Radio 7"
  • "Humor FM"
  • "Retro FM"
  • "Ultra"
  • "Keks FM"
  • "Carnival"
  • "Dobrye Pesni (Good Songs)"
  • "Voyage FM"
  • "Kino FM"
  • "Finam FM"
  • "First Popular"
  • "Politseiskaya Volna (Police Wave)"
  • "Radio Sport"
  • "Radio Rossii"
  • "Radio Podmoskovye"
  • "Radiocompany Moscow"
  • "UFM"
  • "Mayak"
  • "Business FM"
  • "Autoradio"
  • "Moya Semia (My Family)"
  • "XFM"
  • "Fresh Radio"
  • "Silver Rain"
  • "Chanson"
  • "M-Radio"
  • "Orphey"
  • "Echo of Moscow"
  • "Radio Jazz"
  • "Classic Radio"
  • "Vesti FM"
  • "City FM"
  • "Relax FM"
  • "Kommersant FM"
  • "Rock FM"
  • "Children's Radio"
  • "Radio Alla"
  • "Best FM"
  • "Next FM"
  • "Hit FM"
  • "Radio Record"
  • "Capital FM Moscow"

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Moscow is twinned with:

Cooperation agreements

Moscow has cooperation agreements with:

Former twin towns and sister cities

See also

References

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Comins-Richmond, Walter. "The History of Moscow". Occidental College. Archived from the original on May 17, 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  4. ^ "The Moscow Statute". Moscow City Duma. Moscow City Government. June 28, 1995. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2010. The supreme and exclusive legislative (representative) body of the state power in Moscow is the Moscow City Duma.
  5. ^ a b "The Moscow City Mayor". Government of Moscow. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  7. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  8. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  9. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  10. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  11. ^ Roach, Peter (2011). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2.
  12. ^ "RUSSIA: Central'nyj Federal'nyj Okrug - Central Federal District". City Population.de. August 8, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c "Demographia World Urban Areas" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  14. ^ a b c Alexander Akishin (August 17, 2017). "A 3-Hour Commute: A Close Look At Moscow The Megapolis". Strelka Mag. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  15. ^ a b "Moscow, a City Undergoing Transformation". Planète Énergies. September 11, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  16. ^ 1977 Constitution of the Soviet Union - Section VIII, Article 172: "The Capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is the city of Moscow."
  17. ^ https://www.mos.ru/en/city/about/
  18. ^ According to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
  19. ^ According to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index.
  20. ^ John Hyatt. "Beijing Overtakes New York City As City With Most Billionaires: Forbes 2021 List". Forbes. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  21. ^ Arseny Kalashnikoff (July 5, 2018). "Moscow tops European ranking in digital innovation". Russia Beyond. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  22. ^ "United Nations E-Government Survey 2018" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 5, 2020. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  23. ^ "FIFA World Cup kicks off in Russia". The New Indian Express. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
  24. ^ "Moscow parks". Bridge To Moscow. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Vasmer, Max (1986–1987) [1950–1958]. "Москва". In Trubachyov, O. N.; Larin, B. O. (eds.). Этимологический словарь русского языка [Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch] (in Russian) (2nd ed.). Moscow: Progress.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Smolitskaya, G.P. (2002). Toponimicheskyi slovar' Tsentral'noy Rossii Топонимический словарь Центральной России (in Russian). pp. 211–2017.
  27. ^ Tarkiainen, Kari (2010). Ruotsin itämaa. Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. p. 19. ISBN 978-951-583-212-2.
  28. ^ "Early East Slavic Tribes in Russia". Study.com. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  29. ^ a b c Trubachyov, O.N., ed. (1994). Etimologicheskyi slovar' slavyanskikh yazykov Этимологический словарь славянских языков (in Russian). V. 20: pp. 19–20, 197, 202–203; V. 21: pp. 12, 19–20, 76–79.
  30. ^ Pokorny, Julius. "meu". Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016.
  31. ^ "Moskov Surname Meaning, Origins & Distribution". forebears.io. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  32. ^ King, Hobart. "Muscovite". geology.com. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
  33. ^ "The origins of Moscow: What archaeological finds, chronicles and urban legends tell us". Mos.ru. April 5, 2017. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  34. ^ "History of Moscow - from village to metropolis". moskau.ru. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  35. ^ "Начало Москвы: пир после убийства". BBC News Russian. April 11, 2017.
  36. ^ Bronnitsky.), Tikhon (Bishop of (1997). The Orthodox Shrines of Moscow. Publishing House of the Moscow Patriarchate.
  37. ^ J. L. I. Fennell, Ivan the Great of Moscow (1961) p. 354
  38. ^ Sergei M. Soloviev, and John J. Windhausen, eds. History of Russia. Vol. 8: Russian Society in the Age of Ivan III (1979)
  39. ^ "The Unending Frontier: An Environmental History of the Early Modern World". John F. Richards (2006). University of California Press. p. 260. ISBN 0-520-24678-0
  40. ^ Абецедарский, Л. С. (1978). Белоруссия и Россия (in Russian). Москва. p. 213.
  41. ^ П.В.Сытин, "Из истории московских улиц", М, 1948, p. 296.
  42. ^ Bubonic Plague in Early Modern Russia: Public Health and Urban Disaster. John T. Alexander (2002). Oxford University Press US. p. 17. ISBN 0-19-515818-0
  43. ^ M.S. Anderson, Peter the Great (1978) p. 13
  44. ^ Melikishvili, Alexander (2006). "Genesis of the anti-plague system: the Tsarist period" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 36 (1): 19–31. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.204.1976. doi:10.1080/10408410500496763. PMID 16610335. S2CID 7420734. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 23, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  45. ^ "The Russian Army of the Napoleonic Wars". Albert Seaton, Michael Youens (1979). p. 29. ISBN 0-88254-167-6
  46. ^ Alexander M. Martin, "Sewage and the City: Filth, Smell, and Representations of Urban Life in Moscow, 1770–1880", Russian Review (2008) 67#2 pp. 243–274.
  47. ^ "Moscow becomes the capital of the Soviet State". Presidential Library. 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  48. ^ Sarah Davies, Popular Opinion in Stalin's Russia: Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934–1941
  49. ^ Simon Montefiore, The Court of the Red Tsar
  50. ^ Moscow Encyclopedia, ed. Great Russian Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1997, entry "Battle of Moscow"
  51. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1973–78, entry "Battle of Moscow 1941–42"
  52. ^ John Erickson, Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies, table 12.4
  53. ^ "Skyline Ranking". Emporis.
  54. ^ Robert J. Mason and Liliya Nigmatullina, "Suburbanization and Sustainability in Metropolitan Moscow", Geographical Review (2011) 101#3 pp. 316–333.
  55. ^ RBTH, special to (November 4, 2016). "City of the future: Moscow gets a much-needed makeover".
  56. ^ Leslie, Chris (October 31, 2017). "The wrecking ball swings at Moscow – a photo essay". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
  57. ^ a b "Expansion of Moscow borders to help it develop harmonically: mayor, Itar-tass, July 1, 2012". Itar-tass.com. July 1, 2012. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  58. ^ "Moscow city government official site". Mos.ru. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  59. ^ Памятник природы "Высшая точка Москвы – 255 м над уровнем моря (Теплый Стан)" (in Russian). www.darwin.museum.ru. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
  60. ^ "Time in Moscow, Russia". Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  61. ^ Погода и Климат – Климатический монитор: погода в Москве [The weather in Moscow. The air temperature and rainfall. June 2010] (in Russian). Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
  62. ^ "Average Weather in Moscow, Russia, Year Round - Weather Spark".
  63. ^ "Climate monitoring". Retrieved July 27, 2006.
  64. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved December 15, 2012.
  65. ^ "Sunshine hours in 2014 and averages" (in Russian). Retrieved November 15, 2015.
  66. ^ Luxmoore, Matthew (2018). "Moscow Got 6 Minutes of Sunlight in December". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  67. ^ "How to survive in Moscow without sunshine". BBC News. 2018. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  68. ^ "Climate of Vladimir" (in Russian). Retrieved November 15, 2015.
  69. ^ "Thermograph.ru averages". Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  70. ^ "Pogoda & Climate (Weather & Climate)" (in Russian). Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  71. ^ "Climate monitor 2005-2011" (in Russian). Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  72. ^ "Average monthly Sunshine hours" (in Russian). Meteoweb.ru. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  73. ^ d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Moscow, Russia - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  74. ^ a b "WMO averages". Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  75. ^ "Температура воздуха и осадки по месяцам и годам: Москва (город Москва, Россия)". www.pogodaiklimat.ru.
  76. ^ "VVC info" (in Russian). Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  77. ^ "Climate monitor 2005–2011" (in Russian). Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  78. ^ "Average monthly Sunshine hours" (in Russian). Meteoweb.ru. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
  79. ^ "Temperature – Voronezh – Climate Robot Russia". weatheronline.co.uk.
  80. ^ "Temperature – Tambov – Climate Robot Russia". weatheronline.co.uk.
  81. ^ "where to stay in moscow". Gezily. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved November 12, 2020.
  82. ^ "Temperature – Moscow". WeatherOnline. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  83. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  84. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  85. ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. December 19, 2011. Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  86. ^ ""Российская газета" о мигрантах в Москве". Rg.ru. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
  87. ^ "Суммарный коэффициент рождаемости". fedstat.ru. Retrieved October 28, 2020.
  88. ^ "Об оскорблении религиозных чувств" (in Russian). Фонд Общественное Мнение, ФОМ (Public Opinion Foundation). November 17, 2020. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  89. ^ "Об оскорблении религиозных чувств" (in Russian). Фонд Общественное Мнение, ФОМ (Public Opinion Foundation). November 17, 2020. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  90. ^ Maxim Kireev. "Planned Mosque Sparks Controversy in Russia". Der Spiegel.
  91. ^ Kiran Moodley. "Eid al-Fitr 2015: Drone shows huge crowds celebrating the end of Ramadan in Moscow". The Independent. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
  92. ^ Schmidt, Albert J (April 1, 1989). The architecture and planning of classical Moscow: a cultural history. American Philosophical Society. pp. 5–25.
  93. ^ Khazanov, Anatoly M. (June 28, 2008). "onlinelibrary.wiley.com". City & Society. onlinelibrary.wiley.com. 10: 269–314. doi:10.1525/city.1998.10.1.269. S2CID 145807994.
  94. ^ a b "Memorial". Melnikov Institute. Archived from the original on May 27, 2008. Retrieved July 6, 2006.
  95. ^ List of tallest buildings in the world
  96. ^ McGrane, Sally (December 4, 2012), "The Elevator-Rescue Teams of Moscow", The New Yorker
  97. ^ "Moscow Architecture Preservation Society". Maps-moscow.com. April 17, 2006. Archived from the original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  98. ^ "Appetite for destruction". New Statesman. November 29, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  99. ^ "Dr. Sergey Zagraevsky. Photogallery of the most serious violations of historical environment of Moscow in the last decade". Zagraevsky.com. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
  100. ^ "Art of Russia – The third bulletin of the Moscow Architectural Preservation Society (MAPS)". Gif.ru. July 13, 2004. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  101. ^ Close (September 29, 2005). "Eastern blocks". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  102. ^ "Moscow Architecture Preservation Society". Archived from the original on January 11, 2008.
  103. ^ "Save Europe's Heritage". November 2, 2008. Archived from the original on November 2, 2008.
  104. ^ "[Russia: Moscow's Architectural Heritage Under Threat] – [Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty © 2008]". Rferl.org. May 22, 2007. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
  105. ^ a b c d e СТОЛИЦА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ В ЗЕРКАЛЕ ЦИФР, ФАКТОВ И СОБЫТИЙ (in Russian). Moscow government. Retrieved April 28, 2010.[dead link]
  106. ^ a b c d (in Russian) Green dress of Moscow
  107. ^ "Neskuchniy Garden". Mosday.ru. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  108. ^ (in Russian) The Official Site of the Main Moscow Botanical Garden Archived June 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on July 18, 2006.
  109. ^ "About VDNH". vdnh.ru. Archived from the original on November 12, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
  110. ^ UNESCO considers the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square to be part of a single World Heritage Site. See also UNESCO's profile on this site.
  111. ^ "Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow". World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved July 15, 2006.
  112. ^ "Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoye". World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved July 15, 2006.
  113. ^ a b "General Information". Moscow Zoo. Retrieved July 15, 2006.
  114. ^ a b "Along the Moscow Golden Ring" (PDF). Moscow, Russia Tourist Information center. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2006. Retrieved July 5, 2006.
  115. ^ "The Official site of the Tretyakov Gallery". Tretyakovgallery.ru. Archived from the original on December 21, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  116. ^ a b "About The State Tretyakov Gallery". The State Tretyakov Gallery. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2006.
  117. ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Polytechnical Museum Retrieved on July 23, 2006. (English version)
  118. ^ "The Museum Collections". Polytechnical Museum. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
  119. ^ "The official site of Borodino Panorama museum". 1812panorama.ru. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  120. ^ "Russian Ministry of Culture official statistics". Archived from the original on July 2, 2015.
  121. ^ "Russian Ministry of Culture official stats". Archived from the original on July 2, 2015. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
  122. ^ "State Academic Maly Theatre". July 8, 2016.
  123. ^ "The Official Site of the Moscow International Performance Arts Centre". Mmdm.ru. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  124. ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Moscow Nikulun Circus Archived July 17, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on July 17, 2006.
  125. ^ "History of the Mosfilm concern studios foundation". MosFilm. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2006.
  126. ^ "The Official Site of the Museum of Cinema" (in Russian). Museikino.ru. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  127. ^ https://www.rbth.com/arts/334157-moscow-own-hermitage-museum
  128. ^ "The mood in Moscow". BBC News. July 3, 2005. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
  129. ^ "Russia grabs World Bandy Championship". YouTube. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
  130. ^ "Google Translate". Translate.google.se. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
  131. ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Central Moscow Hippodrome
  132. ^ See also: about the Palace of Gymnastics on the Moscow Investment Portal[permanent dead link]
  133. ^ "Go Magazine". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on February 20, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  134. ^ "Moscow Nightlife: The Best Party Spots". November 19, 2015. Archived from the original on November 24, 2015.
  135. ^ "Парк "Остров мечты" откроется в Москве в 2019 году". Izvestia (in Russian). February 3, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  136. ^ "Dream Island Moscow". Theme Park Construction Board.
  137. ^ "Safe Cities Index 2019 | NEC". www.nec.com.
  138. ^ "Crime in Moscow". www.numbeo.com.
  139. ^ "In Moscow, the face recognition system will work through CCTV cameras". Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  140. ^ "Ambulance, police and Emergencies Ministry: Who to call in case of emergency". Moscow City Web Site. September 2, 2017.
  141. ^ "Moscow's EMS ranks as the second most efficient in the world". Moscow City Web Site. October 24, 2019.
  142. ^ Official website of the Government of Moscow. Draft of adopted measures of the capital and oblast governments with regards to the expansion of the borders of Moscow (in Russian)
  143. ^ Цены на Квартиры в Москве по Административным Районам и Станциям Метро. Metrinfo.ru (in Russian). Retrieved September 27, 2010.
  144. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the government bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially named the administrative centre of the oblast.
  145. ^ "200 крупнейших частных компаний России — 2019. Рейтинг Forbes | Бизнес". Forbes.ru. September 16, 2019.
  146. ^ Arkhipov, Ilya (September 28, 2010). "Medvedev Fires Moscow Mayor Luzhkov After Conflict". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
  147. ^ "Валовой региональный продукт::Мордовиястат". Mrd.gks.ru. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  148. ^ "• EUR RUB average annual exchange rate 1999–2016 | Statistic". Statista.com. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  149. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
  150. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
  151. ^ "Gross regional product per capita in regions of the Russian Federation in 1998 to 2017". Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  152. ^ Александр Мелешенко (June 21, 2012). "Дожить до зарплаты: Сколько сегодня получают москвичи?". Rg.ru. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  153. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Imf.org. September 14, 2006. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  154. ^ "FSSS. Main". Gks.ru. October 18, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  155. ^ Giacomo Tognini. "World's Richest Cities: The Top 10 Cities Billionaires Call Home". Forbes. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  156. ^ "BOFIT Weekly 42/2010" (PDF). Bank of Finland's Institute for Economies in Transition. October 22, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 27, 2010. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
  157. ^ "Average monthly salaries". Federal Service on State Statistics. Archived from the original on August 24, 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2007.
  158. ^ "The Official Site of the Moscow Cristall distillery". Eng.kristall.ru. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  159. ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. Retrieved on July 7, 2006.
  160. ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Moscow Jewelry Factory. Retrieved on July 7, 2006.
  161. ^ See also: (in Russian) The Official Site of the Experimental Moscow Jewelry Atelier Jewellerprom. Retrieved on July 7, 2006,
  162. ^ "US$4,500 for a Square Meter of Apartment Space. The Moscow Times". Waybackmachine.org. July 19, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
  163. ^ "Преодолен абсолютный рекорд роста цен на недвижимость: московский стройкомплекс в зеркале СМИ". ИА REGNUM.
  164. ^ Humphries, Conor (June 20, 2006). "Dividing the Spoils of the Boom". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on August 17, 2007. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
  165. ^ "Costs of realty in Moscow (2006)" (in Russian). Mosday.ru.
  166. ^ Sahadi, Jeanne (June 23, 2006). "World's most expensive cities". CNNMoney. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
  167. ^ "Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2009". Mercer.com. July 7, 2009. Archived from the original on June 15, 2010. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
  168. ^ "Stock Quotes, Business News and Data from Stock Markets | MSN Money". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2008.
  169. ^ Jacobs, Deborah L. "The Most Expensive Cities In The World". forbes.com.
  170. ^ "Moscow Nose-Dives in Global Living Cost Rankings". The Moscow Times. March 19, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  171. ^ "Europe falls behind USA in cost of living". ECA International. June 13, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  172. ^ [Andrey Kovalev, Liliana Proskuryakova. "Innovation in Russian District Heating: Opportunities, Barriers, Mechanisms", pp. 45-46]
  173. ^ "MSU History". Moscow State University. Retrieved July 6, 2006.
  174. ^ Templeton, John Marks (1997). Is Progress Speeding Up?: Our Multiplying Multitudes of Blessings. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-890151-02-7.
  175. ^ Russian Regional Economic and Business Atlas Volume 2: Strategic Investment and Business Information ISBN 1-57751-030-5 p. 41
  176. ^ Fedorov, I.B. "General (English)". МГТУ им.Н.Э.Баумана (Bauman Moscow State Technical University). Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved July 6, 2006.
  177. ^ "The Official Site of the Moscow Conservatory". Mosconsv.ru. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  178. ^ "Facts and Figures". MGIMO (Moscow State Institute of International Relations). Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 6, 2006.
  179. ^ "Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI)". International Centre for Relativistic Astrophysics. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
  180. ^ "The official homepage of the Russian State Library". Rsl.ru. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  181. ^ Краткая статистическая справка (in Russian). Russian State Library. January 1, 2006. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
  182. ^ "Stacks". The Russian State Library. Retrieved August 4, 2006.
  183. ^ "Official site of the State Public Historical Library". Archived from the original on August 23, 2006.
  184. ^ Levy, Clifford J. (September 15, 2011). "My Family's Experiment in Extreme Schooling". Nytimes.com. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
  185. ^ Isabel Wünsche, "Homo Sovieticus: The Athletic Motif in the Design of the Dynamo Metro Station", Studies in the Decorative Arts (2000) 7#2 pp. 65–90
  186. ^ Andrew Jenks, "A Metro on the Mount", Technology & Culture (2000) 41#4 pp. 697–723
  187. ^ Michael Robbins, "London Underground and Moscow Metro", Journal of Transport History, (1997) 18#1 pp. 45–53.
  188. ^ Gordon W. Morrell, "Redefining Intelligence and Intelligence-Gathering: The Industrial Intelligence Centre and the Metro-Vickers Affair, Moscow 1933", Intelligence and National Security (1994) 9#3 pp. 520–533.
  189. ^ Московский метрополитен (in Russian). Archived from the original on July 14, 2006. Retrieved July 4, 2006.
  190. ^ RBTH, special to (September 9, 2016). "How Moscow's new light rail system will make life easier for passengers".
  191. ^ "The people's palace: exploring Moscow Metro's evolving designs". RailwayTechnology. December 10, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  192. ^ https://www.ft.com/content/4e02625c-ef1e-4ee0-bb3b-6fc7ea044f40
  193. ^ https://foreignaffairs.co.nz/2021/06/29/mil-osi-submissions-russian-federation-city-wi-fi-network-is-available-in-four-more-student-dormitories-in-moscow/
  194. ^ https://www.ft.com/content/4e02625c-ef1e-4ee0-bb3b-6fc7ea044f40
  195. ^ "В Москве вышел на линию 500-й электробус". Mos.ru (in Russian). October 8, 2020. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
  196. ^ See also: (in Russian) [1] Realty news. Retrieved on July 22, 2006.
  197. ^ "First electric buses have started operating in Moscow in regular transport". September 4, 2018.
  198. ^ "The long trip to Vityaz or the story of the Moscow tram system". MoscowSeasons. September 22, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  199. ^ "Гонки на такси: на чем быстрее и дешевле ездить". rbc.ru. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015.
  200. ^ Оцифрованные шашки: как технологии перекроили рынок такси / РБК Инновации Archived August 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  201. ^ "Getting to Russia: Arriving by Train". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on July 8, 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2006.
  202. ^ "Moscow Central Diameters, Russia, opens to the public". November 25, 2019.
  203. ^ a b "Moscow Airports". Go-Russia. October 7, 2007. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 7, 2007.
  204. ^ "Аэропорт сменил хозяев. "Мячково" будет развивать компания "Финпромко"". www.sostav.ru.
  205. ^ "Москва вышла в мировые лидеры по парку каршеринга". stroi.mos.ru. January 10, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  206. ^ "Moscow's Car Sharing Market Becomes Biggest in Europe, Mayor Says". The Moscow Times. March 9, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  207. ^ "Here Is the Future of Car Sharing, and Carmakers Should Be Terrified". Bloomberg. February 8, 2019. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  208. ^ "Велобайк". velobike.ru.
  209. ^ "Delisamokat". delisamokat.ru. Archived from the original on May 21, 2018. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  210. ^ Любовь Проценко, Сергей Михеев (September 16, 2020). "Собянин назвал сроки реализации проекта развития "Большого Сити"". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  211. ^ Вера Лунькова (September 16, 2020). "Собянин обещал достроить "Большой Сити" через семь лет". Rbc.ru. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  212. ^ Москва-Сити начинается строительство Города столиц (in Russian). Lenta.ru. December 23, 2005. Retrieved May 24, 2009.
  213. ^ "Advertising Information". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved July 6, 2006.
  214. ^ a b "Есть ли побратимы у Актау и других городов Казахстана". tumba.kz (in Russian). Tumba. May 4, 2019. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  215. ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara". ankara.bel.tr. Ankara. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  216. ^ "Bakının qardaşlaşdığı şəhərlər - SİYAHI". modern.az (in Azerbaijani). Modern.az. February 16, 2016. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  217. ^ "Moscow". Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  218. ^ "Sister Cities". ebeijing.gov.cn. Beijing. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  219. ^ "Städtepartnerschaften". berlin.de (in German). Berlin. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  220. ^ "Brno - partnerská města". brno.cz (in Czech). Statutární město Brno. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  221. ^ "Cu cine este înfrăţit Bucureştiul?". adevarul.ro (in Romanian). Adevărul. February 21, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  222. ^ "Convenios Internacionales". buenosaires.gob.ar (in Spanish). Buenos Aires. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  223. ^ "Sister Cities". chicagosistercities.com. Chicago Sister Cities. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  224. ^ "Ciudades Hermanas de Cusco". aatccusco.com (in Spanish). Asociación de Agencias de Turismo del Cusco. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  225. ^ "بحضور عمدة مدينة فرانكفورت إزاحة الستار عن النصب التذكاري". moccae.gov.ae (in Arabic). Ministry of Climate Change and Environment of United Arab Emirates. March 9, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2021.
  226. ^ "Weltweite Kontakte: Türöffner für Bürger, Wirtschaft und Kultur". duesseldorf.de (in German). Düsseldorf. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  227. ^ "Gədəbəy şəhəri ilə ABŞ-ın Oklahoma şatatının Stilluater (Stillwater) şəhəri arasında qardaşlaşma memorandumu imzalanıb". anews.az (in Azerbaijani). Azerbaijan News. November 9, 2019. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  228. ^ "Các địa phương kết nghĩa với TPHCM". mofahcm.gov.vn (in Vietnamese). Foreign affairs in Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  229. ^ "Djarot to visit Moscow to extend sister city agreement". thejakartapost.com. The Jakarta Post. August 2, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  230. ^ "Міста-партнери". city.kharkov.ua (in Ukrainian). Kharkiv. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  231. ^ "Intercity cooperation". ljubljana.si. Mestna občina Ljubljana. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  232. ^ "Indulge Your Wanderlust With A Trip To London's Twin Cities". secretldn.com. Secret London. October 8, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  233. ^ "Manila, Bacoor sign sister city accord". news.mb.com.ph. Manila Bulletin. August 16, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  234. ^ "Twin-cities celebrate India-Russia connect". rbth.com. Russia Beyond. January 26, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
  235. ^ "Partnerská města HMP". zahranicnivztahy.praha.eu (in Czech). Prague. Archived from the original on June 25, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  236. ^ Corfield, Justin (2013). "Sister Cities". Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang. London: Anthem Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-85728-234-7.
  237. ^ "About city". gums.ac.ir. Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  238. ^ "Minnisblað" (PDF). reykjavik.is (in Icelandic). Reykjavík. September 14, 2018. p. 3. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  239. ^ "Riga Twin Cities". riga.lv. Riga. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  240. ^ "Sister and Friendship Cities". seoul.go.kr. Seoul Metropolitan Government. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  241. ^ "Tallinna suhted teiste linnadega". tallinn.ee (in Estonian). Tallinn. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  242. ^ "Ну, здравствуй, брат! Города-побратимы Ташкента". vot.uz (in Russian). The Voice of Tashkent. November 10, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2020.
  243. ^ "گذری بر خواهرخوانده تهران در شرق اروپا". isna.ir (in Persian). Iranian Students' News Agency. March 21, 2018. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  244. ^ "Sister Cities(States) of Tokyo". metro.tokyo.lg.jp. Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  245. ^ "Улаанбаатар хоттой ах, дүү хотууд". barilga.mn (in Mongolian). Barilga. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  246. ^ "Miestai partneriai". ivilnius.lt (in Lithuanian). Vilnius. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  247. ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl (in Polish). Warsaw. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  248. ^ Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; City of Moscow (June 19, 1997). "Protocol of friendly ties between the cities of Bangkok and Moscow" (PDF).
  249. ^ "Acordos de Cooperação e/ou Amizade". lisboa.pt (in Portuguese). Lisboa. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  250. ^ "Agreements with cities". madrid.es. Madrid. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  251. ^ "ערים שותפות". tel-aviv.gov.il (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  252. ^ "Coopération internationale". commune-tunis.gov.tn (in French). Tunis. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  253. ^ "Partner cities". yerevan.am. Yerevan. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  254. ^ "Kyiv and Moscow – no longer twin cities". May 3, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2016.[permanent dead link]

External links