Índia

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República da Índia

Bhārat Gaṇarājya
(veja outros nomes locais )
Lema:  " Satyameva Jayate "  ( sânscrito )
"Truth Alone Triumphs" [1]
Hino:  " Jana Gana Mana " [2] [3]
"Tu és o governante das mentes de todas as pessoas" [4] [2]
Canção nacional
" Vande Mataram "  ( sânscrito )
"Eu me curvo diante de ti, mãe" [a] [1] [2]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Área controlada pela Índia mostrada em verde escuro; regiões reivindicadas, mas não controladas mostradas em verde claro
CapitalNova Delhi
28 ° 36′50 ″ N 77 ° 12′30 ″ E / 28.61389°N 77.20833°E / 28.61389; 77.20833
A maior cidade
  • Mumbai (cidade propriamente dita)
  • Delhi (área metropolitana)
Línguas oficiais
Línguas nacionais reconhecidasNenhum [8] [9] [10]
Idiomas regionais reconhecidos
Línguas nativas447 idiomas [c]
Religião
(2011)
Demônimo (s)indiano
Filiação
GovernoRepública constitucional parlamentar federal
•  Presidente
Ram Nath Kovind
Venkaiah Naidu
Narendra modi
NV Ramana
LegislaturaParlamento
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
Independência 
•  Domínio
15 de agosto de 1947
•  República
26 de janeiro de 1950
Área
• Total
3.287.263 [2]  km 2 (1.269.219 sq mi) [d] ( )
• Água (%)
9,6
População
• estimativa de 2018
Neutral increase1.352.642.280 [15] [16] ( )
• censo de 2011
1.210.854.977 [17] [18] ( )
• Densidade
412,3 / km 2 (1.067,9 / sq mi) ( 19º )
PIB  ( PPP )Estimativa de 2021
• Total
Increase $ 10,207 trilhões [19] ( )
• per capita
Increase$ 7.333 [19] ( 122º )
PIB  (nominal)Estimativa de 2021
• Total
Increase $ 3,050 trilhões [19] ( )
• per capita
Increase$ 2.191 [19] ( 145º )
Gini  (2011)35,7 [20]
médio  ·  98º
HDI  (2019)Increase 0,645 [21]
médio  ·  131st
MoedaRúpia indiana ($$) ( INR )
Fuso horárioUTC + 5h30 ( IST )
DST não é observado
Formato de data
  • dd - mm - aaaa [e]
Eletricidade principal230 V - 50 Hz
Lado de conduçãosaiu [22]
Código de chamada+91
Código ISO 3166NO
Internet TLD.in ( outros )

Índia , oficialmente a República da Índia ( Hindi : Bhārat Gaṇarājya ), [23] é um país do Sul da Ásia . É o sétimo maior país em área, o segundo país mais populoso e a democracia mais populosa do mundo. Delimitado pelo Oceano Índico no sul, o Mar da Arábia no sudoeste e a Baía de Bengala no sudeste, compartilha fronteiras terrestres com o Paquistão a oeste; [f] China , Nepal e Butãopara o norte; e Bangladesh e Mianmar ao leste. No Oceano Índico, a Índia fica nas proximidades do Sri Lanka e das Maldivas ; suas ilhas Andaman e Nicobar compartilham uma fronteira marítima com a Tailândia , Mianmar e Indonésia .

Os humanos modernos chegaram ao subcontinente indiano vindos da África não depois de 55.000 anos atrás. [24] Sua longa ocupação, inicialmente em formas variadas de isolamento como caçadores-coletores, tornou a região altamente diversa, perdendo apenas para a África em diversidade genética humana . [25] A vida sedentária surgiu no subcontinente nas margens ocidentais da bacia do rio Indo há 9.000 anos, evoluindo gradualmente para a Civilização do Vale do Indo do terceiro milênio aC. [26] Por volta de 1200 aC, uma forma arcaica de sânscrito , uma língua indo-européia , tinhadifundido na Índia a partir do noroeste, [27] desdobrando-se como a língua do Rigveda , e registrando o alvorecer do hinduísmo na Índia. [28] As línguas dravidianas da Índia foram suplantadas nas regiões norte e oeste. [29] Por volta de 400 aC, a estratificação e exclusão por casta surgiram dentro do hinduísmo, [30] e o budismo e o jainismo surgiram, proclamando ordens sociais desvinculadas da hereditariedade. [31] As primeiras consolidações políticas deram origem aos impérios Maurya e Gupta, baseados na Bacia do Ganges . [32] Sua era coletiva foi inundada por uma criatividade abrangente, [33] mas também marcada pelo declínio do status das mulheres, [34] e a incorporação da intocabilidade em um sistema organizado de crenças. [g] [35] No sul da Índia , os reinos do meio exportaram as escritas das línguas dravidianas e culturas religiosas para os reinos do sudeste da Ásia . [36]

No início da era medieval, o cristianismo , o islamismo , o judaísmo e o zoroastrismo criaram raízes nas costas sul e oeste da Índia. [37] Os exércitos muçulmanos da Ásia Central invadiram intermitentemente as planícies do norte da Índia, [38] eventualmente estabelecendo o Sultanato de Delhi e atraindo o norte da Índia para as redes cosmopolitas do Islã medieval . [39] No século 15, o Império Vijayanagara criou uma cultura hindu composta de longa duração no sul da Índia. [40] No Punjab , Sikhismoemergiu, rejeitando a religião institucionalizada. [41] O Império Mughal , em 1526, marcou o início de dois séculos de relativa paz, [42] deixando um legado de arquitetura luminosa. [h] [43] Gradualmente expandir regra da British East India Company seguido, transformando a Índia em uma economia colonial, mas também consolidar a sua soberania . [44] O governo da Coroa britânica começou em 1858. Os direitos prometidos aos indianos foram concedidos lentamente, [45] mas as mudanças tecnológicas foram introduzidas e as idéias de educação, modernidade e vida pública criaram raízes. [46] Surgiu um movimento nacionalista pioneiro e influente, conhecido pela resistência não violenta e se tornou o principal fator no fim do domínio britânico. [47] Em 1947, o Império Indiano Britânico foi dividido em dois domínios independentes , um Domínio de maioria hindu da Índia e um Domínio de maioria muçulmana do Paquistão , em meio a perdas de vidas em grande escala e uma migração sem precedentes. [48] [49]

A Índia é uma república federal desde 1950, governada por um sistema parlamentar democrático . É uma sociedade pluralista , multilingue e multiétnica. A população da Índia cresceu de 361 milhões em 1951 para 1,211 bilhão em 2011. [50] Durante o mesmo tempo, sua renda nominal per capita aumentou de US $ 64 anuais para US $ 1.498, e sua taxa de alfabetização de 16,6% para 74%. De um país comparativamente pobre em 1951, [51] a Índia se tornou uma grande economia de rápido crescimento e um centro de serviços de tecnologia da informação , com uma classe média em expansão. [52] Tem um programa espacialque inclui várias missões extraterrestres planejadas ou concluídas . Filmes, música e ensinamentos espirituais indianos desempenham um papel cada vez mais importante na cultura global. [53] A Índia reduziu substancialmente sua taxa de pobreza, embora ao custo de aumentar a desigualdade econômica. [54] A Índia é um estado com armas nucleares , que tem uma alta classificação nos gastos militares . Tem disputas pela Caxemira com seus vizinhos Paquistão e China, sem solução desde meados do século XX. [55] Entre os desafios socioeconômicos que a Índia enfrenta estão a desigualdade de gênero , a desnutrição infantil , [56] e os níveis crescentes depoluição do ar . [57] A terra da Índia é megadiversa , com quatro hotspots de biodiversidade . [58] Sua cobertura florestal compreende 21,7% de sua área. [59] A vida selvagem da Índia , que tradicionalmente tem sido vista com tolerância na cultura da Índia , [60] é mantida entre essas florestas, e em outros lugares, em habitats protegidos .

Etimologia

De acordo com o Oxford English Dictionary (terceira edição, 2009), o nome "Índia" é derivado do latim clássico Índia , uma referência ao sul da Ásia e uma região incerta a seu leste; e por sua vez derivado sucessivamente de: Helenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία ); grego antigo Indos ( Ἰνδός ); Old Persa Hindush , uma província oriental do império aquemênida ; e, em última instância, seu cognato , o sânscrito Sindhu , ou "rio", especificamente o rio Indoe, por implicação, sua bacia sul bem estabelecida. [61] [62] Os gregos antigos referiam-se aos índios como Indoi ( Ἰνδοί ), que se traduz como "O povo do Indo". [63]

O termo Bharat ( Bhārat ; pronunciado  [ˈbʱaːɾət] ( ouvir )About this sound ), mencionado na poesia épica indiana e na Constituição da Índia , [64] [65] é usado em suas variações por muitas línguas indianas . Uma tradução moderna do nome histórico Bharatavarsha , que se aplicava originalmente ao norte da Índia , [66] [67] Bharat ganhou popularidade em meados do século 19 como um nome nativo para a Índia. [64] [68]

Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn] ( ouça )About this sound ) é umnome persa médio para a Índia, introduzido durante o Império Mughal e amplamente usado desde então. Seu significado tem variado, referindo-se a uma região que abrange atualmente o norte da Índia e o Paquistão ou a Índia em sua quase totalidade. [64] [68] [69]

História

Índia Antiga

Um manuscrito do século 19 do Rigveda , composto oralmente, 1500–1200 aC; [70] o manuscrito usa um estilo de escrita do século 14.
Uma ilustração de um manuscrito dos primeiros tempos modernos do épico sânscrito Ramayana , composto de maneira narrativa c.  400 aC  - c.  300  CE . [71]

Por volta de 55.000 anos atrás, os primeiros humanos modernos, ou Homo sapiens , chegaram ao subcontinente indiano da África, onde haviam evoluído anteriormente. [72] [73] [74] Os primeiros vestígios humanos modernos conhecidos no sul da Ásia datam de cerca de 30.000 anos atrás. [75] Após 6500 aC, evidências de domesticação de colheitas de alimentos e animais, construção de estruturas permanentes e armazenamento de excedentes agrícolas apareceram em Mehrgarh e em outros locais no que hoje é o Baluchistão, Paquistão . [76] Estes desenvolveram-se gradualmente na Civilização do Vale do Indo , [77] [76] a primeira cultura urbana no Sul da Ásia, [78]que floresceu durante 2500–1900 aC no que hoje é o Paquistão e o oeste da Índia. [79] Centrada em torno de cidades como Mohenjo-daro , Harappa , Dholavira e Kalibangan , e contando com várias formas de subsistência, a civilização engajou-se fortemente na produção de artesanato e comércio de amplo espectro. [78]

Durante o período de 2000–500 aC, muitas regiões do subcontinente fizeram a transição das culturas calcolíticas para as da Idade do Ferro . [80] Os Vedas , as escrituras mais antigas associadas ao hinduísmo , [81] foram compostos durante este período, [82] e os historiadores os analisaram para postular uma cultura védica na região de Punjab e na planície gangética superior . [80] A maioria dos historiadores também considera que este período abrangeu várias ondas de migração indo-ariana para o subcontinente a partir do noroeste. [81] OO sistema de castas , que criava uma hierarquia de padres, guerreiros e camponeses livres, mas que excluía os povos indígenas rotulando suas ocupações de impuras, surgiu nesse período. [83] No Planalto de Deccan , evidências arqueológicas deste período sugerem a existência de um estágio de chefia de organização política. [80] No sul da Índia , uma progressão para a vida sedentária é indicada pelo grande número de monumentos megalíticos datados deste período, [84] bem como por vestígios de agricultura , tanques de irrigação e tradições artesanais nas proximidades . [84]

Um mapa do império de Ashoka , c.  250 AC
O mapa da Índia, c.  350  CE
Caverna 26 das cavernas de Ajanta cortadas na rocha , século 5 dC

No final do período védico, por volta do século 6 aC, os pequenos estados e chefias da planície do Ganges e as regiões do noroeste haviam se consolidado em 16 grandes oligarquias e monarquias que eram conhecidas como mahajanapadas . [85] [86] A emergente urbanização deu origem a movimentos religiosos não-védicos, dois dos quais se tornaram religiões independentes. O jainismo ganhou destaque durante a vida de seu exemplar, Mahavira . [87] O budismo, baseado nos ensinamentos de Gautama Buda , atraiu seguidores de todas as classes sociais, exceto a classe média; narrar a vida do Buda foi fundamental para o início da história registrada na Índia. [88] [89] [90]Em uma época de crescente riqueza urbana, ambas as religiões consideravam a renúncia um ideal, [91] e ambas estabeleceram tradições monásticas duradouras. Politicamente, no século 3 aC, o reino de Magadha havia anexado ou reduzido outros estados para emergir como o Império Maurya . [92] O império foi pensado para ter controlado a maior parte do subcontinente, exceto no extremo sul, mas suas regiões centrais estão agora pensado para ter sido separados por grandes áreas autônomas. [93] [94] Os reis Mauryan são conhecidos tanto por sua construção de impérios e gestão determinada da vida pública quanto pela Ashokaa renúncia do militarismo e ampla defesa do dhamma budista . [95] [96]

A literatura Sangam da língua tâmil revela que, entre 200 AC e 200  DC , a península meridional foi governada pelos Cheras , os Cholas e os Pandyas , dinastias que comercializavam extensivamente com o Império Romano e com o Oeste e Sudeste Asiático . [97] [98] No norte da Índia, o hinduísmo afirmava o controle patriarcal dentro da família, levando ao aumento da subordinação das mulheres. [99] [92] Nos séculos 4 e 5, o Império Guptacriou um sistema complexo de administração e tributação na grande planície do Ganges; este sistema se tornou um modelo para reinos indianos posteriores. [100] [101] Sob os Guptas, um hinduísmo renovado baseado na devoção, ao invés da gestão do ritual, começou a se afirmar. [102] Essa renovação se refletiu no florescimento da escultura e da arquitetura , que encontrou patrocinadores entre uma elite urbana. [101] A literatura sânscrita clássica floresceu também, e a ciência , astronomia , medicina e matemática indianas fizeram avanços significativos. [101]

Índia medieval

Um mapa da Índia em 1022  CE
Templo de Brihadeshwara , Thanjavur , concluído em 1010  CE

O início da idade medieval indiana, de 600 a 1200  dC , é definido por reinos regionais e diversidade cultural. [103] Quando Harsha de Kannauj , que governou grande parte da Planície Indo-Gangética de 606 a 647  DC , tentou se expandir para o sul, ele foi derrotado pelo governante Chalukya do Deccan. [104] Quando seu sucessor tentou se expandir para o leste, ele foi derrotado pelo rei Pala de Bengala . [104] Quando os Chalukyas tentaram se expandir para o sul, eles foram derrotados pelos Pallavas do sul, que por sua vez se opuseram aos Pandyase os Cholas ainda mais ao sul. [104] Nenhum governante deste período foi capaz de criar um império e controlar consistentemente terras muito além de sua região central. [103] Durante este tempo, os povos pastoris, cujas terras foram desmatadas para abrir caminho para a crescente economia agrícola, foram acomodados na sociedade de castas, assim como as novas classes dominantes não tradicionais. [105] O sistema de castas conseqüentemente começou a mostrar diferenças regionais. [105]

Nos séculos 6 e 7, os primeiros hinos devocionais foram criados na língua Tamil. [106] Eles foram imitados em toda a Índia e levaram ao ressurgimento do hinduísmo e ao desenvolvimento de todas as línguas modernas do subcontinente . [106] A realeza indiana, grande e pequena, e os templos que patrocinavam atraíam muitos cidadãos para as capitais, que também se tornaram centros econômicos. [107] Cidades-templo de vários tamanhos começaram a aparecer em todos os lugares à medida que a Índia passava por outra urbanização. [107] Nos séculos 8 e 9, os efeitos foram sentidos no Sudeste Asiático, à medida que a cultura e os sistemas políticos do sul da Índia eram exportados para terras que se tornaram parte da vida modernaMianmar , Tailândia , Laos , Camboja , Vietnã , Filipinas , Malásia e Java . [108] Mercadores indianos, eruditos e às vezes exércitos estavam envolvidos nesta transmissão; Os asiáticos do sudeste também tomaram a iniciativa, com muitas estadas em seminários indianos e traduzindo textos budistas e hindus para seus idiomas. [108]

Índia em 1398  dC , durante o sultanato de Delhi (rotulado como "império afegão")
O Qutub Minar , 73 m (240 pés) de altura, concluído pelo Sultão de Delhi , Iltutmish

Após o século 10, clãs muçulmanos nômades da Ásia Central, usando cavalaria veloz e formando vastos exércitos unidos por etnia e religião, invadiram repetidamente as planícies do noroeste da Ásia do Sul, levando eventualmente ao estabelecimento do Sultanato Islâmico de Delhi em 1206. [109 ] O sultanato era controlar grande parte do norte da Índia e fazer muitas incursões no sul da Índia. Embora a princípio perturbador para as elites indianas, o sultanato em grande parte deixou sua vasta população não muçulmana sujeita às suas próprias leis e costumes. [110] [111] Repelindo repetidamente os invasores mongóisno século 13, o sultanato salvou a Índia da devastação visitada na Ásia Ocidental e Central, criando o cenário para séculos de migração de soldados em fuga, homens eruditos, místicos, comerciantes, artistas e artesãos daquela região para o subcontinente, criando assim uma cultura indo-islâmica sincrética no norte. [112] [113] A invasão do sultanato e o enfraquecimento dos reinos regionais do sul da Índia pavimentaram o caminho para o Império indígena Vijayanagara . [114] Abraçando uma forte tradição Shaivita e construindo sobre a tecnologia militar do sultanato, o império passou a controlar grande parte da Índia peninsular, [115]e influenciou a sociedade do sul da Índia por muito tempo depois. [114]

Índia do início da modernidade

Índia em 1525 no início do governo Mughal
Índia em 1605 durante o governo de Akbar
Uma vista distante do Taj Mahal do Forte de Agra

No início do século 16, o norte da Índia, então sob governantes principalmente muçulmanos, [116] caiu novamente para a mobilidade superior e poder de fogo de uma nova geração de guerreiros da Ásia Central. [117] O Império Mughal resultante não eliminou as sociedades locais que veio a governar. Em vez disso, equilibrou e pacificou-os por meio de novas práticas administrativas [118] [119] e elites governantes diversificadas e inclusivas, [120] levando a regras mais sistemáticas, centralizadas e uniformes. [121] Evitando os laços tribais e a identidade islâmica, especialmente sob Akbar , os mogóis uniram seus reinos longínquos através da lealdade, expressa através de uma cultura persianizada, a um imperador que tinha um status quase divino.[120] As políticas econômicas do estado mogol, derivando a maior parte das receitas da agricultura [122] e exigindo que os impostos fossem pagos na bem regulamentada moeda de prata, [123] fez com que os camponeses e artesãos entrassem em mercados maiores. [121] A relativa paz mantida pelo império durante grande parte do século 17 foi um fator na expansão econômica da Índia, [121] resultando em um maior patrocínio da pintura , formas literárias, têxteis e arquitetura . [124] Grupos sociais recentemente coerentes no norte e no oeste da Índia, como os maratas , os rajputs e os sikhs, ganhou ambições militares e de governo durante o governo Mughal, o que, por meio de colaboração ou adversidade, deu-lhes reconhecimento e experiência militar. [125] A expansão do comércio durante o domínio mogol deu origem a novas elites comerciais e políticas indianas ao longo das costas do sul e do leste da Índia. [125] Com a desintegração do império, muitos entre essas elites foram capazes de buscar e controlar seus próprios assuntos. [126]

Índia sob o governo da British East India Company
Índia em 1795
Índia em 1848
Uma moeda de ouro de dois mohur Company, emitida em 1835, o anverso com a inscrição " William IV, King "

No início do século 18, com as linhas entre o domínio comercial e político cada vez mais confusas, várias empresas comerciais europeias, incluindo a Companhia das Índias Orientais inglesas , estabeleceram postos avançados costeiros. [127] [128] O controle dos mares da Companhia das Índias Orientais, maiores recursos e treinamento militar e tecnologia mais avançados levaram-na a afirmar cada vez mais sua força militar e tornou-se atraente para uma parte da elite indiana; esses fatores foram cruciais para permitir que a empresa ganhasse o controle da região de Bengala em 1765 e deixasse de lado as outras empresas europeias. [129] [127] [130] [131]Seu acesso posterior às riquezas de Bengala e o subsequente aumento da força e do tamanho de seu exército permitiu-lhe anexar ou subjugar a maior parte da Índia na década de 1820. [132] A Índia não exportava mais produtos manufaturados como fazia há muito tempo, mas fornecia matérias-primas ao Império Britânico . Muitos historiadores consideram este o início do período colonial da Índia. [127] Nessa época, com seu poder econômico severamente restringido pelo parlamento britânico e tendo efetivamente se tornado um braço da administração britânica, a empresa começou a entrar mais conscientemente em arenas não econômicas como educação, reforma social e cultura. [133]

Índia moderna

Mapa de 1909 do Império Indiano Britânico

Os historiadores consideram que a era moderna da Índia começou entre 1848 e 1885. A nomeação em 1848 de Lord Dalhousie como Governador Geral da Companhia das Índias Orientais preparou o cenário para mudanças essenciais para um estado moderno. Isso incluiu a consolidação e demarcação da soberania, a vigilância da população e a educação dos cidadãos. Mudanças tecnológicas - entre elas, ferrovias, canais e telégrafo - foram introduzidas não muito depois de sua introdução na Europa . [134] [135] [136] [137] No entanto, o descontentamento com a empresa também cresceu durante este tempo e desencadeou a rebelião indiana de 1857. Alimentada por diversos ressentimentos e percepções, incluindo reformas sociais invasivas de estilo britânico, impostos de terra severos e tratamento sumário de alguns proprietários de terras ricos e príncipes, a rebelião abalou muitas regiões do norte e centro da Índia e abalou os alicerces do governo da Companhia. [138] [139] Embora a rebelião tenha sido reprimida em 1858, ela levou à dissolução da Companhia das Índias Orientais e à administração direta da Índia pelo governo britânico. Proclamando um estado unitário e um sistema parlamentar de estilo britânico gradual, mas limitado, os novos governantes também protegeram os príncipes e a pequena nobreza como uma salvaguarda feudal contra distúrbios futuros. [140] [141]Nas décadas seguintes, a vida pública emergiu gradualmente em toda a Índia, levando eventualmente à fundação do Congresso Nacional Indiano em 1885. [142] [143] [144] [145]

A corrida da tecnologia e da comercialização da agricultura na segunda metade do século 19 foi marcada por retrocessos econômicos e muitos pequenos agricultores tornaram-se dependentes dos caprichos de mercados distantes. [146] Houve um aumento no número de fomes em grande escala , [147] e, apesar dos riscos de desenvolvimento de infraestrutura suportados pelos contribuintes indianos, poucos empregos industriais foram gerados para os indianos. [148] Houve também efeitos salutares: o cultivo comercial, especialmente no Punjab recentemente canalizado, levou ao aumento da produção de alimentos para consumo interno. [149] A rede ferroviária forneceu alívio crítico contra a fome, [150] notavelmente reduziu o custo de transporte de mercadorias,[150] e ajudou a indústria nascente de propriedade de índios. [149]

Jawaharlal Nehru compartilhando um momento de luz com Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , Mumbai, 6 de julho de 1946

Após a Primeira Guerra Mundial, na qual cerca de um milhão de indianos serviram , [151] um novo período começou. Foi marcado por reformas britânicas, mas também por legislação repressiva , por apelos indianos mais estridentes por autogoverno e pelo início de um movimento não violento de não cooperação, do qual Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi se tornaria o líder e símbolo duradouro. [152] Durante a década de 1930, uma lenta reforma legislativa foi promulgada pelos britânicos; o Congresso Nacional Indiano obteve vitórias nas eleições resultantes. [153] A próxima década foi assolada por crises: participação indiana na Segunda Guerra Mundial, o impulso final do Congresso para a não cooperação e um aumento do nacionalismo muçulmano. Todos foram coroados pelo advento da independência em 1947, mas temperados pela divisão da Índia em dois estados: Índia e Paquistão. [154]

Vital para a autoimagem da Índia como nação independente foi sua constituição, concluída em 1950, que instituiu uma república secular e democrática. [155] Permaneceu uma democracia com liberdades civis, uma Suprema Corte ativa e uma imprensa amplamente independente. [156] A liberalização econômica, que começou na década de 1990, criou uma grande classe média urbana, transformou a Índia em uma das economias de crescimento mais rápido do mundo , [157] e aumentou sua influência geopolítica. Filmes, música e ensinamentos espirituais indianos desempenham um papel cada vez mais importante na cultura global. [156] No entanto, a Índia também é moldada por uma pobreza aparentemente inflexível, tanto rural quanto urbana; [156] por religiosose violência de casta ; [158] por insurgências naxalitas de inspiração maoísta ; [159] e pelo separatismo em Jammu e Caxemira e no Nordeste da Índia . [160] Tem disputas territoriais não resolvidas com a China [161] e com o Paquistão . [161] As liberdades democráticas sustentadas da Índia são únicas entre as nações mais novas do mundo; no entanto, apesar de seus recentes sucessos econômicos, a liberdade da miséria para sua população desfavorecida continua sendo uma meta a ser alcançada. [162]

Geografia

Características orográficas da Índia
Monção de verão da Índia
Barcos de pesca amarrados juntos antes de uma tempestade de monções em um riacho na vila de Anjarle , Maharashtra.

A Índia representa a maior parte do subcontinente indiano, situando-se no topo da placa tectônica indiana , uma parte da placa indo-australiana . [163] Os processos geológicos definidores da Índia começaram 75 milhões de anos atrás, quando a placa indiana, então parte do supercontinente sul Gondwana , começou uma deriva para o nordeste causada pela propagação do fundo do mar para seu sudoeste e, posteriormente, sul e sudeste. [163] Simultaneamente, a vasta crosta oceânica de Tethyan , a seu nordeste, começou a se subdividir sob a placa euro - asiática . [163]Esses processos duais, impulsionados pela convecção no manto da Terra , criaram o Oceano Índico e fizeram com que a crosta continental indiana finalmente subisse a Eurásia e elevasse o Himalaia . [163] Imediatamente ao sul do Himalaia emergente, o movimento das placas criou uma vasta depressão que rapidamente se encheu de sedimentos do rio [164] e agora constitui a Planície Indo-Gangética . [165] Separado da planície pela antiga cordilheira de Aravalli fica o deserto de Thar . [166]

A placa indiana original sobrevive como Índia peninsular , a parte mais antiga e geologicamente mais estável da Índia. Ela se estende ao norte até as cordilheiras de Satpura e Vindhya , no centro da Índia. Essas cadeias paralelas vão da costa do Mar da Arábia em Gujarat, no oeste, até o planalto Chota Nagpur, rico em carvão , em Jharkhand, no leste. [167] Ao sul, a massa de terra peninsular restante, o Planalto de Deccan , é flanqueada a oeste e leste por cadeias costeiras conhecidas como Gates Ocidentais e Orientais ; [168]o planalto contém as formações rochosas mais antigas do país, algumas com mais de um bilhão de anos. Assim constituída, a Índia situa-se ao norte do equador entre 6 ° 44 ′ e 35 ° 30 ′ de latitude norte [i] e 68 ° 7 ′ e 97 ° 25 ′ de longitude leste. [169]

O litoral da Índia mede 7.517 quilômetros (4.700 milhas) de comprimento; desta distância, 5.423 quilômetros (3.400 milhas) pertencem à Índia peninsular e 2.094 quilômetros (1.300 milhas) às cadeias de ilhas Andaman, Nicobar e Lakshadweep. [170] De acordo com as cartas hidrográficas navais indianas, a costa continental consiste no seguinte: 43% praias arenosas; 11% costões rochosos, incluindo falésias; e 46% de lamaçais ou margens pantanosas. [170]

O Tungabhadra , com afloramentos rochosos, deságua no rio Krishna peninsular . [171]

Os principais rios originários do Himalaia que fluem substancialmente pela Índia incluem o Ganges e o Brahmaputra , ambos os quais deságuam na Baía de Bengala . [172] Importantes afluentes do Ganges incluem o Yamuna e o Kosi ; o gradiente extremamente baixo do último, causado pela deposição de lodo de longo prazo, leva a inundações severas e mudanças de curso. [173] [174] Os principais rios peninsulares, cujos gradientes mais íngremes evitam que suas águas inundem, incluem o Godavari , o Mahanadi , o Kaveri e o Krishna , que também deságuam na Baía de Bengala;[175] and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea.[176] Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh.[177] India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.[178]

The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons.[179] The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.[180][181] The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall.[179] Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.[182]

Temperatures in India have risen by 0.7 °C (1.3 °F) between 1901 and 2018.[183] Climate change in India is often thought to be the cause. The retreat of Himalayan glaciers has adversely affected the flow rate of the major Himalayan rivers, including the Ganges and the Brahmaputra.[184] According to some current projections, the number and severity of droughts in India will have markedly increased by the end of the present century.[185]

Biodiversity

A 1909 map showing India's forests, bush and small wood, cultivated lands, steppe, and desert.
A 2010 map showing India's forest cover averaged out for each state.

India is a megadiverse country, a term employed for 17 countries which display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them.[186] India is a habitat for 8.6% of all mammal species, 13.7% of bird species, 7.9% of reptile species, 6% of amphibian species, 12.2% of fish species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.[187][188] Fully a third of Indian plant species are endemic.[189] India also contains four of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots,[58] or regions that display significant habitat loss in the presence of high endemism.[j][190]

India's forest cover is 99,278 km2 (38,331 sq mi), which is 21.67% of the country's total land area.[59] It can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy.[191] Very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, occupies 3.02% of India's land area.[191][59] It predominates in the tropical moist forest of the Andaman Islands, the Western Ghats, and Northeast India.[192] Moderately dense forest, whose canopy density is between 40% and 70%, occupies 9.39% of India's land area.[191][59] It predominates in the temperate coniferous forest of the Himalayas, the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India, and the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India.[192] Open forest, whose canopy density is between 10% and 40%, occupies 9.26% of India's land area,[191][59] and predominates in the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan Plateau and the western Gangetic plain.[192]

Among the Indian subcontinent's notable indigenous trees are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine,[193] and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul,[194] which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro,[195] and under which the Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment.[196]

India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, nearly 3,000 in 2019.[197]

Many Indian species have descended from those of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent from which India separated more than 100 million years ago.[198] India's subsequent collision with Eurasia set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes later caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[199] Still later, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes flanking the Himalayas.[192] This had the effect of lowering endemism among India's mammals, which stands at 12.6%, contrasting with 45.8% among reptiles and 55.8% among amphibians.[188] Notable endemics are the vulnerable[200] hooded leaf monkey[201] and the threatened[202] Beddom's toad[202][203] of the Western Ghats.

A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense[k] forest.[192]

India contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened animal species, or 2.9% of endangered forms.[204] These include the endangered Bengal tiger and the Ganges river dolphin. Critically endangered species include: the gharial, a crocodilian; the great Indian bustard; and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which has become nearly extinct by having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.[205] The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was expanded substantially. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act[206] and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988.[207] India hosts more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries and thirteen biosphere reserves,[208] four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.[209]

Politics and government

Politics

Social movements have long been a part of democracy in India. The picture shows a section of 25,000 landless people in the state of Madhya Pradesh listening to Rajagopal P. V. before their 350 km (220 mi) march, Janadesh 2007, from Gwalior to New Delhi to publicise their demand for further land reform in India.[210]

India is the world's most populous democracy.[211] A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system,[212] it has eight recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties.[213] The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture,[214] and the BJP right-wing.[215][216][217] For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP,[218] as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalition governments at the centre.[219]

In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over two years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years.[220] Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.[221]

At the Parliament of India in New Delhi, US president Barack Obama is shown here addressing the members of Parliament of both houses, the lower, Lok Sabha, and the upper, Rajya Sabha, in a joint session, 8 November 2010.

A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term.[222] Again in the 2004 Indian general elections, no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties.[223] That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.[224] In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties.[225] The incumbent prime minister is Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat. On 20 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind was elected India's 14th president and took the oath of office on 25 July 2017.[226][227][228]

Government

Rashtrapati Bhavan, the official residence of the President of India, was designed by British architects Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker for the Viceroy of India, and constructed between 1911 and 1931 during the British Raj.[229]

India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India—the country's supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union and the states. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950,[230] originally stated India to be a "sovereign, democratic republic;" this characterisation was amended in 1971 to "a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic".[231] India's form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states,[232] has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.[233][234]

National symbols[1]
FlagTiranga (Tricolour)
EmblemSarnath Lion Capital
AnthemJana Gana Mana
Song"Vande Mataram"
LanguageNone[8][9][10]
Currency (Indian rupee)
CalendarSaka
Animal
FlowerLotus
FruitMango
TreeBanyan
RiverGanges

The Government of India comprises three branches:[235]

Administrative divisions

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories (listed below as 1–28 and A–H, respectively).[251] All states, as well as the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments following the Westminster system of governance. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the central government through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.[252] There are over a quarter of a million local government bodies at city, town, block, district and village levels.[253]

AfghanistanMyanmarChinaTajikistanIndian OceanBay of BengalAndaman SeaArabian SeaLaccadive SeaAndaman and Nicobar IslandsChandigarhDadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuDelhiLakshadweepPuducherryPuducherryGoaKeralaManipurMeghalayaMizoramNagalandSikkimTripuraPakistanNepalBhutanBangladeshSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSiachen GlacierDisputed territory in Jammu and KashmirDisputed territory in Jammu and KashmirJammu and KashmirLadakhChandigarhDelhiDadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuDadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuPuducherryPuducherryPuducherryPuducherryGoaGujaratKarnatakaKeralaMadhya PradeshMaharashtraRajasthanTamil NaduAssamMeghalayaAndhra PradeshArunachal PradeshNagalandManipurMizoramTelanganaTripuraWest BengalSikkimBiharJharkhandOdishaChhattisgarhUttar PradeshUttarakhandHaryanaPunjabHimachal Pradesh
A clickable map of the 28 states and 8 union territories of India

Foreign, economic and strategic relations

During the 1950s and 60s, India played a pivotal role in the Non-Aligned Movement.[254] From left to right: Gamal Abdel Nasser of United Arab Republic (now Egypt), Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Jawaharlal Nehru in Belgrade, September 1961.

In the 1950s, India strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement.[255] After initially cordial relations with neighbouring China, India went to war with China in 1962, and was widely thought to have been humiliated. India has had tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India's support for the independence of Bangladesh.[256] In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of the host country: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup d'état attempt in the Maldives. After the 1965 war with Pakistan, India began to pursue close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.[257]

Aside from ongoing its special relationship with Russia,[258] India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums.[259] India has close economic ties with countries in South America,[260] Asia, and Africa; it pursues a "Look East" policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.[261][262]

The Indian Air Force contingent marching at the 221st Bastille Day military parade in Paris, on 14 July 2009. The parade at which India was the foreign guest was led by the India's oldest regiment, the Maratha Light Infantry, founded in 1768.[263]

China's nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons.[264] India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out additional underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory.[265] India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "Minimum Credible Deterrence" doctrine.[266][267] It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, a fifth-generation fighter jet.[268][269] Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.[270]

Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union.[271] In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state.[272] India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia,[273] France,[274] the United Kingdom,[275] and Canada.[276]

Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India (left, background) in talks with President Enrique Peña Nieto of Mexico during a visit to Mexico, 2016

The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1.45 million active troops, they compose the world's second-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard.[277] The official Indian defence budget for 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP.[278] For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted.[279] According to a 2008 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion.[280] In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%,[281] although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government.[282] As of 2012, India is the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases.[283] Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean.[281] In May 2017, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched the South Asia Satellite, a gift from India to its neighbouring SAARC countries.[284] In October 2018, India signed a US$5.43 billion (over 400 billion) agreement with Russia to procure four S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence systems, Russia's most advanced long-range missile defence system.[285]

Economy

A farmer in northwestern Karnataka ploughs his field with a tractor even as another in a field beyond does the same with a pair of oxen. In 2018, 44% of India's total workforce was employed in agriculture.[286]
India is the world's largest producer of milk, with the largest population of cattle. In 2018, nearly 80% of India's milk was sourced from small farms with herd size between one and two, the milk harvested by hand milking.[288]
Women tend to a recently planted rice field in Junagadh district in Gujarat. 57% of India's female workforce was employed in agriculture in 2018.[287]

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2020 was nominally worth $2.7 trillion; it is the sixth-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is around $8.9 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).[289] With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–2012,[290] India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies.[291] However, the country ranks 139th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 118th in GDP per capita at PPP.[292] Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy;[293] since then it has moved slowly towards a free-market system[294][295] by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.[296] India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.[297]

The 522-million-worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, as of 2017.[277] The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India's foreign exchange remittances of US$70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, were contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries.[298] Major agricultural products include: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes.[251] Major industries include: textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software.[251] In 2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985.[294] In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%;[299] In 2011, India was the world's tenth-largest importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter.[300] Major exports include: petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and manufactured leather goods.[251] Major imports include: crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.[251] Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%.[301] India was the world's second largest textile exporter after China in the 2013 calendar year.[302]

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007,[294] India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century.[303] Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India's middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030.[304] Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, as of 2010, India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies.[305] With seven of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, as of 2009, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States.[306] India was ranked 48th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, it has increased its ranking considerably since 2015, where it was 81st.[307][308][309][310] India's consumer market, the world's eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030.[304]

Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita increased steadily from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016. It is expected to grow to US$2,191 by 2021.[19] However, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future.

A panorama of Bangalore, the centre of India's software development economy. In the 1980s, when the first multinational corporations began to set up centres in India, they chose Bangalore because of the large pool of skilled graduates in the area, in turn due to the many science and engineering colleges in the surrounding region.[311]

According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045.[312] During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major economy until 2050.[312] The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle-class.[312] The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.[313]

According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th).[314]

Industries

A tea garden in Sikkim. India, the world's second largest-producer of tea, is a nation of one billion tea drinkers, who consume 70% of India's tea output.

India's telecommunication industry is the second-largest in the world with over 1.2 billion subscribers. It contributes 6.5% to India's GDP.[315] After the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China.[316]

The Indian automotive industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–2010,[317] and exports by 36% during 2008–2009.[318] At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP, and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.[319]

The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2020. India's R & D spending constitutes 60% of the biopharmaceutical industry.[320][321] India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world.[322][323] The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–2013, increasing its revenues from 204.4 billion (Indian rupees) to 235.24 billion (US$3.94 billion at June 2013 exchange rates).[324]

Energy

India's capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable.[325] The country's usage of coal is a major cause of greenhouse gas emissions by India but its renewable energy is competing strongly.[326] India emits about 7% of global greenhouse gas emissions. This equates to about 2.5 tons of carbon dioxide per person per year, which is half the world average.[327][328] Increasing access to electricity and clean cooking with liquefied petroleum gas have been priorities for energy in India.[329]

Socio-economic challenges

Health workers about to begin another day of immunisation against infectious diseases in 2006. Eight years later, and three years after India's last case of polio, the World Health Organization declared India to be polio-free.[330]

Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of US$1.25 per day.[331] The proportion decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005.[332] Under the World Bank's later revised poverty line, it was 21% in 2011.[l][334] 30.7% of India's children under the age of five are underweight.[335] According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15% of the population is undernourished.[336][337] The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.[338]

According to a 2016 Walk Free Foundation report there were an estimated 18.3 million people in India, or 1.4% of the population, living in the forms of modern slavery, such as bonded labour, child labour, human trafficking, and forced begging, among others.[339][340][341] According to the 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million in 2001.[342]

Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per-capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest.[343] Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, India ranked 78th out of 180 countries in 2018 with a score of 41 out of 100, an improvement from 85th in 2014.[344][345]

Demographics, languages, and religion

India by population density, religion, language
The population density of India by natural divisions, based on the Indian census of 1901
Population density of India by each state, based on the Indian census of 2011
The prevailing religions of South Asia based on district-wise majorities in the 1901 census
The language families of South Asia

With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report,[346] India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% from 2001 to 2011,[347] compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001).[347] The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males.[346] The median age was 28.7 as of 2020.[277] The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361 million people.[348] Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly.[349]

The average life expectancy in India is at 68 years—69.6 years for women, 67.3 years for men.[350] There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians.[351] Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in India's recent history. The number of people living in urban areas grew by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001.[352] Yet, in 2001, over 70% still lived in rural areas.[353][354] The level of urbanisation increased further from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall population growth rate was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991.[355] According to the 2011 census, there are 53 million-plus urban agglomerations in India; among them Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, in decreasing order by population.[356] The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males.[357] The rural-urban literacy gap, which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in the rural literacy rate is twice that of urban areas.[355] Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Bihar the least with 63.82%.[357]

The interior of San Thome Basilica, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Christianity is believed to have been introduced to India by the late 2nd century by Syriac-speaking Christians.

India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24% of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families. India has no national language.[358] Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government.[359][360] English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language";[5] it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages".

The 2011 census reported the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam (14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others[m] (0.9%).[14] India has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country.[361][362]

Culture

A Sikh pilgrim at the Harmandir Sahib, or Golden Temple, in Amritsar, Punjab

Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years.[363] During the Vedic period (c. 1700 BCE – c. 500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga, and mokṣa, were established.[63] India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainism among the nation's major religions.[364] The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads,[365] the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement,[364] and by Buddhist philosophy.[366]

Visual art

Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.

South Asia has an ancient tradition of art, which has exchanged influences with the parts of Eurasia. Seals from the third millennium BCE Indus Valley Civilization of Pakistan and northern India have been found, usually carved with animals, but a few with human figures. The "Pashupati" seal, excavated in Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, in 1928–29, is the best known.[367][368] After this there is a long period with virtually nothing surviving.[368][369] Almost all surviving ancient Indian art thereafter is in various forms of religious sculpture in durable materials, or coins. There was probably originally far more in wood, which is lost. In north India Mauryan art is the first imperial movement.[370][371][372] In the first millennium CE, Buddhist art spread with Indian religions to Central, East and South-East Asia, the last also greatly influenced by Hindu art.[373] Over the following centuries a distinctly Indian style of sculpting the human figure developed, with less interest in articulating precise anatomy than ancient Greek sculpture but showing smoothly-flowing forms expressing prana ("breath" or life-force).[374][375] This is often complicated by the need to give figures multiple arms or heads, or represent different genders on the left and right of figures, as with the Ardhanarishvara form of Shiva and Parvati.[376][377]

Most of the earliest large sculpture is Buddhist, either excavated from Buddhist stupas such as Sanchi, Sarnath and Amaravati,[378] or is rock-cut reliefs at sites such as Ajanta, Karla and Ellora. Hindu and Jain sites appear rather later.[379][380] In spite of this complex mixture of religious traditions, generally, the prevailing artistic style at any time and place has been shared by the major religious groups, and sculptors probably usually served all communities.[381] Gupta art, at its peak c. 300 CE – c. 500 CE, is often regarded as a classical period whose influence lingered for many centuries after; it saw a new dominance of Hindu sculpture, as at the Elephanta Caves.[382][383] Across the north, this became rather stiff and formulaic after c. 800 CE, though rich with finely carved detail in the surrounds of statues.[384] But in the South, under the Pallava and Chola dynasties, sculpture in both stone and bronze had a sustained period of great achievement; the large bronzes with Shiva as Nataraja have become an iconic symbol of India.[385][386]

Ancient painting has only survived at a few sites, of which the crowded scenes of court life in the Ajanta Caves are by far the most important, but it was evidently highly developed, and is mentioned as a courtly accomplishment in Gupta times.[387][388] Painted manuscripts of religious texts survive from Eastern India about the 10th century onwards, most of the earliest being Buddhist and later Jain. No doubt the style of these was used in larger paintings.[389] The Persian-derived Deccan painting, starting just before the Mughal miniature, between them give the first large body of secular painting, with an emphasis on portraits, and the recording of princely pleasures and wars.[390][391] The style spread to Hindu courts, especially among the Rajputs, and developed a variety of styles, with the smaller courts often the most innovative, with figures such as Nihâl Chand and Nainsukh.[392][393] As a market developed among European residents, it was supplied by Company painting by Indian artists with considerable Western influence.[394][395] In the 19th century, cheap Kalighat paintings of gods and everyday life, done on paper, were urban folk art from Calcutta, which later saw the Bengal School of Art, reflecting the art colleges founded by the British, the first movement in modern Indian painting.[396][397]

Architecture and literature

A Jain woman washes the feet of Bahubali Gomateswara at Shravanabelagola, Karnataka.

Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.[398] Vernacular architecture is also regional in its flavours. Vastu shastra, literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan,[399] explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings;[400] it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs.[401] As applied in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu-Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the "absolute".[402] The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".[403] Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on Indo-Islamic architecture.[404]

The earliest literature in India, composed between 1500 BCE and 1200 CE, was in the Sanskrit language.[405] Major works of Sanskrit literature include the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE – c. 1200 BCE), the epics: Mahābhārata ( c. 400 BCE – c. 400 CE) and the Ramayana ( c. 300 BCE and later); Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā, and other dramas of Kālidāsa ( c. 5th century CE) and Mahākāvya poetry.[406][407][408] In Tamil literature, the Sangam literature ( c. 600 BCE – c. 300 BCE) consisting of 2,381 poems, composed by 473 poets, is the earliest work.[409][410][411][412] From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets like Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions.[413] In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of the Bengali poet, author and philosopher Rabindranath Tagore,[414] who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Performing arts and media

India's National Academy of Performance Arts has recognised eight Indian dance styles to be classical. One such is Kuchipudi shown here.

Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools.[415] Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are: the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the Jhumair and chhau of Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam.[416]

Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.[417] Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes: the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.[418] India has a theatre training institute the National School of Drama (NSD) that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.[419] The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema.[420] Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, and Telugu languages.[421] The Hindi language film industry (Bollywood) is the largest sector representing 43% of box office revenue, followed by the South Indian Telugu and Tamil film industries which represent 36% combined.[422]

Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication and expanded slowly for more than two decades.[423][424] The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s. Since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society.[425] Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that as of 2012 there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite or cable connections compared to other forms of mass media such as the press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).[426]

Society

Muslims offer namaz at a mosque in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.

Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or "castes".[427] India declared untouchability to be illegal[428] in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives.

Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas.[429] An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other family elders.[430] Marriage is thought to be for life,[430] and the divorce rate is extremely low,[431] with less than one in a thousand marriages ending in divorce.[432] Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age.[433] Female infanticide in India, and lately female foeticide, have created skewed gender ratios; the number of missing women in the country quadrupled from 15 million to 63 million in the 50-year period ending in 2014, faster than the population growth during the same period, and constituting 20 percent of India's female electorate.[434] Accord to an Indian government study, an additional 21 million girls are unwanted and do not receive adequate care.[435] Despite a government ban on sex-selective foeticide, the practice remains commonplace in India, the result of a preference for boys in a patriarchal society.[436] The payment of dowry, although illegal, remains widespread across class lines.[437] Deaths resulting from dowry, mostly from bride burning, are on the rise, despite stringent anti-dowry laws.[438]

Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include: Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, and Vaisakhi.[439][440]

Education

In the 2011 census, about 73% of the population was literate, with 81% for men and 65% for women. This compares to 1981 when the respective rates were 41%, 53% and 29%. In 1951 the rates were 18%, 27% and 9%. In 1921 the rates 7%, 12% and 2%. In 1891 they were 5%, 9% and 1%,[441][442] According to Latika Chaudhary, in 1911 there were under three primary schools for every ten villages. Statistically, more caste and religious diversity reduced private spending. Primary schools taught literacy, so local diversity limited its growth.[443]

Education system of India is the world's second largest higher education System.[444] India had over 900 universities, 40,000 colleges[445] and 1.5 million schools.[446] In India's higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged. In recent decades India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.[447][448]

Clothing

Women in sari at an adult literacy class in Tamil Nadu
A man in dhoti and wearing a woollen shawl, in Varanasi

The most widely worn traditional dress in India, for both women and men, from ancient times until the advent of modern times, was draped.[449] For women it eventually took the form of a sari, a single long piece of cloth, famously six yards long, and of width spanning the lower body.[449] The sari is tied around the waist and knotted at one end, wrapped around the lower body, and then over the shoulder.[449] In its more modern form, it has been used to cover the head, and sometimes the face, as a veil.[449] It has been combined with an underskirt, or Indian petticoat, and tucked in the waist band for more secure fastening, It is also commonly worn with an Indian blouse, or choli, which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari's end—passing over the shoulder—serving to obscure the upper body's contours and to cover the midriff.[449]

For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower-body garment.[450] It too is tied around the waist and wrapped.[450] In south India, it is usually wrapped around the lower body, the upper end tucked in the waistband, the lower left free. In addition, in northern India, it is also wrapped once around each leg before being brought up through the legs to be tucked in at the back. Other forms of traditional apparel that involve no stitching or tailoring are the chaddar (a shawl worn by both sexes to cover the upper body during colder weather, or a large veil worn by women for framing the head, or covering it) and the pagri (a turban or a scarf worn around the head as a part of a tradition, or to keep off the sun or the cold).[450]

Women (from left to right) in churidars and kameez (with back to the camera), jeans and sweater, and pink Shalwar kameez;
Girls in the Kashmir region in embroidered hijab
A tailor in pagri and kameez working outside a fabric shop

Until the beginning of the first millennium CE, the ordinary dress of people in India was entirely unstitched.[451] The arrival of the Kushans from Central Asia, c. 48 CE, popularised cut and sewn garments in the style of Central Asian favoured by the elite in northern India.[451] However, it was not until Muslim rule was established, first with the Delhi sultanate and then the Mughal Empire, that the range of stitched clothes in India grew and their use became significantly more widespread.[451] Among the various garments gradually establishing themselves in northern India during medieval and early-modern times and now commonly worn are: the shalwars and pyjamas both forms of trousers, as well as the tunics kurta and kameez.[451] In southern India, however, the traditional draped garments were to see much longer continuous use.[451]

Shalwars are atypically wide at the waist but narrow to a cuffed bottom. They are held up by a drawstring or elastic belt, which causes them to become pleated around the waist.[452] The pants can be wide and baggy, or they can be cut quite narrow, on the bias, in which case they are called churidars. The kameez is a long shirt or tunic.[453] The side seams are left open below the waist-line,[454]), which gives the wearer greater freedom of movement. The kameez is usually cut straight and flat; older kameez use traditional cuts; modern kameez are more likely to have European-inspired set-in sleeves. The kameez may have a European-style collar, a Mandarin-collar, or it may be collarless; in the latter case, its design as a women's garment is similar to a kurta.[455] At first worn by Muslim women, the use of shalwar kameez gradually spread, making them a regional style,[456][457] especially in the Punjab region.[458] [459]

A kurta, which traces its roots to Central Asian nomadic tunics, has evolved stylistically in India as a garment for everyday wear as well as for formal occasions.[451] It is traditionally made of cotton or silk; it is worn plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan; and it can be loose or tight in the torso, typically falling either just above or somewhere below the wearer's knees.[460] The sleeves of a traditional kurta fall to the wrist without narrowing, the ends hemmed but not cuffed; the kurta can be worn by both men and women; it is traditionally collarless, though standing collars are increasingly popular; and it can be worn over ordinary pyjamas, loose shalwars, churidars, or less traditionally over jeans.[460]

In the last 50 years, fashions have changed a great deal in India. Increasingly, in urban settings in northern India, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, transformed instead into one for formal occasions.[461] The traditional shalwar kameez is rarely worn by younger women, who favour churidars or jeans.[461] The kurtas worn by young men usually fall to the shins and are seldom plain. In white-collar office settings, ubiquitous air conditioning allows men to wear sports jackets year-round.[461] For weddings and formal occasions, men in the middle- and upper classes often wear bandgala, or short Nehru jackets, with pants, with the groom and his groomsmen sporting sherwanis and churidars.[461] The dhoti, the once universal garment of Hindu India, the wearing of which in the homespun and handwoven form of khadi allowed Gandhi to bring Indian nationalism to the millions,[462] is seldom seen in the cities,[461] reduced now, with brocaded border, to the liturgical vestments of Hindu priests.

Cuisine

South Indian vegetarian thali, or platter
An Assamese thali
Home-cooked lunch delivered to the office by the tiffin wallah

Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit. Indian foodways have been influenced by religion, in particular Hindu cultural choices and traditions.[463] They have been also shaped by Islamic rule, particularly that of the Mughals, by the arrival of the Portuguese on India's southwestern shores, and by British rule. These three influences are reflected, respectively, in the dishes of pilaf and biryani; the vindaloo; and the tiffin and the Railway mutton curry.[464] Earlier, the Columbian exchange had brought the potato, the tomato, maize, peanuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, guavas, and most notably, chilli peppers, to India. Each became staples of use.[465] In turn, the spice trade between India and Europe was a catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.[466]

The cereals grown in India, their choice, times, and regions of planting, correspond strongly to the timing of India's monsoons, and the variation across regions in their associated rainfall.[467] In general, the broad division of cereal zones in India, as determined by their dependence on rain, was firmly in place before the arrival of artificial irrigation.[467] Rice, which requires a lot of water, has been grown traditionally in regions of high rainfall in the northeast and the western coast, wheat in regions of moderate rainfall, like India's northern plains, and millet in regions of low rainfall, such as on the Deccan Plateau and in Rajasthan.[468][467]

The foundation of a typical Indian meal is a cereal cooked in plain fashion, and complemented with flavourful savoury dishes.[469] The latter includes lentils, pulses and vegetables spiced commonly with ginger and garlic, but also more discerningly with a combination of spices that may include coriander, cumin, turmeric, cinnamon, cardamon and others as informed by culinary conventions.[469] In an actual meal, this mental representation takes the form of a platter, or thali, with a central place for the cooked cereal, peripheral ones, often in small bowls, for the flavourful accompaniments, and the simultaneous, rather than piecemeal, ingestion of the two in each act of eating, whether by actual mixing—for example of rice and lentils—or in the folding of one—such as bread—around the other, such as cooked vegetables.[469]

A tandoor chef in the Turkman Gate, Old Delhi, makes Khameeri roti (a Muslim-influenced style of leavened bread).[470]

A notable feature of Indian food is the existence of a number of distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents.[471] The appearance of ahimsa, or the avoidance of violence toward all forms of life in many religious orders early in Indian history, especially Upanishadic Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, is thought to have been a notable factor in the prevalence of vegetarianism among a segment of India's Hindu population, especially in southern India, Gujarat, and the Hindi-speaking belt of north-central India, as well as among Jains.[471] Among these groups, strong discomfort is felt at thoughts of eating meat,[472] and contributes to the low proportional consumption of meat to overall diet in India.[472] Unlike China, which has increased its per capita meat consumption substantially in its years of increased economic growth, in India the strong dietary traditions have contributed to dairy, rather than meat, becoming the preferred form of animal protein consumption accompanying higher economic growth.[473]

In the last millennium, the most significant import of cooking techniques into India occurred during the Mughal Empire. The cultivation of rice had spread much earlier from India to Central and West Asia; however, it was during Mughal rule that dishes, such as the pilaf,[468] developed in the interim during the Abbasid caliphate,[474] and cooking techniques such as the marinating of meat in yogurt, spread into northern India from regions to its northwest.[475] To the simple yogurt marinade of Persia, onions, garlic, almonds, and spices began to be added in India.[475] Rice grown to the southwest of the Mughal capital, Agra, which had become famous in the Islamic world for its fine grain, was partially cooked and layered alternately with the sauteed meat, the pot sealed tightly, and slow cooked according to another Persian cooking technique, to produce what has today become the Indian biryani,[475] a feature of festive dining in many parts of India.[476] In food served in restaurants in urban north India, and internationally, the diversity of Indian food has been partially concealed by the dominance of Punjabi cuisine. This was caused in large part by an entrepreneurial response among people from the Punjab region who had been displaced by the 1947 partition of India, and had arrived in India as refugees.[471] The identification of Indian cuisine with the tandoori chicken—cooked in the tandoor oven, which had traditionally been used for baking bread in the rural Punjab and the Delhi region, especially among Muslims, but which is originally from Central Asia—dates to this period.[471]

Sports and recreation

Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.

Cricket is the most popular sport in India.[477] Major domestic competitions include the Indian Premier League, which is the most-watched cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.[478]

Several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as Kalarippayattu, musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters.[479][480] Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.[481]

The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country.[482] India has a comparatively strong presence in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships, and the Commonwealth Games.[483][484] Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton[485] (Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top-ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing,[486] and wrestling.[487] Football is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and the north-eastern states.[488]

Girls play hopscotch in Jaora, Madhya Pradesh. Hopscotch has been commonly played by girls in rural India.[489]

India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games; the 1987, 1996, and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy; the 2010 Hockey World Cup; the 2010 Commonwealth Games; and the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Chennai Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014.[490] India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date.[491]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it."(Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
  2. ^ According to Part XVII of the Constitution of India, Hindi in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Union, along with English as an additional official language.[5][1][6] States and union territories can have a different official language of their own other than Hindi or English.
  3. ^ Different sources give widely differing figures, primarily based on how the terms "language" and "dialect" are defined and grouped. Ethnologue, produced by the Christian evangelist organisation SIL International, lists 461 tongues for India (out of 6,912 worldwide), 447 of which are living, while 14 are extinct.[12][13]
  4. ^ "The country's exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 km2 (1,269,220 sq mi) and the total land area as 3,060,500 km2 (1,181,700 sq mi); the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) and total land area as 2,973,190 km2 (1,147,960 sq mi)."(Library of Congress 2004).
  5. ^ See Date and time notation in India.
  6. ^ The Government of India also regards Afghanistan as a bordering country, as it considers all of Kashmir to be part of India. However, this is disputed, and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Source: "Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  7. ^ "A Chinese pilgrim also recorded evidence of the caste system as he could observe it. According to this evidence the treatment meted out to untouchables such as the Chandalas was very similar to that which they experienced in later periods. This would contradict assertions that this rigid form of the caste system emerged in India only as a reaction to the Islamic conquest."[35]
  8. ^ "Shah Jahan eventually sent her body 800 km (500 mi) to Agra for burial in the Rauza-i Munauwara ("Illuminated Tomb") – a personal tribute and a stone manifestation of his imperial power. This tomb has been celebrated globally as the Taj Mahal."[43]
  9. ^ The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir; however, the Government of India regards the entire region of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the latitude 37° 6′ to its northernmost point.
  10. ^ A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographical region which has more than 1,500 vascular plant species, but less than 30% of its primary habitat.[190]
  11. ^ A forest cover is moderately dense if between 40% and 70% of its area is covered by its tree canopy.
  12. ^ In 2015, the World Bank raised its international poverty line to $1.90 per day.[333]
  13. ^ Besides specific religions, the last two categories in the 2011 Census were "Other religions and persuasions" (0.65%) and "Religion not stated" (0.23%).

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    John Da Graça (2017), Heads of State and Government, London: Macmillan, p. 421, ISBN 978-1-349-65771-1 "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya (Hindi)";
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    Penguin Compact Atlas of the World, Penguin, 2012, p. 140, ISBN 978-0-7566-9859-1 "Official name: Republic of India";
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  24. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 1, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8, Modern human beings—Homo sapiens—originated in Africa. Then, intermittently, sometime between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, tiny groups of them began to enter the north-west of the Indian subcontinent. It seems likely that initially they came by way of the coast. ... it is virtually certain that there were Homo sapiens in the subcontinent 55,000 years ago, even though the earliest fossils that have been found of them date to only about 30,000 years before the present. (page 1)
    (b) Michael D. Petraglia; Bridget Allchin (22 May 2007). The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4020-5562-1. Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by modern humans originating in Africa. ... Coalescence dates for most non-European populations average to between 73–55 ka.
    (c)Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 23, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2, Scholars estimate that the first successful expansion of the Homo sapiens range beyond Africa and across the Arabian Peninsula occurred from as early as 80,000 years ago to as late as 40,000 years ago, although there may have been prior unsuccessful emigrations. Some of their descendants extended the human range ever further in each generation, spreading into each habitable land they encountered. One human channel was along the warm and productive coastal lands of the Persian Gulf and northern Indian Ocean. Eventually, various bands entered India between 75,000 years ago and 35,000 years ago. (page 23)
  25. ^ Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, p. 28, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8
  26. ^ (a) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, pp. 4–5, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8; (b) Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 33, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2
  27. ^ (a) Lowe, John J. (2015). Participles in Rigvedic Sanskrit: The syntax and semantics of adjectival verb forms. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-19-100505-3. (The Rigveda) consists of 1,028 hymns (suktas), highly crafted poetic compositions originally intended for recital during rituals and for the invocation of and communication with the Indo-Aryan gods. Modern scholarly opinion largely agrees that these hymns were composed between around 1500 BCE and 1200 BCE, during the eastward migration of the Indo-Aryan tribes from the mountains of what is today northern Afghanistan across the Punjab into north India.,
    Witzel, Michael (2008). "Vedas and Upanisads". In Gavin Flood (ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 68–70. ISBN 978-0-470-99868-7. It is known from internal evidence that the Vedic texts were orally composed in northern India, at first in the Greater Punjab and later on also in more eastern areas, including northern Bihar, between ca. 1500 BCE and ca. 500–400 BCE. The oldest text, the Rgveda, must have been more or less contemporary with the Mitanni texts of northern Syria/Iraq (1450–1350 BCE); ... The Vedic texts were orally composed and transmitted, without the use of script, in an unbroken line of transmission from teacher to student that was formalized early on. This ensured an impeccable textual transmission superior to the classical texts of other cultures; it is in fact something of a tape-recording of ca. 1500–500 BCE. Not just the actual words, but even the long-lost musical (tonal) accent (as in old Greek or in Japanese) has been preserved up to the present. (pp. 68–69) ... The RV text was composed before the introduction and massive use of iron, that is before ca. 1200–1000 BCE. (p. 70)
    (c) Doniger, Wendy (3 February 2014), On Hinduism, Oxford University Press, pp. xviii, 10, ISBN 978-0-19-936009-3, A Chronology of Hinduism: ca. 1500-1000 BCE Rig Veda; ca. 1200-900 BCE Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda (p. xviii); Hindu texts began with the Rig Veda ('Knowledge of Verses'), composed in northwest India around 1500 BCE (p. 10)
    (d) Ludden, David (2013), India and South Asia: A Short History, Oneworld Publications, p. 19, ISBN 978-1-78074-108-6, In Punjab, a dry region with grasslands watered by five rivers (hence ‘panch’ and ‘ab’) draining the western Himalayas, one prehistoric culture left no material remains, but some of its ritual texts were preserved orally over the millennia. The culture is called Aryan, and evidence in its texts indicates that it spread slowly south-east, following the course of the Yamuna and Ganga Rivers. Its elite called itself Arya (pure) and distinguished themselves sharply from others. Aryans led kin groups organized as nomadic horse-herding tribes. Their ritual texts are called Vedas, composed in Sanskrit. Vedic Sanskrit is recorded only in hymns that were part of Vedic rituals to Aryan gods. To be Aryan apparently meant to belong to the elite among pastoral tribes. Texts that record Aryan culture are not precisely datable, but they seem to begin around 1200 BCE with four collections of Vedic hymns (Rg, Sama, Yajur, and Artharva).
    (e) Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, pp. 14–15, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8 Quote: "Although the collapse of the Indus valley civilization is no longer believed to have been due to an ‘Aryan invasion’ it is widely thought that, at roughly the same time, or perhaps a few centuries later, new Indo-Aryan-speaking people and influences began to enter the subcontinent from the north-west. Detailed evidence is lacking. Nevertheless, a predecessor of the language that would eventually be called Sanskrit was probably introduced into the north-west sometime between 3,900 and 3,000 years ago. This language was related to one then spoken in eastern Iran; and both of these languages belonged to the Indo-European language family. ... It seems likely that various small-scale migrations were involved in the gradual introduction of the predecessor language and associated cultural characteristics. However, there may not have been a tight relationship between movements of people on the one hand, and changes in language and culture on the other. Moreover, the process whereby a dynamic new force gradually arose—a people with a distinct ideology who eventually seem to have referred to themselves as ‘Arya’—was certainly two-way. That is, it involved a blending of new features which came from outside with other features—probably including some surviving Harappan influences—that were already present. Anyhow, it would be quite a few centuries before Sanskrit was written down. And the hymns and stories of the Arya people—especially the Vedas and the later Mahabharata and Ramayana epics—are poor guides as to historical events. Of course, the emerging Arya were to have a huge impact on the history of the subcontinent. Nevertheless, little is known about their early presence.";
    (f) Robb, Peter (2011), A History of India, Macmillan, pp. 46–, ISBN 978-0-230-34549-2, The expansion of Aryan culture is supposed to have begun around 1500 BCE. It should not be thought that this Aryan emergence (though it implies some migration) necessarily meant either a sudden invasion of new peoples, or a complete break with earlier traditions. It comprises a set of cultural ideas and practices, upheld by a Sanskrit-speaking elite, or Aryans. The features of this society are recorded in the Vedas.
  28. ^ (a) Jamison, Stephanie; Brereton, Joel (2020), The Rigveda, Oxford University Press, pp. 2, 4, ISBN 978-0-19-063339-4, The RgVeda is one of the four Vedas, which together constitute the oldest texts in Sanskrit and the earliest evidence for what will become Hinduism. (p. 2) Although Vedic religion is very different in many regards from what is known as Classical Hinduism, the seeds are there. Gods like Visnu and Siva (under the name Rudra), who will become so dominant later, are already present in the Rgveda, though in roles both lesser than and different from those they will later play, and the principal Rgvedic gods like Indra remain in later Hinduism, though in diminished capacity (p. 4).;
    (b) Flood, Gavin (20 August 2020), "Introduction", in Gavin Flood (ed.), The Oxford History of Hinduism: Hindu Practice: Hindu Practice, OUP Oxford, pp. 4–, ISBN 978-0-19-105322-1, I take the term ‘Hinduism to meaningfully denote a range and history of practice characterized by a number of features, particularly reference to Vedic textual and sacrificial origins, belonging to endogamous social units (jati/varna), participating in practices that involve making an offering to a deity and receiving a blessing (puja), and a first-level cultural polytheism (although many Hindus adhere to a second-level monotheism in which many gods are regarded as emanations or manifestations of the one, supreme being).;
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