língua alemã

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alemão
Alemão
Pronúncia[dɔʏtʃ]
RegiãoEuropa de língua alemã
Falantes nativos
95 milhões (2014) [1]
falantes L2 : 80-85 milhões (2014) [1]
Formas iniciais
Formulários padrão
Alemão assinado
Estatuto oficial
Língua oficial em



Linguagem minoritária reconhecida em
Regulado porNenhum regulamento oficial
(Ortografia regulamentada pelo Conselho de Ortografia Alemã ) [2]
Códigos de idioma
ISO 639-1de
ISO 639-2ger (B)
deu (T)
ISO 639-3Diversamente:
deu -  alemão
gmh  -  alemão alto médio
goh  -  alto alemão antigo
gct  -  Colonia Tovar German
bar  -  Baviera
cim  -  Cimbrian
geh  -  Hutterite alemão
ksh  -  Kölsch
nds  -  Low German [nb 1]
sli  -  Baixa Silésia
ltz  -  Luxemburguês [nb 2]
vmf  -  Mainfränkisch
mhn  -  Mòcheno
pfl  -  Palatinado alemão
pdc  -  Pensilvânia Alemão
pdt  -  Plautdietsch [nb 3]
swg  -  Alemão Suábio
gsw  -  Alemão Suíço
uln  - Unserdeutsch
sxu  -  Alto Saxão
wae  -  Walser Alemão
wep  -  Vestefália
hrx  -  Riograndenser Hunsrückisch
yec  -  Yenish
Glottologhigh1289  Alto alemão
fran1268  médio alemão
high1286  Superior alemão
Linguasfera52-ACB–dl (Standard German)
52-AC (Continental West Germanic)
52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch)
52-ACB-d (Central German)
52-ACB-e & -f (Upper and Swiss German)
52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties, including 52-ACB-hc (Hutterite German) & 52-ACB-he (Pennsylvania German etc.)
52-ACB-i (Yenish)
Totalling 285 varieties: 52-ACB-daa to 52-ACB-i
Legal statuses of German in the world.svg
  Língua co-oficial e majoritária
  Co-oficial, mas não idioma majoritário
  Minoria estatutária / linguagem cultural
  Linguagem minoritária não estatutária
Este artigo contém símbolos fonéticos IPA . Sem o suporte de renderização adequado , você pode ver pontos de interrogação, caixas ou outros símbolos em vez de caracteres Unicode . Para obter um guia introdutório aos símbolos IPA, consulte a Ajuda: IPA .

Alemão ( Deutsch , pronunciado [dɔʏtʃ] ( ouvir )About this sound ) [nb 4] é uma língua germânica ocidental falada principalmente na Europa Central . É a língua oficial ou co-oficial mais falada na Alemanha , Áustria , Suíça , Liechtenstein e na província italiana do Tirol do Sul . É também uma língua co-oficial do Luxemburgo e da Bélgica , bem como uma língua nacional da Namíbia. O alemão é mais semelhante a outras línguas no ramo da língua germânica ocidental, incluindo afrikaans , holandês , inglês , as línguas frísias , baixo alemão , luxemburguês , escocês e iídiche . Ele também contém semelhanças no vocabulário com algumas línguas do grupo germânico do norte , como dinamarquês , norueguês e sueco . O alemão é a segunda língua germânica mais falada depois do inglês.

Uma das principais línguas do mundo , o alemão é a língua nativa de quase 100 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e é falado por um total de mais de 130 milhões de pessoas. [5] É a língua nativa mais falada na União Europeia . [1] O alemão também é amplamente ensinado como língua estrangeira , especialmente na Europa, onde é a terceira língua estrangeira mais ensinada (depois do inglês e do francês), e nos Estados Unidos. A linguagem tem sido influente nos campos da filosofia, teologia, ciência e tecnologia. É a segunda linguagem científica mais utilizada e entre as mais utilizadas em websites . Os países de língua alemã estão em quinto lugar em termos de publicação anual de novos livros, com um décimo de todos os livros (incluindo e-books) no mundo sendo publicado em alemão.

O alemão é uma língua flexionada , com quatro casos para substantivos, pronomes e adjetivos (nominativo, acusativo, genitivo, dativo); três gêneros (masculino, feminino, neutro); e dois números (singular, plural). Possui verbos fortes e fracos . A maioria de seu vocabulário deriva do antigo ramo germânico da família de línguas indo-europeias , enquanto uma parcela menor é parcialmente derivada do latim e do grego , junto com menos palavras emprestadas do francês e do inglês moderno .

O alemão é uma língua pluricêntrica ; as três variantes padronizadas são alemão , austríaco e alemão alto padrão suíço . Também é notável por seu amplo espectro de dialetos , com muitas variedades existentes na Europa e em outras partes do mundo. Algumas dessas variedades não padronizadas foram reconhecidas e protegidas por governos regionais ou nacionais.

Classificação

O alemão padrão moderno é uma língua germânica ocidental no ramo germânico das línguas indo-europeias . As línguas germânicas são tradicionalmente subdivididas em três ramos, germânico do norte , germânico oriental e germânico ocidental . O primeiro desses ramos sobrevive no dinamarquês moderno , sueco , norueguês , feroês e islandês , todos descendentes do nórdico antigo . As línguas germânicas orientais estão extintas e o góticoé a única língua neste ramo que sobrevive em textos escritos. As línguas germânicas ocidentais, no entanto, passaram por extensa subdivisão dialetal e agora são representadas em línguas modernas como inglês, alemão, holandês , iídiche , afrikaans e outros. [6]

Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines (running through Düsseldorf-Benrath and Krefeld-Uerdingen, respectively) serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift (south of Benrath) from those that were not (north of Uerdingen). The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects, while those spoken to the north comprise the Low German/Low Saxon and Low Franconian dialects. As members of the West Germanic language family, High German, Low German, and Low Franconian have been proposed to be further distinguished historically as Irminonic, Ingvaeonic, and Istvaeonic, respectively. This classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones (also known as the Elbe group), Ingvaeones (or North Sea Germanic group), and Istvaeones (or Weser-Rhine group).[6]

O alemão padrão é baseado em uma combinação dos dialetos da Turíngia - Saxônia Superior e Francônia Superior, que são dialetos do Alemão Central e do Alemão Superior que pertencem ao grupo de dialetos do Alto Alemão . O alemão está, portanto, intimamente relacionado com as outras línguas baseadas nos dialetos do alto alemão, como o luxemburguês (baseado nos dialetos da Francônia Central ) e o iídiche . Também intimamente relacionados ao alemão padrão estão os dialetos do alemão superior falados nos países de língua alemã do sul , como o alemão suíço ( dialetos alemaníacos) and the various Germanic dialects spoken in the French region of Grand Est, such as Alsatian (mainly Alemannic, but also Central- and Upper Franconian dialects) and Lorraine Franconian (Central Franconian).

After these High German dialects, standard German is less closely related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects (e.g. Dutch and Afrikaans), Low German or Low Saxon dialects (spoken in northern Germany and southern Denmark), neither of which underwent the High German consonant shift. As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic; the differences between these languages and standard German are therefore considerable. Also related to German are the Frisian languages—North Frisian (spoken in Nordfriesland), Saterland Frisian (spoken in Saterland), and West Frisian (spoken in Friesland ) - bem como as línguas anglicanas do inglês e do escocês . Esses dialetos anglo-frísios não participaram da mudança consonantal do alto alemão.

História

Old High German

A história da língua alemã começa com a mudança consonantal do alto alemão durante o período de migração , que separou os antigos dialetos do alto alemão do antigo saxão . Essa mudança de som envolveu uma mudança drástica na pronúncia das consoantes stop sonoras e surdas ( b , d , g e p , t , k , respectivamente). Os principais efeitos da mudança foram os seguintes.

  • As paradas mudas tornaram-se fricativas mudas longas ( geminadas ) após uma vogal;
  • Voiceless stops became affricates in word-initial position, or following certain consonants;
  • Voiced stops became voiceless in certain phonetic settings.[7]
Voiceless stop
following a vowel
Word-initial
voiceless stop
Voiced stop
/p/→/ff/ /p/→/pf/ /b/→/p/
/t/→/ss/ /t/→/ts/ /d/→/t/
/k/→/xx/ /k/→/kx/ /g/→/k/

While there is written evidence of the Old High German language in several Elder Futhark inscriptions from as early as the sixth century AD (such as the Pforzen buckle), the Old High German period is generally seen as beginning with the Abrogans (written c. 765–775), a Latin-German glossary supplying over 3,000 Old High German words with their Latin equivalents. After the Abrogans, the first coherent works written in Old High German appear in the ninth century, chief among them being the Muspilli, the Merseburg Charms, and the Hildebrandslied, and other religious texts (the Georgslied, the Ludwigslied, the Evangelienbuch, and translated hymns and prayers).[7][8] The Muspilli is a Christian poem written in a Bavarian dialect offering an account of the soul after the Last Judgment, and the Merseburg Charms are transcriptions of spells and charms from the pagan Germanic tradition. Of particular interest to scholars, however, has been the Hildebrandslied, a secular epic poem telling the tale of an estranged father and son unknowingly meeting each other in battle. Linguistically this text is highly interesting due to the mixed use of Old Saxon and Old High German dialects in its composition. The written works of this period stem mainly from the Alamanni, Bavarian, and Thuringian groups, all belonging to the Elbe Germanic group (Irminones), which had settled in what is now southern-central Germany and Austria between the second and sixth centuries during the great migration.[7]

In general, the surviving texts of OHG show a wide range of dialectal diversity with very little written uniformity. The early written tradition of OHG survived mostly through monasteries and scriptoria as local translations of Latin originals; as a result, the surviving texts are written in highly disparate regional dialects and exhibit significant Latin influence, particularly in vocabulary.[7] At this point monasteries, where most written works were produced, were dominated by Latin, and German saw only occasional use in official and ecclesiastical writing.

A língua alemã durante o período OHG ainda era predominantemente uma língua falada, com uma ampla gama de dialetos e uma tradição oral muito mais extensa do que a escrita. Tendo acabado de emergir da mudança consonantal do alto alemão, o OHG também era uma língua relativamente nova e volátil, ainda passando por uma série de mudanças fonéticas , fonológicas , morfológicas e sintáticas . A escassez de trabalhos escritos, a instabilidade da linguagem e o analfabetismo generalizado da época explicam a falta de padronização até o final do período OHG em 1050.

Alemão alto médio

While there is no complete agreement over the dates of the Middle High German (MHG) period, it is generally seen as lasting from 1050 to 1350.[9] This was a period of significant expansion of the geographical territory occupied by Germanic tribes, and consequently of the number of German speakers. Whereas during the Old High German period the Germanic tribes extended only as far east as the Elbe and Saale rivers, the MHG period saw a number of these tribes expanding beyond this eastern boundary into Slavic territory (known as the Ostsiedlung) Com o aumento da riqueza e da disseminação geográfica dos grupos germânicos, aumentou o uso do alemão nas cortes dos nobres como a língua padrão dos procedimentos oficiais e da literatura. [9] Um exemplo claro disso é o mittelhochdeutsche Dichtersprache empregado na corte Hohenstaufen na Suábia como uma linguagem escrita supra-dialetal padronizada. Embora esses esforços ainda fossem regionais, o alemão começou a ser usado no lugar do latim para certos fins oficiais, levando a uma necessidade maior de regularidade nas convenções escritas.

Embora as principais mudanças do período MHG fossem socioculturais, o alemão ainda estava passando por mudanças linguísticas significativas na sintaxe, fonética e morfologia (por exemplo, ditongação de certos sons vocálicos: hus (OHG "casa") → haus (MHG), e enfraquecimento de vogais curtas átonas para schwa [ə]: taga (OHG "dias") → tage (MHG)). [10]

Uma grande riqueza de textos sobreviveu do período MHG. Significativamente, esses textos incluem uma série de obras seculares impressionantes, como o Nibelungenlied , um poema épico que conta a história do matador de dragão Siegfried ( c. Século XIII), e o Iwein , um poema em verso arturiano de Hartmann von Aue ( c . 1203), poemas líricos e romances da corte, como Parzival e Tristão . Também digno de nota é o Sachsenspiegel , o primeiro livro de leis escrito no Médio BaixoAlemão ( c. 1220). A abundância e especialmente o caráter secular da literatura do período MHG demonstram os primórdios de uma forma escrita padronizada do alemão, bem como o desejo dos poetas e autores de serem compreendidos pelos indivíduos em termos supra-dialetais.

O período médio-alto alemão geralmente termina quando a Peste Negra de 1346 a 1353 dizimou a população da Europa. [11]

Cedo New alto alemão

Área de língua alemã-holandesa-frísia antes e depois da fuga e expulsão dos alemães (1944–1950) de grande parte da Europa oriental e central. As áreas no leste onde o alemão não é mais falado são marcadas por tons mais claros.

Modern German begins with the Early New High German (ENHG) period, which the influential German philologist Wilhelm Scherer dates 1350–1650, terminating with the end of the Thirty Years' War.[11] This period saw the further displacement of Latin by German as the primary language of courtly proceedings and, increasingly, of literature in the German states. While these states were still under the control of the Holy Roman Empire, and far from any form of unification, the desire for a cohesive written language that would be understandable across the many German-speaking principalities and kingdoms was stronger than ever. As a spoken language German remained highly fractured throughout this period, with a vast number of often mutually incomprehensible regional dialects being spoken throughout the German states; the invention of the printing press c. 1440 and the publication of Luther's vernacular translation of the Bible in 1534, however, had an immense effect on standardizing German as a supra-dialectal written language.

The ENHG period saw the rise of several important cross-regional forms of chancery German, one being gemeine tiutsch, used in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and the other being Meißner Deutsch, used in the Electorate of Saxony in the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg.[12]

Alongside these courtly written standards, the invention of the printing press led to the development of a number of printers' languages (Druckersprachen) aimed at making printed material readable and understandable across as many diverse dialects of German as possible.[13] The greater ease of production and increased availability of written texts brought about increased standardization in the written form of German.

The widespread popularity of the Bible translated into German by Martin Luther helped establish modern German.

One of the central events in the development of ENHG was the publication of Luther's translation of the Bible into German (the New Testament was published in 1522; the Old Testament was published in parts and completed in 1534). Luther based his translation primarily on the Meißner Deutsch of Saxony, spending much time among the population of Saxony researching the dialect so as to make the work as natural and accessible to German speakers as possible. Copies of Luther's Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region, translating words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Luther said the following concerning his translation method:

One who would talk German does not ask the Latin how he shall do it; he must ask the mother in the home, the children on the streets, the common man in the market-place and note carefully how they talk, then translate accordingly. They will then understand what is said to them because it is German. When Christ says 'ex abundantia cordis os loquitur,' I would translate, if I followed the papists, aus dem Überflusz des Herzens redet der Mund. But tell me is this talking German? What German understands such stuff? No, the mother in the home and the plain man would say, Wesz das Herz voll ist, des gehet der Mund über.[14]

Com a tradução da Bíblia por Lutero no vernáculo, o alemão afirmou-se contra o domínio do latim como uma língua legítima para o assunto cortês, literário e agora eclesiástico. Além disso, sua Bíblia era onipresente nos estados alemães: quase todas as famílias possuíam uma cópia. [15] No entanto, mesmo com a influência da Bíblia de Lutero como um padrão escrito não oficial, um padrão amplamente aceito para o alemão escrito não apareceu até meados do século XVIII. [16]

Império Austríaco

Mapa etnolinguístico da Áustria-Hungria , 1910, com as áreas de língua alemã mostradas em vermelho.

O alemão era a língua do comércio e do governo no Império Habsburgo , que abrangia uma grande área da Europa Central e Oriental. Até meados do século XIX, era essencialmente a língua dos cidadãos da maior parte do Império. Seu uso indicava que o locutor era comerciante ou procedente de zona urbana, independentemente da nacionalidade.

Prague (German: Prag) and Budapest (Buda, German: Ofen), to name two examples, were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain; others, like Pozsony (German: Pressburg, now Bratislava), were originally settled during the Habsburg period and were primarily German at that time. Prague, Budapest, Bratislava, and cities like Zagreb (German: Agram) or Ljubljana (German: Laibach), contained significant German minorities.

Nas províncias orientais de Banat , Bukovina e Transylvania (alemão: Banat, Buchenland, Siebenbürgen ), o alemão era a língua predominante não apenas nas cidades maiores - como Temeschburg ( Timișoara ), Hermannstadt ( Sibiu ) e Kronstadt ( Brașov ) - mas também em muitas localidades menores nas áreas circundantes. [17]

Padronização

O Deutsches Wörterbuch (1854) pelos Irmãos Grimm ajudou a padronizar a ortografia alemã.

The most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch. This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm, and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between 1852 and 1860. In 1872, grammatical and orthographic rules first appeared in the Duden Handbook.[18]

In 1901, the Second Orthographical Conference ended with a complete standardisation of the German language in its written form, and the Duden Handbook was declared its standard definition.[19] The Deutsche Bühnensprache (lit.'German stage language') had established conventions for German pronunciation in theatres[20]três anos antes; no entanto, esse era um padrão artificial que não correspondia a nenhum dialeto tradicional falado. Em vez disso, foi baseado na pronúncia do alemão padrão no norte da Alemanha, embora posteriormente tenha sido considerado frequentemente como uma norma prescritiva geral, apesar das diferentes tradições de pronúncia, especialmente nas regiões de língua alemã superior que ainda caracterizam o dialeto da região hoje - especialmente a pronúncia da desinência -ig as [ɪk] instead of [ɪç]. In Northern Germany, Standard German was a foreign language to most inhabitants, whose native dialects were subsets of Low German. It was usually encountered only in writing or formal speech; in fact, most of Standard German was a written language, not identical to any spoken dialect, throughout the German-speaking area until well into the 19th century.

Official revisions of some of the rules from 1901 were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of 1996 was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries.[21] Media and written works are now almost all produced in Standard German (often called Hochdeutsch, "High German") which is understood in all areas where German is spoken.

Distribuição geográfica

Distribuição aproximada de falantes nativos de alemão (assumindo um total arredondado de 95 milhões) em todo o mundo.

  Alemanha (78,3%)
  Áustria (8,4%)
  Suíça (5,6%)
  Brasil (3,2%)
  Itália (Tirol do Sul) (0,4%)
  Outros (4,1%)

Como resultado da diáspora alemã , bem como da popularidade do alemão ensinado como língua estrangeira , [22] [23] a distribuição geográfica dos falantes de alemão (ou "germanófonos") abrange todos os continentes habitados. Uma estimativa de 2020 pela Ethnologue coloca o número total de falantes do alemão padrão em 132 milhões, dos quais mais de 75 milhões são falantes nativos. [5]

However, an exact, global number of native German speakers is complicated by the existence of several varieties whose status as separate "languages" or "dialects" is disputed for political and linguistic reasons, including quantitatively strong varieties like certain forms of Alemannic and Low German.[3] With the inclusion or exclusion of certain varieties, it is estimated that approximately 90–95 million people speak German as a first language,[24][page needed][25] 10–25 million speak it as a second language,[24][page needed] and 75–100 million as a foreign language.[1] This would imply the existence of approximately 175–220 million German speakers worldwide.[26]

Europe

The German language in Europe:
  German Sprachraum: German is the official language (de jure or de facto) and first language of the majority of the population
  German is a co-official language but not the first language of the majority of the population
  German (or a German dialect) is a legally recognized minority language (squares: geographic distribution too dispersed/small for map scale)
  German (or a variety of German) is spoken by a sizeable minority but has no legal recognition
  Most of Austria lies in the Bavarian dialect area; only the very west of the country is
  Alemannic-speaking.
Map shows Austria and South Tyrol, Italy.
  (Swiss) German is one of four national languages of Switzerland, and it is spoken in seven of the country's ten largest cities.
  Luxembourg lies in the Moselle Franconian dialect area.
  In Belgium, German is spoken in the country's German-speaking Community, in the very east of the country.

Em 2012 , cerca de 90 milhões de pessoas, ou 16% da população da União Europeia , falavam alemão como língua materna, tornando-se a segunda língua mais falada no continente depois do russo e a segunda maior língua em termos de falantes em geral ( depois do inglês). [1]

Sprachraum alemão

A área da Europa Central onde a maioria da população fala alemão como primeira língua e tem o alemão como (co-) língua oficial é chamada de " Sprachraum Alemão ". Alemão é o único idioma oficial dos seguintes países:

O alemão é uma língua co-oficial dos seguintes países:

Outside the Sprachraum

Embora as expulsões e a assimilação (forçada) após as duas Guerras Mundiais as tenham diminuído muito, comunidades minoritárias de falantes nativos alemães, em sua maioria bilíngues, existem em áreas adjacentes e separadas do Sprachraum.

Na Europa, o alemão é uma língua minoritária reconhecida nos seguintes países: [27]

In France, the High German varieties of Alsatian and Moselle Franconian are identified as "regional languages", but the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages of 1998 has not yet been ratified by the government.[30]

Africa

Namibia

Bilingual German-English sign at a bakery in Namibia, where German is a national language.

Namibia was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1919. About 30,000 people still speak German as a native tongue today, mostly descendants of German colonial settlers.[31] The period of German colonialism in Namibia also led to the evolution of a Standard German-based pidgin language called "Namibian Black German", which became a second language for parts of the indigenous population. Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it.[32]

German remained a de facto official language of Namibia after the end of German colonial rule alongside English and Afrikaans, and had de jure co-official status from 1984 until its independence from South Africa in 1990. However, the Namibian government perceived Afrikaans and German as symbols of apartheid and colonialism, and decided English would be the sole official language upon independence, stating that it was a "neutral" language as there were virtually no English native speakers in Namibia at that time.[31] German, Afrikaans, and several indigenous languages thus became "national languages" by law, identifying them as elements of the cultural heritage of the nation and ensuring that the state acknowledged and supported their presence in the country.

Hoje, a Namíbia é considerada o único país de língua alemã fora do Sprachraum na Europa. [33] O alemão é usado em uma ampla variedade de esferas em todo o país, especialmente em negócios, turismo e sinalização pública, bem como na educação, igrejas (mais notavelmente a Igreja Evangélica Luterana de língua alemã na Namíbia (GELK) ), outras esferas culturais, como música e mídia (como programas de rádio em alemão da Namibian Broadcasting Corporation ). O Allgemeine Zeitung é um dos três maiores jornais da Namíbia e o único diário em alemão na África. [31]

África do Sul

An estimated 12,000 people speak German or a German variety as a first language in South Africa, mostly originating from different waves of immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries.[34] One of the largest communities consists of the speakers of "Nataler Deutsch",[35] a variety of Low German concentrated in and around Wartburg. The South African constitution identifies German as a "commonly used" language and the Pan South African Language Board is obligated to promote and ensure respect for it.[36]

North America

Nos Estados Unidos, o alemão é a quinta língua mais falada em termos de falantes nativos e de segunda língua, depois do inglês, espanhol , francês e chinês (com números para cantonês e mandarim combinados), com mais de 1 milhão de falantes no total. [37] Nos estados de Dakota do Norte e Dakota do Sul , o alemão é a língua mais falada em casa depois do inglês. [38] Como um legado de significativa imigração alemã para o país , nomes geográficos alemães podem ser encontrados em toda a região meio - oeste , como New Ulm eBismarck (North Dakota's state capital).[39]

A number of German varieties have developed in the country and are still spoken today, such as Pennsylvania German and Texas German.

South America

In Brazil, the largest concentrations of German speakers are in the states of Rio Grande do Sul (where Riograndenser Hunsrückisch developed), Santa Catarina, and Espírito Santo.[40]

Os dialetos alemães (nomeadamente hunsrik e Pomerânia oriental ) são línguas reconhecidas nos seguintes municípios do Brasil:

Small concentrations of German-speakers and their descendants are also found in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Venezuela, and Bolivia.[34]

Oceania

In Australia, the state of South Australia experienced a pronounced wave of Prussian immigration in the 1840s (particularly from Silesia region). With the prolonged isolation from other German speakers and contact with Australian English, a unique dialect known as Barossa German developed, spoken predominantly in the Barossa Valley near Adelaide. Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I, due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action. It continued to be used as a first language into the 20th century, but its use is now limited to a few older speakers.[45]

As of the 2013 census, 36,642 people in New Zealand spoke German, mostly descendants of a small wave of 19th century German immigrants, making it the third most spoken European language after English and French and overall the ninth most spoken language.[46]

A German creole named Unserdeutsch was historically spoken in the former German colony of German New Guinea, modern day Papua New Guinea. It is at a high risk of extinction, with only about 100 speakers remaining, and a topic of interest among linguists seeking to revive interest in the language.[47]

As a foreign language

Conhecimento autorrelatado de alemão como língua estrangeira nos estados membros da UE (+ Turquia ), em porcentagem da população adulta (+15), 2005

Assim como o inglês, o francês e o espanhol, o alemão se tornou uma língua estrangeira padrão em todo o mundo, especialmente no mundo ocidental. [1] [48] ​​O alemão ocupa o segundo lugar, a par com o francês, entre as línguas estrangeiras mais conhecidas na União Europeia (UE), depois do inglês, [1] assim como na Rússia [49] e na Turquia . [1] Em termos de número de alunos em todos os níveis de educação, o alemão ocupa o terceiro lugar na UE (depois do inglês e do francês) [23] e nos Estados Unidos (depois do espanhol e do francês). [22] [50] In 2020, approximately 15.4 million people were enrolled in learning German across all levels of education worldwide. This number has decreased from a peak of 20.1 million in 2000.[51] Within the EU, not counting countries where it is an official language, German as a foreign language is most popular in Eastern and Northern Europe, namely the Czech Republic, Croatia, Denmark, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Sweden, Poland, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1][52] German was once, and to some extent still is, a lingua franca in those parts of Europe.[53]

Standard German

Knowledge of Standard German within the nations of the European Union

The basis of Standard German developed with the Luther Bible and the chancery language spoken by the Saxon court.[54] However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; that is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany but also in major cities in other parts of the country. It is important to note, however, that the colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.

Standard German differs regionally among German-speaking countries in vocabulary and some instances of pronunciation and even grammar and orthography. This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only somewhat influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct. German is thus considered a pluricentric language.

In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties depending on the circumstances.

Varieties

The national and regional standard varieties of German.[55]

In German linguistics, German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German. They differ only slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

In the German-speaking parts of Switzerland, mixtures of dialect and standard are very seldom used, and the use of Standard German is largely restricted to the written language. About 11% of the Swiss residents speak High German (Standard German) at home, but this is mainly due to German immigrants.[56] This situation has been called a medial diglossia. Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, while Austrian German is officially used in the Austrian education system.

A mixture of dialect and standard does not normally occur in Northern Germany either. The traditional varieties there are Low German, whereas Standard German is a High German "variety". Because their linguistic distance is greater, they do not mesh with Standard German the way that High German dialects (such as Bavarian, Swabian, and Hessian) can.

Dialects

The continental West Germanic dialects

The German dialects are the traditional local varieties of the language; many of them are not mutually intelligibile with standard German, and they have great differences in lexicon, phonology, and syntax. If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages (for instance in the Ethnologue). However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics.

The German dialect continuum is traditionally divided most broadly into High German and Low German, also called Low Saxon. However, historically, High German dialects and Low Saxon/Low German dialects do not belong to the same language. Nevertheless, in today's Germany, Low Saxon/Low German is often perceived as a dialectal variation of Standard German on a functional level even by many native speakers. The same phenomenon is found in the eastern Netherlands, as the traditional dialects are not always identified with their Low Saxon/Low German origins, but with Dutch.[citation needed]

The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible. Some dialects are not intelligible to people who know only Standard German. However, all German dialects belong to the dialect continuum of High German and Low Saxon.

Low German and Low Saxon

Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was the predominant language in Northern Germany until the 16th century. In 1534, the Luther Bible was published. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature. Around the same time, the Hanseatic League, a confederation of northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, and the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually, Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated. Today, Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable level of Standard German influence and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch. Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift. However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II. The largest cities in the Low German area are Hamburg and Dortmund.

Low Franconian

In Germany, Low Franconian dialects are spoken in the northwest of North Rhine-Westphalia, along the Lower Rhine. The Low Franconian dialects spoken in Germany are referred to as Low Rhenish. In the north of the German Low Franconian language area, North Low Franconian dialects (also referred to as Cleverlands or as dialects of South Guelderish) are spoken. The South Low Franconian and Bergish dialects, which are spoken in the south of the German Low Franconian language area, are transitional dialects between Low Franconian and Ripuarian dialects.

Os dialetos da Francônia Baixa se enquadram em uma categoria lingüística usada para classificar uma série de variedades históricas e contemporâneas da Germânia Ocidental mais intimamente relacionadas e incluindo a língua holandesa . Conseqüentemente, a grande maioria dos dialetos da Francônia Baixa são falados fora da área de língua alemã, na Holanda e na Bélgica. Durante a Idade Média e o início da Época Moderna , os dialetos da Francônia Baixa agora falados na Alemanha, usavam o holandês médio ou o holandês moderno inicial como língua literária e o Dachsprache. Following a 19th-century change in Prussian language policy, use of Dutch as an official and public language was forbidden; resulting in Standard German taking its place as the region's official language.[57][58] As a result, these dialects are now considered German dialects from a socio-linguistic point of view.[59] Nevertheless, topologically these dialects are structurally and phonologically far more similar to Dutch, than to German and form the both the smallest and most divergent dialect cluster within the contemporary German language area.[60]

High German

The Central German dialects

The High German dialects consist of the Central German, High Franconian, and Upper German dialects. The High Franconian dialects are transitional dialects between Central and Upper German. The High German varieties spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews have several unique features and are considered as a separate language, Yiddish, written with the Hebrew alphabet.

Central German

The Central German dialects are spoken in Central Germany, from Aachen in the west to Görlitz in the east. They consist of Franconian dialects in the west (West Central German) and non-Franconian dialects in the east (East Central German). Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German dialects.

The Franconian, West Central German dialects are the Central Franconian dialects (Ripuarian and Moselle Franconian) and the Rhine Franconian dialects (Hessian and Palatine). These dialects are considered as

Luxembourgish as well as the Transylvanian Saxon dialect spoken in Transylvania are based on Moselle Franconian dialects. The largest cities in the Franconian Central German area are Cologne and Frankfurt.

Further east, the non-Franconian, East Central German dialects are spoken (Thuringian, Upper Saxon and North Upper Saxon-South Markish, and earlier, in the then German-speaking parts of Silesia also Silesian, and in then German southern East Prussia also High Prussian). The largest cities in the East Central German area are Berlin and Leipzig.

High Franconian

The High Franconian dialects are transitional dialects between Central and Upper German. They consist of the East and South Franconian dialects.

O ramo do dialeto da Francônia Oriental é um dos ramos do dialeto mais falado na Alemanha. Esses dialetos são falados na região da Franconia e nas partes centrais da Saxon Vogtland . A Francônia consiste nos distritos bávaros de Alta , Média e Baixa Francônia , a região da Turíngia do Sul ( Turíngia ) e as partes orientais da região de Heilbronn-Franken ( Tauber Franconia e Hohenlohe) em Baden-Württemberg . As maiores cidades na área da Francônia Oriental são Nuremberg e Würzburg.

South Franconian is mainly spoken in northern Baden-Württemberg in Germany, but also in the northeasternmost part of the region of Alsace in France. While these dialects are considered as dialects of German in Baden-Württemberg, they are considered as dialects of Alsatian in Alsace (most Alsatian dialects are Low Alemannic, however). The largest cities in the South Franconian area are Karlsruhe and Heilbronn.

Upper German

The Upper German and High Franconian (transitional between Central and Upper German) dialects

Os dialetos do alemão superior são os dialetos alemaníacos no oeste e os dialetos bávaros no leste.

Alemannic

Os dialetos alemaníacos são falados na Suíça ( alto alemão no densamente povoado planalto suíço , no sul também o alemão mais alto e o alemão baixo em Basel ), Baden-Württemberg ( suábio e alemão baixo, no sudoeste também alemão alto), Suábia bávara ( Suábio, na parte mais ao sudoeste também Alemaníaco baixo), Vorarlberg ( Alemaníaco baixo, alto e alto), Alsácia (Alemaníaco baixo, na parte mais meridional também Alemaníaco alto), Liechtenstein ( Alemaníaco alto e alto) e no distrito tirolês de Reutte (Swabian). The Alemannic dialects are considered as Alsatian in Alsace. The largest cities in the Alemannic area are Stuttgart, Freiburg, Basel and Zürich.

Bavarian

Bavarian dialects are spoken in Austria (Vienna, Lower and Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Salzburg, Burgenland, and in most parts of Tyrol), Bavaria (Upper and Lower Bavaria as well as Upper Palatinate), South Tyrol, southwesternmost Saxony (Southern Vogtlandian), and in the Swiss village of Samnaun. The largest cities in the Bavarian area are Vienna and Munich.

Grammar

German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection, with three grammatical genders; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

Noun inflection

Declension of the Standard High German definite articles
Masc. Neu. Fem. Plural
NOM DER DAS DIE DIE
ACC DEN DAS DIE DIE
DAT DEM DEM DER DEN
GEN DES DES DER DER

German nouns inflect by case, gender, and number:

  • four cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative.
  • three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Word endings sometimes reveal grammatical gender: for instance, nouns ending in -ung (-ing), -schaft (-ship), -keit or heit (-hood, -ness) are feminine, nouns ending in -chen or -lein (diminutive forms) are neuter and nouns ending in -ismus (-ism) are masculine. Others are more variable, sometimes depending on the region in which the language is spoken. And some endings are not restricted to one gender: for example, -er (-er), such as Feier (feminine), celebration, party, Arbeiter (masculine), labourer, and Gewitter (neuter), thunderstorm.
  • two numbers: singular and plural.

This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit, and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English, modern Icelandic, or Russian. The three genders have collapsed in the plural. With four cases and three genders plus plural, there are 16 permutations of case and gender/number of the article (not the nouns), but there are only six forms of the definite article, which together cover all 16 permutations. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns only in the genitive and in the dative (only in fixed or archaic expressions), and even this is losing ground to substitutes in informal speech.[61] Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative, and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular. The plural has an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings (not counting plural markers) exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e.

Na ortografia alemã, os substantivos e a maioria das palavras com a função sintática de substantivos são capitalizados para facilitar aos leitores a determinação da função de uma palavra dentro de uma frase ( Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.  - "Na sexta-feira, fui às compras."; Eines Tages kreuzte er endlich auf.  - "Um dia ele finalmente apareceu.") Essa convenção é quase exclusiva do alemão de hoje (compartilhada talvez apenas pela língua luxemburguesa intimamente relacionada e vários dialetos insulares da língua Frísia do Norte ), mas era historicamente comum em outras línguas, como dinamarquês (que aboliu a capitalização de substantivos em 1948) e inglês.

Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second: Hundehütte ("dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel"). Unlike English, whose newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written "open" with separating spaces, German (like some other Germanic languages) nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus ("tree house"). Like English, German allows arbitrarily long compounds in theory (see also English compounds). The longest German word verified to be actually in (albeit very limited) use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz, which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duties assignment law" [from Rind (cattle), Fleisch (meat), Etikettierung(s) (labelling), Überwachung(s) (supervision), Aufgaben (duties), Übertragung(s) (assignment), Gesetz (law)]. However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward, or even satirical.

Verb inflection

The inflection of standard German verbs includes:

  • two main conjugation classes: weak and strong (as in English). Additionally, there is a third class, known as mixed verbs, whose conjugation combines features of both the strong and weak patterns.
  • three persons: first, second and third.
  • two numbers: singular and plural.
  • three moods: indicative, imperative and subjunctive (in addition to infinitive).
  • two voices: active and passive. The passive voice uses auxiliary verbs and is divisible into static and dynamic. Static forms show a constant state and use the verb ’'to be'’ (sein). Dynamic forms show an action and use the verb "to become'’ (werden).
  • two tenses without auxiliary verbs (present and preterite) and four tenses constructed with auxiliary verbs (perfect, pluperfect, future and future perfect).
  • the distinction between grammatical aspects is rendered by combined use of the subjunctive or preterite marking so the plain indicative voice uses neither of those two markers; the subjunctive by itself often conveys reported speech; subjunctive plus preterite marks the conditional state; and the preterite alone shows either plain indicative (in the past), or functions as a (literal) alternative for either reported speech or the conditional state of the verb, when necessary for clarity.
  • the distinction between perfect and progressive aspect is and has, at every stage of development, been a productive category of the older language and in nearly all documented dialects, but strangely enough it is now rigorously excluded from written usage in its present normalised form.
  • a desambiguação de formulários preenchidos vs. incompletos é amplamente observada e regularmente gerada por prefixos comuns ( blicken [olhar], erblicken [ver - forma não relacionada: sehen ]).

Prefixos verbais

The meaning of basic verbs can be expanded and sometimes radically changed through the use of a number of prefixes. Some prefixes have a specific meaning; the prefix zer- refers to destruction, as in zerreißen (to tear apart), zerbrechen (to break apart), zerschneiden (to cut apart). Other prefixes have only the vaguest meaning in themselves; ver- is found in a number of verbs with a large variety of meanings, as in versuchen (to try) from suchen (to seek), vernehmen (to interrogate) from nehmen (to take), verteilen(distribuir) de teilen (compartilhar), ver stehen (compreender) de stehen (estar).

Outros exemplos incluem o seguinte: haften (para furar), ver haften (para deter); kaufen (para comprar), ver kaufen (para vender); hören (ouvir), auf hören (cessar); fahren (dirigir), er fahren (experimentar).

Many German verbs have a separable prefix, often with an adverbial function. In finite verb forms, it is split off and moved to the end of the clause and is hence considered by some to be a "resultative particle". For example, mitgehen, meaning "to go along", would be split, giving Gehen Sie mit? (Literal: "Go you with?"; Idiomatic: "Are you going along?").

Indeed, several parenthetical clauses may occur between the prefix of a finite verb and its complement (ankommen = to arrive, er kam an = he arrived, er ist angekommen = he has arrived):

Er kam am Freitagabend nach einem harten Arbeitstag und dem üblichen Ärger, der ihn schon seit Jahren immer wieder an seinem Arbeitsplatz plagt, mit fraglicher Freude auf ein Mahl, das seine Frau ihm, wie er hoffte, bereits aufgetischt hatte, endlich zu Hause an.

A selectively literal translation of this example to illustrate the point might look like this:

He "came" on Friday evening, after a hard day at work and the usual annoyances that had time and again been troubling him for years now at his workplace, with questionable joy, to a meal which, as he hoped, his wife had already put on the table, finally home "to".

Word order

A ordem de palavras em alemão geralmente é feita com a restrição de ordem de palavras V2 e também com a restrição de ordem de palavras SOV para as orações principais . Para perguntas sim-não , exclamações e desejos, o verbo finito sempre tem a primeira posição. Nas orações subordinadas, o verbo ocorre no final.

O alemão requer que um elemento verbal (verbo principal ou verbo auxiliar ) apareça em segundo lugar na frase . O verbo é precedido pelo tópico da frase. O elemento em foco aparece no final da frase. Para uma frase sem auxiliar, existem várias possibilidades:

Der alte Mann gab mir gestern das Buch. (O velho me deu ontem o livro; ordem normal)
Das Buch gab mir gestern der alte Mann. (O livro me deu ontem o velho)
Das Buch gab der alte Mann mir gestern. (O livro deu o velho [para] mim ontem)
Das Buch gab mir der alte Mann gestern. (O livro me deu [para] o velho ontem)
Gestern gab mir der alte Mann das Buch. (Ontem me deu [para] o velho o livro, ordem normal)
Mir gab der alte Mann das Buch gestern. ([Para] mim deu ontem o livro ao velho (implicando: como para outra pessoa, era outra data))

A posição de um substantivo em uma frase alemã não tem relação com o fato de ser um sujeito, um objeto ou outro argumento. Em uma frase declarativa em inglês, se o sujeito não ocorrer antes do predicado, a frase pode ser mal interpretada.

No entanto, a ordem flexível das palavras do alemão permite enfatizar palavras específicas:

Ordem normal das palavras:

Der Direktor betrat gestern um 10 Uhr mit einem Schirm in der Hand sein Büro.
O gerente entrou ontem às 10 horas com um guarda-chuva na mão de seu escritório.

Objeto na frente:

Sein Büro betrat der Direktor gestern um 10 Uhr mit einem Schirm in der Hand.
Seu escritório entrou no gerente ontem às 10 horas com um guarda-chuva na mão.
O objeto Sein Büro (seu escritório) é assim destacado; pode ser o tópico da próxima frase.

Advérbio de tempo na frente:

Gestern betrat der Direktor um 10 Uhr mit einem Schirm in der Hand sein Büro. (aber heute ohne Schirm)
Ontem entrou o gerente às 10 horas com um guarda-chuva na mão de seu escritório. (mas hoje sem guarda-chuva)

Ambas as expressões de tempo na frente:

Gestern um 10 Uhr betrat der Direktor mit einem Schirm in der Hand sein Büro .
Ontem às 10 horas entrou o gerente com um guarda-chuva na mão de seu escritório.
A especificação de tempo integral Gestern um 10 Uhr é destacada.

Outra possibilidade:

Gestern um 10 Uhr betrat der Direktor sein Büro mit einem Schirm in der Hand .
Ontem às 10 horas o gerente entrou em seu escritório com um guarda-chuva na mão.
Tanto a especificação de tempo quanto o fato de ele carregar um guarda-chuva são acentuados.

Advérbios trocados:

Der Direktor betrat mit einem Schirm in der Hand gestern um 10 Uhr sein Büro.
O gerente entrou com um guarda-chuva na mão ontem às 10 horas de seu escritório.
Destaca-se a frase mit einem Schirm in der Hand .

Objeto trocado:

Der Direktor betrat gestern um 10 Uhr sein Büro mit einem Schirm in der Hand.
O gerente entrou ontem às 10 horas em seu escritório com um guarda-chuva na mão.
A especificação de tempo e o objeto sein Büro (seu escritório) são levemente acentuados.

A ordem flexível das palavras também permite o uso de "ferramentas" de linguagem (como métrica poética e figuras de linguagem ) de forma mais livre.

Verbos auxiliares

When an auxiliary verb is present, it appears in second position, and the main verb appears at the end. This occurs notably in the creation of the perfect tense. Many word orders are still possible:

Der alte Mann hat mir heute das Buch gegeben. (The old man has me today the book given.)
Das Buch hat der alte Mann mir heute gegeben. (The book has the old man me today given.)
Heute hat der alte Mann mir das Buch gegeben. (Today has the old man me the book given.)

The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself. The auxiliary verb is still in second position.

Gegeben hat mir der alte Mann das Buch heute. ( Dado me tem o velho livro hoje ). O simples fato de que o livro foi dado é enfatizado, bem como 'hoje'.

Verbos modais

Sentences using modal verbs place the infinitive at the end. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?" would be rearranged in German to say "Should he (to) home go?" (Soll er nach Hause gehen?). Thus, in sentences with several subordinate or relative clauses, the infinitives are clustered at the end. Compare the similar clustering of prepositions in the following (highly contrived) English sentence: "What did you bring that book that I do not like to be read to out of up for?"

Multiple infinitives

As orações subordinadas alemãs têm todos os verbos agrupados no final. Dado que os auxiliares codificam futuro , passivo , modalidade e o perfeito , podem ocorrer cadeias muito longas de verbos no final da frase. Nessas construções, o particípio passado formado com ge- é freqüentemente substituído pelo infinitivo.

Man nimmt an, dass der Deserteur wohl erschossen V worden psv sein perf soll mod
Suspeita-se que o desertor provavelmente se tornou o devedor.
("Suspeita-se que o desertor provavelmente tenha sido baleado")
Er wusste nicht, dass der Agent einen Nachschlüssel hatte machen lassen
Ele não sabia que o agente que uma picareta tinha deixado
Er wusste nicht, dass der Agent einen Nachschlüssel machen lassen hatte
Ele não sabia que o agente que uma picareta deixava
("Ele não sabia que o agente mandara fazer uma furadeira")

A ordem no final dessas strings está sujeita a variações, mas a segunda no último exemplo é incomum.

Vocabulário

Volume 1 "Ortografia alemã" da 25ª edição do dicionário Duden

A maior parte do vocabulário alemão é derivado do ramo germânico da família de línguas indo-europeias. [62] No entanto, há uma quantidade significativa de empréstimos de outras línguas, em particular latim , grego , italiano, francês e, mais recentemente, inglês. [63] No início do século 19, Joachim Heinrich Campe estimou que um quinto do vocabulário alemão total era de origem francesa ou latina. [64]

Palavras latinas já foram importadas para o predecessor da língua alemã durante o Império Romano e sofreram todas as mudanças fonéticas características do alemão. Sua origem, portanto, não é mais reconhecível para a maioria dos falantes (por exemplo , Pforte , Tafel , Mauer , Käse , Köln do latim porta , tabula , murus , caseus , Colonia ). O empréstimo do latim continuou após a queda do Império Romano durante a cristianização , mediado pela igreja e mosteiros. Outro importante influxo de palavras latinas pode ser observado duranteRenaissance humanism. In a scholarly context, the borrowings from Latin have continued until today, in the last few decades often indirectly through borrowings from English. During the 15th to 17th centuries, the influence of Italian was great, leading to many Italian loanwords in the fields of architecture, finance, and music. The influence of the French language in the 17th to 19th centuries resulted in an even greater import of French words. The English influence was already present in the 19th century, but it did not become dominant until the second half of the 20th century.

42nd edition of the Österreichisches Wörterbuch ("Austrian Dictionary")

Assim, Notker Labeo foi capaz de traduzir tratados aristotélicos para o alemão puro (alto antigo) nas décadas após o ano 1000. [65] A tradição da tradução por empréstimo foi revitalizada no século 18 com linguistas como Joachim Heinrich Campe , que o introduziu perto de 300 palavras que ainda são usadas no alemão moderno. Ainda hoje, existem movimentos que tentam promover o Ersatz (substituição) de palavras estrangeiras que são consideradas desnecessárias com as alternativas alemãs. [66]

Como no inglês, existem muitos pares de sinônimos devido ao enriquecimento do vocabulário germânico com palavras emprestadas do latim e do grego latinizado. Essas palavras geralmente têm conotações diferentes de suas contrapartes germânicas e geralmente são percebidas como mais eruditas.

  • Historie, historisch  - "história, histórica", ( Geschichte, geschichtlich )
  • Humanität, human  - " humaneness, humane ", ( Menschlichkeit, menschlich ) [nb 5]
  • Millennium  - "milênio", ( Jahrtausend )
  • Percepção  - "percepção", ( Wahrnehmung )
  • Vokabular – "vocabulary", (Wortschatz)
  • Diktionär – "dictionary, wordbook", (Wörterbuch)[nb 6]
  • probieren – "to try", (versuchen)

The size of the vocabulary of German is difficult to estimate. The Deutsches Wörterbuch (German Dictionary) initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over 330,000 headwords in its first edition. The modern German scientific vocabulary is estimated at nine million words and word groups (based on the analysis of 35 million sentences of a corpus in Leipzig, which as of July 2003 included 500 million words in total).[67]

O Duden é o dicionário oficial de fato da língua alemã, publicado pela primeira vez por Konrad Duden em 1880. O Duden é atualizado regularmente, com novas edições aparecendo a cada quatro ou cinco anos. Em agosto de 2017 , estava em sua 27ª edição e em 12 volumes, cada um cobrindo diferentes aspectos, como empréstimos , etimologia , pronúncia , sinônimos e assim por diante. O primeiro desses volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung (Ortografia alemã), há muito é a fonte prescritiva para a grafia do alemão. The Duden
tornou-se a Bíblia da língua alemã, sendo o conjunto definitivo de regras relativas à gramática, ortografia e uso do alemão. [68]

The Österreichisches Wörterbuch ("Austrian Dictionary"), abbreviated ÖWB, is the official dictionary of the German language in the Republic of Austria. It is edited by a group of linguists under the authority of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture (German: Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur). It is the Austrian counterpart to the German Duden and contains a number of terms unique to Austrian German or more frequently used or differently pronounced there.[69] A considerable amount of this "Austrian" vocabulary is also common in Southern Germany, especially Bavaria, and some of it is used in Switzerland as well. Since the 39th edition in 2001 the orthography of the ÖWB has been adjusted to the German spelling reform of 1996. The dictionary is also officially used in the Italian province of South Tyrol.

English to German cognates

This is a selection of cognates in both English and German. Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en, German verbs are indicated by a hyphen after their stems. Words that are written with capital letters in German are nouns.

English German English German English German English German English German English German English German English German
and und arm Arm bear Bär beaver Biber bee Biene beer Bier best best better besser
blink blink- bloom blüh- blue blau barco Bota livro Buch fermentar brau- cervejaria Brauerei Ponte Brücke
testa Braue marrom braun Igreja Kirche frio Kalt legal Kühl Vale Tal barragem Droga dança tanz-
massa Teig Sonhe Traum Sonhe träum- bebida Getränk bebida bugiganga orelha Ohr terra Erde comer ess-
longe samambaia pluma Feder samambaia Farn campo Feld dedo Dedo peixe Fisch pescador Fischer fugir flieh-
voo Flug enchente Flut fluxo fließ- fluxo Fluss voe Fliege voe flieg- para pele vau Furt
quatro vier Raposa Fuchs copo Glas ir geh- ouro Ouro Boa intestino Relva Gras gafanhoto Grashüpfer
verde Grün cinza grau bruxa Hexe saudação Hagel mão Mão duro cervo ódio Hass refúgio Hafen
feno Heu ouvir hör- coração Herz aquecer Hitze charneca Heide Alto hoch mel Honig vespa Hornisse
centenas hundert fome Fome cabana Hütte gelo Eis Rei König beijo Kuss beijo küss- joelho Knie
terra Terra aterrissagem Landung riso lach- mentir, deitar lieg-, lag mentiu, mentiu lüg-, log luz (A) Leicht luz Licht viver Leb-
fígado Leber amar Liebe cara Mann meio Mitte midnight Mitternacht moon Mond moss Moos mouth Mund
mouth (river) Mündung night Nacht nose Nase nut Nuss over über plant Pflanze quack quak- rain Regen
rainbow Regenbogen red rot ring Ring sand Sand say sag- sea See (f) seam Saum seat Sitz
see seh- sheep Schaf shimmer schimmer- shine schein- ship Schiff silver Silber sing sing- sit sitz-
snow Schnee soul Seele speak sprech- spring spring- star Stern stitch Stich stork Storch storm Sturm
stormy stürmisch strand strand- straw Stroh straw bale Strohballen stream Strom stream ström- stutter stotter- summer Sommer
sun Sonne sunny sonnig swan Schwan tell erzähl- that (C) dass the der, die, das, den, dem then dann thirst Durst
thistle Distel thorn Dorn thousand tausend thunder Donner twitter zwitscher- upper ober warm warm wasp Wespe
water Wasser weather Wetter weave web- well Quelle well wohl which welch white weiß wild wild
wind Wind winter Winter wolf Wolf word Wort world Welt yarn Garn year Jahr yellow gelb
English German English German English German English German English German English German English German English German

Orthography

Austria's standardized cursive
Germany's standardized cursive

German is written in the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with an umlaut mark, namely ä, ö and ü, as well as the eszett or scharfes s (sharp s): ß. In Switzerland and Liechtenstein, ss is used instead of ß. Since ß can never occur at the beginning of a word, it has no traditional uppercase form.

Written texts in German are easily recognisable as such by distinguishing features such as umlauts and certain orthographical features – German is the only major language that capitalizes all nouns, a relic of a widespread practice in Northern Europe in the early modern era (including English for a while, in the 1700s) – and the frequent occurrence of long compounds. Because legibility and convenience set certain boundaries, compounds consisting of more than three or four nouns are almost exclusively found in humorous contexts. (In contrast, although English can also string nouns together, it usually separates the nouns with spaces. For example, "toilet bowl cleaner".)

Present

Before the German orthography reform of 1996, ß replaced ss after long vowels and diphthongs and before consonants, word-, or partial-word endings. In reformed spelling, ß replaces ss only after long vowels and diphthongs.

Since there is no traditional capital form of ß, it was replaced by SS when capitalization was required. For example, Maßband (tape measure) became MASSBAND in capitals. An exception was the use of ß in legal documents and forms when capitalizing names. To avoid confusion with similar names, lower case ß was maintained (thus "KREßLEIN" instead of "KRESSLEIN"). Capital ß (ẞ) was ultimately adopted into German orthography in 2017, ending a long orthographic debate (thus "KREẞLEIN and KRESSLEIN").[70]

Umlaut vowels (ä, ö, ü) are commonly transcribed with ae, oe, and ue if the umlauts are not available on the keyboard or other medium used. In the same manner ß can be transcribed as ss. Some operating systems use key sequences to extend the set of possible characters to include, amongst other things, umlauts; in Microsoft Windows this is done using Alt codes. German readers understand these transcriptions (although they appear unusual), but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling. (In Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, city and family names exist where the extra e has a vowel lengthening effect, e.g. Raesfeld [ˈraːsfɛlt], Coesfeld [ˈkoːsfɛlt] and Itzehoe [ɪtsəˈhoː], but this use of the letter e after a/o/u does not occur in the present-day spelling of words other than proper nouns.)

There is no general agreement on where letters with umlauts occur in the sorting sequence. Telephone directories treat them by replacing them with the base vowel followed by an e. Some dictionaries sort each umlauted vowel as a separate letter after the base vowel, but more commonly words with umlauts are ordered immediately after the same word without umlauts. As an example in a telephone book Ärzte occurs after Adressenverlage but before Anlagenbauer (because Ä is replaced by Ae). In a dictionary Ärzte comes after Arzt, but in some dictionaries Ärzte and all other words starting with Ä may occur after all words starting with A. In some older dictionaries or indexes, initial Sch and St are treated as separate letters and are listed as separate entries after S, but they are usually treated as S+C+H and S+T.

Written German also typically uses an alternative opening inverted comma (quotation mark) as in „Guten Morgen!“.

Past

A Russian dictionary from 1931, showing the "German alphabet" – the 3rd and 4th columns of each half are Fraktur and Kurrent respectively, with the footnote explaining ligatures used in Fraktur.

Until the early 20th century, German was printed in blackletter typefaces (in Fraktur, and in Schwabacher), and written in corresponding handwriting (for example Kurrent and Sütterlin). These variants of the Latin alphabet are very different from the serif or sans-serif Antiqua typefaces used today, and the handwritten forms in particular are difficult for the untrained to read. The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for Germanic languages.[citation needed][71] The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan, but they abolished them in 1941, claiming that these letters were Jewish.[72] It is believed that the Nazi régime had banned this script,[who?] as they realized that Fraktur would inhibit communication in the territories occupied during World War II.[73]

The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.

A proper use of the long s (langes s), ſ, is essential for writing German text in Fraktur typefaces. Many Antiqua typefaces also include the long s. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting. Any lower case "s" at the beginning of a syllable would be a long s, as opposed to a terminal s or short s (the more common variation of the letter s), which marks the end of a syllable; for example, in differentiating between the words Wachſtube (guard-house) and Wachstube (tube of polish/wax). One can easily decide which "s" to use by appropriate hyphenation, (Wach-ſtube vs. Wachs-tube). The long s only appears in lower case.

Orthography Reform

The orthography reform of 1996 led to public controversy and considerable dispute. The states (Bundesländer) of North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria refused to accept it. At one point, the dispute reached the highest court, which quickly dismissed it, claiming that the states had to decide for themselves and that only in schools could the reform be made the official rule – everybody else could continue writing as they had learned it. After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in 2006, just in time for the coming school year. In 2007, some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in 2008, many of the old comma rules were again put in force.

The most noticeable change was probably in the use of the letter ß, called scharfes s (Sharp S) or ess-zett (pronounced ess-tsett). Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:

  1. After a long vowel or vowel combination;
  2. Before a t;
  3. At the end of a syllable.

Examples are Füße, paßt, and daß. Currently, only the first rule is in effect, making the correct spellings Füße, passt, and dass. The word Fuß 'foot' has the letter ß because it contains a long vowel, even though that letter occurs at the end of a syllable. The logic of this change is that an 'ß' is a single letter whereas 'ss' are two letters, so the same distinction applies as (for example) between the words den and denn.

Phonology

Vowels

Spoken German in Goethe's Faust

In German, vowels (excluding diphthongs; see below) are either short or long, as follows:

A Ä E I O Ö U Ü
Short /a/ /ɛ/ /ɛ/, /ə/ /ɪ/ /ɔ/ /œ/ /ʊ/ /ʏ/
Long /aː/ /ɛː/, /eː/ /eː/ /iː/ /oː/ /øː/ /uː/ /yː/

Short /ɛ/ is realized as [ɛ] in stressed syllables (including secondary stress), but as [ə] in unstressed syllables. Note that stressed short /ɛ/ can be spelled either with e or with ä (for instance, hätte 'would have' and Kette 'chain' rhyme). In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. The one exception is the open /ɛː/ sound of long Ä; in some varieties of standard German, /ɛː/ and /eː/ have merged into [eː], removing this anomaly. In that case, pairs like Bären/Beeren 'bears/berries' or Ähre/Ehre 'spike (of wheat)/honour' become homophonous (see: Captain Bluebear).

In many varieties of standard German, an unstressed /ɛr/ is not pronounced [ər] but vocalised to [ɐ].

Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:

  • If a vowel (other than i) is at the end of a syllable or followed by a single consonant, it is usually pronounced long (e.g. Hof [hoːf]).
  • If a vowel is followed by h or if an i is followed by an e, it is long.
  • If the vowel is followed by a double consonant (e.g. ff, ss or tt), ck, tz or a consonant cluster (e.g. st or nd), it is nearly always short (e.g. hoffen [ˈhɔfən]). Double consonants are used only for this function of marking preceding vowels as short; the consonant itself is never pronounced lengthened or doubled, in other words this is not a feeding order of gemination and then vowel shortening.

Both of these rules have exceptions (e.g. hat [hat] "has" is short despite the first rule; Mond [moːnt] "moon" is long despite the second rule). For an i that is neither in the combination ie (making it long) nor followed by a double consonant or cluster (making it short), there is no general rule. In some cases, there are regional differences. In central Germany (Hesse), the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short. The same applies to the e in the geographical name "Mecklenburg" for people in that region. The word Städte "cities" is pronounced with a short vowel [ˈʃtɛtə] by some (Jan Hofer, ARD Television) and with a long vowel [ˈʃtɛːtə] by others (Marietta Slomka, ZDF Television). Finally, a vowel followed by ch can be short (Fach [fax] "compartment", Küche [ˈkʏçə] "kitchen") or long (Suche [ˈzuːxə] "search", Bücher [ˈbyːçɐ] "books") almost at random. Thus, Lache is homographous between [laːxə] Lache "puddle" and [laxə] Lache "manner of laughing" (colloquial) or lache! "laugh!" (imperative).

German vowels can form the following digraphs (in writing) and diphthongs (in pronunciation); note that the pronunciation of some of them (ei, äu, eu) is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters:

Spelling ai, ei, ay, ey au äu, eu
Pronunciation /aɪ̯/ /aʊ̯/ /ɔʏ̯/

Additionally, the digraph ie generally represents the phoneme /iː/, which is not a diphthong. In many varieties, an /r/ at the end of a syllable is vocalised. However, a sequence of a vowel followed by such a vocalised /r/ is not a phonemic diphthong: Bär [bɛːɐ̯] "bear", er [eːɐ̯] "he", wir [viːɐ̯] "we", Tor [toːɐ̯] "gate", kurz [kʊɐ̯ts] "short", Wörter [vœɐ̯tɐ] "words".

In most varieties of standard German, syllables that begin with a vowel are preceded by a glottal stop [ʔ].

Consonants

With approximately 26 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages. One of the more noteworthy ones is the unusual affricate /p͡f/. The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below.

Labial Alveolar Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p3  b t3  d k3  ɡ
Affricate pf ts   ()4
Fricative f  v s  z ʃ  (ʒ)4 x1 (ʁ)2 h
Trill r2 (ʀ)2
Approximant l j
  • 1/x/ has two allophones, [x] and [ç], after back and front vowels, respectively.
  • 2/r/ has three allophones in free variation: [r], [ʁ] and [ʀ]. In the syllable coda, the allophone [ɐ] is found in many varieties.
  • 3 The voiceless stops /p/, /t/, /k/ are aspirated except when preceded by a sibilant, identical to English usage.
  • 4/d͡ʒ/ and /ʒ/ occur only in words of foreign (usually English or French) origin.
  • Where a stressed syllable has an initial vowel, it is preceded by [ʔ]. As its presence is predictable from context, [ʔ] is not considered a phoneme.

Consonant spellings

  • c standing by itself is not a German letter. In borrowed words, it is usually pronounced [t͡s] (before ä, äu, e, i, ö, ü, y) or [k] (before a, o, u, and consonants). The combination ck is, as in English, used to indicate that the preceding vowel is short.
  • ch occurs often and is pronounced either [ç] (after ä, ai, äu, e, ei, eu, i, ö, ü and consonants; in the diminutive suffix -chen; and at the beginning of a word), [x] (after a, au, o, u), or [k] at the beginning of a word before a, o, u and consonants. Ch never occurs at the beginning of an originally German word. In borrowed words with initial Ch before front vowels (Chemie "chemistry" etc.), [ç] is considered standard.[clarification needed] However, Upper Germans and Franconians (in the geographical sense) replace it with [k], as German as a whole does before darker vowels and consonants such as in Charakter, Christentum. Middle Germans (except Franconians) will borrow a [ʃ] from the French model. Both consider the other's variant, and Upper Germans also the standard [ç], to be particularly awkward and unusual.
  • dsch is pronounced [d͡ʒ] (e.g. Dschungel /ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl/ "jungle") but appears in a few loanwords only.
  • f is pronounced [f] as in "father".
  • h is pronounced [h] as in "home" at the beginning of a syllable. After a vowel it is silent and only lengthens the vowel (e.g. Reh [ʁeː] = roe deer).
  • j is pronounced [j] in Germanic words (Jahr [jaːɐ̯]) like "y" in "year". In recent loanwords, it follows more or less the respective languages' pronunciations.
  • l is always pronounced [l], never *[ɫ] (the English "dark L").
  • q only exists in combination with u and is pronounced [kv]. It appears in both Germanic and Latin words (quer [kveːɐ̯]; Qualität [kvaliˈtɛːt]). But as most words containing q are Latinate, the letter is considerably rarer in German than it is in English.
  • r is usually pronounced in a guttural fashion (a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] or uvular trill [ʀ]) in front of a vowel or consonant (Rasen [ˈʁaːzən]; Burg [bʊʁk]). In spoken German, however, it is commonly vocalised after a vowel (er being pronounced rather like [ˈɛɐ̯] – Burg [bʊɐ̯k]). In some varieties, the r is pronounced as a "tongue-tip" r (the alveolar trill [r]).
  • s in German is pronounced [z] (as in "zebra") if it forms the syllable onset (e.g. Sohn [zoːn]), otherwise [s] (e.g. Bus [bʊs]). In Austria, Switzerland, and Southern Germany, [s] occurs at syllable onset as well. A ss [s] indicates that the preceding vowel is short. st and sp at the beginning of words of German origin are pronounced [ʃt] and [ʃp], respectively.
  • ß (a letter unique to German called scharfes S or Eszett) is a ligature of a Long S (ſ) and a tailed z (ʒ) and is always pronounced [s]. Originating in Blackletter typeface, it traditionally replaced ss at the end of a syllable (e.g. ich mussich muß; ich müssteich müßte); within a word it contrasts with ss [s] in indicating that the preceding vowel is long (compare in Maßen [ɪn ˈmaːsən] "with moderation" and in Massen [ɪn ˈmasən] "in loads"). The use of ß has recently been limited by the latest German spelling reform and is no longer used for ss after a short vowel (e.g. ich muß and ich müßte were always pronounced with a short U/Ü); Switzerland and Liechtenstein already abolished it in 1934.[74]
  • sch is pronounced [ʃ] (like "sh" in "shine").
  • tsch is pronounced [tʃ] (like "ch" in "cherry")
  • tion in Latin loanwords is pronounced [tsi̯oːn].
  • th is found, rarely, in loanwords and is pronounced [t] if the loanword is from Greek, and usually as in the original if the loanword is from English (though some, mostly older, speakers tend to replace the English th-sound with [s]).
  • v is pronounced [f] in a limited number of words of Germanic origin, such as Vater [ˈfaːtɐ], Vogel "bird", von "from, of", vor "before, in front of", voll "full" and the prefix ver-. It is also used in loanwords, where it is normally pronounced [v]. This pronunciation is common in words like Vase, Vikar, Viktor, Viper, Ventil, vulgär, and English loanwords; however, pronunciation is [f] by some people in the deep south. The only non-German word in which "v" is always pronounced "f" is Eva (Eve).
  • w is pronounced [v] as in "vacation" (e.g. was [vas]).
  • y is pronounced as [y] when long and [ʏ] when short (as in Hygiene [hyɡi̯ˈeːnə] ; Labyrinth [labyˈʁɪnt] or Gymnasium /ɡʏmˈnaːzi̯ʊm/), except in ay and ey which are both pronounced [aɪ̯]. It is also often used in loanwords and pronounced as in the original language, like Style or Recycling.
  • z is always pronounced [t͡s] (e.g. zog [t͡soːk]), except in loanwords. A tz indicates that the preceding vowel is short.

Consonant shifts

German does not have any dental fricatives (as English th). The th sound, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and 10th centuries.[75] It is sometimes possible to find parallels between English and German by replacing the English th with d in German: "Thank" → in German Dank, "this" and "that" → dies and das, "thou" (old 2nd person singular pronoun) → du, "think" → denken, "thirsty" → durstig and many other examples.

Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English (as an f or not at all), can often be linked to German ch: "to laugh" → lachen, "through" → durch, "high" → hoch, "naught" → nichts, "light" → leicht or Licht, "sight" → Sicht, "daughter" → Tochter, "neighbour" → Nachbar.

Literature

The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages, with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach. The Nibelungenlied, whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Reformer and theologian Martin Luther, who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language. Among the best-known poets and authors in German are Lessing, Goethe, Schiller, Kleist, Hoffmann, Brecht, Heine, and Kafka. Fourteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: Theodor Mommsen, Rudolf Christoph Eucken, Paul von Heyse, Gerhart Hauptmann, Carl Spitteler, Thomas Mann, Nelly Sachs, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll, Elias Canetti, Günter Grass, Elfriede Jelinek, Herta Müller and Peter Handke, making it the second most awarded linguistic region (together with French) after English.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
(1749–1832)
Friedrich Schiller
(1759–1805)
Brothers Grimm
(1785–1863)
Thomas Mann
(1875–1955)
Hermann Hesse
(1877–1962)
Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein - Goethe in the Roman Campagna - Google Art Project.jpg Gerhard von Kügelgen 001.jpg Grimm1.jpg Thomas Mann 1929.jpg Hermann Hesse 1927 Photo Gret Widmann.jpg

Loanwords from German to English

English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling (aside from frequently eliminating umlauts and not capitalizing nouns):

German word English loanword Definition of German word
abseilen (v.) abseil to descend by rope / to fastrope
Angst angst fear
Ansatz ansatz onset / entry / math / approach
Anschluss anschluss[dubious ] connection / access / annexation
Automat automat automation / machine
Bildungsroman bildungsroman novel concerned with the personal development or education of the protagonist
Blitz blitz flash / lightning
Blitzkrieg blitzkrieg lit.'lightning war': military strategy
Bratwurst bratwurst fried sausage
Delikatessen delicatessen delicious food items
Dirndl dirndl lit "young woman": type of feminine dress
Doppelgänger doppelganger lit. "double going / living person alive", look-alike of somebody
Dramaturg dramaturge professional position within a theatre or opera company that deals mainly with research and development of plays or operas
Edelweiß or Edelweiss (Swiss spelling) edelweiss edelweiss flower
Ersatz ersatz lit. "replacement", typically used to refer to an inferior substitute for a desired substance or item
Fest fest feast / celebration
Flugabwehrkanone flak lit. "flight defence gun": anti-aircraft gun, abbreviated as FlaK
Frankfurter frankfurt(er) demonym of Frankfurt am Main
Gedankenexperiment gedankenexperiment thought experiment
Geländesprung gelandesprung[dubious ] ski jumping for distance on alpine equipment
Gemütlichkeit gemütlichkeit snug feeling, cosiness, good nature, geniality
Gestalt gestalt form or shape / creature / scheme; a concept of 'wholeness' (etymologically die Gestalt is the past participle of stellen used as an abstract noun, i.e. the same form as contemporary die Gestellte)[76]
Gesundheit! Gesundheit! (Amer.) health / bless you! (when someone sneezes)
Glockenspiel glockenspiel percussion instrument
Hamburger hamburger & other burgers demonym of Hamburg
Heiligenschein heiligenschein lit. "saints' light": halo (as a religious term)
Hinterland hinterland lit.'(military) area behind the front-line': interior / backwoods
kaputt kaput out of order, not working
Katzenjammer katzenjammer lit. "cats' lament": hangover, crapulence
Kindergarten kindergarten lit. "children's garden" – nursery or preschool
Kitsch kitsch fake art, something produced exclusively for sale
Kobold kobold, cobalt small supernatural being
Kraut kraut[dubious ] herb, cabbage in some dialects
Kulturkampf kulturkampf cultural war
Leitmotiv leitmotif guiding theme (the verb leiten means "to guide, to lead")
Nationalsozialismus nazi national socialism
Nixe nixie water spirit
Panzer panzer lit. "armour": tank
plündern (v.) to plunder lit. "taking goods by force" (original meaning "to take away furniture" shifted in German and both borrowed by English during the Thirty Years War)
Poltergeist poltergeist lit. "rumbling ghost"
Realpolitik realpolitik diplomacy based on practical objectives rather than ideals
Reich reich[dubious ] empire or realm
Rucksack rucksack backpack (RuckRücken which means "back")
Sauerkraut sauerkraut shredded and salted cabbage fermented in its own juice
Schadenfreude schadenfreude taking pleasure in someone else's misfortune, gloating
Spiel spiel lit. "game / play": sales pitch / lengthy speech with the intent to persuade
Sprachbund sprachbund lit. "language alliance": area of linguistic convergence
Sprachraum sprachraum lit. "place/area/room of a language": area where a certain language is spoken
Strudel strudel lit. "whirlpool": kind of pastry
Unterseeboot U-boat lit. "under sea boat": submarine, abbreviated as U-Boot
über (adj.) uber over, above
Übermensch übermensch superhuman, "overhuman"
Vampir vampire dead person that feeds on the living
verklemmt (adj.) verklemmt (Amer.) lit. "jammed": inhibited, uptight
Waldsterben waldsterben lit. "forest dieback", dying floral environment
Wanderlust wanderlust desire, pleasure, or inclination to travel or walk
Wasserscheide watershed lit. "water division": drainage divide
Weltanschauung weltanschauung lit. "perception of the world": worldview
Wunderkind wunderkind lit. "wonder child": child prodigy, whiz kid
Zeitgeist zeitgeist lit. "spirit of the times": the spirit of the age; the trend at that time
Zeitnot zeitnot chess term, lit.'time trouble'
Zugzwang zugzwang chess term, lit. "compulsion to move"
Zwischenzug zwischenzug chess term, lit. "intermediate move"

Organisations

Several organisations promote the use and learning of the German language.

Goethe Institut

The government-backed Goethe-Institut,[77] (named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world. This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language. For example, the Goethe-Institut teaches the Goethe-Zertifikat German language qualification.

Deutsche Welle

Deutsche Welle logo

The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe.[78] Its German language services are spoken slowly and thus tailored for learners. Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website for teaching German.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The status of Low German as a German variety or separate language is subject to discussion.[3]
  2. ^ The status of Luxembourgish as a German variety or separate language is subject to discussion.
  3. ^ The status of Plautdietsch as a German variety or separate language is subject to discussion.[3]
  4. ^ 'The word deutsch (together with dutch) is derived from the old thiud, people, nation; deutsche Sprache signifies therefore "national or popular language, in opposition to the official language, which, in ancient times, was by necessity Latin."'[4]
  5. ^ Note that menschlich, and occasionally human, may also mean "human, pertaining to humans," whereas Menschlichkeit and Humanität never mean "humanity, human race," which translates to Menschheit.
  6. ^ in modern German, Diktionär is mostly considered archaic

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Special Eurobarometer 386: Europeans and their languages" (PDF) (report). European Commission. June 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  2. ^ "Über den Rat". Institute for the German Language. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
  3. ^ a b c Goossens 1983, p. 27.
  4. ^ Boltz 1872, p. 2.
  5. ^ a b "German, Standard". Ethnologue. 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b Robinson 1992, p. 16.
  7. ^ a b c d Robinson 1992, pp. 239–242.
  8. ^ Thomas 1992, pp. 5–6.
  9. ^ a b Waterman 1976, p. 83.
  10. ^ Salmons 2012, p. 195.
  11. ^ a b Scherer & Jankowsky 1995, p. 11.
  12. ^ Keller 1978, pp. 365–368.
  13. ^ Bach 1965, p. 254.
  14. ^ Super 1893, p. 81.
  15. ^ Dickens 1974, p. 134.
  16. ^ Scherer 1868, p. ?.
  17. ^ Rothaug 1910, p. [page needed].
  18. ^ Weiss 1995, pp. 7–12.
  19. ^ Nerius 2000, pp. 30–54.
  20. ^ Siebs 2000, p. 20.
  21. ^ Upward 1997, pp. 22–24, 36.
  22. ^ a b Goldberg, David; Looney, Dennis; Lusin, Natalia (1 February 2015). "Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2013" (PDF). www.mla.org. New York City. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  23. ^ a b "Foreign language learning statistics – Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  24. ^ a b Lewis, Simons & Fennig 2015.
  25. ^ Marten & Sauer 2005, p. 7.
  26. ^ "The most spoken languages worldwide (speakers and native speaker in millions)". New York City: Statista, The Statistics Portal. Retrieved 11 July 2015. Native speakers=105, total speakers=185
  27. ^ Bureau des Traités. "Recherches sur les traités". Conventions.coe.int. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  28. ^ "Map on page of Polish Commission on Standardization of Geographical Names" (PDF). Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  29. ^ Устав азовского районного совета от 21 May 2002 N 5-09 устав муниципального [Charter of the Azov District Council of 05.21.2002 N 5-09 Charter of the municipal]. russia.bestpravo.com (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  30. ^ "Charte européenne des langues régionales : Hollande nourrit la guerre contre le français" [European Charter for Regional Languages: Hollande fuels the war against French]. lefigaro.fr. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  31. ^ a b c Fischer, Stefan (18 August 2007). "Anpacken für Deutsch" [German in Namibia] (PDF). Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung (in German). Namibia Media Holdings. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008.
  32. ^ Deumert 2003, pp. 561–613.
  33. ^ "Deutsch in Namibia" (PDF). Beilage der Allgemeinen Zeitung. 18 July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
  34. ^ a b German L1 speakers outside Europe
  35. ^ Schubert, Joachim. "Natal Germans". www.safrika.org.
  36. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 – Chapter 1: Founding Provisions | South African Government". gov.za. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  37. ^ "Detailed List of Languages Spoken at Home for the Population 5 Years and Over by State: 2000" (pdf). census.gov. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  38. ^ Blatt, Ben (13 May 2014), Tagalog in California, Cherokee in Arkansas: What language does your state speak?, retrieved 13 May 2014
  39. ^ "Germans from Russia Heritage Collection". library.ndsu.edu. Archived from the original on 19 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  40. ^ a b "IPOL realizará formação de recenseadores para o censo linguístico do município de Antônio Carlos-SC" [IPOL will carry out training of enumerators for the linguistic census of the municipality of Antônio Carlos-SC]. e-ipol.org. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  41. ^ "Legislative Assembly of the state of Espírito Santo (Commissioner for Culture and Social Communication – Addition to the constitutional amendment number 11/2009 establishing the East Pomeranian dialect as well as German as cultural heritage of the state" (PDF). Claudiovereza.files.wordpress.com. February 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  42. ^ Gippert, Jost. "TITUS Didactica: German Dialects (map)". titus.uni-frankfurt.de.
  43. ^ Szczocarz, Roma (2017). "Pommern in Brasilien" [Pomerania in Brazil]. www.lerncafe.de. ViLE-Netzwerk. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  44. ^ "Lei N.º 14.061, de 23 de julho de 2012". Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  45. ^ "Keeping SA's Barossa Deutsch alive over kaffee und kuchen". ABC News. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  46. ^ "Top 25 Languages in New Zealand". ethniccommunities.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 8 January 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  47. ^ Holm 1989, p. 616.
  48. ^ "Deutsch als Fremdsprache weltweit. Datenerhebung 2015 – Worldwide survey of people learning German; conducted by the German Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Goethe Institute" (PDF). Goethe.de. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  49. ^ Знание иностранных языков в России [Knowledge of foreign languages in Russia] (in Russian). Levada Centre. 16 September 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  50. ^ "Foreign Language Enrollments in K–12 Public Schools" (PDF). American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). February 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  51. ^ Hamann, Greta. 15.4 million people are learning German as a foreign language, Deutsche Welle, 4 June 2020.
  52. ^ "More than 80% of primary school pupils in the EU were studying a foreign language in 2013". Eurostat. 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  53. ^ von Polenz 1999, pp. 192–194, 196.
  54. ^ Swadesh 1971, p. 53.
  55. ^ Ammon et al. 2004, p. [page needed].
  56. ^ "Die am häufigsten üblicherweise zu Hause gesprochenen Sprachen der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung ab 15 Jahren – 2012–2014, 2013–2015, 2014–2016" (XLS) (official site) (in German, French, and Italian). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Federal Statistical Office FSO. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  57. ^ Werner Besch: Sprachgeschichte: ein Handbuch zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, 3. Teilband. De Gruyter, 2003, p. 2636.
  58. ^ Georg Cornelissen: Das Niederländische im preußischen Gelderland und seine Ablösung durch das Deutsche, Rohrscheid, 1986, p. 93.
  59. ^ Jan Goossens: Niederdeutsche Sprache – Versuch einer Definition. In: Jan Goossens (Hrsg.): Niederdeutsch – Sprache und Literatur. Karl Wachholtz, Neumünster, 1973, p. 9–27.
  60. ^ Niebaum 2011, p. 98.
  61. ^ Barbour & Stevenson 1990, pp. 160–3.
  62. ^ Leao 2011, p. 25.
  63. ^ "Foreign Words (Fremdwörter)". www.dartmouth.edu. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  64. ^ Uwe Pörksen, German Academy for Language and Literature's Jahrbuch [Yearbook] 2007 (Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2008, pp. 121–130)
  65. ^ Hattemer 1849, p. 5.
  66. ^ Verein Deutsche Sprache e.V. "Verein Deutsche Sprache e.V. – Der Anglizismen-Index". vds-ev.de. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
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  69. ^ Zur Definition und sprachwissenschaftlichen Abgrenzung insbesondere: Rudolf Muhr, Richard Schrodt, Peter Wiesinger (Hrsg.): Österreichisches Deutsch – Linguistische, sozialpsychologische und sprachpolitische Aspekte einer nationalen Variante des Deutschen (PDF, 407 Seiten; 1,3 MB) Archived 14 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Verlag Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, Wien 1995. Anm.: Diese Publikation entstand aus den Beiträgen der Tagung "Österreichisches Deutsch", die mit internationalen Sprachwissenschaftlern an der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz vom 22. bis 24. Mai 1995 stattfand
  70. ^ Ha, Thu-Huong. "Germany has ended a century-long debate over a missing letter in its alphabet". Retrieved 5 December 2017. According to the council’s 2017 spelling manual: When writing the uppercase [of ß], write SS. It's also possible to use the uppercase ẞ. Example: Straße – STRASSE – STRAẞE.
  71. ^ Reinecke 1910, p. [page needed].
  72. ^ Bormann, Martin (8 January 1941). "Der Bormann-Brief im Original" [The original Bormann letter] (in German). NSDAP. Retrieved 20 November 2020. Facsimile of Bormann's Memorandum
    The memorandum itself is typed in Antiqua, but the NSDAP letterhead is printed in Fraktur.
    "For general attention, on behalf of the Führer, I make the following announcement:
    It is wrong to regard or to describe the so-called Gothic script as a German script. In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced.
    Today the Führer, talking with Herr Reichsleiter Amann and Herr Book Publisher Adolf Müller, has decided that in the future the Antiqua script is to be described as normal script. All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools.
    The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script.
    On behalf of the Führer, Herr Reichsleiter Amann will in future convert those newspapers and periodicals that already have foreign distribution, or whose foreign distribution is desired, to normal script.
  73. ^ Kapr 1993, p. 81.
  74. ^ "Mittelschulvorbereitung Deutsch". Mittelschulvorbereitung.ch. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  75. ^ For a history of the German consonants see Cercignani (1979).
  76. ^ "Gestalt". Duden / Bibliographisches Institut GmbH. 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017. mittelhochdeutsch gestalt = Aussehen, Beschaffenheit; Person, Substantivierung von: gestalt, althochdeutsch gistalt, 2. Partizip von stellen.
  77. ^ "Learning German, Experiencing Culture – Goethe-Institut". Goethe.de. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  78. ^ "Who we are". DW.DE. 31 December 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2013.

Bibliography

External links