Egito

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Coordenadas : 26 ° N 30 ° E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30

República Árabe do Egito

جمهورية مصر العربية
  • Arabic:Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʻArabīyah
    Egyptian:Gomhoreyyet Maṣr el-ʿArabeyya
Hino:  " Bilady, Bilady, Bilady "
"بلادي ، بلادي ، بلادي"
(inglês: "Meu país, meu país, meu país" )
EGY orthographic.svg
Capital
e a maior cidade
Cairo 30 ° 2′N 31 ° 13′E
 / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217
Línguas oficiaisárabe
Língua nacionalÁrabe egípcio [a]
Religião
Veja a religião no Egito
Demônimo (s)egípcio
Governo República semi-presidencial unitária
•  Presidente
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Moustafa Madbouly
Hanafi Ali Gibali
LegislaturaParlamento
Estabelecimento
• Unificação do Alto
e Baixo Egito
[1] [2] [b]
c. 3150 AC
•  Inaugurada a dinastia Muhammad Ali
9 de julho de 1805 [3]
28 de fevereiro de 1922
23 de julho de 1952
• República declarada
18 de junho de 1953
18 de janeiro de 2014
Área
• Total
1.010.408 [4] [5]  km 2 (390.121 sq mi) ( 29º )
• Água (%)
0,632
População
• estimativa de 01.01.2021
Neutral increase101.478.581 [6] [7] ( 15º )
•   censo de 2017
94.798.827 [8] [9]
• Densidade
100 / km 2 (259,0 / sq mi) ( 83º )
PIB  ( PPP )Estimativa para 2020
• Total
Increase$ 1,391 trilhão [10] ( 20º )
• per capita
Increase$ 14.023 [10] ( 92º )
PIB  (nominal)Estimativa para 2020
• Total
Increase$ 362 bilhões [10] ( 34º )
• per capita
Increase$ 3.561 [10] ( 114º )
Gini  (2015)Positive decrease 31,8 [11]
médio  ·  51º
HDI  (2019)Increase 0,707 [12]
alto  ·  116º
MoedaLibra egípcia (E £) ( EGP )
Fuso horárioUTC +2 [c] ( EGY )
Lado de conduçãodireito
Código de chamada+20
Código ISO 3166POR EXEMPLO
Internet TLD
  1. ^ O árabe literárioé a única língua oficial. [13] O árabe egípcioé alíngua falada. Outrosdialetos e línguas minoritáriassão falados regionalmente.
  2. ^ "Entre os povos do antigo Oriente Próximo, apenas os egípcios permaneceram onde estavam e permaneceram o que eram, embora tenham mudado sua língua uma vez e sua religião duas vezes. Em certo sentido, eles constituem a nação mais antiga do mundo". [1] Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.
  3. ^ Consulte ohorário de verão no Egito.

Egito ( / i ɪ p t / ( escute ) About this sound EE -jipt ; Árabe : مصر , romanizadoMiṣr ), oficialmente a República Árabe do Egipto , é um país transcontinental que atravessa o canto nordeste da África e sudoeste da Ásia por uma ponte de terra formada pela Península do Sinai . O Egito é um país mediterrâneo que faz fronteira com a Faixa de Gaza ( Palestina) E Israel a nordeste , o Golfo de Aqaba e Mar Vermelho para o leste, Sudão a sul e Líbia para o oeste . Do outro lado do Golfo de Aqaba fica a Jordânia , do outro lado do Mar Vermelho fica a Arábia Saudita e do Mediterrâneo fica a Grécia , a Turquia e o Chipre , embora nenhum tenha fronteira terrestre com o Egito.

O Egito tem uma das histórias mais longas de qualquer país, traçando sua herança ao longo do Delta do Nilo desde o 6º ao 4º milênio AC. Considerado o berço da civilização , o Egito Antigo viu alguns dos primeiros desenvolvimentos da escrita, agricultura, urbanização, religião organizada e governo central. [14] Monumentos icônicos como a Necrópole de Gizé e sua Grande Esfinge , bem como as ruínas de Memphis , Tebas , Karnak e o Vale dos Reis, refletem esse legado e continuam sendo um foco significativo de interesse científico e popular. A longa e rica herança cultural do Egito é parte integrante de sua identidade nacional, que reflete sua localização transcontinental única , sendo toda mediterrânea , do Oriente Médio e do norte da África . [15] O Egito foi um antigo e importante centro do Cristianismo , mas foi amplamente islamizado no século 7 e continua sendo um país predominantemente muçulmano , embora com uma minoria cristã significativa .

O Egito moderno remonta a 1922, quando se tornou uma monarquia independente do Império Britânico . Após a revolução de 1952 , o Egito se declarou uma república e em 1958 se fundiu com a Síria para formar a República Árabe Unida , que se dissolveu em 1961. Ao longo da segunda metade do século 20, o Egito enfrentou conflitos sociais e religiosos e instabilidade política, lutando vários conflitos armados com Israel em 1948 , 1956 , 1967 e 1973 , e ocupando a Faixa de Gazaintermitentemente até 1967. Em 1978, o Egito assinou os Acordos de Camp David , retirando-se oficialmente da Faixa de Gaza e reconhecendo Israel . O país continua a enfrentar desafios, desde agitação política, incluindo a recente revolução de 2011 e suas consequências , até terrorismo e subdesenvolvimento econômico. O atual governo do Egito, uma república semi-presidencialista , foi descrito por vários vigilantes como autoritário ou encabeçando um regime autoritário, responsável por perpetuar o problemático histórico de direitos humanos do país .

O Islã é a religião oficial do Egito e o árabe é sua língua oficial. [16] Com mais de 100 milhões de habitantes, o Egito é o país mais populoso do Norte da África , Oriente Médio e mundo árabe , o terceiro mais populoso da África (depois da Nigéria e da Etiópia ) e o décimo terceiro mais populoso do mundo. A grande maioria de sua população vive perto das margens do Rio Nilo , uma área de cerca de 40.000 quilômetros quadrados (15.000 sq mi), onde a única terra arável é encontrada. As grandes regiões doO deserto do Saara , que constitui a maior parte do território do Egito, é pouco habitado. Cerca de metade dos residentes do Egito vivem em áreas urbanas, com a maioria espalhada pelos centros densamente povoados do grande Cairo , Alexandria e outras cidades importantes do Delta do Nilo.

O Egito é um país em desenvolvimento , ocupando a 116ª posição no Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano . Politicamente, no entanto, é considerada uma potência regional no Norte da África , no Oriente Médio e no mundo muçulmano , e uma potência média em todo o mundo. [17] O Egito tem uma economia diversificada, que é a segunda maior da África , a 33ª maior economia em PIB nominal e a 20ª maior globalmente em PPC . O Egito é membro fundador das Nações Unidas , do Movimento dos Não-Alinhados , da Liga Árabe , doUnião Africana , Organização de Cooperação Islâmica e Fórum Mundial da Juventude .

Nomes

O nome inglês "Egito" é derivado do grego antigo " Aígyptos " (" Αἴγυπτος "), do francês médio "Egypte" e do latim " Aegyptus ". É refletido nas primeiras tabuletas Gregas Linear B como "a-ku-pi-ti-yo". O adjetivo "aigýpti -" / "aigýptios" foi emprestado ao copta como " gyptios ", e daí para o árabe como " qubṭī ", novamente formado em " قبط " (" qubṭ "), daí o inglês " copta ".As formas gregas foram emprestadas do egípcio tardio ( Amarna ) Hikuptahou "Memphis", uma corrupção do nome egípcio anterior
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(⟨ HWT-kȝ-PTH𓉗 𓏏 𓉐𓂓𓏤 𓊪 𓏏 𓎛 ), que significa "casa do ka (alma) de Ptah", o nome de um templo ao deus Ptah em Memphis . [18]

" Miṣr " ( pronúncia árabe:  [mesˤɾ] ; " مِصر ") é o árabe clássico do Alcorão e o nome oficial moderno do Egito, enquanto " Maṣr " ( pronúncia árabe egípcia:  [mɑsˤɾ] ; مَصر ) é a pronúncia local em árabe egípcio . [19] O nome é de origem semítica , diretamente cognato com outras palavras semíticas para o Egito, como o hebraico " מִצְרַיִם " (" Miṣráyim / Mitzráyim / Mizráim "). O mais antigo atestado desse nome para o Egito é o acadiano"mi-iṣ-ru" ("miṣru") [20] [21] relacionado a miṣru / miṣirru / miṣaru , que significa "fronteira" ou "fronteira". [22] O Império Neo-Assírio usou o termo derivado Rassam cylinder Mu-s,ur.jpg, Mu-ṣur . [23]

O antigo nome egípcio do país era
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( 𓆎 𓅓 𓏏 𓊖) km.t , que significa terra negra, provavelmente se referindo aos solos negros férteis das planícies de inundação do Nilo , distintos do deshret ( ⟨dšṛt⟩ ), ou "terra vermelha" do deserto . [24] [25] Este nome é comumente vocalizado como Kemet , mas provavelmente foi pronunciado [kuːmat] no antigo egípcio. [26] O nome é conhecido como kēme e kēmə no estágio copta da língua egípcia, e apareceu no grego antigo como Χημία (Khēmía ). [27] Outro nome era ⟨tꜣ-mry⟩ "terra da margem do rio". [28] Os nomes do Alto e Baixo Egito eram Ta-Sheme'aw ( ⟨tꜣ-šmꜥw⟩ ) "sedgeland" e Ta-Mehew ( ⟨tꜣ mḥw⟩ ) "norte", respectivamente.

História

Pré-história e Egito Antigo

Ruínas do Templo de Derr em 1960

Existem evidências de gravuras rupestres ao longo dos terraços do Nilo e em oásis do deserto. No décimo milênio AEC , uma cultura de caçadores-coletores e pescadores foi substituída por uma cultura de moagem de grãos . As mudanças climáticas ou o sobrepastoreio por volta de 8.000 aC começaram a secar as terras pastoris do Egito, formando o Saara . Os primeiros povos tribais migraram para o Rio Nilo, onde desenvolveram uma economia agrícola estável e uma sociedade mais centralizada . [29]

Por volta de 6000 aC, uma cultura neolítica se enraizou no vale do Nilo. [30] Durante o Neolítico, várias culturas pré-dinásticas desenvolveram-se independentemente no Alto e no Baixo Egito . A cultura Badariana e a série sucessora Naqada são geralmente consideradas precursoras do Egito dinástico . O local mais antigo conhecido do Baixo Egito, Merimda, antecede o Badariano em cerca de setecentos anos. Comunidades contemporâneas do Baixo Egito coexistiram com suas contrapartes do sul por mais de dois mil anos, permanecendo culturalmente distintas, mas mantendo contato frequente por meio do comércio. As primeiras evidências conhecidas de hieróglifos egípciosinscrições apareceram durante o período pré-dinástico em vasos de cerâmica Naqada III, datados de cerca de 3200 aC. [31]

A necrópole de Gizé é a mais antiga das maravilhas antigas e a única que ainda existe.

Um reino unificado foi fundado c. 3150 AEC pelo rei Menes , levando a uma série de dinastias que governaram o Egito pelos três milênios seguintes. A cultura egípcia floresceu durante este longo período e permaneceu distintamente egípcia em sua religião , artes , língua e costumes. As duas primeiras dinastias governantes de um Egito unificado prepararam o cenário para o período do Império Antigo , c. 2700–2200 aC, que construiu muitas pirâmides , mais notavelmente a pirâmide de Djoser da Terceira Dinastia e as pirâmides de Gizé da Quarta Dinastia .

O Primeiro Período Intermediário marcou o início de uma época de turbulência política por cerca de 150 anos. [32] Inundações mais fortes do Nilo e estabilização do governo, no entanto, trouxeram de volta prosperidade renovada para o país no Império do Meio c. 2040 AEC, atingindo um pico durante o reinado do Faraó Amenemhat III . Um segundo período de desunião anunciou a chegada da primeira dinastia governante estrangeira ao Egito, a dos hicsos semitas . Os invasores hicsos conquistaram grande parte do Baixo Egito por volta de 1650 aC e fundaram uma nova capital em Avaris . Eles foram expulsos por uma força do Alto Egito liderada por Ahmose I , que fundou a Décima Oitava Dinastiae transferiu a capital de Memphis para Tebas .

A Pesagem do Coração do Livro dos Mortos de Ani

O Novo Reino c. 1550–1070 AEC começou com a Décima Oitava Dinastia, marcando a ascensão do Egito como uma potência internacional que se expandiu durante sua maior extensão para um império tão ao sul quanto Tombos na Núbia , e incluiu partes do Levante no leste. Este período é conhecido por alguns dos faraós mais conhecidos , incluindo Hatshepsut , Tutmós III , Akhenaton e sua esposa Nefertiti , Tutancâmon e Ramsés II . A primeira expressão historicamente atestada de monoteísmo veio durante este período comoAtenismo . Contatos frequentes com outras nações trouxeram novas idéias para o Novo Reino. O país foi posteriormente invadido e conquistado por líbios , núbios e assírios , mas os egípcios nativos eventualmente os expulsaram e recuperaram o controle de seu país. [33]

Aquemênida Egito

Soldado egípcio do exército aquemênida , c. 480 AC. Relevo da tumba de Xerxes I.

Em 525 AEC, os poderosos persas aquemênidas , liderados por Cambises II , começaram sua conquista do Egito, finalmente capturando o faraó Psamtik III na batalha de Pelúsio . Cambises II então assumiu o título formal de faraó , mas governou o Egito de sua casa de Susa na Pérsia (atual Irã ), deixando o Egito sob o controle de uma satrapia . Toda a Vigésima Sétima Dinastia do Egito , de 525 a 402 AC, exceto por Petubastis III, foi um período inteiramente governado pelos persas, com todos os imperadores aquemênidas recebendo o título de faraó. Algumas revoltas temporariamente bem-sucedidas contra os persas marcaram o quinto século AEC, mas o Egito nunca foi capaz de derrubar permanentemente os persas. [34]

A trigésima dinastia foi a última dinastia governante nativa durante a época faraônica. Ele caiu para os persas novamente em 343 AEC, depois que o último faraó nativo, o rei Nectanebo II , foi derrotado em batalha. Esta trigésima primeira dinastia do Egito , entretanto, não durou muito, pois os persas foram derrubados várias décadas depois por Alexandre o Grande . O general grego macedônio de Alexandre, Ptolomeu I Sóter , fundou a dinastia ptolomaica .

Egito ptolomaico e romano

O ptolomaico rainha Cleópatra VII e seu filho por Júlio César, Cesário , no Templo de Dendera.

O reino ptolomaico era um poderoso estado helenístico , estendendo-se do sul da Síria no leste, até Cirene no oeste e ao sul até a fronteira com a Núbia. Alexandria se tornou a capital e um centro da cultura e do comércio gregos . Para obter o reconhecimento da população egípcia nativa, eles se autodenominaram sucessores dos faraós. Os últimos Ptolomeus adotaram as tradições egípcias, fizeram-se retratados em monumentos públicos em estilo e vestimenta egípcios e participaram da vida religiosa egípcia. [35] [36]

O último governante da linha ptolomaica foi Cleópatra VII , que cometeu suicídio após o enterro de seu amante Marco Antônio, que morreu em seus braços (de um ferimento de faca autoinfligido), depois que Otaviano capturou Alexandria e suas forças mercenárias fugiram. Os Ptolomeus enfrentaram rebeliões de egípcios nativos muitas vezes causadas por um regime indesejado e se envolveram em guerras civis e estrangeiras que levaram ao declínio do reino e sua anexação por Roma. No entanto, a cultura helenística continuou a prosperar no Egito muito depois da conquista muçulmana .

O cristianismo foi trazido para o Egito por São Marcos, o Evangelista, no primeiro século. [37] O reinado de Diocleciano (284-305 EC) marcou a transição da era romana para a bizantina no Egito, quando um grande número de cristãos egípcios foram perseguidos. O Novo Testamento já havia sido traduzido para o egípcio. Depois do Concílio de Calcedônia em 451 dC, uma igreja copta egípcia distinta foi firmemente estabelecida. [38]

Idade Média (século 7 - 1517)

A mesquita Amr ibn al-As no Cairo, reconhecida como a mais antiga da África

Os bizantinos foram capazes de recuperar o controle do país após uma breve invasão sassânida persa no início do século 7 em meio à guerra bizantino-sassânida de 602-628, durante a qual estabeleceram uma nova província de curta duração por dez anos conhecida como Egito sassânida , até 639–642, quando o Egito foi invadido e conquistado pelo Império Islâmico pelos árabes muçulmanos . Quando derrotaram os exércitos bizantinos no Egito, os árabes trouxeram o islamismo sunita para o país. No início deste período, os egípcios começaram a misturar sua nova fé com as crenças e práticas indígenas, levando a várias ordens sufis que floresceram até hoje. [37]Esses ritos anteriores sobreviveram ao período do cristianismo copta . [39]

Em 639, um exército de cerca de 4.000 homens foi enviado contra o Egito pelo segundo califa, Umar, sob o comando de Amr ibn al-As. Este exército foi acompanhado por outros 5.000 homens em 640 e derrotou um exército bizantino na batalha de Heliópolis. A seguir, Amr seguiu na direção de Alexandria, que foi entregue a ele por um tratado assinado em 8 de novembro de 641. Alexandria foi recuperada para o Império Bizantino em 645, mas foi retomada por Amr em 646. Em 654, uma frota de invasão enviada por Constante II foi repelido. Desde então, nenhum esforço sério foi feito pelos bizantinos para recuperar a posse do país.

Os árabes fundaram a capital do Egito chamada Fustat , que mais tarde foi incendiada durante as Cruzadas. Cairo foi posteriormente construído no ano de 986 para crescer e se tornar a maior e mais rica cidade do Império Árabe , e uma das maiores e mais ricas do mundo.

Período abássida

O período abássida foi marcado por novos impostos, e os coptas se revoltaram novamente no quarto ano de governo abássida. No início do século 9, a prática de governar o Egito por meio de um governador foi retomada sob Abdallah ibn Tahir , que decidiu residir em Bagdá , enviando um deputado ao Egito para governar por ele. Em 828, outra revolta egípcia eclodiu e em 831 os coptas se juntaram aos muçulmanos nativos contra o governo. Eventualmente, a perda de poder dos abássidas em Bagdá levou general após general a assumir o governo do Egito, ainda sob a lealdade abássida, a dinastia Tulunida (868-905) e a dinastia Ikhshidida (935-969) estavam entre as mais bem-sucedidas para desafiar o califa abássida.

Os fatímidas, aiúbidas e mamelucos

A mesquita de Al-Hakim no Cairo, de Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah , o sexto califa, reformada por Dawoodi Bohra

Os governantes muçulmanos permaneceram no controle do Egito pelos seis séculos seguintes, com Cairo como a sede do califado fatímida . Com o fim da dinastia aiúbida , os mamelucos , uma casta militar turco - circassiana , assumiram o controle por volta de 1250. No final do século 13, o Egito ligava o Mar Vermelho, a Índia, a Malásia e as Índias Orientais. [40] A Peste Negra de meados do século 14 matou cerca de 40% da população do país. [41]

Período moderno inicial: Egito otomano (1517–1867)

Napoleão derrotou as tropas mamelucas na Batalha das Pirâmides , em 21 de julho de 1798, pintada por Lejeune .

O Egito foi conquistado pelos turcos otomanos em 1517, após o que se tornou uma província do Império Otomano . A militarização defensiva prejudicou sua sociedade civil e instituições econômicas. [40] O enfraquecimento do sistema econômico combinado com os efeitos da peste deixou o Egito vulnerável à invasão estrangeira. Os comerciantes portugueses assumiram o seu comércio. [40] Entre 1687 e 1731, o Egito experimentou seis fomes. [42] A fome de 1784 custou-lhe cerca de um sexto de sua população. [43]

O Egito sempre foi uma província difícil de controlar pelos sultões otomanos , em parte devido ao poder e à influência contínuos dos mamelucos , a casta militar egípcia que governou o país por séculos.

O Egito permaneceu semi-autônomo sob os mamelucos até ser invadido pelas forças francesas de Napoleão Bonaparte em 1798 (veja a campanha francesa no Egito e na Síria ). Depois que os franceses foram derrotados pelos britânicos, um vácuo de poder foi criado no Egito e uma luta de poder de três vias se seguiu entre os turcos otomanos , mamelucos egípcios que governaram o Egito por séculos e mercenários albaneses a serviço dos otomanos.

A dinastia Muhammad Ali

Egito sob dinastia Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali foi o fundador da dinastia Muhammad Ali e o primeiro quediva do Egito e do Sudão .

Depois que os franceses foram expulsos, o poder foi tomado em 1805 por Muhammad Ali Pasha , um comandante militar albanês do exército otomano no Egito. Embora tivesse o título de vice-rei do Egito, sua subordinação ao porte otomano era meramente nominal. [ Carece de fontes? ] Muhammad Ali massacraram os mamelucos e estabeleceu uma dinastia que era para governar o Egito até a revolução de 1952.

A introdução em 1820 do algodão de longa duração transformou sua agricultura em uma monocultura de cultivo comercial antes do final do século, concentrando a propriedade da terra e direcionando a produção para os mercados internacionais. [44]

Muhammad Ali anexou o norte do Sudão (1820–1824), a Síria (1833) e partes da Arábia e da Anatólia ; mas em 1841 as potências europeias, temendo que ele derrubasse o próprio Império Otomano, forçaram-no a devolver a maioria de suas conquistas aos otomanos. Sua ambição militar exigia que modernizasse o país: construiu indústrias, um sistema de canais para irrigação e transporte e reformou o serviço público . [44]

Ele construiu um estado militar com cerca de quatro por cento da população servindo ao exército para elevar o Egito a uma posição poderosa no Império Otomano de uma forma que mostrasse várias semelhanças com as estratégias soviéticas (sem comunismo) conduzidas no século XX. [45]

Muhammad Ali Pasha transformou o exército de um que se reunia sob a tradição da corvéia para um grande exército modernizado. Ele introduziu o recrutamento do campesinato masculino no Egito do século 19 e adotou uma abordagem inovadora para criar seu grande exército, fortalecendo-o com números e habilidade. A educação e o treinamento dos novos soldados tornaram-se obrigatórios; os novos conceitos foram, além disso, reforçados pelo isolamento. Os homens foram mantidos em quartéis para evitar distração de seu crescimento como uma unidade militar a ser considerada. O ressentimento pelo modo de vida militar acabou desaparecendo dos homens e uma nova ideologia se estabeleceu, de nacionalismo e orgulho. Foi com a ajuda dessa unidade marcial recém-renascida que Muhammad Ali impôs seu governo sobre o Egito. [46]

A política que Mohammad Ali Pasha seguiu durante seu reinado explica em parte por que o numeramento no Egito em comparação com outros países do Norte da África e do Oriente Médio aumentou apenas a uma taxa notavelmente pequena, já que o investimento em educação adicional ocorreu apenas no setor militar e industrial . [47]

Muhammad Ali foi sucedido brevemente por seu filho Ibrahim (em setembro de 1848), depois por um neto Abbas I (em novembro de 1848), depois por Said (em 1854) e Isma'il (em 1863), que encorajou a ciência e a agricultura e proibiu escravidão no Egito. [45]

Khedivate do Egito (1867–1914)

O Egito sob a dinastia Muhammad Ali permaneceu nominalmente uma província otomana. Foi concedido o status de estado vassalo autônomo ou Khedivate em 1867, um status legal que permaneceria em vigor até 1914, embora os otomanos não tivessem nenhum poder ou presença.

O Canal de Suez , construído em parceria com os franceses, foi concluído em 1869. Sua construção foi financiada por bancos europeus. Grandes somas também foram para patrocínio e corrupção. Novos impostos causaram descontentamento popular. Em 1875, Isma'il evitou a falência vendendo todas as ações do Egito no canal para o governo britânico. Em três anos, isso levou à imposição de controladores britânicos e franceses que ocupavam o gabinete egípcio e, "com o poder financeiro dos detentores de títulos por trás deles, eram o verdadeiro poder no governo". [48]

Outras circunstâncias, como doenças epidêmicas (doenças do gado na década de 1880), inundações e guerras, impulsionaram a desaceleração econômica e aumentaram ainda mais a dependência do Egito da dívida externa. [49]

A insatisfação local com o quediva e com a intrusão europeia levou à formação dos primeiros agrupamentos nacionalistas em 1879, sendo Ahmed Urabi uma figura proeminente. Após o aumento das tensões e revoltas nacionalistas, o Reino Unido invadiu o Egito em 1882, esmagando o exército egípcio na Batalha de Tell El Kebir e ocupando militarmente o país. [50] Depois disso, o Khedivate se tornou um protetorado britânico de fato sob a soberania nominal otomana. [51]

Em 1899, foi assinado o Acordo de Condomínio Anglo-Egípcio: o Acordo afirmava que o Sudão seria governado conjuntamente pelo Khedivate do Egito e do Reino Unido. No entanto, o controle real do Sudão estava apenas nas mãos dos britânicos.

Em 1906, o incidente Denshawai fez com que muitos egípcios neutros se juntassem ao movimento nacionalista.

Sultanato do Egito (1914-1922)

Nacionalistas femininas se manifestando no Cairo , 1919

Em 1914, o Império Otomano entrou na Primeira Guerra Mundial em aliança com os Impérios Centrais; O quediva Abbas II (que se tornara cada vez mais hostil aos britânicos nos anos anteriores) decidiu apoiar a pátria mãe na guerra. Após tal decisão, os britânicos retiraram-no à força do poder e substituíram-no por seu irmão Hussein Kamel . [52] [53]

Hussein Kamel declarou a independência do Egito do Império Otomano, assumindo o título de Sultão do Egito . Logo após a independência, o Egito foi declarado protetorado do Reino Unido.

Após a Primeira Guerra Mundial , Saad Zaghlul e o Partido Wafd levaram o movimento nacionalista egípcio à maioria na Assembleia Legislativa local . Quando os britânicos exilaram Zaghlul e seus associados em Malta em 8 de março de 1919, o país surgiu em sua primeira revolução moderna . A revolta levou o governo do Reino Unido a emitir uma declaração unilateral da independência do Egito em 22 de fevereiro de 1922. [54]

Reino do Egito (1922–1953)

Após a independência do Reino Unido, o Sultão Fuad I assumiu o título de Rei do Egito ; apesar de ser nominalmente independente, o Reino ainda estava sob ocupação militar britânica e o Reino Unido ainda tinha grande influência sobre o estado.

Infantaria britânica perto de El Alamein , 17 de julho de 1942

O novo governo redigiu e implementou uma constituição em 1923 com base em um sistema parlamentar . O nacionalista Wafd Party obteve uma vitória esmagadora nas eleições de 1923-1924 e Saad Zaghloul foi nomeado o novo primeiro-ministro.

Em 1936, o Tratado Anglo-Egípcio foi concluído e as tropas britânicas retiraram-se do Egito, exceto pelo Canal de Suez. O tratado não resolveu a questão do Sudão , que, nos termos do Acordo de Condomínio Anglo-Egípcio existente de 1899, afirmava que o Sudão deveria ser governado conjuntamente pelo Egito e pela Grã-Bretanha, mas com o poder real permanecendo nas mãos dos britânicos. [55]

A Grã-Bretanha usou o Egito como base para as operações aliadas em toda a região, especialmente as batalhas no norte da África contra a Itália e a Alemanha. Suas maiores prioridades eram o controle do Mediterrâneo Oriental e, especialmente, manter o Canal de Suez aberto para navios mercantes e para conexões militares com a Índia e a Austrália. O governo do Egito e a população egípcia tiveram um papel menor na Segunda Guerra Mundial. Quando a guerra começou em setembro de 1939, o Egito declarou a lei marcial e rompeu relações diplomáticas com a Alemanha. Não declarou guerra à Alemanha, mas o primeiro-ministro associou o Egito ao esforço de guerra britânico. Rompeu relações diplomáticas com a Itália em 1940, mas nunca declarou guerra, mesmo quando o exército italiano invadiu o Egito. O rei Farouk assumiu uma posição praticamente neutra, que estava de acordo com a opinião da elite egípcia.O exército egípcio não lutou. Era apático em relação à guerra, com os oficiais líderes vendo os britânicos como ocupantes e, às vezes, mantendo alguma simpatia particular com o Eixo. Em junho de 1940, o rei demitiu o primeiro-ministro Aly Maher, que se dava mal com os britânicos. Um novo governo de coalizão foi formado com o independente Hassan Pasha Sabri como primeiro-ministro.

Após uma crise ministerial em fevereiro de 1942, o embaixador Sir Miles Lampson pressionou Farouk para que um governo de coalizão do Wafd ou Wafd substituísse o governo de Hussein Sirri Pasha . Na noite de 4 de fevereiro de 1942, as tropas e tanques britânicos cercaram o Palácio Abdeen no Cairo e Lampson apresentou a Farouk um ultimato . Farouk capitulou e Nahhas formou um governo logo em seguida. No entanto, a humilhação infligida a Farouk, e as ações do Wafd em cooperar com os britânicos e tomar o poder, perderam o apoio tanto para os britânicos quanto para o Wafd entre os civis e, mais importante, os militares egípcios .

A maioria das tropas britânicas foi retirada para a área do Canal de Suez em 1947 (embora o exército britânico mantivesse uma base militar na área), mas os sentimentos nacionalistas e anti-britânicos continuaram a crescer após a guerra. Sentimentos anti-monarquia aumentaram ainda mais após o desempenho desastroso do Reino na Primeira Guerra Árabe-Israelense . A eleição de 1950 viu uma vitória esmagadora do Partido Wafd nacionalista e o rei foi forçado a nomear Mostafa El-Nahas como o novo primeiro-ministro. Em 1951, o Egito retirou-se unilateralmente do Tratado Anglo-Egípcio de 1936 e ordenou que todas as tropas britânicas restantes deixassem o Canal de Suez.

Como os britânicos se recusaram a deixar sua base ao redor do Canal de Suez, o governo egípcio cortou o abastecimento de água e se recusou a permitir a entrada de alimentos na base do Canal de Suez, anunciou um boicote aos produtos britânicos, proibiu os trabalhadores egípcios de entrar na base e patrocinou ataques de guerrilha, transformando a área ao redor do Canal de Suez em uma zona de guerra de baixo nível. Em 24 de janeiro de 1952, guerrilheiros egípcios realizaram um ataque violento às forças britânicas ao redor do Canal de Suez, durante o qual a Polícia Auxiliar egípcia foi observada ajudando os guerrilheiros. Em resposta, em 25 de janeiro, o general George Erskineenviou tanques e infantaria britânicos para cercar a delegacia auxiliar de Ismailia e deu aos policiais uma hora para entregar as armas, alegando que a polícia estava armando os guerrilheiros. O comandante da polícia ligou para o ministro do Interior, Fouad Serageddin , braço direito de Nahas, que fumava charutos em seu banho na época, para perguntar se ele deveria se render ou lutar. Serageddin ordenou que a polícia lutasse "até o último homem e a última bala". A batalha resultante viu a delegacia de polícia ser destruída e 43 policiais egípcios mortos junto com 3 soldados britânicos. O incidente de Ismailia indignou o Egito. No dia seguinte, 26 de janeiro de 1952, foi o "Sábado Negro", como era conhecido o motim antibritânico, que destruiu grande parte do centro do Cairo, que o quediva Ismail, o Magnífico reconstruíra no estilo de Paris, incendiou-se. Farouk culpou o Wafd pelo motim do Sábado Negro e demitiu Nahas como primeiro-ministro no dia seguinte. Ele foi substituído por Aly Maher Pasha . [56]

Em 22-23 de julho de 1952, o Movimento dos Oficiais Livres , liderado por Muhammad Naguib e Gamal Abdel Nasser , lançou um golpe de estado ( Revolução Egípcia de 1952 ) contra o rei. Farouk I abdicou do trono para seu filho Fouad II , que era, na época, um bebê de sete meses. A Família Real deixou o Egito alguns dias depois e o Conselho de Regência, liderado pelo Príncipe Muhammad Abdel Moneim foi formado. O conselho, no entanto, detinha apenas autoridade nominal e o poder real estava na verdade nas mãos do Conselho do Comando Revolucionário , liderado por Naguib e Nasser.

As expectativas populares de reformas imediatas levaram aos motins dos trabalhadores em Kafr Dawar em 12 de agosto de 1952, que resultaram em duas sentenças de morte. Após uma breve experiência com o governo civil, os Oficiais Livres revogaram a monarquia e a constituição de 1923 e declararam o Egito uma república em 18 de junho de 1953. Naguib foi proclamado presidente, enquanto Nasser foi nomeado o novo primeiro-ministro.

República do Egito (1953-1958)

Após a Revolução de 1952 pelo Movimento dos Oficiais Livres , o governo do Egito passou para as mãos dos militares e todos os partidos políticos foram banidos. Em 18 de junho de 1953, a República Egípcia foi declarada, com o General Muhammad Naguib como o primeiro Presidente da República, servindo nessa posição por pouco menos de um ano e meio.

Presidente Nasser (1956–1970)

O presidente egípcio Gamal Abdel Nasser em Mansoura, 1960

Naguib foi forçado a renunciar em 1954 por Gamal Abdel Nasser  - um pan-arabista e o verdadeiro arquiteto do movimento de 1952 - e mais tarde foi colocado em prisão domiciliar . Após a renúncia de Naguib, o cargo de presidente ficou vago até a eleição de Gamal Abdel Nasser em 1956. [57]

Em outubro de 1954, o Egito e o Reino Unido concordaram em abolir o Acordo de Condomínio Anglo-Egípcio de 1899 e conceder a independência ao Sudão; o acordo entrou em vigor em 1 de janeiro de 1956.

Nasser assumiu o poder como presidente em junho de 1956. As forças britânicas completaram sua retirada da zona ocupada do Canal de Suez em 13 de junho de 1956. Ele nacionalizou o Canal de Suez em 26 de julho de 1956; sua abordagem hostil para com Israel e o nacionalismo econômico levaram ao início da Segunda Guerra Árabe-Israelense (Crise de Suez), na qual Israel (com o apoio da França e do Reino Unido) ocupou a península do Sinai e o Canal. A guerra chegou ao fim por causa da intervenção diplomática dos EUA e da URSS e o status quo foi restaurado.

República Árabe Unida (1958–1971)

A fumaça sobe dos tanques de petróleo ao lado do Canal de Suez atingido durante o ataque anglo-francês inicial ao Egito, em 5 de novembro de 1956

Em 1958, o Egito e a Síria formaram uma união soberana conhecida como República Árabe Unida . A união durou pouco, terminando em 1961, quando a Síria se separou, encerrando assim a união. Durante a maior parte de sua existência, a República Árabe Unida também esteve em uma confederação frouxa com o Iêmen do Norte (ou Reino Mutawakkilite do Iêmen), conhecido como Estados Unidos Árabes . Em 1959, o governo palestino da Faixa de Gaza, um estado cliente egípcio, foi absorvido pela República Árabe Unida sob o pretexto da união árabe e nunca foi restaurado. A União Socialista Árabe , um novo partido estatal nasserista, foi fundada em 1962.

No início dos anos 1960, o Egito envolveu-se totalmente na Guerra Civil do Iêmen do Norte . O presidente egípcio, Gamal Abdel Nasser, apoiou os republicanos iemenitas com até 70.000 soldados egípcios e armas químicas. Apesar de vários movimentos militares e conferências de paz, a guerra caiu em um impasse. O compromisso egípcio no Iêmen foi muito prejudicado mais tarde.

Em meados de maio de 1967, a União Soviética alertou Nasser sobre um ataque israelense iminente à Síria. Embora o chefe do estado-maior Mohamed Fawzi os tenha verificado como "sem fundamento", [58] [59] Nasser deu três passos sucessivos que tornaram a guerra virtualmente inevitável: em 14 de maio, ele implantou suas tropas no Sinai, perto da fronteira com Israel, em 19 de maio ele expulsou os soldados da paz da ONU estacionados na fronteira da Península do Sinai com Israel e, em 23 de maio, fechou o Estreito de Tiran à navegação israelense. [60] Em 26 de maio, Nasser declarou: "A batalha será geral e nosso objetivo básico será destruir Israel". [61]

Israel reiterou que o fechamento do Estreito de Tiran foi um Casus belli . Isso levou ao início da Terceira Guerra Árabe Israelense ( Guerra dos Seis Dias), na qual Israel atacou o Egito e ocupou a Península do Sinai e a Faixa de Gaza , que o Egito ocupava desde a Guerra Árabe-Israelense de 1948 . Durante a guerra de 1967, uma Lei de Emergência foi promulgada e permaneceu em vigor até 2012, com exceção de uma pausa de 18 meses em 1980/81. [62] Ao abrigo desta lei, os poderes da polícia foram alargados, os direitos constitucionais suspensos e a censura legalizada. [ citação necessária ]

Na época da queda da monarquia egípcia no início dos anos 1950, menos de meio milhão de egípcios eram considerados de classe alta e ricos, quatro milhões de classe média e 17 milhões de classe baixa e pobres. [63]Menos da metade de todas as crianças em idade escolar frequentava a escola, a maioria deles meninos. As políticas de Nasser mudaram isso. A reforma e distribuição agrária, o crescimento dramático na educação universitária e o apoio do governo às indústrias nacionais melhoraram muito a mobilidade social e achataram a curva social. Do ano acadêmico de 1953 a 1954 a 1965 a 66, as matrículas nas escolas públicas em geral mais do que dobraram. Milhões de egípcios que antes eram pobres, por meio de educação e empregos no setor público, ingressaram na classe média. Médicos, engenheiros, professores, advogados, jornalistas constituíam a maior parte da crescente classe média no Egito sob Nasser. [63] Durante a década de 1960, a economia egípcia passou de lenta à beira do colapso, a sociedade tornou-se menos livre e o apelo de Nasser diminuiu consideravelmente. [64]

República Árabe do Egito (1971-presente)

Presidente Sadat (1970-1981)

Tanques egípcios avançando no deserto do Sinai durante a Guerra do Yom Kippur , 1973

Em 1970, o presidente Nasser morreu de ataque cardíaco e foi sucedido por Anwar Sadat . Sadat mudou a aliança do Egito na Guerra Fria da União Soviética para os Estados Unidos, expulsando os conselheiros soviéticos em 1972. Ele lançou a política de reforma econômica do Infitah , enquanto reprimia a oposição religiosa e secular. Em 1973, o Egito, junto com a Síria, lançou a Quarta Guerra Árabe-Israelense ( Guerra do Yom Kippur), um ataque surpresa para recuperar parte do território do Sinai que Israel havia capturado 6 anos antes. Isso deu a Sadat uma vitória que lhe permitiu recuperar o Sinai mais tarde, em troca da paz com Israel. [65]

Comemorando a assinatura dos Acordos de Camp David de 1978 : Menachem Begin , Jimmy Carter , Anwar Sadat

Em 1975, Sadat mudou as políticas econômicas de Nasser e procurou usar sua popularidade para reduzir as regulamentações governamentais e encorajar o investimento estrangeiro por meio de seu programa Infitah. Por meio dessa política, incentivos como redução de impostos e tarifas de importação atraíram alguns investidores, mas os investimentos foram direcionados principalmente para empreendimentos lucrativos e de baixo risco, como turismo e construção, abandonando as indústrias nascentes do Egito. [66] Embora a política de Sadat visasse modernizar o Egito e ajudar a classe média, ela beneficiou principalmente a classe alta e, por causa da eliminação dos subsídios aos alimentos básicos, levou aos Motins do Pão Egípcio em 1977 .

Em 1977, Sadat dissolveu a União Socialista Árabe e substituiu-a pelo Partido Nacional Democrático .

Sadat fez uma visita histórica a Israel em 1977, que levou ao tratado de paz de 1979 em troca da retirada israelense do Sinai. A iniciativa de Sadat gerou enorme controvérsia no mundo árabe e levou à expulsão do Egito da Liga Árabe , mas foi apoiada pela maioria dos egípcios. [67] Sadat foi assassinado por um extremista islâmico em outubro de 1981.

Presidente Mubarak (1981–2011)

Hosni Mubarak chegou ao poder após o assassinato de Sadat em um referendo no qual ele era o único candidato. [68]

Hosni Mubarak reafirmou o relacionamento do Egito com Israel, mas aliviou as tensões com os vizinhos árabes do Egito. Internamente, Mubarak enfrentou sérios problemas. Mesmo com a expansão da produção agrícola e industrial, a economia não conseguiu acompanhar o crescimento populacional. A pobreza em massa e o desemprego levaram famílias rurais a migrar para cidades como Cairo, onde acabaram em favelas lotadas, mal conseguindo sobreviver.

Em 25 de fevereiro de 1986, a Polícia de Segurança começou a protestar contra relatos de que seu mandato seria estendido de 3 para 4 anos. Hotéis, boates, restaurantes e cassinos foram atacados no Cairo e houve tumultos em outras cidades. Foi imposto um toque de recolher durante o dia. O exército levou 3 dias para restaurar a ordem. 107 pessoas foram mortas. [69]

Nas décadas de 1980, 1990 e 2000, os ataques terroristas no Egito tornaram-se numerosos e graves, e começaram a ter como alvo cristãos coptas , turistas estrangeiros e funcionários do governo. [70] Na década de 1990, um grupo islâmico , Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya , se envolveu em uma extensa campanha de violência, desde os assassinatos e tentativas de assassinato de escritores e intelectuais proeminentes, até os repetidos alvos de turistas e estrangeiros. Danos graves foram causados ​​ao maior setor da economia do Egito - o turismo [71] - e, por sua vez, ao governo, mas também devastou a subsistência de muitas das pessoas das quais o grupo dependia para apoio. [72]

Durante o reinado de Mubarak, a cena política foi dominada pelo Partido Democrático Nacional , que foi criado por Sadat em 1978. Ele aprovou a Lei dos Sindicatos de 1993, a Lei da Imprensa de 1995 e a Lei das Associações Não Governamentais de 1999 que prejudicava as liberdades de associação e expressão ao impor novos regulamentos e penalidades draconianas para as violações. [ carece de fontes? ] Como resultado, no final da década de 1990, a política parlamentar tornou-se virtualmente irrelevante e as vias alternativas de expressão política também foram reduzidas. [73]

Cairo cresceu e se tornou uma área metropolitana com uma população de mais de 20 milhões

Em 17 de novembro de 1997, 62 pessoas, a maioria turistas, foram massacradas perto de Luxor .

No final de fevereiro de 2005, Mubarak anunciou uma reforma da lei de eleições presidenciais, abrindo caminho para as eleições com vários candidatos pela primeira vez desde o movimento de 1952 . [74] No entanto, a nova lei impôs restrições aos candidatos e levou à vitória fácil de Mubarak na reeleição. [75] A participação eleitoral foi inferior a 25%. [76] Os observadores eleitorais também alegaram interferência do governo no processo eleitoral. [77] Após a eleição, Mubarak prendeu Ayman Nour , o vice-campeão. [78]

O relatório de 2006 da Human Rights Watch sobre o Egito detalhou graves violações dos direitos humanos, incluindo tortura de rotina , detenções arbitrárias e julgamentos em tribunais militares e de segurança do Estado. [79] Em 2007, a Amnistia Internacional divulgou um relatório alegando que o Egito se tornou um centro internacional de tortura, onde outras nações enviam suspeitos para interrogatório, muitas vezes como parte da Guerra ao Terror . [80] O Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Egito rapidamente emitiu uma refutação a este relatório. [81]

Mudanças constitucionais votadas em 19 de março de 2007 proibiram os partidos de usar a religião como base para atividades políticas, permitiram a redação de uma nova lei antiterrorismo, autorizaram amplos poderes policiais de prisão e vigilância e deram ao presidente o poder de dissolver o parlamento e encerrar o judiciário monitoramento eleitoral. [82] Em 2009, o Dr. Ali El Deen Hilal Dessouki, secretário de mídia do Partido Democrático Nacional ( NDP ), descreveu o Egito como um sistema político " faraônico " e a democracia como um "objetivo de longo prazo". Dessouki afirmou ainda que "o verdadeiro centro do poder no Egito são os militares". [83]

Revolution (2011)

Acima: Comemorações na Praça Tahrir após o anúncio da renúncia de Hosni Mubarak; Abaixo: Protestos na Praça Tahrir contra o Presidente Morsi em 27 de novembro de 2012.

Em 25 de janeiro de 2011, protestos generalizados começaram contra o governo de Mubarak. Em 11 de fevereiro de 2011, Mubarak renunciou e fugiu do Cairo. Com a notícia, eclodiram jubilantes celebrações na Praça Tahrir, no Cairo . [84] Os militares egípcios então assumiram o poder de governar. [85] [86] Mohamed Hussein Tantawi , presidente do Conselho Supremo das Forças Armadas , tornou-se o chefe de estado interino de fato . [87] [88] Em 13 de fevereiro de 2011, os militares dissolveram o parlamento e suspenderam a constituição. [89]

Um referendo constitucional foi realizado em 19 de março de 2011. Em 28 de novembro de 2011, o Egito realizou sua primeira eleição parlamentar desde que o regime anterior estava no poder. A participação foi alta e não houve relatos de grandes irregularidades ou violência. [90]

Presidente Morsi (2012–2013)

Mohamed Morsi foi eleito presidente em 24 de junho de 2012. [91] Em 2 de agosto de 2012, o primeiro-ministro do Egito, Hisham Qandil, anunciou seu gabinete de 35 membros, composto por 28 recém-chegados, incluindo quatro da Irmandade Muçulmana. [92]

Grupos liberais e seculares abandonaram a assembléia constituinte porque acreditavam que ela imporia práticas islâmicas estritas, enquanto os apoiadores da Irmandade Muçulmana deram seu apoio a Morsi. [93] Em 22 de novembro de 2012, o presidente Morsi emitiu uma declaração temporária imunizando seus decretos de contestação e buscando proteger o trabalho da assembléia constituinte. [94]

A mudança levou a protestos massivos e ações violentas em todo o Egito. [95] Em 5 de dezembro de 2012, dezenas de milhares de apoiadores e oponentes do presidente Morsi entraram em confronto, no que foi descrito como a maior batalha violenta entre islâmicos e seus inimigos desde a revolução do país. [96] Mohamed Morsi ofereceu um "diálogo nacional" com os líderes da oposição, mas se recusou a cancelar o referendo constitucional de dezembro de 2012 . [97]

Crise política (2013)

Em 3 de julho de 2013, após uma onda de descontentamento público com os excessos autocráticos do governo da Irmandade Muçulmana de Morsi , [98] os militares removeram Morsi do cargo, dissolveram o Conselho Shura e instalaram um governo provisório temporário. [99]

Em 4 de julho de 2013, o presidente do Supremo Tribunal Constitucional do Egito, Adly Mansour , de 68 anos, foi empossado como presidente interino do novo governo após a destituição de Morsi. As novas autoridades egípcias reprimiram a Irmandade Muçulmana e seus apoiadores, prendendo milhares e dispersando à força protestos pró-Morsi e / ou pró-Irmandade. [100] [101] Muitos dos líderes e ativistas da Irmandade Muçulmana foram condenados à morte ou prisão perpétua em uma série de julgamentos em massa. [102] [103] [104]

Em 18 de janeiro de 2014, o governo provisório instituiu uma nova constituição na sequência de um referendo aprovado por uma esmagadora maioria dos eleitores (98,1%). 38,6% dos eleitores registrados participaram do referendo [105], um número maior do que os 33% que votaram em um referendo durante o mandato de Morsi. [106]

Presidente el-Sisi (2014-presente)

Mulheres no Cairo usam máscaras faciais durante a pandemia de COVID-19 no Egito em março de 2020

Em 26 de março de 2014, o marechal de campo Abdel Fattah el-Sisi , ministro da defesa egípcio e comandante-em-chefe das forças armadas egípcias , aposentou-se do exército, anunciando que seria candidato nas eleições presidenciais de 2014 . [107] A votação, realizada entre 26 e 28 de maio de 2014, resultou em uma vitória esmagadora para el-Sisi. [108] Sisi foi empossado como presidente do Egito em 8 de junho de 2014. A Irmandade Muçulmana e alguns grupos ativistas liberais e seculares boicotaram a votação. [109] Mesmo que as autoridades provisórias estendessem a votação para um terceiro dia, a participação de 46% foi menor do que a participação de 52% na eleição de 2012. [110]

A new parliamentary election was held in December 2015, resulting in a landslide victory for pro-Sisi parties, which secured a strong majority in the newly formed House of Representatives.

In 2016, Egypt entered in a diplomatic crisis with Italy following the murder of researcher Giulio Regeni: in April 2016, Prime Minister Matteo Renzi recalled the Italian ambassador from Cairo because of lack of co-operation from the Egyptian Government in the investigation. The ambassador was sent back to Egypt in 2017 by the new Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni.

El-Sisi was re-elected in 2018, facing no serious opposition. In 2019, a series of constitutional amendments were approved by the parliament, further increasing the President's and the military's power, increasing presidential terms from 4 years to 6 years and allowing El-Sisi to run for other two mandates. The proposals were approved in a referendum.

The dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam escalated in 2020.[111][112] Egypt sees the dam as an existential threat,[113] fearing that the dam will reduce the amount of water it receives from the Nile.[114]

Geography

Nile valley near Luxor.
Rocky landscape in Marsa Alam.

Egypt lies primarily between latitudes 22° and 32°N, and longitudes 25° and 35°E. At 1,001,450 square kilometres (386,660 sq mi),[115] it is the world's 30th-largest country. Due to the extreme aridity of Egypt's climate, population centres are concentrated along the narrow Nile Valley and Delta, meaning that about 99% of the population uses about 5.5% of the total land area.[116] 98% of Egyptians live on 3% of the territory.[117]

Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, the Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east. Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation, it possesses a land bridge (the Isthmus of Suez) between Africa and Asia, traversed by a navigable waterway (the Suez Canal) that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea.

Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert, with a few oases scattered about. Winds create prolific sand dunes that peak at more than 30 metres (100 ft) high. Egypt includes parts of the Sahara desert and of the Libyan Desert. These deserts protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats and were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt.

Towns and cities include Alexandria, the second largest city; Aswan; Asyut; Cairo, the modern Egyptian capital and largest city; El Mahalla El Kubra; Giza, the site of the Pyramid of Khufu; Hurghada; Luxor; Kom Ombo; Port Safaga; Port Said; Sharm El Sheikh; Suez, where the south end of the Suez Canal is located; Zagazig; and Minya. Oases include Bahariya, Dakhla, Farafra, Kharga and Siwa. Protectorates include Ras Mohamed National Park, Zaranik Protectorate and Siwa.

On 13 March 2015, plans for a proposed new capital of Egypt were announced.[118]

Climate

Saint Catherine in southern Sinai, on a snowy winter morning.

Most of Egypt's rain falls in the winter months.[119] South of Cairo, rainfall averages only around 2 to 5 mm (0.1 to 0.2 in) per year and at intervals of many years. On a very thin strip of the northern coast the rainfall can be as high as 410 mm (16.1 in),[120] mostly between October and March. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta, Baltim and Sidi Barrani, and rarely in Alexandria. A very small amount of snow fell on Cairo on 13 December 2013, the first time in many decades.[121] Frost is also known in mid-Sinai and mid-Egypt. Egypt is the driest and the sunniest country in the world, and most of its land surface is desert.

The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west.

Egypt has an unusually hot, sunny and dry climate. Average high temperatures are high in the north but very to extremely high in the rest of the country during summer. The cooler Mediterranean winds consistently blow over the northern sea coast, which helps to get more moderated temperatures, especially at the height of the summertime. The Khamaseen is a hot, dry wind that originates from the vast deserts in the south and blows in the spring or in the early summer. It brings scorching sand and dust particles, and usually brings daytime temperatures over 40 °C (104 °F) and sometimes over 50 °C (122 °F) in the interior, while the relative humidity can drop to 5% or even less. The absolute highest temperatures in Egypt occur when the Khamaseen blows. The weather is always sunny and clear in Egypt, especially in cities such as Aswan, Luxor and Asyut. It is one of the least cloudy and least rainy regions on Earth.

Prior to the construction of the Aswan Dam, the Nile flooded annually (colloquially The Gift of the Nile) replenishing Egypt's soil. This gave Egypt a consistent harvest throughout the years.

The potential rise in sea levels due to global warming could threaten Egypt's densely populated coastal strip and have grave consequences for the country's economy, agriculture and industry. Combined with growing demographic pressures, a significant rise in sea levels could turn millions of Egyptians into environmental refugees by the end of the 21st century, according to some climate experts.[122][123]

Biodiversity

Egypt signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 9 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 2 June 1994.[124] It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 31 July 1998.[125] Where many CBD National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans neglect biological kingdoms apart from animals and plants,[126] Egypt's plan was unusual in providing balanced information about all forms of life.

The plan stated that the following numbers of species of different groups had been recorded from Egypt: algae (1483 species), animals (about 15,000 species of which more than 10,000 were insects), fungi (more than 627 species), monera (319 species), plants (2426 species), protozoans (371 species). For some major groups, for example lichen-forming fungi and nematode worms, the number was not known. Apart from small and well-studied groups like amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and reptiles, the many of those numbers are likely to increase as further species are recorded from Egypt. For the fungi, including lichen-forming species, for example, subsequent work has shown that over 2200 species have been recorded from Egypt, and the final figure of all fungi actually occurring in the country is expected to be much higher.[127] For the grasses, 284 native and naturalised species have been identified and recorded in Egypt.[128]

Government

The House of Representatives, whose members are elected to serve five-year terms, specialises in legislation. Elections were last held between November 2011 and January 2012 which was later dissolved. The next parliamentary election was announced to be held within 6 months of the constitution's ratification on 18 January 2014, and were held in two phases, from 17 October to 2 December 2015.[129] Originally, the parliament was to be formed before the president was elected, but interim president Adly Mansour pushed the date.[130] The Egyptian presidential election, 2014, took place on 26–28 May 2014. Official figures showed a turnout of 25,578,233 or 47.5%, with Abdel Fattah el-Sisi winning with 23.78 million votes, or 96.9% compared to 757,511 (3.1%) for Hamdeen Sabahi.[131]

After a wave of public discontent with autocratic excesses of the Muslim Brotherhood government of President Mohamed Morsi,[98] on 3 July 2013 then-General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi announced the removal of Morsi from office and the suspension of the constitution. A 50-member constitution committee was formed for modifying the constitution which was later published for public voting and was adopted on 18 January 2014.[132]

In 2013, Freedom House rated political rights in Egypt at 5 (with 1 representing the most free and 7 the least), and civil liberties at 5, which gave it the freedom rating of "Partly Free".[133]

Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the 19th century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists and intellectuals until the early 20th century.[134] The ideology espoused by Islamists such as the Muslim Brotherhood is mostly supported by the lower-middle strata of Egyptian society.[135]

Egypt has the oldest continuous parliamentary tradition in the Arab world.[136] The first popular assembly was established in 1866. It was disbanded as a result of the British occupation of 1882, and the British allowed only a consultative body to sit. In 1923, however, after the country's independence was declared, a new constitution provided for a parliamentary monarchy.[136]

Military and foreign relations

Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen

The military is influential in the political and economic life of Egypt and exempts itself from laws that apply to other sectors. It enjoys considerable power, prestige and independence within the state and has been widely considered part of the Egyptian "deep state".[68][137][138]

According to the former chair of Israel's Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, Yuval Steinitz, the Egyptian Air Force has roughly the same number of modern warplanes as the Israeli Air Force and far more Western tanks, artillery, anti-aircraft batteries and warships than the IDF.[139] Egypt is speculated by Israel to be the second country in the region with a spy satellite, EgyptSat 1[140] in addition to EgyptSat 2 launched on 16 April 2014.[141]

Top: Former President Hosni Mubarak with former US President George W. Bush at Camp David in 2002; Bottom: President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi and Russian President Vladimir Putin in Sochi, August 2014.

The United States provides Egypt with annual military assistance, which in 2015 amounted to US$1.3 billion.[142] In 1989, Egypt was designated as a major non-NATO ally of the United States.[143] Nevertheless, ties between the two countries have partially soured since the July 2013 overthrow of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi,[144] with the Obama administration denouncing Egypt over its crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood, and cancelling future military exercises involving the two countries.[145] There have been recent attempts, however, to normalise relations between the two, with both governments frequently calling for mutual support in the fight against regional and international terrorism.[146][147][148] However, following the election of Republican Donald Trump as the President of the United States, the two countries were looking to improve the Egyptian-American relations. al-Sisi and Trump had met during the opening of the seventy-first session of the United Nations General Assembly in September 2016.[149] The absence of Egypt in President Trump's travel ban towards seven Muslim countries was noted in Washington although the Congress has voiced human rights concerns over the handling of dissidents.[150] On 3 April 2017 al-Sisi met with Trump at the White House, marking the first visit of an Egyptian president to Washington in 8 years. Trump praised al-Sisi in what was reported as a public relations victory for the Egyptian president, and signaled it was time for a normalization of the relations between Egypt and the US.[151]

The Egyptian military has dozens of factories manufacturing weapons as well as consumer goods. The Armed Forces' inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world. Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern US, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams tank.[citation needed] Relations with Russia have improved significantly following Mohamed Morsi's removal[152] and both countries have worked since then to strengthen military[153] and trade ties[154] among other aspects of bilateral co-operation. Relations with China have also improved considerably. In 2014, Egypt and China established a bilateral "comprehensive strategic partnership".[155] In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Egypt, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region.[156]

The permanent headquarters of the Arab League are located in Cairo and the body's secretary general has traditionally been Egyptian. This position is currently held by former foreign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit. The Arab League briefly moved from Egypt to Tunis in 1978 to protest the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, but it later returned to Cairo in 1989. Gulf monarchies, including the United Arab Emirates[157] and Saudi Arabia,[158] have pledged billions of dollars to help Egypt overcome its economic difficulties since the overthrow of Morsi.[159]

President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017

Following the 1973 war and the subsequent peace treaty, Egypt became the first Arab nation to establish diplomatic relations with Israel. Despite that, Israel is still widely considered as a hostile state by the majority of Egyptians.[160] Egypt has played a historical role as a mediator in resolving various disputes in the Middle East, most notably its handling of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the peace process.[161] Egypt's ceasefire and truce brokering efforts in Gaza have hardly been challenged following Israel's evacuation of its settlements from the strip in 2005, despite increasing animosity towards the Hamas government in Gaza following the ouster of Mohamed Morsi,[162] and despite recent attempts by countries like Turkey and Qatar to take over this role.[163]

Ties between Egypt and other non-Arab Middle Eastern nations, including Iran and Turkey, have often been strained. Tensions with Iran are mostly due to Egypt's peace treaty with Israel and Iran's rivalry with traditional Egyptian allies in the Gulf.[164] Turkey's recent support for the now-banned Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and its alleged involvement in Libya also made both countries bitter regional rivals.[165]

Egypt is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. It is also a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie, since 1983. Former Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali served as Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1991 to 1996.

In 2008, Egypt was estimated to have two million African refugees, including over 20,000 Sudanese nationals registered with UNHCR as refugees fleeing armed conflict or asylum seekers. Egypt adopted "harsh, sometimes lethal" methods of border control.[166]

Law

The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo.

The legal system is based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); and judicial review by a Supreme Court, which accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction only with reservations.[56]

Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation. Sharia courts and qadis are run and licensed by the Ministry of Justice.[167] The personal status law that regulates matters such as marriage, divorce and child custody is governed by Sharia. In a family court, a woman's testimony is worth half of a man's testimony.[168]

On 26 December 2012, the Muslim Brotherhood attempted to institutionalise a controversial new constitution. It was approved by the public in a referendum held 15–22 December 2012 with 64% support, but with only 33% electorate participation.[169] It replaced the 2011 Provisional Constitution of Egypt, adopted following the revolution.

The Penal code was unique as it contains a "Blasphemy Law."[170] The present court system allows a death penalty including against an absent individual tried in absentia. Several Americans and Canadians were sentenced to death in 2012.[171]

On 18 January 2014, the interim government successfully institutionalised a more secular constitution.[172] The president is elected to a four-year term and may serve 2 terms.[172] The parliament may impeach the president.[172] Under the constitution, there is a guarantee of gender equality and absolute freedom of thought.[172] The military retains the ability to appoint the national Minister of Defence for the next two full presidential terms since the constitution took effect.[172] Under the constitution, political parties may not be based on "religion, race, gender or geography".[172]

Human rights

The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights is one of the longest-standing bodies for the defence of human rights in Egypt.[173] In 2003, the government established the National Council for Human Rights.[174] Shortly after its foundation, the council came under heavy criticism by local activists, who contend it was a propaganda tool for the government to excuse its own violations[175] and to give legitimacy to repressive laws such as the Emergency Law.[176]

Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013

The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life ranks Egypt as the fifth worst country in the world for religious freedom.[177][178] The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, a bipartisan independent agency of the US government, has placed Egypt on its watch list of countries that require close monitoring due to the nature and extent of violations of religious freedom engaged in or tolerated by the government.[179] According to a 2010 Pew Global Attitudes survey, 84% of Egyptians polled supported the death penalty for those who leave Islam; 77% supported whippings and cutting off of hands for theft and robbery; and 82% support stoning a person who commits adultery.[180]

Coptic Christians face discrimination at multiple levels of the government, ranging from underrepresentation in government ministries to laws that limit their ability to build or repair churches.[181] Intolerance towards followers of the Baháʼí Faith, and those of the non-orthodox Muslim sects, such as Sufis, Shi'a and Ahmadis, also remains a problem.[79] When the government moved to computerise identification cards, members of religious minorities, such as Baháʼís, could not obtain identification documents.[182] An Egyptian court ruled in early 2008 that members of other faiths may obtain identity cards without listing their faiths, and without becoming officially recognised.[183]

Clashes continued between police and supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi. During violent clashes that ensued as part of the August 2013 sit-in dispersal, 595 protesters were killed[184] with 14 August 2013 becoming the single deadliest day in Egypt's modern history.[185]

Egypt actively practices capital punishment. Egypt's authorities do not release figures on death sentences and executions, despite repeated requests over the years by human rights organisations.[186] The United Nations human rights office[187] and various NGOs[186][188] expressed "deep alarm" after an Egyptian Minya Criminal Court sentenced 529 people to death in a single hearing on 25 March 2014. Sentenced supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi were to be executed for their alleged role in violence following his removal in July 2013. The judgement was condemned as a violation of international law.[189] By May 2014, approximately 16,000 people (and as high as more than 40,000 by one independent count, according to The Economist),[190] mostly Brotherhood members or supporters, have been imprisoned after Morsi's removal[191] after the Muslim Brotherhood was labelled as terrorist organisation by the post-Morsi interim Egyptian government.[192] According to human rights groups there are some 60,000 political prisoners in Egypt.[193][194]

After Morsi was ousted by the military, the judiciary system aligned itself with the new government, actively supporting the repression of Muslim Brotherhood members. This resulted in a sharp increase in mass death sentences that arose criticism from then-U.S. President Barack Obama and the General Secretary of the UN, Ban Ki Moon.

Homosexuality is illegal in Egypt.[195] According to a 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 95% of Egyptians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.[196]

In 2017, Cairo was voted the most dangerous megacity for women with more than 10 million inhabitants in a poll by Thomson Reuters Foundation. Sexual harassment was described as occurring on a daily basis.[197]

Freedom of the press

Reporters Without Borders ranked Egypt in their 2017 World Press Freedom Index at No. 160 out of 180 nations. At least 18 journalists were imprisoned in Egypt, as of August 2015. A new anti-terror law was enacted in August 2015 that threatens members of the media with fines ranging from about US$25,000 to $60,000 for the distribution of wrong information on acts of terror inside the country "that differ from official declarations of the Egyptian Department of Defense".[198]

Some critics of the government have been arrested for allegedly spreading false information about the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt.[199][200]

Administrative divisions

Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. The governorates are further divided into regions. The regions contain towns and villages. Each governorate has a capital, sometimes carrying the same name as the governorate.[201]

Governorates of Egypt
1. Matrouh 2. Alexandria 3. Beheira 4. Kafr El Sheikh 5. Dakahlia 6. Damietta 7. Port Said 8. North Sinai 9. Gharbia 10. Monufia 11. Qalyubia 12. Sharqia 13. Ismailia 14. Giza 15. Faiyum 16. Cairo 17. Suez 18. South Sinai 19. Beni Suef 20. Minya 21. New Valley 22. Asyut 23. Red Sea 24. Sohag 25. Qena 26. Luxor 27. Aswan

Economy

Share of world GDP (PPP)[202]
Year Share
1980 0.69%
1990 0.83%
2000 0.86%
2010 0.96%
2017 0.95%
Egypt Exports by Product (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity

Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum imports, natural gas, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Libya, Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honoured place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population, limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy.

The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt has received United States foreign aid since 1979 (an average of $2.2 billion per year) and is the third-largest recipient of such funds from the United States following the Iraq war. Egypt's economy mainly relies on these sources of income: tourism, remittances from Egyptians working abroad and revenues from the Suez Canal.[203]

Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. Substantial coal deposits in the northeast Sinai are mined at the rate of about 600,000 tonnes (590,000 long tons; 660,000 short tons) per year. Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez, and the Nile Delta. Egypt has huge reserves of gas, estimated at 2,180 cubic kilometres (520 cu mi),[204] and LNG up to 2012 exported to many countries. In 2013, the Egyptian General Petroleum Co (EGPC) said the country will cut exports of natural gas and tell major industries to slow output this summer to avoid an energy crisis and stave off political unrest, Reuters has reported. Egypt is counting on top liquid natural gas (LNG) exporter Qatar to obtain additional gas volumes in summer, while encouraging factories to plan their annual maintenance for those months of peak demand, said EGPC chairman, Tarek El Barkatawy. Egypt produces its own energy, but has been a net oil importer since 2008 and is rapidly becoming a net importer of natural gas.[205]

Economic conditions have started to improve considerably, after a period of stagnation, due to the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market. In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms.[206] Some major economic reforms undertaken by the government since 2003 include a dramatic slashing of customs and tariffs. A new taxation law implemented in 2005 decreased corporate taxes from 40% to the current 20%, resulting in a stated 100% increase in tax revenue by the year 2006.

Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses.

Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Egypt increased considerably before the removal of Hosni Mubarak, exceeding $6 billion in 2006, due to economic liberalisation and privatisation measures taken by minister of investment Mahmoud Mohieddin.[citation needed] Since the fall of Hosni Mubarak in 2011, Egypt has experienced a drastic fall in both foreign investment and tourism revenues, followed by a 60% drop in foreign exchange reserves, a 3% drop in growth, and a rapid devaluation of the Egyptian pound.[207]

Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the limited trickle down of wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticise their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant. Corruption is often cited by Egyptians as the main impediment to further economic growth.[208][209] The government promised major reconstruction of the country's infrastructure, using money paid for the newly acquired third mobile license ($3 billion) by Etisalat in 2006.[210] In the Corruption Perceptions Index 2013, Egypt was ranked 114 out of 177.[211]

Egypt's most prominent multinational companies are the Orascom Group and Raya Contact Center. The information technology (IT) sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as many small and medium size enterprises. Some of these companies are the Xceed Contact Center, Raya, E Group Connections and C3. The IT sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs with government encouragement.[citation needed]

An estimated 2.7 million Egyptians abroad contribute actively to the development of their country through remittances (US$7.8 billion in 2009), as well as circulation of human and social capital and investment.[212] Remittances, money earned by Egyptians living abroad and sent home, reached a record US$21 billion in 2012, according to the World Bank.[213]

Egyptian society is moderately unequal in terms of income distribution, with an estimated 35–40% of Egypt's population earning less than the equivalent of $2 a day, while only around 2–3% may be considered wealthy.[214]

Tourism

Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.

Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt's economy. More than 12.8 million tourists visited Egypt in 2008, providing revenues of nearly $11 billion. The tourism sector employs about 12% of Egypt's workforce.[215] Tourism Minister Hisham Zaazou told industry professionals and reporters that tourism generated some $9.4 billion in 2012, a slight increase over the $9 billion seen in 2011.[216]

Sahl Hasheesh, a resort town near Hurghada.

The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's best-known tourist attractions; it is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.

Egypt's beaches on the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, which extend to over 3,000 kilometres (1,900 miles), are also popular tourist destinations; the Gulf of Aqaba beaches, Safaga, Sharm el-Sheikh, Hurghada, Luxor, Dahab, Ras Sidr and Marsa Alam are popular sites.

Energy

An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field.

Egypt produced 691,000 bbl/d of oil and 2,141.05 Tcf of natural gas in 2013, making the country the largest non-OPEC producer of oil and the second-largest dry natural gas producer in Africa. In 2013, Egypt was the largest consumer of oil and natural gas in Africa, as more than 20% of total oil consumption and more than 40% of total dry natural gas consumption in Africa. Also, Egypt possesses the largest oil refinery capacity in Africa 726,000 bbl/d (in 2012).[204]

Egypt is currently planning to build its first nuclear power plant in El Dabaa, in the northern part of the country, with $25 billion in Russian financing.[217]

Transport

Transport in Egypt is centred around Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile. The main line of the nation's 40,800-kilometre (25,400 mi) railway network runs from Alexandria to Aswan and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. The vehicle road network has expanded rapidly to over 34,000 km (21,000 mi), consisting of 28 line, 796 stations, 1800 train covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases.

The Cairo Metro (line 2)

The Cairo Metro in Egypt is the first of only two full-fledged metro systems in Africa and the Arab World. It is considered one of the most important recent projects in Egypt which cost around 12 billion Egyptian pounds. The system consists of three operational lines with a fourth line expected in the future.

EgyptAir, which is now the country's flag carrier and largest airline, was founded in 1932 by Egyptian industrialist Talaat Harb, today owned by the Egyptian government. The airline is based at Cairo International Airport, its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplanes.

Suez Canal

The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of the maritime transport in the Middle East, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. The northern terminus is Port Said and the southern terminus is Port Tawfiq at the city of Suez. Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 kilometres (1+78 miles) from the half-way point.

The canal is 193.30 km (120+18 mi) long, 24 metres (79 feet) deep and 205 m (673 ft) wide as of 2010. It consists of the northern access channel of 22 km (14 mi), the canal itself of 162.25 km (100+78 mi) and the southern access channel of 9 km (5+12 mi). The canal is a single lane with passing places in the Ballah By-Pass and the Great Bitter Lake. It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez.

On 26 August 2014 a proposal was made for opening a New Suez Canal. Work on the New Suez Canal was completed in July 2015.[218][219] The channel was officially inaugurated with a ceremony attended by foreign leaders and featuring military flyovers on 6 August 2015, in accordance with the budgets laid out for the project.[220][221]

Water supply and sanitation

The piped water supply in Egypt increased between 1990 and 2010 from 89% to 100% in urban areas and from 39% to 93% in rural areas despite rapid population growth. Over that period, Egypt achieved the elimination of open defecation in rural areas and invested in infrastructure. Access to an improved water source in Egypt is now practically universal with a rate of 99%. About one half of the population is connected to sanitary sewers.[222]

Partly because of low sanitation coverage about 17,000 children die each year because of diarrhoea.[223] Another challenge is low cost recovery due to water tariffs that are among the lowest in the world. This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring. Poor operation of facilities, such as water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as limited government accountability and transparency, are also issues.

Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta

Irrigated land and crops

Due to the absence of appreciable rainfall, Egypt's agriculture depends entirely on irrigation. The main source of irrigation water is the river Nile of which the flow is controlled by the high dam at Aswan. It releases, on average, 55 cubic kilometres (45,000,000 acre·ft) water per year, of which some 46 cubic kilometres (37,000,000 acre·ft) are diverted into the irrigation canals.[224]

In the Nile valley and delta, almost 33,600 square kilometres (13,000 sq mi) of land benefit from these irrigation waters producing on average 1.8 crops per year.[224]

Demographics

Egypt's population density (people per km2).
Historical populations in thousands
YearPop.±% p.a.
1882 6,712—    
1897 9,669+2.46%
1907 11,190+1.47%
1917 12,718+1.29%
1927 14,178+1.09%
1937 15,921+1.17%
1947 18,967+1.77%
1960 26,085+2.48%
1966 30,076+2.40%
1976 36,626+1.99%
1986 48,254+2.80%
1996 59,312+2.08%
2006 72,798+2.07%
2017 94,798+2.43%
Source: Population in Egypt[225][9]

Egypt is the most populated country in the Arab world and the third most populous on the African continent, with about 95 million inhabitants as of 2017.[226] Its population grew rapidly from 1970 to 2010 due to medical advances and increases in agricultural productivity[227] enabled by the Green Revolution.[228] Egypt's population was estimated at 3 million when Napoleon invaded the country in 1798.[229]

Egypt's people are highly urbanised, being concentrated along the Nile (notably Cairo and Alexandria), in the Delta and near the Suez Canal. Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin, or farmers, that reside in rural villages. The total inhabited area constitutes only 77,041 km², putting the physiological density at over 1,200 people per km2, similar to Bangladesh.

While emigration was restricted under Nasser, thousands of Egyptian professionals were dispatched abroad in the context of the Arab Cold War.[230] Egyptian emigration was liberalised in 1971, under President Sadat, reaching record numbers after the 1973 oil crisis.[231] An estimated 2.7 million Egyptians live abroad. Approximately 70% of Egyptian migrants live in Arab countries (923,600 in Saudi Arabia, 332,600 in Libya, 226,850 in Jordan, 190,550 in Kuwait with the rest elsewhere in the region) and the remaining 30% reside mostly in Europe and North America (318,000 in the United States, 110,000 in Canada and 90,000 in Italy).[212] The process of emigrating to non-Arab states has been ongoing since the 1950s.[232]

Ethnic groups

Ethnic Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 99.7% of the total population.[56] Ethnic minorities include the Abazas, Turks, Greeks, Bedouin Arab tribes living in the eastern deserts and the Sinai Peninsula, the Berber-speaking Siwis (Amazigh) of the Siwa Oasis, and the Nubian communities clustered along the Nile. There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the southeasternmost corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanisation increases.

Some 5 million immigrants live in Egypt, mostly Sudanese, "some of whom have lived in Egypt for generations."[233] Smaller numbers of immigrants come from Iraq, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, and Eritrea.[233]

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that the total number of "people of concern" (refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless people) was about 250,000. In 2015, the number of registered Syrian refugees in Egypt was 117,000, a decrease from the previous year.[233] Egyptian government claims that a half-million Syrian refugees live in Egypt are thought to be exaggerated.[233] There are 28,000 registered Sudanese refugees in Egypt.[233]

The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared, with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism. Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities.

Languages

The official language of the Republic is Arabic.[234] The spoken languages are: Egyptian Arabic (68%), Sa'idi Arabic (29%), Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic (1.6%), Sudanese Arabic (0.6%), Domari (0.3%), Nobiin (0.3%), Beja (0.1%), Siwi and others.[citation needed] Additionally, Greek, Armenian and Italian, and more recently, African languages like Amharic and Tigrigna are the main languages of immigrants.

The main foreign languages taught in schools, by order of popularity, are English, French, German and Italian.

Historically Egyptian was spoken, of which the latest stage is Coptic Egyptian. Spoken Coptic was mostly extinct by the 17th century but may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century. It remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.[235][236] It forms a separate branch among the family of Afroasiatic languages.

Religion

Egypt has the largest Muslim population in the Arab world, and the sixth world's largest Muslim population, and home for (5%) of the world's Muslim population.[237] Egypt also has the largest Christian population in the Middle East and North Africa.[238]

Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion. The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. An estimated 85–90% are identified as Muslim, 10–15% as Coptic Christians, and 1% as other Christian denominations, although without a census the numbers cannot be known. Other estimates put the Christian population as high as 15–20%.[note 1] Non-denominational Muslims form roughly 12% of the population.[245][246]

Egypt was a Christian country before the 7th century, and after Islam arrived, the country was gradually Islamised into a majority-Muslim country.[247][248] It is not known when Muslims reached a majority variously estimated from c. 1000 CE to as late as the 14th century. Egypt emerged as a centre of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat, Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law.[249] It is estimated that 15 million Egyptians follow Native Sufi orders,[250][251][252] with the Sufi leadership asserting that the numbers are much greater as many Egyptian Sufis are not officially registered with a Sufi order.[251] At least 305 people were killed during a November 2017 attack on a Sufi mosque in Sinai.[253]

There is also a Shi'a minority. The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs estimates the Shia population at 1 to 2.2 million[254] and could measure as much as 3 million.[255] The Ahmadiyya population is estimated at less than 50,000,[256] whereas the Salafi (ultra-conservative Sunni) population is estimated at five to six million.[257] Cairo is famous for its numerous mosque minarets and has been dubbed "The City of 1,000 Minarets".[258]

Of the Christian population in Egypt over 90% belong to the native Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, an Oriental Orthodox Christian Church.[259] Other native Egyptian Christians are adherents of the Coptic Catholic Church, the Evangelical Church of Egypt and various other Protestant denominations. Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, such as the Syro-Lebanese, who belong to Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Maronite Catholic denominations.[260]

Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Likewise, Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities. Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community, largely made up of Italians and Maltese. These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place.

Egypt hosts the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest church in the country.

Egypt is also the home of Al-Azhar University (founded in 969 CE, began teaching in 975 CE), which is today the world's "most influential voice of establishment Sunni Islam" and is, by some measures, the second-oldest continuously operating university in world.[261]

Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Other faiths and minority Muslim sects practised by Egyptians, such as the small Baháʼí Faith and Ahmadiyya communities, are not recognised by the state and face persecution by the government, which labels these groups a threat to Egypt's national security.[262][263] Individuals, particularly Baháʼís and atheists, wishing to include their religion (or lack thereof) on their mandatory state issued identification cards are denied this ability (see Egyptian identification card controversy), and are put in the position of either not obtaining required identification or lying about their faith. A 2008 court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank.[182][183]

Largest cities

Culture

Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television. Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the 1950s and 1960s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world.[264]

Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam, Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic, and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words.[265]

The work of early 19th century scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi renewed interest in Egyptian antiquity and exposed Egyptian society to Enlightenment principles. Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi, who themselves studied the history, language and antiquities of Egypt.[266]

Egypt's renaissance peaked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries through the work of people like Muhammad Abduh, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, Muhammad Loutfi Goumah, Tawfiq el-Hakim, Louis Awad, Qasim Amin, Salama Moussa, Taha Hussein and Mahmoud Mokhtar. They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.[267]

Arts

The weighing of the heart scene from the Book of the Dead.

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture. Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids, temples and monumental tombs.

Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep, the Sphinx, and the temple of Abu Simbel. Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art scene, from the vernacular architecture of Hassan Fathy and Ramses Wissa Wassef, to Mahmoud Mokhtar's sculptures, to the distinctive Coptic iconography of Isaac Fanous. The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital.

Literature

Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature. Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book.[268] It is an important cultural element in the life of Egypt. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature, and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Arab world.[269] The first modern Egyptian novel Zaynab by Muhammad Husayn Haykal was published in 1913 in the Egyptian vernacular.[270] Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi, well known for her feminist activism, and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition.

Vernacular poetry is perhaps the most popular literary genre among Egyptians, represented by the works of Ahmed Fouad Negm (Fagumi), Salah Jaheen and Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi.[citation needed]

Media

Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World, attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control.[271][272] Freedom of the media is guaranteed in the constitution; however, many laws still restrict this right.[271][273]

Cinema

Suad Husni, film star.

Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound. In 1936, Studio Misr, financed by industrialist Talaat Harb, emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades.[274] For over 100 years, more than 4000 films have been produced in Egypt, three quarters of the total Arab production.[citation needed] Egypt is considered the leading country in the field of cinema in the Arab world. Actors from all over the Arab world seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. The Cairo International Film Festival has been rated as one of 11 festivals with a top class rating worldwide by the International Federation of Film Producers' Associations.[275]

Music

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements. It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music, which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world. Egyptians used music instruments since then.[276]

Contemporary Egyptian music traces its beginnings to the creative work of people such as Abdu al-Hamuli, Almaz and Mahmoud Osman, who influenced the later work of Sayed Darwish, Umm Kulthum, Mohammed Abdel Wahab and Abdel Halim Hafez whose age is considered the golden age of music in Egypt and the whole Arab world. Prominent contemporary Egyptian pop singers include Amr Diab and Mohamed Mounir.

Dances

Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo.

Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles – raqs baladi and raqs sharqi. There are also numerous folkloric and character dances that may be part of an Egyptian-style belly dancer's repertoire, as well as the modern shaabi street dance which shares some elements with raqs baladi.

Museums

The Egyptian Museum of Cairo

Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. It has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and has been through so many eras, starting from prehistoric age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages. Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts.

Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo

The three main museums in Egypt are The Egyptian Museum which has more than 120,000 items, the Egyptian National Military Museum and the 6th of October Panorama.

The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM), also known as the Giza Museum, is an under construction museum that will house the largest collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts in the world, it has been described as the world's largest archaeological museum.[277] The museum was scheduled to open in 2015 and will be sited on 50 hectares (120 acres) of land approximately two kilometres (1.2 miles) from the Giza Necropolis and is part of a new master plan for the plateau. The Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh al-Damaty announced in May 2015 that the museum will be partially opened in May 2018.[278]

Festivals

Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid. They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion. Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights (local lanterns known as fawanees) and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.

The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim (Coptic: Ϭⲱⲙ‘ⲛⲛⲓⲥⲓⲙ shom en nisim) has been celebrated by Egyptians for thousands of years, typically between the Egyptian months of Paremoude (April) and Pashons (May), following Easter Sunday.

Cuisine

Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes.

Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes. Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed.

Some consider kushari (a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni) to be the national dish. Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In addition, ful medames (mashed fava beans) is one of the most popular dishes. Fava bean is also used in making falafel (also known as "ta‘miya"), which may have originated in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Middle East. Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya, a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.

Sports

A crowd at Cairo Stadium to watch the Egypt national football team.

Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world.[279] Al Ahly is the most successful club of the 20th century in the African continent according to CAF, closely followed by their rivals Zamalek SC. They're known as the "African Club of the Century". With twenty titles, Al Ahly is currently the world's most successful club in terms of international trophies, surpassing Italy's A.C. Milan and Argentina's Boca Juniors, both having eighteen.[280]

The Egyptian national football team, known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Considered the most successful African national team and one which has reached the top 10 of the FIFA world rankings, Egypt has qualified for the FIFA World Cup three times. Two goals from star player Mohamed Salah in their last qualifying game took Egypt through to the 2018 FIFA World Cup.[281] The Egyptian Youth National team Young Pharaohs won the Bronze Medal of the 2001 FIFA youth world cup in Argentina. Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the 1928 and the 1964 Olympics.

Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the 1930s. Amr Shabana and Ramy Ashour are Egypt's best players and both were ranked the world's number one squash player. Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in 2017.

In 1999, Egypt hosted the IHF World Men's Handball Championship, and will host it again in 2021. In 2001, the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place. Egypt has won in the African Men's Handball Championship five times, being the best team in Africa. In addition to that, it also championed the Mediterranean Games in 2013, the Beach Handball World Championships in 2004 and the Summer Youth Olympics in 2010. Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.[282][283] Further, the team has won a record number of 16 medals at the African Championship.

Egypt has taken part in the Summer Olympic Games since 1912 and has hosted several other international competitions including the first Mediterranean Games in 1951, the 1991 All-Africa Games, the 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup and the 1953, 1965 and 2007 editions of the Pan Arab Games.

Egypt featured a national team in beach volleyball that competed at the 2018–2020 CAVB Beach Volleyball Continental Cup in both the women's and the men's section.[284]

Telecommunication

The wired and wireless telecommunication industry in Egypt started in 1854 with the launch of the country's first telegram line connecting Cairo and Alexandria. The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in 1881.[285] In September 1999 a national project for a technological renaissance was announced reflecting the commitment of the Egyptian government to developing the country's IT-sector.

Post

Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt. Established in 1865, it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union, initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.

Social media

In September 2018, Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.[286][287]

Education

Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics

The illiteracy rate has decreased since 1996 from 39.4 to 25.9 percent in 2013. The adult literacy rate as of July 2014 was estimated at 73.9%.[288] The illiteracy rate is highest among those over 60 years of age being estimated at around 64.9%, while illiteracy among youth between 15 and 24 years of age was listed at 8.6 percent.[289]

A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.[290] Under British occupation investment in education was curbed drastically, and secular public schools, which had previously been free, began to charge fees.[290]

In the 1950s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians.[290] The Egyptian curriculum influenced other Arab education systems, which often employed Egyptian-trained teachers.[290] Demand soon outstripped the level of available state resources, causing the quality of public education to deteriorate.[290] Today this trend has culminated in poor teacher–student ratios (often around one to fifty) and persistent gender inequality.[290]

Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.[291] After grade 9, students are tracked into one of two strands of secondary education: general or technical schools. General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma, the leaving exam.[291]

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five. Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.[291]

Cairo University is ranked as 401–500 according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities (Shanghai Ranking)[292] and 551–600 according to QS World University Rankings. American University in Cairo is ranked as 360 according to QS World University Rankings and Al-Azhar University, Alexandria University and Ain Shams University fall in the 701+ range.[293] Egypt is currently opening new research institutes for the aim of modernising research in the nation, the most recent example of which is Zewail City of Science and Technology. Egypt was ranked 96th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 92nd in 2019.[294][295][296][297]

Health

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was 73.20 years in 2011, or 71.30 years for males and 75.20 years for females. Egypt spends 3.7 percent of its gross domestic product on health including treatment costs 22 percent incurred by citizens and the rest by the state.[298] In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 4.66% of the country's GDP. In 2009, there were 16.04 physicians and 33.80 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants.[299]

As a result of modernisation efforts over the years, Egypt's healthcare system has made great strides forward. Access to healthcare in both urban and rural areas greatly improved and immunisation programs are now able to cover 98% of the population. Life expectancy increased from 44.8 years during the 1960s to 72.12 years in 2009. There was a noticeable decline of the infant mortality rate (during the 1970s to the 1980s the infant mortality rate was 101-132/1000 live births, in 2000 the rate was 50-60/1000, and in 2008 it was 28-30/1000).[300]

According to the World Health Organization in 2008, an estimated 91.1% of Egypt's girls and women aged 15 to 49 have been subjected to genital mutilation,[301] despite being illegal in the country. In 2016 the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years. Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years.[302]

The total number of Egyptians with health insurance reached 37 million in 2009, of which 11 million are minors, providing an insurance coverage of approximately 52 percent of Egypt's population.[303]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The population of Egypt is estimated as being 90% Muslim, 9% Coptic Christian and 1% other Christian, though estimates vary.[239][240][241] Microsoft Encarta Online similarly estimates the Sunni population at 90% of the total.[242] The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life gave a higher estimate of the Muslim population, at 94.6%.[243] In 2017, the government-owned newspaper Al Ahram estimated the percentage of Christians at 10 to 15%.[244]

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