Manhattan

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Manhattan
Condado de Nova York, Nova York
Midtown Manhattan facing south toward Lower Manhattan
Midtown Manhattan voltado para o sul em direção a Lower Manhattan
Flag of Manhattan
Official seal of Manhattan
Etimologia: Lenape : Manaháhtaan (o lugar onde recebemos arcos )
Apelido (s): 
A cidade [1]
Mapa interativo delineando Manhattan
Manhattan is located in New York
Manhattan
Manhattan
Localização dentro do estado de Nova York
Manhattan is located in the United States
Manhattan
Manhattan
Localização nos Estados Unidos
Manhattan is located in North America
Manhattan
Manhattan
Localização na América do Norte
Coordenadas: 40 ° 47′N 73 ° 58′W / 40.783°N 73.967°W / 40.783; -73.967Coordenadas : 40 ° 47′N 73 ° 58′W  / 40.783°N 73.967°W / 40.783; -73.967
PaísEstados Unidos
EstadoNova york
condadoCondado de Nova York (contíguo)
CidadeCidade de Nova York
Assentou1624
Governo
 • ModeloBorough (cidade de Nova York)
 •  Presidente do municípioGale Brewer ( D )
- (Borough of Manhattan)
 •  Procurador DistritalCyrus Vance Jr. (D)
- (Condado de Nova York)
Área
 • Total33,58 sq mi (87,0 km 2 )
 • Terra22,83 sq mi (59,1 km 2 )
 • Água10,76 sq mi (27,9 km 2 ) 32%
Elevação mais alta265 pés (81 m)
População
 (2020) [5]
 • Total1.694.251
 • Densidade74.780,7 / sq mi (28.873,0 / km 2 )
 •  Demônimo
Manhattanite [4]
Knickerbocker (histórico)
Fuso horárioUTC − 05: 00 ( EST )
 • Verão ( DST )UTC − 04: 00 (EDT)
Formato do CEP
100xx, 101xx, 102xx
Código de área212/646/332 , 917 [a]
PIB (2019)US $ 635,3 bilhões [6] · 2º por condado dos EUA; 1ª per capita
Local na rede InternetPresidente do distrito de Manhattan

Manhattan ( / m Æ n h Æ t ən , m ə n - / ), conhecido como regionalmente a cidade , [1] é o mais densamente povoadas e geograficamente mais pequeno dos cinco bairros de New York City . É o núcleo urbano da área metropolitana de Nova York , e coextensivo com o condado de Nova York , um dos condados originais do estado de Nova York, nos Estados Unidos . Manhattan serve como centro econômico e administrativo da cidade, identificador cultural,[7] e local de nascimento histórico. [8] O distrito consiste principalmente na Ilha de Manhattan, limitada pelosrios Hudson , East e Harlem ; bem como várias pequenas ilhas adjacentes . Manhattan também contém Marble Hill , um pequeno bairro agora no continente dos Estados Unidos , separado do resto de Manhattan pelo Harlem Ship Canal e mais tarde conectado por meio de aterro ao Bronx . A Ilha de Manhattan é dividida em três componentes delimitados informalmente, cada um cortando o longo eixo do bairro: Lower , Midtown e Upper Manhattan.

Manhattan foi descrita como a capital cultural, financeira, da mídia e do entretenimento do mundo, [9] [10] [11] [12] e o bairro abriga a Sede das Nações Unidas . [13] Ancorada por Wall Street no distrito financeiro de Lower Manhattan , a cidade de Nova York tem sido considerada a cidade economicamente mais poderosa e o principal centro financeiro do mundo, [14] [15] [16] [17] e Manhattan abriga as duas maiores bolsas de valores do mundo em capitalização de mercado total : aBolsa de Valores de Nova York e NASDAQ . [18] [19] Muitos conglomerados multinacionais de mídia estão baseados em Manhattan, e o bairro tem sido o cenário de vários livros, filmes e programas de televisão. Desde então, o mercado imobiliário de Manhattan se tornou um dos mais caros do mundo, com o valor da Ilha de Manhattan, incluindo os imóveis, estimado em mais de US $ 3 trilhões em 2013; [8] [20] os preços médios de venda de propriedades residenciais em Manhattan aproximavam-se de US $ 1.600 por pé quadrado ($ 17.000 / m 2 ) em 2018, [21] com a Quinta Avenida emMidtown Manhattan comandando os maiores aluguéis de varejo do mundo, em US $ 3.000 por pé quadrado ($ 32.000 / m 2 ) por ano em 2017. [22]

Manhattan tem suas origens em um posto comercial fundado por colonos da República Holandesa em 1624 em Lower Manhattan; o posto foi denominado Nova Amsterdã em 1626. O território e seus arredores ficaram sob controle inglês em 1664 [23] e foram renomeados como Nova York depois que o rei Carlos II da Inglaterra concedeu as terras a seu irmão, o duque de York . [24] Nova York, com sede na atual Manhattan, serviu como capital dos Estados Unidos de 1785 a 1790. [25] A Estátua da Liberdadecumprimentou milhões de imigrantes quando eles chegaram à América de navio no final do século 19 [26] e é um símbolo mundial dos Estados Unidos e seus ideais de liberdade e paz. [27] Manhattan se tornou um distrito durante a consolidação da cidade de Nova York em 1898.

O condado de Nova York é o menor condado por área de terra nos Estados Unidos contíguos , o segundo menor condado americano em geral (maior apenas que o condado de Kalawao, no Havaí ), bem como o condado mais densamente povoado dos Estados Unidos . [28] Sua densidade a torna uma das áreas mais densamente povoadas do mundo, com uma população do censo de 2020 de 1.694.251 vivendo em uma área de 22,83 milhas quadradas (59,13 km 2 ), [29] [30] [5] ou 72.918 residentes por milha quadrada (28.154 / km 2 ), maior do que a densidade de qualquer cidade individual dos EUA . [31]Em dias úteis, o fluxo de passageiros aumenta esse número para mais de 3,9 milhões, [32] ou mais de 170.000 pessoas por milha quadrada (65.600 / km 2 ). Manhattan tem a terceira maior população dos cinco distritos da cidade de Nova York, depois do Brooklyn e do Queens , e é o menor distrito em termos de área territorial. [33] Se cada distrito fosse classificado como uma cidade, Manhattan seria classificada como a sexta mais populosa dos Estados Unidos

Muitos distritos e marcos em Manhattan são bem conhecidos, já que a cidade de Nova York recebeu um recorde de 62,8 milhões de turistas em 2017, [34] e Manhattan hospeda três das 10 atrações turísticas mais visitadas do mundo em 2013: Times Square , Central Park e Grand Terminal Central . [35] O bairro hospeda muitas pontes proeminentes , como as pontes de Brooklyn , Manhattan , Williamsburg , Queensboro , Triborough e George Washington ; túneis como os túneis Holland e Lincoln; arranha-céus como o Empire State Building , o Chrysler Building e o One World Trade Center ; [36] e parques , como o Central Park . Chinatown incorpora a maior concentração de chineses no hemisfério ocidental , [37] e o Stonewall Inn em Greenwich Village , parte do Monumento Nacional de Stonewall , é considerado o berço do movimento moderno pelos direitos dos homossexuais . [38] [39]A cidade de Nova York foi fundada no extremo sul de Manhattan, [8] e o bairro abriga a prefeitura de Nova York , a sede do governo da cidade . [40] Numerosas faculdades e universidades estão localizadas em Manhattan, [41] incluindo a Columbia University , a New York University , a Cornell Tech , a Weill Cornell Medical College e a Rockefeller University , que foram classificadas entre as 40 melhores do mundo. [42] [43]

Etimologia

O nome Manhattan deriva do termo de linguagem Munsee Lenape manaháhtaan (onde manah- significa "reunir", -aht- significa " curvar-se " e -aan é um elemento abstrato usado para formar radicais verbais). A palavra Lenape foi traduzida como "o lugar onde recebemos arcos" ou "lugar para juntar os arcos (de madeira para fazer)". De acordo com uma tradição Munsee registrada por Albert Seqaqkind Anthony no século 19, a ilha recebeu esse nome em homenagem a um bosque de nogueiras na extremidade inferior que era considerado ideal para a confecção de arcos. [44] Foi gravado pela primeira vez por escrito como Manna-hata, no diário de bordo de 1609 de Robert Juet, um oficial do iate de Henry Hudson , Halve Maen ( Half Moon ). [45] Um mapa de 1610 descreve o nome como Manna-hata, duas vezes, nos lados oeste e leste do rio Maurício (mais tarde chamado de Rio Hudson ). Etimologias alternativas no folclore incluem "ilha de muitas colinas", [46] "a ilha onde todos nós ficamos intoxicados" e simplesmente "ilha", bem como uma frase descritiva do redemoinho em Hell Gate . [47]

Pensa-se que Manhattoe originalmente se referia apenas a uma localização no extremo sul de Manhattan, e passou a significar toda a ilha para os holandeses por meio do pars pro toto .

História

Era colonial

Peter Minuit , início de 1600
Carta de 1626 em holandês por Pieter Schaghen declarando a compra de Manhattan por 60 florins.
O Plano Castello mostrando a cidade colonial holandesa de Nova Amsterdã em 1660 - então confinada ao extremo sul da Ilha de Manhattan

A área que agora é Manhattan foi habitada por muito tempo pelos índios Lenape e Wappinger . Em 1524, o explorador florentino Giovanni da Verrazzano  - navegando a serviço do rei Francisco I da França  - tornou-se o primeiro europeu documentado a visitar a área que se tornaria a cidade de Nova York. Ele entrou no estreito das marés agora conhecido como The Narrows e chamou a terra ao redor do Porto de Upper New York de New Angoulême , em referência ao sobrenome do rei Francisco I que era derivado de Angoulême na França; ele navegou longe o suficiente no porto para avistar o O rio Hudson , ao qual ele se referiu em seu relatório ao rei francês como um "rio muito grande"; e ele chamou a Baía de Santa Margarita - o que agora é a Baía Superior de Nova York - em homenagem a Marguerite de Navarre , a irmã mais velha do rei. [48] [49]

Não foi até a viagem de Henry Hudson , um inglês que trabalhava para a Companhia Holandesa das Índias Orientais , que a área foi mapeada. [50] Hudson cruzou a ilha de Manhattan e os nativos que viviam lá em 1609, e continuou subindo o rio que mais tarde levaria seu nome, o rio Hudson , até chegar ao local da atual Albany . [51]

A presença europeia permanente em New Netherland começou em 1624, com a fundação de um assentamento de comércio de peles holandês na Ilha de Governadores . Em 1625, foi iniciada a construção da cidadela de Fort Amsterdam na Ilha de Manhattan, mais tarde chamada de New Amsterdam ( Nieuw Amsterdam ), onde hoje é a Lower Manhattan. [52] [53] O estabelecimento de 1625 do Fort Amsterdam na ponta sul da Ilha de Manhattan é reconhecido como o nascimento da cidade de Nova York. [54]

De acordo com uma carta de Pieter Janszoon Schagen, Peter Minuit e os colonos holandeses adquiriram Manhattan em 24 de maio de 1626, de povos nativos não identificados, que se acredita terem sido índios Canarsee de Manhattoe, em troca de mercadorias no valor de 60 florins , [55 ] frequentemente dito valer US $ 24. A cifra de 60 florins vem de uma carta de um representante do Estado Geral holandês e membro do conselho da Companhia Holandesa das Índias Ocidentais , Pieter Janszoon Schagen, ao Estado Geral em novembro de 1626. [56] Em 1846, historiador de Nova York John Romeyn Brodheadconverteu o valor de 60 florins (ou 60 florins) para US $ 24 (ele chegou a 24 dólares = 60 florins / 2,5, porque o dólar americano foi erroneamente equacionado com o rijksdaalder holandês tendo um valor padrão de 2,5 florins). [57] "[Um] mito da taxa variável sendo uma contradição em termos, o preço de compra permanece para sempre congelado em vinte e quatro dólares", como Edwin G. Burrows e Mike Wallace comentaram em sua história de Nova York. [58] Sessenta florins em 1626 foram avaliados em aproximadamente US $ 1.000 em 2006 e US $ 963 em 2020, de acordo com o Instituto de História Social de Amsterdã. [59] Com base no preço da prata , " The Straight Dope "coluna de jornal calculou o equivalente a $ 72 em 1992. [60] Os historiadores James e Michelle Nevius revisitaram a questão em 2014, sugerindo que usando os preços da cerveja e conhaque como equivalências monetárias, o preço pago por Minuit teria o poder de compra de algo entre $ 2.600 e $ 15.600 em dólares atuais. [61] De acordo com o escritor Nathaniel Benchley , Minuit conduziu a transação com Seyseys, chefe do Canarsee , que estava disposto a aceitar mercadorias valiosas em troca da ilha que era controlada principalmente pelos Weckquaesgeeks , um bando de Wappinger . [62]

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony.[63] New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653.[64] In 1674, the English bought New Netherland, after Holland lost rentable sugar business in Brazil, and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II.[65] The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under their new English rulers.[66][53]

The Dutch Republic re-captured the city in August 1673, renaming it "New Orange". New Netherland was ultimately ceded to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster.[67]

This statue of President Washington stands in front of Federal Hall (on Wall Street) where he was inaugurated as the first U.S. president in 1789,[68] sculptor, John Quincy Adams Ward

American Revolution and the early United States

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British military and political center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war.[69] The military center for the colonists was established in New Jersey.[70][71] British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as as últimas forças britânicas deixaram a cidade . [72]

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall.[73] Federal Hall was also the site where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time,[74] the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified,[75]e onde foi adotada a Portaria do Noroeste , que estabelece medidas para agregar novos estados à União . [76]

Século 19

New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada.[77][78] By 1810, New York City, then confined to Manhattan, had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.[79] The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 laid out the island of Manhattan in its familiar grid plan.

Manhattan in 1873. The Brooklyn Bridge was under construction from 1870 until 1883

Tammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854. Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades. Central Park, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped public park in an American city.[80][81]

A cidade de Nova York desempenhou um papel complexo na Guerra Civil Americana . Os fortes laços comerciais da cidade com o sul dos Estados Unidos existiam por muitos motivos, incluindo o poder industrial do Rio Hudson, que permitia o comércio com escalas como a West Point Foundry , uma das grandes operações de manufatura no início dos Estados Unidos; e os portos da cidade no Oceano Atlântico, tornando a cidade de Nova York a potência americana em termos de comércio industrial entre o norte e o sul dos Estados Unidos. A raiva surgiu sobre o recrutamento , com ressentimento contra aqueles que podiam pagar US $ 300 para evitar o serviço, levando a ressentimento contra as políticas de guerra de Lincoln e fomentando a paranóia sobre negros livres taking the poor immigrants' jobs,[82] culminating in the three-day-long New York Draft Riots of July 1863. These intense war-time riots are counted among the worst incidents of civil disorder in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred.[83]

A taxa de imigração da Europa cresceu vertiginosamente após a Guerra Civil, e Manhattan se tornou a primeira parada para milhões em busca de uma nova vida nos Estados Unidos, um papel reconhecido pela dedicação da Estátua da Liberdade em 28 de outubro de 1886, um presente de o povo da França. [84] [85] A crescente população de imigrantes de Nova York, que antes consistia principalmente de imigrantes alemães e irlandeses, começou no final de 1800 a incluir ondas de italianos empobrecidos e judeus da Europa Central e Oriental fluindo em massa. Esta nova imigração europeia trouxe mais convulsões sociais. Em uma cidade de cortiços repleta de trabalhadores mal pagos de dezenas de nações, a cidade se tornou um foco de revolução (incluindo anarquistas ecomunistas, entre outros), sindicalismo , extorsão e sindicalização .

In 1883, the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge established a road connection to Brooklyn, across the East River. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County, and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed.[86] In 1898, when New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the City of Greater New York", Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, were established as two separate boroughs. On January 1, 1914, the New York State Legislature created Bronx County and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries.[87]

The "Sanitary & Topographical Map of the City and Island of New York", commonly known as the Viele Map, was created by Egbert Ludovicus Viele in 1865

20th century

Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900

A construção do metrô de Nova York , inaugurado em 1904, ajudou a unir a nova cidade, assim como outras pontes para o Brooklyn. Na década de 1920, Manhattan experimentou grandes chegadas de afro-americanos como parte da Grande Migração do sul dos Estados Unidos e do Renascimento do Harlem , parte de um período de boom maior na era da Lei Seca , que incluiu novos arranha-céus competindo pelo horizonte. Nova York se tornou a cidade mais populosa do mundo em 1925, ultrapassando Londres, que reinou por um século. [88] O grupo étnico de maioria branca de Manhattan caiu de 98,7% em 1900 para 58,3% em 1990. [89]

Em 25 de março de 1911, o incêndio na Triangle Shirtwaist Factory em Greenwich Village matou 146 trabalhadores do setor de confecções . O desastre acabou levando a revisões do corpo de bombeiros da cidade, dos códigos de construção e das regulamentações do local de trabalho. [90]

The period between the World Wars saw the election of reformist mayor Fiorello La Guardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after 80 years of political dominance.[91] As the city's demographics stabilized, labor unionization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia. Despite the Great Depression, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline, most notably the Empire State Building, the Edifício Chrysler e 30 Rockefeller Plaza . [92]

Dia do VJ na Times Square na Times Square, 1945

Retornando II Guerra Mundial veteranos criaram um boom econômico do pós-guerra, o que levou ao desenvolvimento de grandes empreendimentos habitacionais destinados aos veteranos, sendo a maior Peter Cooper Village-Stuyvesant Cidade , que abriu em 1947. [93] Em 1951-1952, o United Nações se mudaram para uma nova sede no East Side de Manhattan. [94] [95]

Os distúrbios de Stonewall foram uma série de manifestações espontâneas e violentas de membros da comunidade gay contra uma operação policial ocorrida na madrugada de 28 de junho de 1969, no Stonewall Inn, no bairro de Greenwich Village , em Lower Manhattan. Eles são amplamente considerados como o evento mais importante que conduz ao movimento de libertação gay [96] [97] e a luta moderna pelos direitos LGBT . [98] [99]

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates.[100] While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.[101]

A década de 1980 viu o renascimento de Wall Street e Manhattan recuperou seu papel no centro da indústria financeira mundial . A década de 1980 também viu Manhattan no centro da crise da AIDS, com Greenwich Village em seu epicentro. As organizações Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) e AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) foram fundadas para defender as pessoas afetadas pela doença.

Na década de 1990, as taxas de criminalidade começaram a cair drasticamente devido às estratégias policiais revisadas, melhorando as oportunidades econômicas, a gentrificação e os novos residentes, tanto os americanos transplantes quanto os novos imigrantes da Ásia e da América Latina. As taxas de homicídios que haviam chegado a 2.245 em 1990 despencaram para 537 em 2008, e a epidemia de crack e sua violência associada às drogas ficaram sob maior controle. [102] O fluxo de saída da população mudou, já que a cidade voltou a ser destino de imigrantes de todo o mundo, juntando-se com baixas taxas de juros e bônus de Wall Street para alimentar o crescimento do mercado imobiliário. [103] Novos setores importantes, como Silicon Alley, surgiu na economia de Manhattan.

21st Century

Inundações na Avenida C causadas pelo furacão Sandy em 29 de outubro de 2012 [106]

Em 11 de setembro de 2001 , dois dos quatro aviões sequestrados foram lançados contra as Torres Gêmeas do World Trade Center original e as torres desabaram posteriormente. 7 O World Trade Center desabou devido a incêndios e danos estruturais causados ​​por pesados ​​destroços que caíram do colapso das Torres Gêmeas. Os outros edifícios do complexo do World Trade Center foram danificados sem possibilidade de reparo e logo depois demolidos. O colapso das Torres Gêmeas causou extensos danos a outros edifícios e arranha-céus em Lower Manhattan, e resultou na morte de 2.606 pessoas, além das que estavam nos aviões. Desde 2001, a maior parte de Lower Manhattan foi restaurada, embora tenha havido polêmicaem torno da reconstrução. Muitos trabalhadores de resgate e residentes da área desenvolveram várias doenças fatais que levaram a algumas de suas mortes subsequentes. [107] Um memorial no local foi aberto ao público em 11 de setembro de 2011, e o museu foi inaugurado em 2014. Em 2014, o novo One World Trade Center , a 1.776 pés (541 m) e anteriormente conhecido como Freedom Tower , tornou-se o edifício mais alto do hemisfério ocidental, [108] enquanto outros arranha-céus estavam em construção no local.

Os protestos do Occupy Wall Street no Zuccotti Park no distrito financeiro de Lower Manhattan começaram em 17 de setembro de 2011, recebendo atenção global e gerando o movimento Occupy contra a desigualdade social e econômica em todo o mundo. [109]

Em 29 e 30 de outubro de 2012, o furacão Sandy causou extensa destruição no bairro, devastando porções de Lower Manhattan com tempestade recorde do porto de Nova York, [110] inundações severas e ventos fortes, causando cortes de energia para centenas de milhares de residentes da cidade [111] e levando à escassez de gasolina [112] e interrupção dos sistemas de transporte de massa . [113] [114] [115] [116] A tempestade e seus impactos profundos levaram à discussão sobre a construção de paredões e outras barreiras costeiras around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.[117] Around 15 percent of the borough is considered to be in flood-risk zones.[118]

On October 31, 2017, a terrorist took a rental pickup truck and deliberately drove down a bike path alongside the West Side Highway in Lower Manhattan, killing eight people and injuring a dozen others before crashing into a school bus.[119]

Geography

Imagem de satélite da ilha de Manhattan, delimitada pelo rio Hudson a oeste, o rio Harlem a norte, o rio East a leste e o porto de Nova York a sul, com o Central Park retangular bem visível. A Ilha Roosevelt , no East River, pertence a Manhattan.
Localização de Manhattan (vermelho) na cidade de Nova York (restante em branco)

Componentes

O distrito consiste em Manhattan Island, Marble Hill e várias pequenas ilhas, incluindo Randalls Island e Wards Island , e Roosevelt Island no East River, e Governors Island e Liberty Island ao sul no porto de Nova York . [120]

De acordo com o Censo dos Estados Unidos , o Condado de Nova York tem uma área total de 33,6 milhas quadradas (87 km 2 ), das quais 22,8 milhas quadradas (59 km 2 ) são terras e 10,8 milhas quadradas (28 km 2 ) (32%) é água. [2] O segmento norte de Upper Manhattan representa um panhandle geográfico . A Ilha de Manhattan tem 22,7 milhas quadradas (59 km 2 ) de área, 13,4 milhas (21,6 km) de comprimento e 2,3 milhas (3,7 km) de largura, em sua maior largura (perto da 14th Street ). [121] Icebergs são frequentemente comparados em tamanho à área de Manhattan. [122] [123] [124]

Ilha de Manhattan

Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan lengthwise into its East Side and West Side. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from the Bronx and the mainland United States.

No início do século 19, o aterro foi usado para expandir Lower Manhattan da linha costeira natural de Hudson na Greenwich Street para a West Street . [125] Ao construir o World Trade Center em 1968, 1,2 milhões de jardas cúbicas (917.000 m 3 ) de material foram escavadas do local. [126] Em vez de despejar o entulho no mar ou em aterros, o material de enchimento foi usado para expandir a costa de Manhattan na West Street, criando Battery Park City . [127]O resultado foi uma extensão de 700 pés (210 m) para o rio, correndo seis blocos ou 1.484 pés (452 ​​m), cobrindo 92 acres (37 ha), proporcionando uma esplanada ribeirinha de 1,2 milhas (1,9 km) e mais de 30 acres (12 ha) de parques; [128] Hudson River Park foi posteriormente inaugurado em estágios começando em 1998. [129] Little Island foi inaugurado no Rio Hudson em maio de 2021, conectado ao término oeste das ruas 13 e 14 por passarelas . [130]

Marble Hill

One neighborhood of New York County, Marble Hill, is contiguous with the U.S. mainland. Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan.[131] Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland.[132]

Marble Hill é um exemplo de como as terras de Manhattan foram consideravelmente alteradas pela intervenção humana. O bairro tem visto uma recuperação substancial de terras ao longo de suas frentes de água desde os tempos coloniais holandeses, e grande parte da variação natural em sua topografia foi nivelada. [46]

Ilhas menores

No porto de Nova York , existem três ilhas menores:

Outras ilhas menores, no East River , incluem (de norte a sul):

Geology

Bedrock

Manhattan schist outcropping in Central Park

O alicerce subjacente tanto de Manhattan é uma mica xisto conhecido como Manhattan xisto [133] do Manhattan Prong região physiographic. É uma rocha metamórfica forte e competente que foi criada quando Pangea se formou. É adequado para as fundações de edifícios altos. No Central Park , ocorrem afloramentos de xisto de Manhattan e Rat Rock é um grande exemplo. [134] [135] [136]

Geologically, a predominant feature of the substrata of Manhattan is that the underlying bedrock base of the island rises considerably closer to the surface near Midtown Manhattan, dips down lower between 29th Street and Canal Street, then rises toward the surface again in Lower Manhattan. It has been widely believed that the depth to bedrock was the primary underlying reason for the clustering of skyscrapers in the Midtown and Financial District areas, and their absence over the intervening territory between these two areas.[137][138] However, research has shown that economic factors played a bigger part in the locations of these skyscrapers.[139][140][141]

Updated seismic analysis

According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in Manhattan than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near New York City, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.[142]

Locations

A tall green statue on an island in a harbor.
Liberty Island is an exclave of Manhattan, of New York City, and of New York State, that is surrounded by New Jersey waters

Condados adjacentes

Áreas nacionais protegidas

Bairros

Os muitos bairros de Manhattan não são nomeados de acordo com nenhuma convenção específica. Alguns são geográficos ( Upper East Side ) ou etnicamente descritivos ( Little Italy ). Outros são siglas , como TriBeCa (por "Triângulo Abaixo Canal Street") ou SoHo ( "sul de Houston"), ou as safras mais recentes Nolita ( "North of Little Italy"). [143] [144] e NoMad ("NOrth of MADison Square Park"). [145] [146] [147] Harlem é um nome da era colonial holandesa após Haarlem , uma cidade na Holanda. [148] Alphabet City compreende as avenidas A , B , C e D , às quais seu nome se refere. Alguns têm nomes folclóricos simples , como Hell's Kitchen , ao lado de seu título mais oficial, mas menos usado (neste caso, Clinton).

O Empire State Building em primeiro plano voltado para o sul do topo do Rockefeller Center , com o One World Trade Center ao fundo, ao pôr do sol. O Midtown South Community Council atua como um zelador cívico de grande parte da vizinhança entre os arranha - céus de Midtown e Lower Manhattan .

Alguns bairros, como o SoHo , que é de uso misto, são conhecidos por compras de luxo e também por uso residencial. Outros, como Greenwich Village , Lower East Side , Alphabet City e East Village , há muito tempo são associados à subcultura boêmia . [149] Chelsea é um dos vários bairros de Manhattan com grande população gay e se tornou um centro da indústria internacional de arte e da vida noturna de Nova York. [150] Washington Heights é o principal destino para imigrantes da República Dominicana. Chinatown tem a maior concentração de descendentes de chineses fora da Ásia . [151] [152] Koreatown é aproximadamente limitada pelas avenidas 6th e Madison, [153] [154] [155] entre as ruas 31st e 33rd, onde a sinalização Hangul é onipresente. Rose Hill oferece um número crescente de restaurantes indianos e lojas de especiarias ao longo de um trecho da Lexington Avenue entre as ruas 25th e 30th, que se tornou conhecido como Curry Hill . [156] Desde 2010, a Little Australia surgiu e está crescendo em Nolita, Lower Manhattan. [157]

Em Manhattan, parte alta da cidade significa norte (mais precisamente norte-nordeste, que é a direção em que a ilha e seu sistema de rede de ruas são orientados) e centro significa sul (sul-sudoeste). [158] Este uso difere da maioria das cidades americanas, onde centro se refere ao distrito comercial central. Manhattan tem dois distritos comerciais centrais, o distrito financeiro na ponta sul da ilha e o centro de Manhattan . O termo parte alta da cidade também se refere à parte norte de Manhattan acima da 72nd Street e ao centro da parte sul abaixo da 14th Street, [159] com Midtown cobrindo a área intermediária, embora as definições possam ser bastante fluidas dependendo da situação.

A Quinta Avenida divide aproximadamente a Ilha de Manhattan e atua como a linha de demarcação para as designações leste / oeste (por exemplo, East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); os endereços das ruas começam na Quinta Avenida e aumentam na direção contrária à Quinta Avenida, a uma taxa de 100 por quarteirão na maioria das ruas. [159] Ao sul de Waverly Place , a Quinta Avenida termina e a Broadway se torna a linha de demarcação leste / oeste. Embora a grade comece com a 1st Street, logo ao norte da Houston Street (a rua mais ao sul dividida nas partes oeste e leste; pronuncia-se COMO-stin), a grade não se firma completamente até o norte da 14th Street, onde quase todas as ruas leste-oeste são numericamente identificadas, que aumentam de sul para norte até a rua 220, a rua com a numeração mais alta da ilha. As ruas em Midtown são geralmente de mão única, com as poucas exceções geralmente sendo as vias transversais mais movimentadas (ruas 14, 23, 34 e 42, por exemplo), que são bidirecionais na largura da Ilha de Manhattan. A regra é que as ruas com números ímpares seguem para o oeste, enquanto as ruas com números pares seguem para o leste. [121]

Clima

Central Park no outono

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features both a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and a humid continental climate (Dfa);[160] it is the northernmost major city on the North American continent with a humid subtropical climate. The city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually.[161] The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone.[162]

Os invernos são frios e úmidos, e os padrões de vento predominantes que sopram no mar temperam os efeitos moderadores do Oceano Atlântico ; ainda assim, o Atlântico e a proteção parcial do ar mais frio pelos Apalaches mantêm a cidade mais quente no inverno do que as cidades do interior da América do Norte em latitudes semelhantes ou menores, como Pittsburgh , Cincinnati e Indianápolis . A temperatura média diária em janeiro, o mês mais frio da área, é de 32,6 ° F (0,3 ° C); [163] as temperaturas geralmente caem para 10 ° F (−12 ° C) várias vezes no inverno, [163] [164] e chegam a 60 ° F (16 ° C) vários dias no mês mais frio do inverno. [163]A primavera e o outono são imprevisíveis e podem variar de frios a quentes, embora sejam geralmente amenos com baixa umidade. Os verões são tipicamente quentes a quentes e úmidos, com uma temperatura média diária de 76,5 ° F (24,7 ° C) em julho. [163] As condições noturnas são frequentemente exacerbadas pelo fenômeno da ilha de calor urbana , enquanto as temperaturas diurnas excedem 90 ° F (32 ° C) em média de 17 dias a cada verão [165] e em alguns anos excedem 100 ° F (38 ° C) . As temperaturas extremas variaram de −15 ° F (−26 ° C), registrado em 9 de fevereiro de 1934, até 106 ° F (41 ° C) em 9 de julho de 1936. [165]

Summer evening temperatures are elevated by the urban heat island effect, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as 7 °F (4 °C) when winds are slow.[166] Manhattan receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably from year to year.[165]


Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
78
(26)
86
(30)
96
(36)
99
(37)
101
(38)
106
(41)
104
(40)
102
(39)
94
(34)
84
(29)
75
(24)
106
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 60.4
(15.8)
60.7
(15.9)
70.3
(21.3)
82.9
(28.3)
88.5
(31.4)
92.1
(33.4)
95.7
(35.4)
93.4
(34.1)
89.0
(31.7)
79.7
(26.5)
70.7
(21.5)
62.9
(17.2)
97.0
(36.1)
Average high °F (°C) 39.5
(4.2)
42.2
(5.7)
49.9
(9.9)
61.8
(16.6)
71.4
(21.9)
79.7
(26.5)
84.9
(29.4)
83.3
(28.5)
76.2
(24.6)
64.5
(18.1)
54.0
(12.2)
44.3
(6.8)
62.6
(17.0)
Daily mean °F (°C) 33.7
(0.9)
35.9
(2.2)
42.8
(6.0)
53.7
(12.1)
63.2
(17.3)
72.0
(22.2)
77.5
(25.3)
76.1
(24.5)
69.2
(20.7)
57.9
(14.4)
48.0
(8.9)
39.1
(3.9)
55.8
(13.2)
Average low °F (°C) 27.9
(−2.3)
29.5
(−1.4)
35.8
(2.1)
45.5
(7.5)
55.0
(12.8)
64.4
(18.0)
70.1
(21.2)
68.9
(20.5)
62.3
(16.8)
51.4
(10.8)
42.0
(5.6)
33.8
(1.0)
48.9
(9.4)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 9.8
(−12.3)
12.7
(−10.7)
19.7
(−6.8)
32.8
(0.4)
43.9
(6.6)
52.7
(11.5)
61.8
(16.6)
60.3
(15.7)
50.2
(10.1)
38.4
(3.6)
27.7
(−2.4)
18.0
(−7.8)
7.7
(−13.5)
Record low °F (°C) −6
(−21)
−15
(−26)
3
(−16)
12
(−11)
32
(0)
44
(7)
52
(11)
50
(10)
39
(4)
28
(−2)
5
(−15)
−13
(−25)
−15
(−26)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.64
(92)
3.19
(81)
4.29
(109)
4.09
(104)
3.96
(101)
4.54
(115)
4.60
(117)
4.56
(116)
4.31
(109)
4.38
(111)
3.58
(91)
4.38
(111)
49.52
(1,258)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 8.8
(22)
10.1
(26)
5.0
(13)
0.4
(1.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.5
(1.3)
4.9
(12)
29.8
(76)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.8 10.0 11.1 11.4 11.5 11.2 10.5 10.0 8.8 9.5 9.2 11.4 125.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.7 3.2 2.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.1 11.4
Average relative humidity (%) 61.5 60.2 58.5 55.3 62.7 65.2 64.2 66.0 67.8 65.6 64.6 64.1 63.0
Average dew point °F (°C) 18.0
(−7.8)
19.0
(−7.2)
25.9
(−3.4)
34.0
(1.1)
47.3
(8.5)
57.4
(14.1)
61.9
(16.6)
62.1
(16.7)
55.6
(13.1)
44.1
(6.7)
34.0
(1.1)
24.6
(−4.1)
40.3
(4.6)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7
Percent possible sunshine 54 55 57 57 57 57 59 63 59 61 51 48 57
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 4 6 7 8 8 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990; dew point 1965–1984)[165][163][161][168]
Source 2: Weather Atlas[169]

See Climate of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.

Climate data for New York
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °F (°C) 41.7
(5.4)
39.7
(4.3)
40.2
(4.5)
45.1
(7.3)
52.5
(11.4)
64.5
(18.1)
72.1
(22.3)
74.1
(23.4)
70.1
(21.2)
63.0
(17.2)
54.3
(12.4)
47.2
(8.4)
55.4
(13.0)
Source: Weather Atlas[169]

Boroughscape

Demografia

Jurisdição População PIB Área de pouso Densidade
Borough condado Censo
(2020)
bilhões
(2012 US $)

milhas quadradas

km quadrado
pessoas /
mi 2
pessoas /
km 2
Bronx
1.472.654 $ 42.695 42,2 109,3 34.920 13.482
Reis
2.736.074 $ 91.559 69,4 179,7 39.438 15.227
Nova york
1.694.251 $ 600,244 22,7 58,8 74.781 28.872
Rainhas
2.405.464 $ 93.310 108,7 281,5 22.125 8.542
Richmond
495.747 $ 14.514 57,5 148,9 8.618 3.327
8.804.190 $  842.343 302.64 783.83 29,095 11,234
20,215,751 $ 1,731.910 47,126.40 122,056.82 429 166
Sources:[170][171][172][173] and see individual borough articles
Historical population
YearPop.±%
16561,000—    
16984,937+393.7%
17125,841+18.3%
17237,248+24.1%
17318,622+19.0%
174611,717+35.9%
175613,040+11.3%
177121,863+67.7%
178623,614+8.0%
179033,131+40.3%
180060,489+82.6%
181096,373+59.3%
1820123,706+28.4%
1830202,589+63.8%
1840312,710+54.4%
1850515,547+64.9%
1860813,669+57.8%
1870942,292+15.8%
18801,164,674+23.6%
18901,441,216+23.7%
19001,850,093+28.4%
19102,331,542+26.0%
19202,284,103−2.0%
19301,867,312−18.2%
19401,889,924+1.2%
19501,960,101+3.7%
19601,698,281−13.4%
19701,539,233−9.4%
19801,428,285−7.2%
19901,487,536+4.1%
20001,537,195+3.3%
20101,585,873+3.2%
20201,694,251+6.8%
Sources:[29][174][175][5]
Racial composition 2020[176] 2010[177] 2000[178] 1990[179] 1950[179] 1900[179]
White 50.0% 57.4% 54.3% 58.3% 79.4% 97.8%
 —Non-Hispanic 46.8% 48% 45.7% 48.9% n/a n/a
Black or African American 13.5% 15.6% 17.3% 22.0% 19.6% 2.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 23.8% 25.4% 27.1% 26.0% n/a n/a
Asian 13.1% 11.3% 9.4% 7.4% 0.8% 0.3%

In 2020, 1,694,251 people lived in Manhattan. At the 2010 U.S. census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau to have increased 2.7% to 1,628,706 as of 2018, representing 19.5% of New York City's population of 8,336,817 and 8.4% of New York State's population of 19,745,289.[29][180] As of the 2017 census estimates, the population density of New York County was around 72,918 people per square mile (28,154/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States.[29]Em 1910, no auge da imigração europeia para Nova York, a densidade populacional de Manhattan atingiu um pico de 101.548 pessoas por milha quadrada (39.208 / km²). [29] [180]

In 2006, the New York City Department of City Planning projected that Manhattan's population would increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period.[181] However, since then, Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001.[182] The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.[183]O extremo sul de Manhattan se tornou a parte da cidade de Nova York com crescimento mais rápido entre 1990 e 2014. [184]

De acordo com a Pesquisa da Comunidade Americana de 2009 , [185] o tamanho médio da casa era 2,11 e o tamanho médio da família era 3,21. Aproximadamente 59,4% da população com mais de 25 anos possui o grau de bacharel ou superior. Aproximadamente 27,0% da população é estrangeira e 61,7% da população com mais de 5 anos fala apenas inglês em casa. Pessoas de ascendência irlandesa constituem 7,8% da população, enquanto os ítalo-americanos constituem 6,8% da população. Os germano-americanos e russo-americanos representam 7,2% e 6,2% da população, respectivamente. [186]

Manhattan é um dos locais de maior renda dos Estados Unidos, com uma população superior a um milhão. Em 2012 , o custo de vida de Manhattan era o mais alto dos Estados Unidos, [187] mas o bairro também continha o nível mais profundo de desigualdade de renda do país. [188] Manhattan também é o condado dos Estados Unidos com a maior renda per capita , sendo o único condado cuja renda per capita excedeu US $ 100.000 em 2010. [189] No entanto, a partir dos dados do Censo 2011-2015 do condado de Nova York, a renda per capita foi registrado em 2015 em dólares como $ 64.993, com a renda familiar média em $ 72.871 e a pobreza em 17,6%. [190] Em 2012,The New York Times reported that inequality was higher than in most developing countries, stating, "The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".[191]

Religion

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Manhattan was the Archdiocese of New York, with 323,325 Catholics worshipping at 109 parishes, followed by 64,000 Orthodox Jews with 77 congregations, an estimated 42,545 Muslims with 21 congregations, 42,502 non-denominational adherents with 54 congregations, 26,178 TEC Episcopalians with 46 congregations, 25,048 ABC-USA Baptists with 41 congregations, 24,536 Reform Jews with 10 congregations, 23,982 Mahayana Buddhists with 35 congregations, 10,503 PC-USA Presbyterians with 30 congregations, and 10,268 RCA Presbyterians with 10 congregations. Altogether, 44.0% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information.[192] In 2014, Manhattan had 703 religious organizations, the seventeenth most out of all US counties.[193]

Languages

Em 2010 , 59,98% (902.267) dos residentes de Manhattan, com cinco anos ou mais, falavam apenas inglês em casa, enquanto 23,07% (347.033) falavam espanhol, 5,33% (80.240) chinês, 2,03% (30.567) francês, 0,78% ( 11.776) Japonês, 0,77% (11.517) russo, 0,72% (10.788) coreano, 0,70% (10.496) alemão, 0,66% (9.868) italiano, 0,64% (9.555) hebraico e 0,48% (7.158) falava as línguas africanas em casa . No total, 40,02% (602.058) da população de Manhattan, com cinco anos ou mais, falava um idioma diferente do inglês em casa. [194]


Em 2015, 60,0% (927.650) dos residentes de Manhattan, com cinco anos ou mais, falavam apenas inglês em casa, enquanto 22,63% (350.112) falavam espanhol, 5,37% (83.013) chinês, 2,21% (34.246) francês, 0,85% ( 13.138) coreano, 0,72% (11.135) russo e 0,70% (10.766) japonês. No total, 40,0% da população de Manhattan, com cinco anos ou mais, falava um idioma diferente do inglês em casa. [195]

Marcos e arquitetura

O estónio Casa , o principal centro de Estonian cultura entre Estónia americanos

Os pontos de interesse na Ilha de Manhattan incluem o Museu Americano de História Natural ; a bateria ; Broadway e o distrito dos teatros ; Bryant Park ; Central Park , Chinatown ; o Edifício Chrysler ; Columbia University ; Curry Hill ; o Empire State Building ; Edifício Flatiron ; o distrito financeiro (incluindo o New York Stock Exchange Building ; Wall Street ; e o South Street Seaport ); grande terminal Central; Greenwich Village (incluindo New York University ; Washington Square Arch ; e Stonewall Inn ); Harlem e o Harlem espanhol ; a linha alta ; Koreatown ; Lincoln Center ; Little Australia ; Little Italy ; Madison Square Garden ; Museum Mile na Fifth Avenue (incluindo o Metropolitan Museum of Art ); Penn Station , Terminal Rodoviário da Autoridade Portuária ; Rockefeller Center (incluindo Radio City Music Hall); Times Square ; Trump Tower ; e o World Trade Center (incluindo o National September 11 Museum e o One World Trade Center ).

Existem também inúmeras pontes icônicas através dos rios que se conectam à Ilha de Manhattan, bem como um número emergente de arranha-céus supertais . A Estátua da Liberdade fica em um pedestal na Ilha da Liberdade , um enclave de Manhattan, e parte da Ilha Ellis também é um enclave de Manhattan. O bairro tem muitas energeticamente eficientes , ecológicos edifícios de escritórios, tais como a Torre Hearst , o reconstruída 7 World Trade Center , [196] eo Bank of America Tower—O primeiro arranha-céu projetado para obter a Certificação LEED Platinum . [197] [198]

História da arquitetura

AT Stewart em 1870, 9th Street, Manhattan
Muitos edifícios altos têm reveses em suas fachadas devido à Resolução de Zoneamento de 1916 . Isso é exemplificado na Park Avenue e 57th Street em Midtown Manhattan .

O arranha-céu , que moldou o horizonte distinto de Manhattan , está intimamente associado à identidade da cidade de Nova York desde o final do século XIX. De 1890 a 1973, o título de edifício mais alto do mundo residia continuamente em Manhattan (com uma lacuna entre 1894 e 1908, quando o título foi detido pela Prefeitura de Filadélfia ), com oito edifícios diferentes segurando o título. [199] O New York World Building em Park Row foi o primeiro a receber o título em 1890, estando a 309 pés (94 m) até 1955, quando foi demolido para construir uma nova rampa para a Ponte do Brooklyn . [200] O próximoPark Row Building, with its 29 stories standing 391 feet (119 m) high, became the world's tallest office building when it opened in 1899.[201] The 41-story Singer Building, constructed in 1908 as the headquarters of the eponymous sewing machine manufacturer, stood 612 feet (187 m) high until 1967, when it became the tallest building ever demolished.[202] The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, standing 700 feet (210 m) at the foot of Madison Avenue, wrested the title in 1909, with a tower reminiscent of St Mark's Campanile in Venice.[203] The Woolworth Building, and its distinctive A arquitetura gótica , assumiu o título em 1913, culminando em 792 pés (241 m). [204] Estruturas como o Equitable Building de 1915, que se eleva verticalmente quarenta andares da calçada, levaram à aprovação da Resolução de Zoneamento de 1916 , exigindo que os novos edifícios contivessem contratempos retirando-se progressivamente em um ângulo definido da rua à medida que subiam, em a fim de preservar a visão do céu ao nível da rua. [205]

The Roaring Twenties saw a race to the sky, with three separate buildings pursuing the world's tallest title in the span of a year. As the stock market soared in the days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, two developers publicly competed for the crown.[206] At 927 feet (283 m), 40 Wall Street, completed in May 1930 in only eleven months as the headquarters of the Bank of Manhattan, seemed to have secured the title.[207] At Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street, auto executive Walter Chrysler and his architect William Van Alenplanos desenvolvidos para construir marca 185 pés da estrutura (56 m) torre em segredo, empurrando o Edifício Chrysler para 1.046 pés (319 m) e tornando-o mais alto do mundo quando foi concluída em 1929. [208] Ambos os edifícios foram logo superou com a conclusão em maio de 1931 do Empire State Building de 102 andares com sua torre Art Déco atingindo 1.250 pés (380 m) no topo do edifício. O pináculo de 203 pés (62 m) de altura foi adicionado posteriormente trazendo a altura total do edifício para 1.453 pés (443 m). [209] [210]

As antigas torres gêmeas do World Trade Center estavam localizadas em Lower Manhattan. Com 1.368 e 1.362 pés (417 e 415 m), os edifícios de 110 andares foram os mais altos do mundo de 1972 até serem superados pela construção da Willis Tower em 1974 (anteriormente conhecida como Sears Tower, localizada em Chicago ). [211] O One World Trade Center, uma substituição das Torres Gêmeas do World Trade Center, é atualmente o edifício mais alto do Hemisfério Ocidental . [212]

Em 1961, a Pennsylvania Railroad revelou planos para demolir a antiga Penn Station e substituí-la por um novo Madison Square Garden e complexo de prédios de escritórios . Os protestos organizados visavam preservar a estrutura projetada por McKim, Mead & White concluída em 1910, amplamente considerada uma obra-prima do estilo Beaux-Arts e uma das joias arquitetônicas da cidade de Nova York. [213] Apesar desses esforços, a demolição da estrutura começou em outubro de 1963. A perda da Penn Station - chamada de "um ato de vandalismo público irresponsável" pelo historiador Lewis Mumford - levou diretamente à promulgação em 1965 de uma lei local estabelecendo oComissão de Preservação dos Marcos da Cidade de Nova York , responsável pela preservação do "patrimônio histórico, estético e cultural da cidade ". [214] O movimento de preservação histórica desencadeado pelo desaparecimento da Penn Station foi creditado com a retenção de cerca de um milhão de estruturas em todo o país, incluindo mais de 1.000 na cidade de Nova York. [215] Em 2017, um plano de reconstrução multibilionário foi revelado para restaurar a grandeza histórica da Penn Station, no processo de atualização do status do marco como um centro de transporte crítico . [216]

Parkland

Parkland compõe 17,8% do município, cobrindo um total de 2.686 acres (10,87 km 2 ). O Central Park de 843 acres (3,41 km 2 ) , o maior parque que compreende 30% do parque de Manhattan, é limitado ao norte pela West 110th Street (Central Park North), a oeste pela Eighth Avenue (Central Park West), em ao sul pela West 59th Street (Central Park South), e ao leste pela Fifth Avenue. O Central Park, projetado por Frederick Law Olmsted e Calvert Vaux , oferece extensas trilhas para caminhada , duas de patinação no gelorinques, um santuário de vida selvagem e vários gramados e áreas de esportes, bem como 21 playgrounds e uma estrada de 6 milhas (9,7 km) na qual o tráfego de automóveis é proibido. [217] Embora grande parte do parque pareça natural, é quase totalmente paisagístico, e a construção do Central Park na década de 1850 foi um dos projetos de obras públicas mais massivos da época, com cerca de 20.000 trabalhadores elaborando a topografia para criar o estilo inglês paisagem pastoril que Olmsted e Vaux procuraram criar. [218]

The remaining 70% of Manhattan's parkland includes 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 basketball courts, and many other amenities.[219] The next-largest park in Manhattan is the Hudson River Park, stretches 4.5 miles (7.2 km) on the Hudson River and comprises 550 acres (220 ha).[220] Other major parks include:[221]

Economy

The New York Stock Exchange, by a significant margin the world's largest stock exchange per market capitalization of its listed companies,[222][223] at US$23.1 trillion as of April 2018.[224]

Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2.3 million workers in 2007 drawn from the entire New York metropolitan area accounting for almost two-thirds of all jobs in New York City.[225] In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in Manhattan (New York County) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States.[226] Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on white collar professions, with manufacturing nearly extinct. Manhattan also has the highest per capita income of any county in the United States.

In 2010, Manhattan's daytime population was swelling to 3.94 million, with commuters adding a net 1.48 million people to the population, along with visitors, tourists, and commuting students. The commuter influx of 1.61 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any county or city in the country,[227] and was more than triple the 480,000 commuters who headed into second-ranked Washington, D.C.[228]

Financial sector

O setor econômico mais importante de Manhattan reside em seu papel de sede da indústria financeira dos Estados Unidos , metonimamente conhecida como Wall Street. A indústria de valores mobiliários do distrito , enumerando 163.400 empregos em agosto de 2013, continua a formar o maior segmento do setor financeiro da cidade e um importante motor econômico para Manhattan, respondendo em 2012 por 5 por cento dos empregos do setor privado na cidade de Nova York, 8,5 por cento (EUA $ 3,8 bilhões) da receita tributária da cidade e 22% dos salários totais da cidade, incluindo um salário médio de US $ 360.700. [229] As taxas bancárias de investimento de Wall Street em 2012 totalizaram aproximadamente US $ 40 bilhões, [230] enquanto em 2013, os altos executivos bancários da cidade de Nova York que gerenciamrisk and compliance functions earned as much as US$324,000 annually.[231]

Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), at 11 Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall share trading value and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.[19] The NYSE American (formerly the American Stock Exchange, AMEX), New York Board of Trade, and the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) are also located downtown. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association.[232]

Corporate sector

New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the United States, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan.[233] Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2018,[234] making it the largest office market in the United States,[235] while Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2018,[234] is the largest central business district in the world.[236] New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry is metonymously reflected as "Madison Avenue".

Tech and biotech

The Flatiron District is the center and birthplace of Silicon Alley[237]

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high tech industries,[238] including the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology (fintech), and other fields within information technology that are supported by the area's entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capitalinvestimentos. Em 2014 , a cidade de Nova York hospedava 300.000 funcionários no setor de tecnologia. [239] [240] Em 2015, a Silicon Alley gerou mais de US $ 7,3 bilhões em investimentos de capital de risco, [241] a maioria com base em Manhattan, bem como em Brooklyn , Queens e em outros lugares da região. Alta tecnologia empresas iniciantes e emprego estão crescendo em Manhattan e em New York City, amparada por surgimento da cidade como um nó mundial de criatividade e empreendedorismo , [241] tolerância social , [242] e sustentabilidade ambiental , [243][244] as well as New York's position as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center in North America, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, the city's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity.[245] Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City.[246] As of October 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector,[240] with a significant proportion in Manhattan. The technology sector has been expanding across Manhattan since 2010.[247]

The biotechnology sector is also growing in Manhattan based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneursno centro e com instituições acadêmicas, médicas e de pesquisa próximas. A Iniciativa de Financiamento de Ciências da Vida de Estágio Inicial da Corporação de Desenvolvimento Econômico da Cidade de Nova York e parceiros de capital de risco, incluindo Celgene , General Electric Ventures e Eli Lilly, comprometeram um mínimo de US $ 100 milhões para ajudar a lançar 15 a 20 empreendimentos em ciências da vida e biotecnologia . [248] Em 2011, o prefeito Michael R. Bloomberg anunciou sua escolha da Cornell University e do Technion-Israel Institute of Technology para construir uma escola de pós-graduação de US $ 2 bilhões em ciências aplicadas na Ilha Roosevelt, Manhattan, com o objetivo de transformar a cidade de Nova York na principal capital de tecnologia do mundo. [249] [250]

Turismo

Times Square é o centro do distrito de teatros da Broadway e um importante local cultural em Manhattan, e também tem uma das maiores taxas de comparecimento anual de qualquer atração turística do mundo, estimada em 50 milhões [35]

Tourism is vital to Manhattan's economy, and the landmarks of Manhattan are the focus of New York City's tourists, enumerating an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017.[34] According to The Broadway League, shows on Broadway sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an increase of 11.4% from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season; attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.[251] As of June 2016, Manhattan had nearly 91,500 hotel rooms, a 26% increase from 2010.[252]

Real estate

O mercado imobiliário é uma grande força na economia de Manhattan, e na verdade na cidade, já que o valor total de todas as propriedades da cidade de Nova York foi avaliado em US $ 914,8 bilhões para o ano fiscal de 2015 . [253] Manhattan sempre foi o lar de alguns dos imóveis mais valiosos do país e do mundo, incluindo o Time Warner Center , que tinha o valor de mercado mais cotado da cidade em 2006, com US $ 1,1 bilhão, [ 254] a ser superado posteriormente em outubro de 2014 pelo Waldorf Astoria New York , que se tornou o hotel mais caro já vendido depois de ser adquirido pelo Anbang Insurance Group, com sede na China, por US $ 1,95 bilhão . [255]Quando 450 Park Avenue foi vendida em 2 de julho de 2007, por US $ 510 milhões, cerca de US $ 1.589 por pé quadrado (US $ 17.104 / m²), quebrou o recorde de apenas um mês para um prédio comercial americano de US $ 1.476 por pé quadrado ( US $ 15.887 / m²) com base na venda do 660 Madison Avenue . [256] Em 2014, Manhattan era o lar de seis dos dez principais códigos postais dos Estados Unidos pelo preço médio da habitação. [257] Em 2019, a venda de uma casa mais cara de todos os tempos nos Estados Unidos ocorreu em Manhattan, a um preço de venda de US $ 238 milhões, por um apartamento de cobertura de 24.000 pés quadrados (2.200 m 2 ) com vista para o Central Park , [258] enquanto o Central Park Tower, topped out at 1,550 feet (472 m) in 2019, is the world's tallest residential building, followed globally in height by 111 West 57th Street and 432 Park Avenue, both also located in Midtown Manhattan.

Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013,[259] making it the largest office market in the United States.[260] Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation based on office space,[261] while Lower Manhattan is the third-largest (after Chicago's Loop).[262][263]

Media

Manhattan foi descrita como a capital mundial da mídia . [264] [265] Um componente integrante deste status é o conjunto significativo de meios de comunicação e seus jornalistas que relatam sobre assuntos internacionais, americanos, de negócios , entretenimento e da área metropolitana de Nova York de Manhattan.

Notícias

Sede do New York Times , 620 Eighth Avenue

Manhattan é servida pelas principais publicações de notícias diárias da cidade de Nova York , incluindo The New York Times , que ganhou a maioria dos prêmios Pulitzer de jornalismo e é considerado o "jornal oficial" da mídia dos Estados Unidos; [266] The New York Daily News ; e o New York Post , todos sediados no bairro. O maior jornal do país em circulação, The Wall Street Journal , também tem sede em Manhattan. Outros jornais diários incluem AM New York e The Villager . The New York Amsterdam News, based in Harlem, is one of the leading Black-owned weekly newspapers in the United States. The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.[267]

Television, radio, film

A indústria da televisão se desenvolveu em Manhattan e é um empregador significativo na economia do bairro. As quatro maiores redes de transmissão americanas, ABC , CBS , NBC e Fox , bem como a Univision , estão todas sediadas em Manhattan, assim como muitos canais a cabo, incluindo CNN , MSNBC , MTV , Fox News , HBO e Comedy Central . Em 1971, o WLIB se tornou a primeira estação de rádio de propriedade de negros da cidade de Nova York e começou a transmissões voltadas para a comunidade afro-americana em 1949. WQHT , também conhecido como Hot 97, afirma ser a principal estação de hip-hop nos Estados Unidos. WNYC , que compreende um sinal AM e FM, tem a maior audiência de rádio pública do país e é a estação de rádio comercial ou não comercial mais ouvida em Manhattan. [268] WBAI , com notícias e programação de informação, é uma das poucas estações de rádio socialistas operando nos Estados Unidos.

O mais antigo canal de TV a cabo de acesso público nos Estados Unidos é o Manhattan Neighborhood Network , fundado em 1971, oferece uma programação local eclética que varia de uma hora de jazz à discussão de questões trabalhistas a línguas estrangeiras e programação religiosa. [269] NY1 , o canal de notícias local da Time Warner Cable , é conhecido por sua cobertura beat da prefeitura e da política estadual.

Educação

Biblioteca Butler da Universidade de Columbia , com seu notável projeto arquitetônico [270]

A educação em Manhattan é fornecida por um grande número de instituições públicas e privadas. As escolas públicas do bairro são administradas pelo Departamento de Educação da Cidade de Nova York , o maior sistema de escolas públicas dos Estados Unidos. As escolas charter incluem a Success Academy Harlem 1 a 5, a Success Academy Upper West e a Public Prep .

Algumas notáveis ​​escolas de ensino médio públicas da cidade de Nova York estão localizadas em Manhattan, incluindo Beacon High School , Stuyvesant High School , Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School , High School of Fashion Industries , Eleanor Roosevelt High School , NYC Lab School , Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics , Hunter College High School e High School de Matemática, Ciências e Engenharia no City College . Bard High School Early College , uma escola híbrida criada pelo Bard College , atende alunos de toda a cidade.

Muitas escolas preparatórias privadas também estão situados em Manhattan, incluindo o Upper East Side de Brearley Escola , Escola Dalton , Browning escola , Spence escola , Chapin escola , Nightingale-Bamford escola , Convento do Sagrado Coração , Hewitt Escola , Escola de Saint David , Loyola School e Regis High School . O Upper West Side é o lar da Collegiate School e da Trinity School . O bairro também abriga a Manhattan Country School, Trevor Day School e a Escola Internacional das Nações Unidas .

Com base nos dados da Pesquisa da Comunidade Americana de 2011-2015 , 59,9% dos residentes de Manhattan com mais de 25 anos têm diploma de bacharel . [272] Em 2005, cerca de 60% dos residentes eram graduados universitários e cerca de 25% haviam obtido graus avançados, dando a Manhattan uma das concentrações mais densas de pessoas altamente educadas do país. [273]

Manhattan tem várias faculdades e universidades, incluindo Columbia University (e sua afiliada Barnard College ), Cooper Union , Marymount Manhattan College , New York Institute of Technology , New York University (NYU), The Juilliard School , Pace University , Berkeley College , The New School , Yeshiva University e um campus da Fordham University . Outras escolas incluem Bank Street College of Education , Boricua College , Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Manhattan School of Music , Metropolitan College of New York , Parsons School of Design , School of Visual Arts , Touro College e Union Theological Seminary . Várias outras instituições privadas mantêm presença em Manhattan, entre elas o Mercy College , a St. John's University , o The College of New Rochelle , o The King's College e o Pratt Institute . A Cornell Tech está desenvolvendo na Ilha Roosevelt .

The City University of New York (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students.[274] A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City. CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: Baruch College, City College of New York, Hunter College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the CUNY Graduate Center (graduate studies and doctorate granting institution). The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the Borough of Manhattan Community College. The State University of New York is represented by the Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York State College of Optometry, and Stony Brook University – Manhattan.

Manhattan é um centro mundial de treinamento e educação em medicina e ciências da vida. [275] A cidade como um todo recebe o segundo maior montante de financiamento anual do National Institutes of Health entre todas as cidades dos EUA, [276] a maior parte do qual vai para instituições de pesquisa de Manhattan, incluindo Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center , Rockefeller University , Mount Sinai School of Medicine , Columbia University College de Médicos e Cirurgiões , Weill Cornell Medical College e New York University School of Medicine .

Manhattan é servida pela Biblioteca Pública de Nova York , que possui o maior acervo de qualquer sistema de bibliotecas públicas do país. [277] As cinco unidades do Library- Central Mid-Manhattan Biblioteca , 53rd Street Biblioteca , a Biblioteca Pública de Nova York para as artes de palco , Andrew Heiskell Braille e Biblioteca Livro Falar, ea Ciência, Indústria e Biblioteca de negócios -são todos localizados em Manhattan. [278] Mais de 35 outras bibliotecas de filial estão localizadas no bairro. [279]

Cultura e vida contemporânea

The scene at Manhattan's 2015 LGBT Pride March. The annual event rivals the sister São Paulo event as the world's largest pride parade, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.[280][281]

Manhattan é o bairro mais intimamente associado à cidade de Nova York por não residentes; regionalmente, os residentes na área metropolitana de Nova York , incluindo nativos de bairros da cidade de Nova York fora de Manhattan, muitas vezes descrevem uma viagem a Manhattan como "ir para a cidade". [282] O jornalista Walt Whitman caracterizou as ruas de Manhattan como sendo atravessadas por "multidões apressadas, febris e elétricas". [283]

Manhattan tem sido palco de muitos movimentos culturais americanos importantes. Em 1912, cerca de 20.000 trabalhadores, um quarto deles mulheres, marcharam sobre Washington Square Park para comemorar o incêndio na fábrica Triangle Shirtwaist , que matou 146 trabalhadores em 25 de março de 1911. Muitas das mulheres usavam blusas justas dobradas na frente, como as fabricadas pela a Triangle Shirtwaist Company, um estilo de roupa que se tornou o uniforme da mulher trabalhadora e um símbolo da libertação feminina , refletindo a aliança dos movimentos trabalhistas e sufragistas. [284]

A Renascença do Harlem na década de 1920 estabeleceu o cânone literário afro-americano nos Estados Unidos e apresentou os escritores Langston Hughes e Zora Neale Hurston . A vibrante cena das artes visuais de Manhattan nas décadas de 1950 e 1960 foi o centro do movimento pop art americano , que deu origem a gigantes como Jasper Johns e Roy Lichtenstein . O movimento pop art do centro da cidade no final dos anos 1970 incluía o artista Andy Warhol e clubes como o Serendipity 3 e o Studio 54 , onde ele se socializava.

Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. Plays and musicals are staged in one of the 39 larger professional theatres with at least 500 seats, almost all in and around Times Square.[285] Off-Broadway theatres feature productions in venues with 100–500 seats.[286] Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to 12 influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.

Manhattan também abriga algumas das mais extensas coleções de arte do mundo, tanto de arte contemporânea quanto clássica , incluindo o Metropolitan Museum of Art , o Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), a Frick Collection , o Whitney Museum of American Art e o Museu Guggenheim projetado por Frank Lloyd Wright . O Upper East Side tem muitas galerias de arte, [287] [288] e o bairro do centro de Chelsea é conhecido por suas mais de 200 galerias de arte que abrigam arte moderna de artistas emergentes e estabelecidos. [289][290] Muitos dos leilões de arte mais lucrativos do mundosão realizados em Manhattan. [291] [292]

Manhattan é o centro da cultura LGBT na cidade de Nova York . O bairro é amplamente aclamado como o berço do movimento moderno pelos direitos LGBTQ , com seu início nos distúrbios de Stonewall em junho de 1969 em Greenwich Village , Lower Manhattan - amplamente considerado como o evento mais importante que levou ao movimento de libertação gay [97] [ 293] [294] e a luta moderna pelos direitos LGBT nos Estados Unidos . [98] [295] Diversas vilas gays se desenvolveram, abrangendo toda a extensão do distrito do Lower East Side , East Village, and Greenwich Village, through Chelsea and Hell's Kitchen, uptown to Morningside Heights. The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village; the Manhattan parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.[281][280] Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the largest international Pride celebration in history, produced by Heritage of Pridee aprimorado por meio de uma parceria com a divisão LGBT do programa I NY , em comemoração ao 50º aniversário do levante de Stonewall, com 150.000 participantes e cinco milhões de espectadores presentes somente em Manhattan. [296]

No sentido horário, a partir do canto superior esquerdo: o desfile anual do Dia de Ação de Graças da Macy's , o maior desfile do mundo; [297] o desfile anual de Halloween em Greenwich Village ; o desfile anual do Dia da Independência das Filipinas ; e o desfile da fita adesiva para os astronautas da Apollo 11

O bairro tem um lugar em vários idiomas americanos . A frase minuto de Nova York pretende transmitir um tempo extremamente curto, como um instante, [298] às vezes de forma hiperbólica, como em "talvez mais rápido do que você acredita ser possível", referindo-se ao ritmo acelerado da vida em Manhattan. [299] [300] A expressão " melting pot " foi primeiro popularmente cunhado para descrever os bairros de imigrantes densamente povoadas no Lower East Side , em Israel Zangwill 's jogar The Melting Pot , que era uma adaptação de William Shakespeare ' s Romeo e Julieta set by Zangwill in New York City in 1908.[301] The iconic Flatiron Building is said to have been the source of the phrase "23 skidoo" or scram, from what cops would shout at men who tried to get glimpses of women's dresses being blown up by the winds created by the triangular building.[302] The "Big Apple" dates back to the 1920s, when a reporter heard the term used by New Orleans stablehands to refer to New York City's horse racetracks and named his racing column "Around The Big Apple". Jazz musicians adopted the term to refer to the city as the world's jazz capital, and a 1970s ad campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau helped popularize the term.[303] Manhattan, Kansas, a city of 53,000 people,[304] was named by New York investors after the borough and is nicknamed the "little apple".[305]

Manhattan is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of higher profile parades in New York City are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade,[297] beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store;[306] the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person.[297] Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade in March, the New York City Pride Parade in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan. New York Fashion Week, held at various locations in Manhattan, is a high-profile semiannual event featuring models displaying the latest wardrobes created by prominent fashion designers worldwide in advance of these fashions proceeding to the retail marketplace.

Sports

Madison Square Garden is home to the Rangers and Knicks, and hosts some Liberty games
The Skating Pond in Central Park, 1862

Manhattan is home to the NBA's New York Knicks and the NHL's New York Rangers, both of which play their home games at Madison Square Garden, the only major professional sports arena in the borough. The Garden was also home to the WNBA's New York Liberty through the 2017 season, but that team's primary home is now the Westchester County Center in White Plains, New York. The New York Jets proposed a West Side Stadium for their home field, but the proposal was eventually defeated in June 2005, and they now play at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.[307]

While Manhattan does not currently have a professional baseball franchise, three of the four Major League Baseball teams to play in New York City played in Manhattan. The original New York Giants baseball team played in the various incarnations of the Polo Grounds at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue from their inception in 1883—except for 1889, when they split their time between Jersey City and Staten Island, and when they played in Hilltop Park in 1911—until they headed to California with the Brooklyn Dodgers after the 1957 season.[308] The New York Yankees began their franchise as the Highlanders, named for Hilltop Park, where they played from their creation in 1903 until 1912. The team moved to the Polo Grounds with the 1913 season, where they were officially christened the New York Yankees, remaining there until they moved across the Harlem River in 1923 to Yankee Stadium.[309] The New York Mets played in the Polo Grounds in 1962 and 1963, their first two seasons, before Shea Stadium was completed in 1964.[310] After the Mets departed, the Polo Grounds was demolished in April 1964, replaced by public housing.[311][312]

The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city.[313] The New York Knicks started play in 1946 as one of the National Basketball Association's original teams, playing their first home games at the 69th Regiment Armory, before making Madison Square Garden their permanent home.[314] The New York Liberty of the WNBA shared the Garden with the Knicks from their creation in 1997 as one of the league's original eight teams through the 2017 season,[315] after which the team moved nearly all of its home schedule to White Plains in Westchester County.[316] Rucker Park in Harlem is a playground court, famed for its streetball style of play, where many NBA athletes have played in the summer league.[317]

Although both of New York City's football teams play today across the Hudson River in MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, both teams started out playing in the Polo Grounds. The New York Giants played side-by-side with their baseball namesakes from the time they entered the National Football League in 1925, until crossing over to Yankee Stadium in 1956.[318] The New York Jets, originally known as the Titans of New York, started out in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, staying there for four seasons before joining the Mets in Queens at Shea Stadium in 1964.[319]

The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League have played in the various locations of Madison Square Garden since the team's founding in the 1926–1927 season. The Rangers were predated by the New York Americans, who started play in the Garden the previous season, lasting until the team folded after the 1941–1942 NHL season, a season it played in the Garden as the Brooklyn Americans.[320]

The New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League played their home games at Downing Stadium for two seasons, starting in 1974. The playing pitch and facilities at Downing Stadium were in unsatisfactory condition, however, and as the team's popularity grew they too left for Yankee Stadium, and then Giants Stadium. The stadium was demolished in 2002 to make way for the $45 million, 4,754-seat Icahn Stadium, which includes an Olympic-standard 400-meter running track and, as part of Pelé's and the Cosmos' legacy, includes a FIFA-approved floodlit soccer stadium that hosts matches between the 48 youth teams of a Manhattan soccer club.[321][322]

Government

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Manhattan has been governed by the New York City Charter, which has provided for a strong mayor–council system since its revision in 1989.[323] The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Manhattan.

The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989, the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.[324]

Since 1990, the largely powerless Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Manhattan's current Borough President is Gale Brewer, elected as a Democrat in November 2013 with 82.9% of the vote.[325] Brewer replaced Scott Stringer, who went on to become New York City Comptroller.

Cyrus Vance Jr., a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of New York County since 2010.[326] Manhattan has ten City Council members, the third largest contingent among the five boroughs. It also has twelve administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents.

As the host of the United Nations, the borough is home to the world's largest international consular corps, comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates.[327] It is also the home of New York City Hall, the seat of New York City government housing the Mayor of New York City and the New York City Council. The mayor's staff and thirteen municipal agencies are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, completed in 1914, one of the largest governmental buildings in the world.[328]

United States presidential election results for New York County, New York[329][330][331]
Year Republican / Whig Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 85,185 12.21% 603,040 86.42% 9,588 1.37%
2016 64,930 9.71% 579,013 86.56% 24,997 3.74%
2012 89,559 14.92% 502,674 83.74% 8,058 1.34%
2008 89,949 13.47% 572,370 85.70% 5,566 0.83%
2004 107,405 16.73% 526,765 82.06% 7,781 1.21%
2000 82,113 14.38% 454,523 79.60% 34,370 6.02%
1996 67,839 13.76% 394,131 79.96% 30,929 6.27%
1992 84,501 15.88% 416,142 78.20% 31,475 5.92%
1988 115,927 22.89% 385,675 76.14% 4,949 0.98%
1984 144,281 27.39% 379,521 72.06% 2,869 0.54%
1980 115,911 26.23% 275,742 62.40% 50,245 11.37%
1976 117,702 25.54% 337,438 73.22% 5,698 1.24%
1972 178,515 33.38% 354,326 66.25% 2,022 0.38%
1968 135,458 25.59% 370,806 70.04% 23,128 4.37%
1964 120,125 19.20% 503,848 80.52% 1,746 0.28%
1960 217,271 34.19% 414,902 65.28% 3,394 0.53%
1956 300,004 44.26% 377,856 55.74% 0 0.00%
1952 300,284 39.30% 446,727 58.47% 16,974 2.22%
1948 241,752 32.75% 380,310 51.51% 116,208 15.74%
1944 258,650 33.47% 509,263 65.90% 4,864 0.63%
1940 292,480 37.59% 478,153 61.45% 7,466 0.96%
1936 174,299 24.51% 517,134 72.71% 19,820 2.79%
1932 157,014 27.78% 378,077 66.89% 30,114 5.33%
1928 186,396 35.74% 317,227 60.82% 17,935 3.44%
1924 190,871 41.20% 183,249 39.55% 89,206 19.25%
1920 275,013 59.22% 135,249 29.12% 54,158 11.66%
1916 113,254 42.65% 139,547 52.55% 12,759 4.80%
1912 63,107 18.15% 166,157 47.79% 118,391 34.05%
1908 154,958 44.71% 160,261 46.24% 31,393 9.06%
1904 155,003 42.11% 189,712 51.54% 23,357 6.35%
1900 153,001 44.16% 181,786 52.47% 11,700 3.38%
1896 156,359 50.73% 135,624 44.00% 16,249 5.27%
1892 98,967 34.73% 175,267 61.50% 10,750 3.77%
1888 106,922 39.20% 162,735 59.67% 3,076 1.13%
1884 90,095 39.54% 133,222 58.47% 4,530 1.99%
1844 26,385 48.15% 28,296 51.64% 117 0.21%


Politics

The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Registered Republicans are a minority in the borough, constituting 9.88% of the electorate as of April 2016. Registered Republicans are more than 20% of the electorate only in the neighborhoods of the Upper East Side and the Financial District as of 2016. Democrats accounted for 68.41% of those registered to vote, while 17.94% of voters were unaffiliated.[332][333]

No Republican has won the presidential election in Manhattan since 1924, when Calvin Coolidge won a plurality of the New York County vote over Democrat John W. Davis, 41.20%–39.55%. Warren G. Harding was the most recent Republican presidential candidate to win a majority of the Manhattan vote, with 59.22% of the 1920 vote.[334] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 82.1% of the vote in Manhattan and Republican George W. Bush received 16.7%.[335] The borough is the most important source of funding for presidential campaigns in the United States; in 2004, it was home to six of the top seven ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions.[336] The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the United States presidential election for all presidential candidates, including both Kerry and Bush during the 2004 election.[337]

Representatives in the U.S. Congress

In 2018, four Democrats represented Manhattan in the United States House of Representatives.[338]

Federal offices

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Manhattan. The James Farley Post Office at 421 Eighth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, between 31st Street and 33rd Street, is New York City's main post office.[347] Both the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit are located in Lower Manhattan's Foley Square, and the U.S. Attorney and other federal offices and agencies maintain locations in that area.

Crime and public safety

A slum tour through the Five Points in an 1885 sketch

Starting in the mid-19th century, the United States became a magnet for immigrants seeking to escape poverty in their home countries. After arriving in New York, many new arrivals ended up living in squalor in the slums of the Five Points neighborhood, an area between Broadway and the Bowery, northeast of New York City Hall. By the 1820s, the area was home to many gambling dens and brothels, and was known as a dangerous place to go. In 1842, Charles Dickens visited the area and was appalled at the horrendous living conditions he had seen.[348] The area was so notorious that it even caught the attention of Abraham Lincoln, who visited the area before his Cooper Union speech in 1860.[349] The predominantly Irish Five Points Gang was one of the country's first major organized crime entities.

As Italian immigration grew in the early 20th century many joined ethnic gangs, including Al Capone, who got his start in crime with the Five Points Gang.[350] The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration. Lucky Luciano established Cosa Nostra in Manhattan, forming alliances with other criminal enterprises, including the Jewish mob, led by Meyer Lansky, the leading Jewish gangster of that period.[351] From 1920–1933, Prohibition helped create a thriving black market in liquor, upon which the Mafia was quick to capitalize.[351]

As in the whole of New York City, Manhattan experienced a sharp increase in crime during the 1960s and 1970s.[352] Since 1990, crime in Manhattan has plummeted in all categories tracked by the CompStat profile. A borough that saw 503 murders in 1990 has seen a drop of nearly 88% to 62 in 2008 and has continued to decline since then. Robbery and burglary are down by more than 80% during the period, and auto theft has been reduced by more than 93%. In the seven major crime categories tracked by the system, overall crime has declined by more than 75% since 1990, and year-to-date statistics through May 2009 show continuing declines.[353] Based on 2005 data, New York City has the lowest crime rate among the ten largest cities in the United States.[354]

Housing

During Manhattan's early history, wood construction and poor access to water supplies left the city vulnerable to fires. In 1776, shortly after the Continental Army evacuated Manhattan and left it to the British, a massive fire broke out destroying one-third of the city and some 500 houses.[355]

Tenement houses in 1936

The rise of immigration near the turn of the 20th century left major portions of Manhattan, especially the Lower East Side, densely packed with recent arrivals, crammed into unhealthy and unsanitary housing. Tenements were usually five stories high, constructed on the then-typical 25 by 100 feet (7.6 by 30.5 m) lots, with "cockroach landlords" exploiting the new immigrants.[356][357] By 1929, stricter fire codes and the increased use of elevators in residential buildings, were the impetus behind a new housing code that effectively ended the tenement as a form of new construction, though many tenement buildings survive today on the East Side of the borough.[357] Conversely, there were also areas with luxury apartment developments, the first of which was the Dakota on the Upper West Side.[358]

At the time of its construction, London Terrace in Chelsea was the largest apartment building in the world

Manhattan offers a wide array of public and private housing options. There were 852,575 housing units in 2013[29] at an average density of 37,345 per square mile (14,419/km²). As of 2003, only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.[359] Although the city of New York has the highest average cost for rent in the United States, it simultaneously hosts a higher average of income per capita. Because of this, rent is a lower percentage of annual income than in several other American cities.[360]

Manhattan's real estate market for luxury housing continues to be among the most expensive in the world,[361] and Manhattan residential property continues to have the highest sale price per square foot in the United States.[21] Manhattan's apartments cost $1,773 per square foot ($19,080/m2), compared to San Francisco housing at $1,185 per square foot ($12,760/m2), Boston housing at $751 per square foot ($8,080/m2), and Los Angeles housing at $451 per square foot ($4,850/m2).[362]

Infrastructure

Transportation

Public transportation

Ferries departing Battery Park City and helicopters flying above Manhattan
The Staten Island Ferry, seen from the Battery, crosses Upper New York Bay, providing free public transportation between Staten Island and Manhattan.

Manhattan is unique in the U.S. for intense use of public transportation and lack of private car ownership. While 88% of Americans nationwide drive to their jobs, with only 5% using public transport, mass transit is the dominant form of travel for residents of Manhattan, with 72% of borough residents using public transport to get to work, while only 18% drove.[363][364] According to the 2000 United States Census, 77.5% of Manhattan households do not own a car.[365]

In 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed a congestion pricing system to regulate entering Manhattan south of 60th Street. The state legislature rejected the proposal in June 2008.[366]

The New York City Subway, the largest subway system in the world by number of stations, is the primary means of travel within the city, linking every borough except Staten Island. There are 151 subway stations in Manhattan, out of the 472 stations.[367] A second subway, the PATH system, connects six stations in Manhattan to northern New Jersey. Passengers pay fares with pay-per-ride MetroCards, which are valid on all city buses and subways, as well as on PATH trains.[368][369] There are 7-day and 30-day MetroCards that allow unlimited trips on all subways (except PATH) and MTA bus routes (except for express buses).[370] The PATH QuickCard is being phased out, having been replaced by the SmartLink. The MTA is testing "smart card" payment systems to replace the MetroCard.[371] Commuter rail services operating to and from Manhattan are the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR), which connects Manhattan and other New York City boroughs to Long Island; the Metro-North Railroad, which connects Manhattan to Upstate New York and Southwestern Connecticut; and NJ Transit trains, which run to various points in New Jersey.

The US$11.1 billion East Side Access project, which will bring LIRR trains to Grand Central Terminal, is under construction and is scheduled to open in 2022; this project will create a new train tunnel beneath the East River, connecting the East Side of Manhattan with Long Island City, Queens.[372][373] Four multi-billion-dollar projects were completed in the mid-2010s: the $1.4 billion Fulton Center in November 2014,[374] the $2.4 billion 7 Subway Extension in September 2015,[375] the $4 billion World Trade Center Transportation Hub in March 2016,[376][377] and Phase 1 of the $4.5 billion Second Avenue Subway in January 2017.[378][379]

MTA New York City Transit offers a wide variety of local buses within Manhattan under the brand New York City Bus. An extensive network of express bus routes serves commuters and other travelers heading into Manhattan.[380] The bus system served 784 million passengers citywide in 2011, placing the bus system's ridership as the highest in the nation, and more than double the ridership of the second-place Los Angeles system.[381]

The Roosevelt Island Tramway, one of two commuter cable car systems in North America, whisks commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan in less than five minutes, and has been serving the island since 1978. (The other system in North America is the Portland Aerial Tram.)[382][383]

The Staten Island Ferry, which runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, annually carries over 21 million passengers on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) run between Manhattan and Staten Island. Each weekday, five vessels transport about 65,000 passengers on 109 boat trips.[384][385] The ferry has been fare-free since 1997, when the then-50-cent fare was eliminated.[386] In February 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to traditionally underserved communities in the city.[387][388] The first routes of NYC Ferry opened in 2017.[389][390] All of the system's routes have termini in Manhattan, and the Lower East Side and Soundview routes also have intermediate stops on the East River.[391]

The metro region's commuter rail lines converge at Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, on the west and east sides of Midtown Manhattan, respectively. They are the two busiest rail stations in the United States. About one-third of users of mass transit and two-thirds of railway passengers in the country live in New York and its suburbs.[392] Amtrak provides inter-city passenger rail service from Penn Station to Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.; Upstate New York and New England; cross-Canadian border service to Toronto and Montreal; and destinations in the Southern and Midwestern United States.

Major highways

Taxis

New York's iconic yellow taxicabs, which number 13,087 city-wide and must have the requisite medallion authorizing the pick up of street hails, are ubiquitous in the borough.[393] Various private vehicle for hire companies provide significant competition for taxicab drivers in Manhattan.[394]

Bicycles

Manhattan also has tens of thousands of bicycle commuters.

Streets and roads

The Brooklyn Bridge in the foreground and the Manhattan Bridge beyond it, are two of the three bridges that connect Lower Manhattan with Brooklyn over the East River.
Eighth Avenue, looking northward ("Uptown"), in the rain; most streets and avenues in Manhattan's grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration
Tourists looking westward at sunset to observe the July 12, 2016 Manhattanhenge

The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 called for twelve numbered avenues running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the Hudson River, each 100 feet (30 m) wide, with First Avenue on the east side and Twelfth Avenue on the west side. There are several intermittent avenues east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A eastward to Avenue D in an area now known as Alphabet City in Manhattan's East Village. The numbered streets in Manhattan run east-west, and are generally 60 feet (18 m) wide, with about 200 feet (61 m) between each pair of streets. With each combined street and block adding up to about 260 feet (79 m), there are almost exactly 20 blocks per mile. The typical block in Manhattan is 250 by 600 feet (76 by 183 m).

According to the original Commissioner's Plan, there were 155 numbered crosstown streets,[395] but later the grid was extended up to the northernmost corner of Manhattan, where the last numbered street is 220th Street. Moreover, the numbering system continues even in The Bronx, north of Manhattan, despite the fact that the grid plan is not as regular in that borough, whose last numbered street is 263rd Street.[396] Fifteen crosstown streets were designated as 100 feet (30 m) wide, including 34th, 42nd, 57th and 125th Streets,[397] which became some of the borough's most significant transportation and shopping venues. Broadway is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan and continuing north into the Bronx at Manhattan's northern tip. In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating major named intersections at Union Square (Park Avenue South/Fourth Avenue and 14th Street), Madison Square (Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street), Herald Square (Sixth Avenue and 34th Street), Times Square (Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street), and Columbus Circle (Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and 59th Street).

"Crosstown traffic" refers primarily to vehicular traffic between Manhattan's East Side and West Side. The trip is notoriously frustrating for drivers because of heavy congestion on narrow local streets laid out by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, absence of express roads other than the Trans-Manhattan Expressway at the far north end of Manhattan Island; and restricted to very limited crosstown automobile travel within Central Park. Proposals in the mid-1900s to build express roads through the city's densest neighborhoods, namely the Mid-Manhattan Expressway and Lower Manhattan Expressway, did not go forward. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present, significantly shaping traffic patterns in Manhattan.[398]

Another consequence of the strict grid plan of most of Manhattan, and the grid's skew of approximately 28.9 degrees, is a phenomenon sometimes referred to as Manhattanhenge (by analogy with Stonehenge).[399] On separate occasions in late May and early July, the sunset is aligned with the street grid lines, with the result that the sun is visible at or near the western horizon from street level.[399][400] A similar phenomenon occurs with the sunrise in January and December.

The FDR Drive and Harlem River Drive, both designed by controversial New York master planner Robert Moses,[401] comprise a single, long limited-access parkway skirting the east side of Manhattan along the East River and Harlem River south of Dyckman Street. The Henry Hudson Parkway is the corresponding parkway on the West Side north of 57th Street.

River crossings

Ferry service departing Battery Park City towards New Jersey, see from Paulus Hook

Being primarily an island, Manhattan is linked to New York City's outer boroughs by numerous bridges, of various sizes. Manhattan has fixed highway connections with New Jersey to its west by way of the George Washington Bridge, the Holland Tunnel, and the Lincoln Tunnel, and to three of the four other New York City boroughs—the Bronx to the northeast, and Brooklyn and Queens (both on Long Island) to the east and south. Its only direct connection with the fifth New York City borough, Staten Island, is the Staten Island Ferry across New York Harbor, which is free of charge. The ferry terminal is located near Battery Park at Manhattan's southern tip. It is also possible to travel on land to Staten Island by way of Brooklyn, via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge.

The George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge,[402][403] connects Washington Heights, in Upper Manhattan, to Bergen County, in New Jersey. There are numerous bridges to the Bronx across the Harlem River, and five (listed north to south)—the Triborough (known officially as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge), Ed Koch Queensboro (also known as the 59th Street Bridge), Williamsburg, Manhattan, and Brooklyn Bridges—that cross the East River to connect Manhattan to Long Island.

Several tunnels also link Manhattan Island to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey. The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world.[404] The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sail through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel.[405] The Queens–Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940;[406] President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it.[407] The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn.

Several ferry services operate between New Jersey and Manhattan.[408] These ferries mainly serve midtown (at W. 39th St.), Battery Park City (WFC at Brookfield Place), and Wall Street (Pier 11).

Heliports

Manhattan has three public heliports: the East 34th Street Heliport (also known as the Atlantic Metroport) at East 34th Street, owned by New York City and run by the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC); the Port Authority Downtown Manhattan/Wall Street Heliport, owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and run by the NYCEDC; and the West 30th Street Heliport, a privately owned heliport that is owned by the Hudson River Park Trust.[409] US Helicopter offered regularly scheduled helicopter service connecting the Downtown Manhattan Heliport with John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, before going out of business in 2009.[410]

Utilities

Gas and electric service is provided by Consolidated Edison to all of Manhattan. Con Edison's electric business traces its roots back to Thomas Edison's Edison Electric Illuminating Company, the first investor-owned electric utility. The company started service on September 4, 1882, using one generator to provide 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers with 800 light bulbs, in a one-square-mile area of Lower Manhattan from his Pearl Street Station.[411] Con Edison operates the world's largest district steam system, which consists of 105 miles (169 km) of steam pipes, providing steam for heating, hot water, and air conditioning[412] by some 1,800 Manhattan customers.[413] Cable service is provided by Time Warner Cable and telephone service is provided by Verizon Communications, although AT&T is available as well.

Manhattan witnessed the doubling of the natural gas supply delivered to the borough when a new gas pipeline opened on November 1, 2013.[414]

The New York City Department of Sanitation is responsible for garbage removal.[415] The bulk of the city's trash ultimately is disposed at mega-dumps in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Ohio (via transfer stations in New Jersey, Brooklyn and Queens) since the 2001 closure of the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island.[416] A small amount of trash processed at transfer sites in New Jersey is sometimes incinerated at waste-to-energy facilities. Like New York City, New Jersey and much of Greater New York relies on exporting its trash to far-flung areas.

New York City has the largest clean-air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet, which also operates in Manhattan, in the country. It also has some of the first hybrid taxis, most of which operate in Manhattan.[417]

Health care

There are many hospitals in Manhattan, including two of the 25 largest in the United States (as of 2017):[418]

Water purity and availability

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed.[419] As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants.[420] The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water.[421] Manhattan, surrounded by two brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water. To satisfy its growing population, the City of New York acquired land in adjacent Westchester County and constructed the old Croton Aqueduct system there, which went into service in 1842 and was superseded by the new Croton Aqueduct, which opened in 1890. This, however, was interrupted in 2008 for the ongoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant that can supply an estimated 290 million gallons daily when completed, representing an almost 20% addition to the city's availability of water, with this addition going to Manhattan and the Bronx.[422] Water comes to Manhattan through the tunnels 1 and 2, completed in 1917 and 1935, and in future through Tunnel No. 3, begun in 1970.[423]

Address algorithm

The address algorithm of Manhattan refers to the formulas used to estimate the closest east–west cross street for building numbers on north–south avenues. It is commonly noted in telephone directories, New York City travel guides, and MTA Manhattan bus maps.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Area codes 718, 347, and 929 are used in Marble Hill.
  2. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  3. ^ Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.[167]

References

Citations

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  3. ^ Manhattan High Point
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