Chile

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Coordenadas : 34 ° S 71 ° W / 34°S 71°W / -34; -71

República do Chile
República do Chile   ( espanhol )
Lema: 
  • Por la razón o la fuerza
  • (Inglês: "Por razão ou pela força")
Hino:  " Himno Nacional de Chile "
Chilean territory in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green
Território chileno em verde escuro; território reivindicado, mas não controlado em verde claro
Capital
e a maior cidade
Santiago a 33 ° 26′S 70 ° 40′W
 / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667
Língua nacionalespanhol
Grupos étnicos
(2012) [1]
Religião
(2020) [2]
Demônimo (s)
Governo República constitucional presidencial unitária
•  Presidente
Sebastián Piñera
Ximena Rincón
Diego Paulsen
Elisa Loncón
LegislaturaCongresso Nacional
Senado
Câmara dos Deputados
Independência 
18 de setembro de 1810
•  Declarado
12 de fevereiro de 1818
• Reconhecido
25 de abril de 1844
11 de setembro de 1980
Área
• Total
756.096,3 [3]  km 2 (291.930,4 MI quadrado) ( 37º )
• Água (%)
2.1 (a partir de 2015) [4]
População
• censo de 2017
17.574.003 [5] ( 64º )
• Densidade
24 / km 2 (62,2 / sq mi) ( 198º )
PIB  ( PPP )Estimativa para 2020
• Total
Decrease$ 456,394 bilhões [6] ( 43º )
• per capita
Decrease$ 23.455 [6] ( 57 )
PIB  (nominal)Estimativa para 2020
• Total
Decrease$ 245,414 bilhões [6] ( 45º )
• per capita
Decrease$ 12.612 [6] ( 55º )
Gini  (2017)Negative increase 46 [7] de
altura
HDI  (2019)Increase 0,851 [8]
muito alto  ·  43º
MoedaPeso chileno ( CLP )
Fuso horárioUTC −4 e −6 ( CLT e EAST c )
• Verão ( DST )
UTC -3 e -5
Abril a setembro
Formato de datadd / mm / aaaa
Lado de conduçãodireito
Código de chamada+56
Código ISO 3166CL
Internet TLD.cl
  1. A legislatura tem sede em Valparaíso .
  2. Inclui Ilha de Páscoa e Isla Salas y Gómez ; não inclui 1.250.000 quilômetros quadrados (480.000 sq mi) de território reivindicado na Antártica.

Chile , [a] oficialmente a República do Chile , [b] é um país no oeste da América do Sul . Ocupa uma longa e estreita faixa de terra entre os Andes a leste e o Oceano Pacífico a oeste. O Chile cobre uma área de 756.096 quilômetros quadrados (291.930 sq mi), com uma população de 17,5 milhões em 2017. [5] O Chile é o país mais ao sul do mundo, o mais próximo da Antártica e faz fronteira com o Peru ao norte, com a Bolívia a o nordeste, a Argentina a leste e a passagem de Drakeno extremo sul. O Chile também controla as ilhas do Pacífico de Juan Fernández , Isla Salas y Gómez , Desventuradas e Ilha de Páscoa na Oceania . Ele também reivindica cerca de 1.250.000 quilômetros quadrados (480.000 sq mi) da Antártica sob o Território Antártico Chileno . [nota 2] A capital e maior cidade do país é Santiago , e seu idioma nacional é o espanhol .

A Espanha conquistou e colonizou a região em meados do século 16, substituindo o domínio inca , mas não conseguiu conquistar os mapuches independentes que habitavam o que hoje é o centro-sul do Chile. Em 1818, após declarar independência da Espanha, o Chile emergiu na década de 1830 como uma república autoritária relativamente estável. No século 19, o Chile viu um crescimento econômico e territorial significativo, encerrando a resistência Mapuche na década de 1880 e ganhando seu atual território ao norte na Guerra do Pacífico (1879-83) após derrotar o Peru e a Bolívia. No século 20 até a década de 1970, o Chile viu um processo de democratização , [10] [11]rápido crescimento populacional e urbanização [12] e crescente dependência das exportações da mineração de cobre para sua economia . [13] [14] Durante as décadas de 1960 e 1970, o país experimentou uma severa polarização política esquerda-direita e turbulência. Este desenvolvimento culminou com o golpe de Estado chileno de 1973 que derrubou o governo de esquerda democraticamente eleito de Salvador Allende e instituiu uma ditadura militar de direita de 16 anos de Augusto Pinochet que deixou mais de 3.000 mortos ou desaparecidos. [15] O regime terminou em 1990 após umreferendo em 1988 e foi sucedido por uma coalizão de centro-esquerda que governou até 2010.

O Chile é um país em desenvolvimento [ carece de fontes? ] Com uma economia de alta renda e ocupa uma posição muito alta no Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano . Está entre as nações mais estáveis ​​econômica e socialmente da América do Sul, liderando a América Latina em classificações de competitividade , renda per capita , globalização , estado de paz , liberdade econômica e baixa percepção de corrupção . [16] O Chile também tem uma alta classificação regional em sustentabilidade do estado , desenvolvimento democrático, [17]e tem a menor taxa de homicídio nas Américas, depois do Canadá . É membro fundador das Nações Unidas , da Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos (CELAC) e da Aliança do Pacífico , tendo aderido à OCDE em 2010.

Etimologia

Existem várias teorias sobre a origem da palavra Chile . De acordo com o cronista espanhol do século 17 Diego de Rosales , [18] os incas chamaram o vale do Aconcágua do Chile pela corrupção do nome de um chefe tribal Picunche ( cacique ) chamado Tili , que governava a área na época da conquista inca no século 15. [19] [20] Outra teoria aponta para a semelhança do vale do Aconcágua com o vale do Casma, no Peru, onde havia uma cidade e um vale chamado Chili . [20]

Outras teorias dizem que o nome do Chile pode ser derivado de uma palavra nativa americana que significa 'confins da terra' ou 'gaivotas'; [21] da palavra mapuche chilli , que pode significar 'onde a terra termina' " [22] ou do quechua chiri , 'frio', [23] ou tchili , significando 'neve' [23] [24] ou "o ponto mais profundo da Terra". [25] Outra origem atribuída à pimenta é o cheele-cheele onomatopaico - a imitação Mapuche do gorjeio de um pássaro conhecido localmente como trile . [22] [26]

Os conquistadores espanhóis ouviram falar desse nome pelos Incas, e os poucos sobreviventes da primeira expedição espanhola de Diego de Almagro ao sul do Peru em 1535-1536 se autodenominaram "homens de Chilli". [22] Por fim, Almagro é creditado com a universalização do nome do Chile , depois de nomear o Mapocho vale como tal. [20] A grafia mais antiga "Chili" estava em uso em inglês até pelo menos 1900 antes de mudar para "Chile". [27]

História

História antiga

Evidências de ferramentas de pedra indicam que os humanos frequentaram esporadicamente a área do vale de Monte Verde há cerca de 18.500 anos. [28] Cerca de 10.000 anos atrás, os povos indígenas migrantes se estabeleceram em vales férteis e áreas costeiras do que hoje é o Chile. Assentamentos desde muito cedo a habitação humana incluem Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón eo Crater Pali-Aike 's tubo de lava . Os incas estenderam brevemente seu império no que hoje é o norte do Chile, mas os mapuches (ou araucanos, como eram conhecidos pelos espanhóis) resistiram com sucesso a muitas tentativas do Império Inca de subjugá-los, apesar de sua falta de organização estatal.[29] Eles lutaram contra o Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui e seu exército. O resultado do confronto sangrento de três dias conhecido como Batalha do Maule foi que a conquista Inca dos territórios do Chile terminou no rio Maule . [30]

Colonização espanhola

Em 1520, ao tentar circunavegar o globo, Fernando de Magalhães descobriu a passagem ao sul que agora leva seu nome (o Estreito de Magalhães ), tornando-se assim o primeiro europeu a pisar no que hoje é o Chile. Os próximos europeus a chegar ao Chile foram Diego de Almagro e seu bando de conquistadores espanhóis , que vieram do Peru em 1535 em busca de ouro. Os espanhóis encontraram várias culturas que se sustentavam principalmente por meio da agricultura de corte e queima e da caça. [30]

Pedro de Valdivia , conquistador do Chile

A conquista do Chile começou para valer em 1540 e foi realizada por Pedro de Valdivia , um dos tenentes de Francisco Pizarro , que fundou a cidade de Santiago em 12 de fevereiro de 1541. Embora os espanhóis não tenham encontrado o extenso ouro e prata que procuravam , eles reconheceram o potencial agrícola do vale central do Chile, e o Chile tornou-se parte do Império Espanhol . [30]

A conquista ocorreu de forma gradual e os europeus sofreram repetidos reveses. Uma enorme insurreição Mapuche que começou em 1553 resultou na morte de Valdivia e na destruição de muitos dos principais assentamentos da colônia. Subseqüentes grandes insurreições ocorreram em 1598 e em 1655. Cada vez que os Mapuche e outros grupos nativos se revoltavam, a fronteira sul da colônia era empurrada para o norte. A abolição da escravidão pela coroa espanhola em 1683 foi feita em reconhecimento de que escravizar os Mapuche intensificou a resistência ao invés de intimidá-los à submissão. Apesar das proibições reais, as relações permaneceram tensas devido à contínua interferência colonialista. [31]

Cortado ao norte pelo deserto, ao sul pelos Mapuche, a leste pela Cordilheira dos Andes e a oeste pelo oceano, o Chile tornou-se uma das colônias mais centralizadas e homogêneas da América espanhola. Servindo como uma espécie de guarnição de fronteira , a colônia encontrou-se com a missão de impedir a invasão tanto dos mapuches quanto dos inimigos europeus da Espanha, especialmente ingleses e holandeses . Os corsários e piratas ameaçavam a colônia, além dos mapuches, como mostrou Sir Francis Drakeinvasão de 1578 em Valparaíso, o principal porto da colônia. O Chile hospedou um dos maiores exércitos permanentes das Américas, tornando-o uma das mais militarizadas das possessões espanholas, além de drenar o tesouro do Vice-Reino do Peru . [22]

O primeiro censo geral foi realizado pelo governo de Agustín de Jáuregui entre 1777 e 1778; indicava que a população era de 259.646 habitantes: 73,5% de descendência europeia , 7,9% de mestiços , 8,6% de indígenas e 9,8% de negros. Francisco Hurtado, governador da província de Chiloé , realizou um censo em 1784 e constatou que a população era de 26.703 habitantes, 64,4 por cento dos quais eram brancos e 33,5 por cento dos quais eram nativos.

A Diocese de Concepción realizou um censo nas áreas ao sul do rio Maule em 1812, mas não incluiu a população indígena ou os habitantes da província de Chiloé. A população é estimada em 210.567, 86,1 por cento dos quais eram espanhóis ou descendentes de europeus, 10 por cento dos quais eram indígenas e 3,7 por cento dos quais eram mestiços, negros e mulatos . [32]

Independência e construção da nação

Bernardo O'Higgins , Libertador e o Diretor Supremo do Chile

Em 1808, a entronização de seu irmão José por Napoleão como o rei espanhol precipitou o impulso da colônia para a independência da Espanha . Uma junta nacional em nome de Fernando - herdeiro do rei deposto - foi formada em 18 de setembro de 1810. A Junta de Governo do Chile proclamou o Chile uma república autônoma dentro da monarquia espanhola (em memória deste dia, o Chile celebra seu Dia Nacional em 18 Setembro de cada ano).

Após esses acontecimentos, um movimento pela independência total, sob o comando de José Miguel Carrera (um dos patriotas mais renomados) e seus dois irmãos Juan José e Luis Carrera , logo ganhou um apoio mais amplo. As tentativas espanholas de impor novamente o governo arbitrário durante o que foi chamado de Reconquista levaram a uma luta prolongada, incluindo lutas internas de Bernardo O'Higgins , que desafiou a liderança de Carrera.

A guerra intermitente continuou até 1817. Com Carrera na prisão na Argentina, O'Higgins e o coorte anti-Carrera José de San Martín , herói da Guerra da Independência Argentina , liderou um exército que cruzou os Andes para o Chile e derrotou os monarquistas. Em 12 de fevereiro de 1818, o Chile foi proclamado uma república independente . A revolta política trouxe poucas mudanças sociais, no entanto, e a sociedade chilena do século 19 preservou a essência da estrutura social colonial estratificada, que foi muito influenciada pela política familiar e pela Igreja Católica Romana . Uma forte presidência finalmente emergiu, mas ricos proprietários de terras permaneceram poderosos. [30]

O Chile começou lentamente a expandir sua influência e a estabelecer suas fronteiras. Pelo Tratado de Tantauco, o arquipélago de Chiloé foi incorporado em 1826. A economia começou a crescer devido à descoberta de minério de prata em Chañarcillo e ao comércio crescente do porto de Valparaíso, o que levou a um conflito pela supremacia marítima no Pacífico com Peru. Ao mesmo tempo, foram feitas tentativas para fortalecer a soberania no sul do Chile, intensificando a penetração na Araucanía e colonizando Llanquihue com imigrantes alemães em 1848. Com a fundação do Forte Bulnes pela escuna Ancud sob o comando de John Williams Wilson , a região de Magalhães se juntou ao país em 1843, enquanto oA região de Antofagasta , na época parte da Bolívia, começou a se encher de gente.

A Batalha de Iquique em 21 de maio de 1879. A vitória do Chile na Guerra do Pacífico permitiu sua expansão para novos territórios.

No final do século XIX, o governo de Santiago consolidou sua posição no sul com a ocupação da Araucanía . O tratado de fronteira de 1881 entre o Chile e a Argentina confirmou a soberania chilena sobre o Estreito de Magalhães . Como resultado da Guerra do Pacífico com o Peru e a Bolívia (1879-83), o Chile expandiu seu território para o norte em quase um terço, eliminando o acesso da Bolívia ao Pacífico, e adquiriu valiosos depósitos de nitrato , cuja exploração levou a um era de afluência nacional. O Chile aderiu ao estande como um dos países de alta renda da América do Sul em 1870. [33]

A Guerra Civil chilena de 1891 trouxe uma redistribuição de poder entre o presidente e o Congresso, e o Chile estabeleceu uma democracia de estilo parlamentar . No entanto, a Guerra Civil também foi uma disputa entre aqueles que favoreciam o desenvolvimento das indústrias locais e poderosos interesses bancários chilenos, particularmente a Casa de Edwards, que tinha fortes laços com investidores estrangeiros. Logo depois, o país se envolveu em uma corrida armamentista naval muito cara com a Argentina que quase levou à guerra.

século 20

Do Chile Almirante Latorre dreadnought em 1921

A economia chilena degenerou parcialmente em um sistema que protegia os interesses de uma oligarquia dominante . Na década de 1920, as classes média e trabalhadora emergentes eram poderosas o suficiente para eleger um presidente reformista, Arturo Alessandri , cujo programa foi frustrado por um congresso conservador. Na década de 1920, surgiram grupos marxistas com forte apoio popular. [30]

Um golpe militar liderado pelo general Luis Altamirano em 1924 desencadeou um período de instabilidade política que durou até 1932. Dos dez governos que ocuparam o poder naquele período, o mais duradouro foi o do general Carlos Ibáñez del Campo , que ocupou o poder por um breve período. 1925 e novamente entre 1927 e 1931 no que foi uma ditadura de fato (embora não seja realmente comparável em ditadura ou corrupção ao tipo de ditadura militar que freqüentemente atormentou o resto da América Latina). [34] [35]

Ao ceder o poder a um sucessor eleito democraticamente, Ibáñez del Campo manteve o respeito de um segmento grande o suficiente da população para permanecer um político viável por mais de trinta anos, apesar da natureza vaga e inconstante de sua ideologia. Quando a regra constitucional foi restaurada em 1932, um forte partido de classe média, os Radicais, surgiu. Tornou-se a principal força nos governos de coalizão pelos próximos 20 anos. Durante o período de domínio do Partido Radical (1932–52), o estado aumentou seu papel na economia. Em 1952, os eleitores devolveram Ibáñez del Campo ao cargo por mais seis anos. Jorge Alessandri sucedeu Ibáñez del Campo em 1958, trazendo o conservadorismo chileno de volta ao poder democraticamente por mais um mandato.

A eleição presidencial de 1964 do democrata-cristão Eduardo Frei Montalva por maioria absoluta deu início a um período de grandes reformas. Sob o lema "Revolução na Liberdade", o governo Frei deu início a programas sociais e econômicos de longo alcance, particularmente nas áreas de educação, habitação e reforma agrária , incluindo a sindicalização rural dos trabalhadores agrícolas. Em 1967, entretanto, Frei encontrou oposição crescente de esquerdistas, que acusaram suas reformas de serem inadequadas, e de conservadores, que as consideraram excessivas. Ao final de seu mandato, Frei não havia alcançado plenamente os ambiciosos objetivos de seu partido. [30]

Na eleição de 1970, o senador Salvador Allende do Partido Socialista do Chile (então parte da coalizão " Unidade Popular " que incluía os comunistas, radicais, social-democratas, dissidentes democratas-cristãos, o Movimento de Ação Popular Unitária e a Ação Popular Independente ), [30] obtiveram maioria parcial na pluralidade de votos em um concurso a três, seguido pelos candidatos Radomiro Tomic pelo Partido Democrata Cristão e Jorge Alessandri pelo Partido Conservador. Allende não foi eleito por maioria absoluta, recebendo menos de 35 por cento dos votos.

O Congresso chileno realizou um segundo turno entre os candidatos principais, Allende e o ex-presidente Jorge Alessandri, e, mantendo a tradição, escolheu Allende por 153 votos a 35. Frei recusou-se a formar uma aliança com Alessandri para se opor a Allende, alegando que os democratas-cristãos eram um partido operário e não podiam fazer causa comum com a direita. [36] [37]

Uma depressão econômica que começou em 1972 foi exacerbada pela fuga de capitais , queda do investimento privado e retirada de depósitos bancários em resposta ao programa socialista de Allende. A produção caiu eo desemprego aumentou. Allende adotou medidas, incluindo congelamento de preços, aumentos salariais e reformas tributárias, para aumentar os gastos do consumidor e redistribuir a renda para baixo. [38] Projetos conjuntos de obras públicas e privadas ajudaram a reduzir o desemprego. [39] [ página necessária ] Grande parte do setor bancário foi nacionalizado . Muitas empresas nas indústrias de cobre , carvão, ferro, nitrato e aço foramexpropriados , nacionalizados ou sujeitos à intervenção do Estado. A produção industrial aumentou acentuadamente e o desemprego caiu durante o primeiro ano do governo Allende. [39]

O programa de Allende incluiu o avanço dos interesses dos trabalhadores, [39] [40] substituindo o sistema judicial pela "legalidade socialista", [41] a nacionalização de bancos e forçando outros à falência, [41] e o fortalecimento das "milícias populares" conhecidas como MIR. [41] Iniciada com o ex-presidente Frei, a plataforma da Unidade Popular também pediu a nacionalização das principais minas de cobre do Chile na forma de uma emenda constitucional. A medida foi aprovada por unanimidade pelo Congresso.

Como resultado, [42] a administração de Richard Nixon organizou e inseriu agentes secretos no Chile, a fim de desestabilizar rapidamente o governo de Allende. [43] Além disso, a pressão financeira dos EUA restringiu o crédito econômico internacional ao Chile. [44]

Os problemas econômicos também foram exacerbados pelos gastos públicos de Allende, que foram financiados principalmente pela impressão de dinheiro e pela baixa classificação de crédito concedida pelos bancos comerciais. [45] Simultaneamente, a mídia da oposição, políticos, corporações empresariais e outras organizações ajudaram a acelerar uma campanha de desestabilização política e econômica doméstica, algumas das quais foram apoiadas pelos Estados Unidos. [44] [46] No início de 1973, a inflação estava fora de controle. A economia paralisada foi ainda mais prejudicada por greves prolongadas e às vezes simultâneas de médicos, professores, estudantes, proprietários de caminhões, operários de cobre e pequenos empresários. Em 26 de maio de 1973, a Suprema Corte do Chile, que se opunha ao governo de Allende, denunciou por unanimidade a decisão de Allendeperturbação da legalidade da nação . Embora ilegal pela constituição chilena, o tribunal apoiou e fortaleceu a futura tomada do poder por Pinochet. [41] [47]

Era Pinochet (1973–1990)

Aviões de combate bombardeando o Palácio Presidencial de La Moneda durante o golpe chileno de 1973

Um golpe militar derrubou Allende em 11 de setembro de 1973. Enquanto as forças armadas bombardeavam o palácio presidencial , Allende aparentemente cometeu suicídio. [48] [49] Após o golpe, Henry Kissinger disse ao presidente dos EUA Richard Nixon que os Estados Unidos haviam "ajudado" o golpe. [50]

Uma junta militar liderada pelo general Augusto Pinochet assumiu o controle do país. Os primeiros anos do regime foram marcados por violações dos direitos humanos . O Chile participou ativamente da Operação Condor . [51] Em outubro de 1973, pelo menos 72 pessoas foram assassinadas pela Caravana da Morte . [52] De acordo com o Relatório Rettig e a Comissão Valech , pelo menos 2.115 foram mortos, [53] e pelo menos 27.265 [54] foram torturados (incluindo 88 crianças menores de 12 anos). [54]Em 2011, o Chile reconheceu 9.800 vítimas adicionais, elevando o número total de mortos, torturados ou presos por motivos políticos para 40.018. [55] No estádio nacional, lotado de detidos, um dos torturados e mortos era o poeta e cantor internacionalmente conhecido Víctor Jara (veja "Música e Dança", abaixo). O estádio foi renomeado para Jara em 2003.

Uma nova Constituição foi aprovada por um plebiscito polêmico em 11 de setembro de 1980, e o general Pinochet tornou-se presidente da república por um mandato de oito anos. Depois que Pinochet obteve o governo do país, várias centenas de revolucionários chilenos engajados se juntaram ao exército sandinista na Nicarágua , forças de guerrilha na Argentina ou campos de treinamento em Cuba , Europa Oriental e Norte da África. [56]

No final da década de 1980, em grande parte como resultado de eventos como o colapso econômico de 1982 [57] e a resistência civil em massa em 1983-88, o governo gradualmente permitiu maior liberdade de reunião, expressão e associação, incluindo atividades sindicais e políticas . [58] O governo lançou reformas orientadas para o mercado com Hernán Büchi como Ministro das Finanças. O Chile mudou para uma economia de mercado livre que viu um aumento no investimento privado doméstico e estrangeiro, embora a indústria do cobre e outros recursos minerais importantes não estivessem abertos para a competição. Em um plebiscitoem 5 de outubro de 1988, Pinochet foi negado um segundo mandato de oito anos como presidente (56% contra 44%). Os chilenos elegeram um novo presidente e a maioria dos membros de um congresso bicameral em 14 de dezembro de 1989. O democrata-cristão Patricio Aylwin , candidato de uma coalizão de 17 partidos políticos chamada Concertación , obteve a maioria absoluta dos votos (55%). [59] O presidente Aylwin serviu de 1990 a 1994, no que foi considerado um período de transição.

século 21

Cinco presidentes do Chile desde a transição para a democracia (1990-2018), comemorando o Bicentenário do Chile

Em dezembro de 1993, o democrata-cristão Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle , filho do anterior presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, liderou a coalizão Concertación à vitória com maioria absoluta de votos (58%). [60] Frei Ruiz-Tagle foi sucedido em 2000 pelo socialista Ricardo Lagos , que ganhou a presidência em uma eleição de segundo turno sem precedentes contra Joaquín Lavín da Aliança de direita pelo Chile . [61] Em janeiro de 2006, os chilenos elegeram sua primeira mulher presidente, Michelle Bachelet Jeria , do Partido Socialista, derrotando Sebastián Piñera , do partido Renovação Nacional , estendendo oGovernança da Concertación por mais quatro anos. [62] [63] Em janeiro de 2010, os chilenos elegeram Sebastián Piñera como o primeiro presidente de direita em 20 anos, derrotando o ex-presidente Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle da Concertación , para um mandato de quatro anos sucedendo Bachelet. Devido aos limites de mandato, Sebastián Piñera não se candidatou à reeleição em 2013 e seu mandato expirou em março de 2014, resultando no retorno de Michelle Bachelet ao cargo. [64] Sebastián Piñera sucedeu Bachelet novamente em 2018 como presidente do Chile após vencer as eleições presidenciais de dezembro de 2017 .[65] [66]

Em 27 de fevereiro de 2010, o Chile foi atingido por um terremoto de 8,8 M w , o quinto maior já registrado na época. Mais de 500 pessoas morreram (a maioria devido ao tsunami que se seguiu ) e mais de um milhão de pessoas perderam suas casas. O terremoto também foi seguido por múltiplos tremores. [67] As estimativas iniciais de danos estavam na faixa de US $ 15-30 bilhões, cerca de 10 a 15 por cento do produto interno bruto real do Chile. [68]

O Chile alcançou reconhecimento global pelo resgate bem-sucedido de 33 mineiros presos em 2010. Em 5 de agosto de 2010, o túnel de acesso desabou na mina de cobre e ouro de San José, no deserto de Atacama, perto de Copiapó, no norte do Chile, prendendo 33 homens a 700 metros (2.300 pés) abaixo do solo. Um esforço de resgate organizado pelo governo chileno localizou os mineiros 17 dias depois. Todos os 33 homens foram trazidos à tona dois meses depois, em 13 de outubro de 2010, durante um período de quase 24 horas, um esforço que foi transmitido ao vivo pela televisão em todo o mundo. [69]

Os protestos chilenos de 2019-2020 são uma série de protestos em todo o país em resposta a um aumento na tarifa do metrô de Santiago , o aumento do custo de vida , a privatização e a desigualdade prevalecente no país. [70] Em 15 de novembro, a maioria dos partidos políticos representados no Congresso Nacional assinou um acordo para convocar um referendo nacional em abril de 2020 para a criação de uma nova Constituição, posteriormente adiada para outubro devido à pandemia COVID-19 . [71]Em 25 de outubro de 2020, os chilenos votaram 78,28 por cento a favor de uma nova constituição, enquanto 21,72 por cento rejeitaram a mudança. A participação eleitoral foi de 51 por cento. Uma segunda votação está agendada para 11 de abril de 2021, para selecionar 155 chilenos que formarão a convenção que redigirá a nova constituição. [72] [73]

Governo e política

A atual Constituição do Chile foi redigida por Jaime Guzmán em 1980 [74] e posteriormente aprovada por meio de um plebiscito nacional - considerado "altamente irregular" por alguns observadores [75] - em setembro daquele ano, sob a ditadura militar de Augusto Pinochet. Ela entrou em vigor em março de 1981. Após a derrota de Pinochet no plebiscito de 1988 , a constituição foi emendada para facilitar as disposições para futuras emendas à Constituição. Em setembro de 2005, o presidente Ricardo Lagos sancionou várias emendas constitucionais aprovadas pelo Congresso. Isso inclui a eliminação dos cargos de senadores nomeados e senadores vitalícios, concedendo ao Presidente autoridade para destituir os comandantes em chefe das forças armadas e reduzindo o mandato presidencial de seis para quatro anos. [76]

O Congresso do Chile tem um Senado com 43 cadeiras e uma Câmara de Deputados com 155 membros . Os senadores têm mandato de oito anos com mandatos escalonados, enquanto os deputados são eleitos a cada quatro anos. As últimas eleições legislativas realizaram-se a 19 de novembro de 2017, paralelamente às eleições presidenciais. O atual Senado tem uma divisão de 21-15 a favor da oposição e 5 independentes. A atual câmara baixa, a Câmara dos Deputados, contém 71 membros da coalizão governista, 72 da oposição e 12 de partidos sem coalizão ou independentes. O Congresso está localizado na cidade portuária de Valparaíso, cerca de 140 quilômetros (90 milhas) a oeste da capital, Santiago.

As eleições parlamentares do Chile são regidas pelo método D'Hont , um sistema proporcional também usado em países como Áustria, Bélgica ou Holanda.

O judiciário do Chile é independente e inclui um tribunal de apelação, um sistema de tribunais militares, um tribunal constitucional e a Suprema Corte do Chile . Em junho de 2005, o Chile concluiu uma revisão nacional de seu sistema de justiça criminal. [77] A reforma substituiu os procedimentos inquisitoriais por um sistema contraditório mais semelhante ao dos Estados Unidos.

Nas eleições legislativas de 2001, a conservadora Independent Democratic Union (UDI) ultrapassou os democratas-cristãos pela primeira vez para se tornar o maior partido da Câmara dos Deputados . Nas eleições parlamentares de 2005 , os dois partidos dirigentes, os democratas-cristãos e a UDI, perderam representação em favor de seus respectivos aliados, o Partido Socialista (que se tornou o maior partido do bloco Concertación) e a Renovação Nacional na aliança de direita. Nas eleições legislativas de 2009 no Chile, o Partido Comunista conquistou 3 dos 120 assentos na Câmara dos Deputados pela primeira vez em 30 anos (o Partido Comunista não foi autorizado a existir como tal durante a ditadura).

Os chilenos votaram no primeiro turno das eleições presidenciais em 17 de novembro de 2013. Nenhum dos nove candidatos presidenciais obteve mais de 50% dos votos. Como resultado, os dois principais candidatos, Michelle Bachelet, da coalizão de centro-esquerda Nueva Mayoría , e Evelyn Matthei , da coalizão de centro-direita Alianza , disputaram o segundo turno em 15 de dezembro de 2013, vencido por Bachelet. Esta foi a sexta eleição presidencial do Chile desde o final da era Pinochet. Todos os seis foram julgados livres e justos. O presidente é constitucionalmente impedido de servir mandatos consecutivos. [78] Bachelet foi sucedida por seu antecessor, Sebastián Piñera , após sua vitória nas eleições de dezembro de 2017. [79]

Relações Estrangeiras

Estado das relações internacionais do Chile no mundo:
  Chile
  País com relações diplomáticas e embaixada chilena no país.
  País com relações diplomáticas e embaixada no Chile, mas sem embaixada chilena.
  País com relações diplomáticas mas sem embaixadores.
  País sem relações diplomáticas atualmente.

Desde as primeiras décadas após a independência, o Chile sempre teve um envolvimento ativo nas relações exteriores. Em 1837, o país desafiou agressivamente o domínio do porto peruano de Callao pela preeminência nas rotas comerciais do Pacífico, derrotando a aliança de curta duração entre o Peru e a Bolívia, a Confederação Peru-Boliviana (1836-39) na Guerra da Confederação . A guerra dissolveu a confederação enquanto distribuía energia no Pacífico. Uma segunda guerra internacional, a Guerra do Pacífico (1879-83), aumentou ainda mais o papel regional do Chile, ao mesmo tempo que aumentou consideravelmente seu território. [22]

Durante o século 19, os laços comerciais do Chile eram principalmente com a Grã-Bretanha, uma nação que teve uma grande influência na formação da marinha chilena. Os franceses influenciaram os sistemas jurídico e educacional do Chile e tiveram um impacto decisivo no Chile, por meio da arquitetura da capital nos anos de expansão na virada do século XX. A influência alemã veio da organização e treinamento do exército pelos prussianos . [22]

Em 26 de junho de 1945, o Chile participou como membro fundador das Nações Unidas, estando entre os 50 países que assinaram a Carta das Nações Unidas em San Francisco, Califórnia. [80] [81] Com o golpe militar de 1973, o Chile ficou isolado politicamente como resultado de abusos generalizados dos direitos humanos. [22]

Desde seu retorno à democracia em 1990, o Chile tem sido um participante ativo na arena política internacional. O Chile completou um cargo não permanente de 2 anos no Conselho de Segurança da ONU em janeiro de 2005. Jose Miguel Insulza, um cidadão chileno, foi eleito Secretário-Geral da Organização dos Estados Americanos em maio de 2005 e confirmado em seu cargo, sendo reeleito em 2009. O Chile está atualmente servindo no Conselho de Governadores da Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica (AIEA), e o presidente do conselho de 2007-2008 é o embaixador do Chile na AIEA, Milenko E. Skoknic. O país é um membro ativo da família de agências da ONU e participa das atividades de manutenção da paz da ONU. Foi reeleito membro do Conselho de Direitos Humanos da ONU em 2011 para um mandato de três anos. [82]Também foi eleito para um dos cinco assentos não permanentes no Conselho de Segurança da ONU em 2013. [83] O Chile sediou a Reunião Ministerial da Defesa das Américas em 2002 e a cúpula da APEC e reuniões relacionadas em 2004. Também sediou a Comunidade das Democracias ministerial em abril de 2005 e a Cúpula Ibero-americana em novembro de 2007. Membro associado do Mercosul e membro titular da APEC, o Chile tem sido um ator importante em questões econômicas internacionais e no livre comércio hemisférico. [30]

Disputas de fronteira com Peru e Argentina

Ganhos territoriais do Chile após a Guerra do Pacífico em 1879-83

Tem havido muitas discussões entre chilenos e peruanos desde 1800 porque ambos reivindicam linhas costeiras de fronteira. Os peruanos reivindicam a parte norte do Chile, que agora é o sudoeste do Peru. Isso também é conhecido como "triangulação", que foi feita para corrigir o problema da fronteira entre o Chile e o Peru. As decisões foram cumpridas em 27 de janeiro de 1839 pela Corte Internacional de Justiça [84]. Isso se tornou a Guerra do Pacífico, que ocorreu nos anos 1879-1883. [85]Este conflito foi causado pelos recursos minerais que o Chile possuía, os peruanos acreditavam que também pertenciam a eles. O Chile teve que controlar o transporte marítimo para o Peru e enviou um exército para invadir o Peru em 8 de outubro de 1879. A tentativa também foi feita para os Estados Unidos, mas falhou gravemente em outubro de 1880. Houve uma resistência entre peruanos e chilenos por alguns anos porque eles não puderam chegar a um acordo. Os Estados Unidos ofereceram ajuda com um tratado para o Peru e o Chile, mais conhecido como Tratado de Ancón. Este foi posteriormente assinado por ambos em 20 de outubro de 1883 para manter a paz entre eles. Em 2008, o Peru levou o Chile aos tribunais por causa de suas disputas marítimas. Mais tarde, em 2014, a decisão do Tribunal Internacional de Justiça resultou na perda de uma área de 8.000 milhas náuticas quadradas (27.000 km 2) do Chile; 11.000 sq mi) a mais de 80 milhas náuticas (150 km; 92 mi) de sua costa. [86] Esta decisão afetou severamente os pescadores do país, fazendo com que o Chile perdesse um valioso comércio no noroeste do Chile.

O governo chileno mantém relações diplomáticas com a maioria dos países. Resolveu todas as suas disputas territoriais com a Argentina durante os anos 1990, exceto por parte da fronteira no Campo de Gelo Sul da Patagônia . O Chile e a Bolívia romperam relações diplomáticas em 1978 devido ao desejo da Bolívia de recuperar o acesso soberano ao Oceano Pacífico depois de perdê-lo para o Chile na Guerra do Pacífico de 1879-83. Os dois países mantêm relações consulares e são representados ao nível do Cônsul Geral. [30]

Militares

As Forças Armadas do Chile estão sujeitas ao controle civil exercido pelo presidente por meio do Ministro da Defesa. O presidente tem autoridade para destituir os comandantes-chefes das forças armadas. [30]

O comandante-em-chefe do Exército do Chile é o general Ricardo Martínez Menanteau . O Exército chileno tem 45.000 homens e está organizado com um quartel-general do Exército em Santiago, seis divisões em todo o seu território, uma Brigada Aérea em Rancagua e um Comando de Forças Especiais em Colina . O Exército Chileno é um dos exércitos mais profissionais e tecnologicamente avançados da América Latina. [30]

Admiral Julio Leiva Molina directs the around 25,000-person Chilean Navy,[87] including 2,500 Marines. Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants (frigates). Those ships are based in Valparaíso.[88] The Navy operates its own aircraft for transport and patrol; there are no Navy fighter or bomber aircraft. The Navy also operates four submarines based in Talcahuano.[30][89]

Air Force General (four star) Jorge Rojas Ávila heads the 12,500 strong Chilean Air Force. Air assets are distributed among five air brigades headquartered in Iquique, Antofagasta, Santiago, Puerto Montt, and Punta Arenas. The Air Force also operates an airbase on King George Island, Antarctica. The Air Force took delivery of the final two of ten F-16s, all purchased from the U.S., in March 2007 after several decades of U.S. debate and previous refusal to sell. Chile also took delivery in 2007 of a number of reconditioned Block 15 F-16s from the Netherlands, bringing to 18 the total of F-16s purchased from the Dutch.[30]

After the military coup in September 1973, the Chilean national police (Carabineros) were incorporated into the Defense Ministry. With the return of democratic government, the police were placed under the operational control of the Interior Ministry but remained under the nominal control of the Defense Ministry. Gen. Gustavo González Jure is the head of the national police force of 40,964[90] men and women who are responsible for law enforcement, traffic management, narcotics suppression, border control, and counter-terrorism throughout Chile.[30]

In 2017, Chile signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[91]

Administrative divisions

In 1978 Chile was administratively divided into regions,[92] and in 1979 subdivided into provinces and these into communes.[93][94] In total the country has 16 regions,[95][96] 56 provinces and 348 communes.[97]

Each region was designated by a name and a Roman numeral assigned from north to south, except for the Santiago Metropolitan Region, which did not have a number. The creation of two new regions in 2007, Arica and Parinacota (XV) and Los Ríos (XIV), and a third region in 2018, Ñuble (XVI) made this numbering lose its original order meaning.

Administrative divisions of Chile
Region[92][95][96] Population[5] Area (km2)[3] Density Capital
Arica y Parinacota 224 548 16 873,3 13,40 Arica
Tarapacá 324 930 42 225,8 7,83 Iquique
Antofagasta 599 335 126 049,1 4,82 Antofagasta
Atacama 285 363 75 176,2 3,81 Copiapó
Coquimbo 742 178 40 579,9 18,67 La Serena
Valparaíso 1 790 219 16 396,1 110,75 Valparaíso
Santiago Metropolitan 7 036 792 15 403,2 461,77 Santiago
Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins 908 545 16 387 54,96 Rancagua
Maule 1 033 197 30 296,1 34,49 Talca
Ñuble 480 609 13 178.5 36.47 Chillán
Biobío 1 556 805 23 890,2 112,08 Concepción
Araucanía 938 626 31 842,3 30,06 Temuco
Los Ríos 380 181 18 429,5 20,88 Valdivia
Los Lagos 823 204 48 583,6 17,06 Puerto Montt
Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo 102 317 108 494,4 0,95 Coyhaique
Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica 165 593 132 297,2(1) 1,26 Punta Arenas
Chile 17 373 831 756 102,4(2) 23,24 Santiago
(1) Including the Chilean Antarctic Territory, its surface reaches 1 382 554,8 km2
(2) Including the Chilean Antarctic Territory, its surface reaches 2 006 360 km2

Largest cities

National symbols

The national flower is the copihue (Lapageria rosea, Chilean bellflower), which grows in the woods of southern Chile.

The coat of arms depicts the two national animals: the condor (Vultur gryphus, a very large bird that lives in the mountains) and the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus, an endangered white tail deer). It also has the legend Por la razón o la fuerza (By reason or by force).

The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence. The flag of Chile is similar to the Flag of Texas, although the Chilean flag is 21 years older. However, like the Texan flag, the flag of Chile is modeled after the Flag of the United States.[99]

Geography

A long and narrow coastal Southern Cone country on the west side of the Andes Mountains, Chile stretches over 4,300 km (2,670 mi) north to south, but only 350 km (217 mi) at its widest point east to west[100] and 64 km (40 mi) at its narrowest point east to west, with an average width of 175 km (109 mi). This encompasses a remarkable variety of climates and landscapes. It contains 756,950 square kilometres (292,260 sq mi) of land area. It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Excluding its Pacific islands and Antarctic claim, Chile lies between latitudes 17° and 56°S, and longitudes 66° and 75°W.

Chile is among the longest north–south countries in the world. If one considers only mainland territory, Chile is unique within this group in its narrowness from east to west, with the other long north–south countries (including Brazil, Russia, Canada, and the United States, among others) all being wider from east to west by a factor of more than 10. Chile also claims 1,250,000 km2 (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica as part of its territory (Chilean Antarctic Territory). However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, of which Chile is a signatory.[101] It is the world's southernmost country that is geographically on the mainland.[102]

Chile controls Easter Island and Sala y Gómez Island, the easternmost islands of Polynesia, which it incorporated to its territory in 1888, and the Juan Fernández Islands, more than 600 km (370 mi) from the mainland. Also controlled but only temporarily inhabited (by some local fishermen) are the small islands of San Ambrosio and San Felix. These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific Ocean.[103]

The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates. The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. This area is also the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border.

Climate

Chile map of Köppen climate classification.

The diverse climate of Chile ranges from the world's driest desert in the north—the Atacama Desert—through a Mediterranean climate in the center, humid subtropical in Easter Island, to an oceanic climate, including alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and south.[15] According to the Köppen system, Chile within its borders hosts at least ten major climatic subtypes. There are four seasons in most of the country: summer (December to February), autumn (March to May), winter (June to August), and spring (September to November).

Biodiversity

The flora and fauna of Chile are characterized by a high degree of endemism, due to its particular geography. In continental Chile, the Atacama Desert in the north and the Andes mountains to the east are barriers that have led to the isolation of flora and fauna. Add to that the enormous length of Chile (over 4,300 km (2,672 mi)) and this results in a wide range of climates and environments that can be divided into three general zones: the desert provinces of the north, central Chile, and the humid regions of the south.

Flora and fauna

Araucaria araucana trees in Conguillío National Park.

The native flora of Chile consists of relatively fewer species compared to the flora of other South American countries. The northernmost coastal and central region is largely barren of vegetation, approaching the most absolute desert in the world.[104] On the slopes of the Andes, in addition to the scattered tola desert brush, grasses are found. The central valley is characterized by several species of cacti, the hardy espinos, the Chilean pine, the southern beeches and the copihue, a red bell-shaped flower that is Chile's national flower.[104]

In southern Chile, south of the Biobío River, heavy precipitation has produced dense forests of laurels, magnolias, and various species of conifers and beeches, which become smaller and more stunted to the south.[105] The cold temperatures and winds of the extreme south preclude heavy forestation. Grassland is found in Atlantic Chile (in Patagonia). Much of the Chilean flora is distinct from that of neighboring Argentina, indicating that the Andean barrier existed during its formation.[105]

Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), the national bird of Chile.

Some of Chile's flora has an Antarctic origin due to land bridges which formed during the Cretaceous ice ages, allowing plants to migrate from Antarctica to South America.[106] Chile had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.37/10, ranking it 43rd globally out of 172 countries.[107]

Just over 3,000 species of fungi are recorded in Chile,[108][109] but this number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Chile is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.[110] Although the amount of available information is still very small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to Chile, and 1995 species have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the country.[111]

Chile's geographical isolation has restricted the immigration of faunal life, so that only a few of the many distinctive South American animals are found. Among the larger mammals are the puma or cougar, the llama-like guanaco and the fox-like chilla. In the forest region, several types of marsupials and a small deer known as the pudu are found.[104]

There are many species of small birds, but most of the larger common Latin American types are absent. Few freshwater fish are native, but North American trout have been successfully introduced into the Andean lakes.[104] Owing to the vicinity of the Humboldt Current, ocean waters abound with fish and other forms of marine life, which in turn support a rich variety of waterfowl, including several penguins. Whales are abundant, and some six species of seals are found in the area.[104]

Topography

Topographic map of Chile. To view maps based on SRTM topographic relief of the country, see here.

Chile is located along a highly seismic and volcanic zone, part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, due to the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates in the South American plate.

Late Paleozoic, 251 million years ago, Chile belonged to the continental block called Gondwana. It was just a depression accumulated marine sediments began to rise at the end of the Mesozoic, 66 million years ago, due to the collision between the Nazca and South American plates, resulting in the Andes. The territory would be shaped by millions of years due to the folding of the rocks, forming the current relief.

The Chilean relief consists of the central depression, which crosses the country longitudinally, flanked by two mountain ranges that make up about 80% of the territory: the Andes mountains to the east-natural border with Bolivia and Argentina in the region of Atacama and the Coastal Range west-minor height from the Andes. Chile's highest peak is the Nevado Ojos del Salado, at 6891.3 m, which is also the highest volcano in the world. The highest point of the Coastal Range is Vicuña Mackenna, at 3114 meters, located in the Sierra Vicuña Mackenna, the south of Antofagasta. Among the coastal mountains and the Pacific is a series of coastal plains, of variable length, which allow the settlement of coastal towns and big ports. Some areas of the plains territories encompass territory east of the Andes, and the Patagonian steppes and Magellan, or are high plateaus surrounded by high mountain ranges, such as the Altiplano or Puna de Atacama.

The Far North is the area between the northern boundary of the country and the parallel 26° S, covering the first three regions. It is characterized by the presence of the Atacama desert, the most arid in the world. The desert is fragmented by streams that originate in the area known as the pampas Tamarugal. The Andes, split in two and whose eastern arm runs Bolivia, has a high altitude and volcanic activity, which has allowed the formation of the Andean altiplano and salt structures as the Salar de Atacama, due to the gradual accumulation of sediments over time.

Nef Glacier and the Plomo Lake

To the south is the Norte Chico, extending to the Aconcagua river. Los Andes begin to decrease its altitude to the south and closer to the coast, reaching 90 km away at the height of Illapel, the narrowest part of the Chilean territory. The two mountain ranges intersect, virtually eliminating the intermediate depression. The existence of rivers flowing through the territory allows the formation of transverse valleys, where agriculture has developed strongly in recent times, while the coastal plains begin to expand.

The Central area is the most populated region of the country. The coastal plains are wide and allow the establishment of cities and ports along the Pacific. The Andes maintains altitudes above 6000m but descend slowly starts approaching the 4000 meters on average. The intermediate depression reappears becoming a fertile valley that allows agricultural development and human settlement, due to sediment accumulation. To the south, the Cordillera de la Costa reappears in the range of Nahuelbuta while glacial sediments originate a series of lakes in the area of La Frontera.

Patagonia extends from within Reloncavi, at the height of parallel 41°S, to the south. During the last glaciation, this area was covered by ice that strongly eroded Chilean relief structures. As a result, the intermediate depression sinks in the sea, while the coastal mountains rise to a series of archipelagos, such as Chiloé and the Chonos, disappearing in Taitao peninsula, in the parallel 47°S. The Andes mountain range loses height and erosion caused by the action of glaciers has caused fjords.

East of the Andes, on the continent, or north of it, on the island of Tierra del Fuego are located relatively flat plains, which in the Strait of Magellan cover large areas.

The Andes, as he had done previously Cordillera de la Costa, begins to break in the ocean causing a myriad of islands and islets and disappear into it, sinking and reappearing in the Southern Antilles arc and then the Antarctic Peninsula, where it is called Antartandes, in the Chilean Antarctic Territory, lying between the meridians 53°W and 90°W.

In the middle of the Pacific, the country has sovereignty over several islands of volcanic origin, collectively known as Insular Chile. Of these, we highlight the archipelago of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island, which is located in the fracture zone between the Nazca plate and the Pacific plate known as East Pacific Rise.

Hydrography

General Carrera lake, the largest in the country.

Due to the characteristics of the territory, Chile is crossed by numerous rivers generally short in length and with low torrential flow. They commonly extend from the Andes to the Pacific Ocean, flowing from East to West.

Because of the Atacama desert, in the Norte Grande there are only short endorheic character streams, except for the Loa River, the longest in the country 440 km.[112] In the high valleys, wetland areas generate Chungará Lake, located at 4500 meters above sea level. It and the Lauca River are shared with Bolivia, as well as the Lluta River.

In the center-north of the country, the number of rivers that form valleys of agricultural importance increases. Noteworthy are the Elqui with 75 km[112] long, 142 km Aconcagua, Maipo with 250 km[112] and its tributary, the Mapocho with 110 km, and Maule with 240 km. Their waters mainly flow from Andean snowmelt in the summer and winter rains. The major lakes in this area are the artificial lake Rapel, the Colbun Maule lagoon and the lagoon of La Laja.

Demographics

Population of Chile from 1820, projected up to 2050

Chile's 2017 census reported a population of 17,574,003. Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since 1990, due to a declining birth rate.[113] By 2050 the population is expected to reach approximately 20.2 million people.[114] About 85 percent of the country's population lives in urban areas, with 40 percent living in Greater Santiago. The largest agglomerations according to the 2002 census are Greater Santiago with 5.6 million people, Greater Concepción with 861,000 and Greater Valparaíso with 824,000.[115]

Ancestry and ethnicity

Mexican professor Francisco Lizcano, of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, estimated that 52.7% of Chileans were white, 39.3% were mestizo, and 8% were Amerindian.[116]

Mapuche women of Tirúa

In 1984, a study called Sociogenetic Reference Framework for Public Health Studies in Chile, from the Revista de Pediatría de Chile determined an ancestry of 67.9% European, and 32.1% Native American.[117][118] In 1994, a biological study determined that the Chilean composition was 64% European and 35% Amerindian.[119] The recent study in the Candela Project establishes that the genetic composition of Chile is 52% of European origin, with 44% of the genome coming from Native Americans (Amerindians), and 4% coming from Africa, making Chile a primarily mestizo country with traces of African descent present in half of the population.[120] Another genetic study conducted by the University of Brasilia in several American countries shows a similar genetic composition for Chile, with a European contribution of 51.6%, an Amerindian contribution of 42.1%, and an African contribution of 6.3%.[121] In 2015 another study established genetic composition in 57% European, 38% Native American, and 2.5% African.[122]

A public health booklet from the University of Chile states that 64% of the population is of Caucasian origin; "predominantly White" Mestizos are estimated to amount a total of 35%, while Native Americans (Amerindians) comprise the remaining 5%.[123]

Chileans with flags of Chile

Despite the genetic considerations, many Chileans, if asked, would self-identify as White. The 2011 Latinobarómetro survey asked respondents in Chile what race they considered themselves to belong to. Most answered "White" (59%), while 25% said "Mestizo" and 8% self-classified as "indigenous".[124] A 2002 national poll revealed that a majority of Chileans believed they possessed some (43.4%) or much (8.3%) "indigenous blood", while 40.3% responded that they had none.[125]

The 1907 census reported 101,118 Natives, or 3.1% of the total population. Only those that practiced their native culture or spoke their native language were considered to be Natives, irrespective of their "racial purity".[126] In 2002 a census took place, directly asking the public whether they considered themselves as part of any of the eight Chilean ethnic groups, regardless of whether or not they maintained their culture, traditions and language, and 4.6 percent of the population (692,192 people) fitted that description of indigenous peoples in Chile. Of that number, 87.3% declared themselves Mapuche.[127] Most of the indigenous population shows varying degrees of mixed ancestry.[128]

Chilean students in Santiago de Chile

Chile is one of 22 countries to have signed and ratified the only binding international law concerning indigenous peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.[129] It was adopted in 1989 as the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention 169. Chile ratified it in 2008. A Chilean court decision in November 2009 considered to be a landmark ruling on indigenous rights and made use of the convention. The Supreme Court decision on Aymara water rights upheld rulings by both the Pozo Almonte tribunal and the Iquique Court of Appeals, and marks the first judicial application of ILO Convention 169 in Chile.[130]

The earliest European immigrants were Spanish colonisers who arrived in the 16th century.[131] The Amerindian population of central Chile was absorbed into the Spanish settler population in the beginning of the colonial period to form the large mestizo population that exists in Chile today; mestizos create modern middle and lower classes. In the 18th and 19th centuries, many Basques came to Chile where they integrated into the existing elites of Castilian origin. Postcolonial Chile was never a particularly attractive destination for migrants, owing to its remoteness and distance from Europe.[132][133] Europeans preferred to stay in countries closer to their homelands instead of taking the long journey through the Straits of Magellan or crossing the Andes.[132] European migration did not result in a significant change in the ethnic composition of Chile, except in the region of Magellan.[134] Spaniards were the only major European migrant group to Chile,[132] and there was never large-scale immigration such as that to Argentina or Brazil.[133] Between 1851 and 1924, Chile only received 0.5% of European immigration to Latin America, compared to 46% to Argentina, 33% to Brazil, 14% to Cuba, and 4% to Uruguay.[132] However, it is undeniable that immigrants have played a significant role in Chilean society.[133]

German immigrants in southern Chile

Most of the immigrants to Chile during the 19th and 20th centuries came from France,[135] Great Britain,[136] Germany,[137] and Croatia,[138] among others. Descendants of different European ethnic groups often intermarried in Chile. This intermarriage and mixture of cultures and races have helped to shape the present society and culture of the Chilean middle and upper classes.[139] Also, roughly 500,000 of Chile's population is of full or partial Palestinian origin,[140][141] and 800,000 Arab descents.[142] Chile currently has 1.5 million of Latin American immigrants, mainly from Venezuela, Peru, Haiti, Colombia, Bolivia and Argentina; 8% of the total population in 2019, without counting descendants.[143][144] According to the 2002 national census, Chile's foreign-born population has increased by 75% since 1992.[145]

Religion

Religious background in Chile (2012 Census)[1][146]
Religion Percent
Catholic Church
66.7%
Protestantism
16.4%
None
11.5%
Others
4.5%
Unspecified
1.1%

As of 2012, 66.6%[147] of Chilean population over 15 years of age claimed to adhere to the Roman Catholic church, a decrease from the 70%[148] reported in the 2002 census. In the same census of 2012, 17% of Chileans reported adherence to an Evangelical church ("Evangelical" in the census referred to all Christian denominations other than the Roman Catholic and Orthodox—Greek, Persian, Serbian, Ukrainian, and Armenian—churches, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons, Seventh-day Adventists, and Jehovah's Witnesses: essentially, those denominations generally still termed "Protestant" in most English-speaking lands, although Adventism is often considered an Evangelical denomination as well). Approximately 90% of Evangelical Christians are Pentecostal. but Wesleyan, Lutheran, Anglican, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, other Reformed, Baptist, and Methodist churches also are present amongst Chilean Evangelical churches.[149] Irreligious people, atheists, and agnostics account for around 12% of the population.

By 2015, the major religion in Chile remained Christianity (68%), with an estimated 55% of Chileans belonging to the Roman Catholic church, 13% to various Evangelical churches, and just 7% adhering to any other religion. Agnostics and atheist were estimated at 25% of the population.[150]

Chile has a Baháʼí religious community, and is home to the Baháʼí mother temple, or continental House of Worship, for Latin America. Completed in 2016, it serves as a space for people of all religions and backgrounds to gather, meditate, reflect, and worship.[151] It is formed from cast glass and translucent marble and has been described as innovative in its architectural style.[152]

The Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion, and other laws and policies contribute to generally free religious practice. The law at all levels fully protects this right against abuse by either governmental or private actors.[149]

Church and state are officially separate in Chile. A 1999 law on religion prohibits religious discrimination. However, the Roman Catholic church for mostly historical and social reasons enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment.[153] Government officials attend Roman Catholic events as well as major Evangelical and Jewish ceremonies.[149]

The Chilean government treats the religious holidays of Christmas, Good Friday, the Feast of the Virgin of Carmen, the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, the Feast of the Assumption, All Saints' Day, and the Feast of the Immaculate Conception as national holidays.[149] Recently, the government declared 31 October, Reformation Day, to be an additional national holiday, in honor of the Evangelical churches of the country.[154][155]

The patron saints of Chile are Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Saint James the Greater (Santiago).[156] In 2005, Pope Benedict XVI canonized Alberto Hurtado, who became the country's second native Roman Catholic saint after Teresa de los Andes.[157]

Languages

The Spanish spoken in Chile is distinctively accented and quite unlike that of neighboring South American countries because final syllables are often dropped, and some consonants have a soft pronunciation.[clarification needed] Accent varies only very slightly from north to south; more noticeable are the differences in accent based on social class or whether one lives in the city or the country. That the Chilean population was largely formed in a small section at the center of the country and then migrated in modest numbers to the north and south helps explain this relative lack of differentiation, which was maintained by the national reach of radio, and now television, which also helps to diffuse and homogenize colloquial expressions.[30]

There are several indigenous languages spoken in Chile: Mapudungun, Aymara, Rapa Nui, Chilean Sign Language and (barely surviving) Qawasqar and Yaghan, along with non-indigenous German, Italian, English, Greek and Quechua. After the Spanish invasion, Spanish took over as the lingua franca and the indigenous languages have become minority languages, with some now extinct or close to extinction.[158]

German is still spoken to some extent in southern Chile,[159] either in small country side pockets or as a second language among the communities of larger cities.

Through initiatives such as the English Opens Doors Program, the government made English mandatory for students in fifth-grade and above in public schools. Most private schools in Chile start teaching English from kindergarten.[160] Common English words have been absorbed and appropriated into everyday Spanish speech.[161]

Education

In Chile, education begins with preschool until the age of 5. Primary school is provided for children between ages 6 and 13. Students then attend secondary school until graduation at age 17.

Secondary education is divided into two parts: During the first two years, students receive a general education. Then, they choose a branch: scientific humanistic education, artistic education, or technical and professional education. Secondary school ends two years later on the acquirement of a certificate (licencia de enseñanza media).[162]

Chilean education is segregated by wealth in a three-tiered system – the quality of the schools reflect socioeconomic backgrounds:

  • city schools (colegios municipales) that are mostly free and have the worst education results, mostly attended by poor students;
  • subsidized schools that receive some money from the government which can be supplemented by fees paid by the student's family, which are attended by mid-income students and typically get mid-level results; and
  • entirely private schools that consistently get the best results. Many private schools charge attendance fees of 0,5 to 1 median household incomes.[163]

Upon successful graduation of secondary school, students may continue into higher education. The higher education schools in Chile consist of Chilean Traditional Universities and are divided into public universities or private universities. There are medical schools and both the Universidad de Chile and Universidad Diego Portales offer law schools in a partnership with Yale University.[164]

Health

FONASA is the funding branch of the Ministry of Health.

The Ministry of Health (Minsal) is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the public health policies formulated by the President of Chile. The National Health Fund (Fonasa), created in 1979, is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile. It is funded by the public. All employees pay 7 percent of their monthly income to the fund.[citation needed]

Fonasa is part of the NHSS and has executive power through the Ministry of Health (Chile). Its headquarters are in Santiago and decentralized public service is conducted by various Regional Offices. More than 12 million beneficiaries benefit from Fonasa. Beneficiaries can also opt for more costly private insurance through Isapre. Hospitals in Chile are mainly located in the Santiago Metropolitan Region.[citation needed]

Economy

A proportional representation of Chile exports, 2019
Chilean (blue) and average Latin American (orange) GDP per capita (1980–2017)
The financial district in Santiago de Chile
Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world

The Central Bank of Chile in Santiago serves as the central bank for the country. The Chilean currency is the Chilean peso (CLP). Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations,[15] leading Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.[16] Since July 2013, Chile is considered by the World Bank as a "high-income economy".[165][166][167]

Chile has the highest degree of economic freedom in South America (ranking 7th worldwide), owing to its independent and efficient judicial system and prudent public finance management.[168] In May 2010 Chile became the first South American country to join the OECD.[169] In 2006, Chile became the country with the highest nominal GDP per capita in Latin America.[170] As of 2020, Chile ranks third in Latin America (behind Uruguay and Panama) in nominal GDP per capita.

Copper mining makes up 20% of Chilean GDP and 60% of exports.[171] Escondida is the largest copper mine in the world, producing over 5% of global supplies.[171] Overall, Chile produces a third of the world's copper.[171] Codelco, the state mining firm, competes with private copper mining companies.[171]

Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady economic growth in Chile and have more than halved poverty rates.[172][30] Chile began to experience a moderate economic downturn in 1999. The economy remained sluggish until 2003, when it began to show clear signs of recovery, achieving 4.0% GDP growth.[173] The Chilean economy finished 2004 with growth of 6 percent. Real GDP growth reached 5.7 percent in 2005 before falling back to 4 percent in 2006. GDP expanded by 5 percent in 2007.[30] Faced with an international economic downturn the government announced an economic stimulus plan to spur employment and growth, and despite the global financial crisis, aimed for an expansion of between 2 percent and 3 percent of GDP for 2009. Nonetheless, economic analysts disagreed with government estimates and predicted economic growth at a median of 1.5 percent.[174] Real GDP growth in 2012 was 5.5%. Growth slowed to 4.1% in the first quarter of 2013.[175]

The unemployment rate was 6.4% in April 2013.[176] There are reported labor shortages in agriculture, mining, and construction.[175] The percentage of Chileans with per capita household incomes below the poverty line—defined as twice the cost of satisfying a person's minimal nutritional needs—fell from 45.1 percent in 1987 to 11.5 percent in 2009, according to government surveys.[177][178] Critics in Chile, however, argue that true poverty figures are considerably higher than those officially published.[179] Using the relative yardstick favoured in many European countries, 27% of Chileans would be poor, according to Juan Carlos Feres of the ECLAC.[180]

As of November 2012, about 11.1 million people (64% of the population) benefit from government welfare programs,[181][clarification needed] via the "Social Protection Card", which includes the population living in poverty and those at a risk of falling into poverty.[182]

The privatized national pension system (AFP) has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21 percent of GDP.[183] Under the compulsory private pension system, most formal sector employees pay 10 percent of their salaries into privately managed funds.[30]

Chile has signed free trade agreements (FTAs) with a whole network of countries, including an FTA with the United States that was signed in 2003 and implemented in January 2004.[184] Internal Government of Chile figures show that even when factoring out inflation and the recent high price of copper, bilateral trade between the U.S. and Chile has grown over 60 percent since then.[30] Chile's total trade with China reached US$8.8 billion in 2006, representing nearly 66 percent of the value of its trade relationship with Asia.[30] Exports to Asia increased from US$15.2 billion in 2005 to US$19.7 billion in 2006, a 29.9 percent increase.[30] Year-on-year growth in imports was especially strong from a number of countries: Ecuador (123.9%), Thailand (72.1%), South Korea (52.6%), and China (36.9%).[30]

Chile's approach to foreign direct investment is codified in the country's Foreign Investment Law. Registration is reported to be simple and transparent, and foreign investors are guaranteed access to the official foreign exchange market to repatriate their profits and capital.[30] The Chilean Government has formed a Council on Innovation and Competition, hoping to bring in additional FDI to new parts of the economy.[30]

Standard & Poor's gives Chile a credit rating of AA-.[185] The Government of Chile continues to pay down its foreign debt, with public debt only 3.9 percent of GDP at the end of 2006.[30] The Chilean central government is a net creditor with a net asset position of 7% of GDP at end 2012.[175] The current account deficit was 4% in the first quarter of 2013, financed mostly by foreign direct investment.[175] 14% of central government revenue came directly from copper in 2012.[175]

Mineral resources

Chile is rich in mineral resources, especially copper and lithium. It is thought that due to the importance of lithium for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewables in the electricity mix, Chile could be strengthened geopolitically. However, this perspective has also been criticized for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production in other parts of the world.[186]

Agriculture

Vineyard in the Casablanca Valley

Agriculture in Chile encompasses a wide range of different activities due to its particular geography, climate and geology and human factors. Historically agriculture is one of the bases of Chile's economy. Now agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing account for only 4.9% of the GDP as of 2007 and employ 13.6% of the country's labor force. Some major agriculture products of Chile include grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, maize, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans, beef, poultry, wool, fish, timber and hemp. Due to its geographical isolation and strict customs policies Chile is free from diseases such as mad cow disease, fruit fly and Phylloxera. This, its location in the Southern Hemisphere, which has quite different harvesting times from the Northern Hemisphere, and its wide range of agriculture conditions are considered Chile's main comparative advantages. However, Chile's mountainous landscape limits the extent and intensity of agriculture so that arable land corresponds only to 2.62% of the total territory. Chile currently utilizes 14,015 Hectares of agricultural land.[187]

Tourism

Elqui Valley, wine and pisco region

Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades. In 2005, tourism grew by 13.6 percent, generating more than 4.5 billion dollars of which 1.5 billion was attributed to foreign tourists. According to the National Service of Tourism (Sernatur), 2 million people a year visit the country. Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil with a growing number of Asians from South Korea and China.[188]

The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country: San Pedro de Atacama, in the north, is very popular with foreign tourists who arrive to admire the Incaic architecture, the altiplano lakes, and the Valley of the Moon.[citation needed] In Putre, also in the north, there is the Chungará Lake, as well as the Parinacota and the Pomerape volcanoes, with altitudes of 6,348 m and 6,282 m, respectively. Throughout the central Andes there are many ski resorts of international repute,[citation needed] including Portillo, Valle Nevado and Termas de Chillán.

The main tourist sites in the south are national parks (the most popular is Conguillío National Park in the Araucanía)[citation needed] and the coastal area around Tirúa and Cañete with the Isla Mocha and the Nahuelbuta National Park, Chiloé Archipelago and Patagonia, which includes Laguna San Rafael National Park, with its many glaciers, and the Torres del Paine National Park. The central port city of Valparaíso, which is World Heritage with its unique architecture, is also popular.[citation needed] Finally, Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean is one of the main Chilean tourist destinations.

For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer (December to March), and mainly in the coastal beach towns.[citation needed] Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta, La Serena and Coquimbo are the main summer centers in the north, and Pucón on the shores of Lake Villarrica is the main center in the south. Because of its proximity to Santiago, the coast of the Valparaíso Region, with its many beach resorts, receives the largest number of tourists. Viña del Mar, Valparaíso's more affluent northern neighbor, is popular because of its beaches, casino, and its annual song festival, the most important musical event in Latin America.[citation needed] Pichilemu in the O'Higgins Region is widely known as South America's "best surfing spot" according to Fodor's.[citation needed]

In November 2005 the government launched a campaign under the brand "Chile: All Ways Surprising" intended to promote the country internationally for both business and tourism.[189] Museums in Chile such as the Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts built in 1880, feature works by Chilean artists.

Chile is home to the world renowned Patagonian Trail that resides on the border between Argentina and Chile. Chile recently launched a massive scenic route for tourism in hopes of encouraging development based on conservation. The Route of Parks covers 1,740 miles (2,800 km) and was designed by Tompkin Conservation (founders Douglas Tompkins and wife Kristine).[190]

Infrastructure

Transport

The Santiago Metro is South America's most extensive metro system[191]

Due to Chile's topography a functioning transport network is vital to its economy. Buses are now the main means of long-distance transportation in Chile, following the decline of its railway network.[192] The bus system covers the entire country, from Arica to Santiago (a 30-hour journey) and from Santiago to Punta Arenas (about 40 hours, with a change at Osorno).

Chile has a total of 372 runways (62 paved and 310 unpaved). Important airports in Chile include Chacalluta International Airport (Arica), Diego Aracena International Airport (Iquique), Andrés Sabella Gálvez International Airport (Antofagasta), Carriel Sur International Airport (Concepción), El Tepual International Airport (Puerto Montt), Presidente Carlos Ibáñez del Campo International Airport (Punta Arenas), La Araucanía International Airport (Temuco), Mataveri International Airport (Easter Island), the most remote airport in the world, as defined by distance to another airport, and the Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport (Santiago) with a traffic of 12,105,524 passengers in 2011. Santiago is headquarters of Latin America's largest airline holding company and Chilean flag carrier LATAM Airlines.

Telecommunications

Torre Entel in Santiago de Chile, with the Andes mountains in the background

Chile has a telecommunication system which covers much of the country, including Chilean insular and Antarctic bases. Privatization of the telephone system began in 1988; Chile has one of the most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America with a modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities and domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations.[172] In 2012, there were 3.276 million main lines in use and 24.13 million mobile cellular telephone subscribers.[172] According to a 2012 database of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), 61.42% of the Chilean population uses the internet, making Chile the country with the highest internet penetration in South America.[193] The Chilean internet country code is ".cl".

Energy

Chile's total primary energy supply (TPES) was 36.10 Mtoe in 2014.[194] Energy in Chile is dominated by fossil fuels, with coal, oil and gas accounting for 73.4% of the total primary energy. Biofuels and waste account for another 20.5% of primary energy supply, with the rest sourced from hydro and other renewables.[194]

Electricity consumption was 68.90 TWh in 2014. Main sources of electricity in Chile are hydroelectricity, gas, oil and coal. Renewable energy in the forms of wind and solar energy are also coming into use, encouraged by collaboration since 2009 with the United States Department of Energy. The electricity industry is privatized with ENDESA as the largest company in the field.

Culture

La Zamacueca, by Manuel Antonio Caro.

From the period between early agricultural settlements and up to the late pre-Columbian period, northern Chile was a region of Andean culture that was influenced by altiplano traditions spreading to the coastal valleys of the north, while southern regions were areas of Mapuche cultural activities. Throughout the colonial period following the conquest, and during the early Republican period, the country's culture was dominated by the Spanish. Other European influences, primarily English, French, and German began in the 19th century and have continued to this day. German migrants influenced the Bavarian style rural architecture and cuisine in the south of Chile in cities such as Valdivia, Frutillar, Puerto Varas, Osorno, Temuco, Puerto Octay, Llanquihue, Faja Maisan, Pitrufquén, Victoria, Pucón and Puerto Montt.[195][196][197][198][199]

Music and dance

Music in Chile ranges from folkloric, popular and classical music. Its large geography generates different musical styles in the north, center and south of the country, including also Easter Island and Mapuche music.[200] The national dance is the cueca. Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Arising from music imported by the Spanish colonists, it is distinguished from the cueca by an intermediate melodic section and a more prominent melody.

Between 1950 and 1970 appears a rebirth in folk music leading by groups such as Los de Ramón, Los Cuatro Huasos and Los Huasos Quincheros, among others[201] with composers such as Raúl de Ramón, Violeta Parra and others. In the mid-1960s native musical forms were revitalized by the Parra family with the Nueva canción Chilena, which was associated with political activists and reformers such as Víctor Jara, Inti-Illimani, and Quilapayún. Other important folk singer and researcher on folklore and Chilean ethnography, is Margot Loyola. Also many Chilean rock bands like Los Jaivas, Los Prisioneros, La Ley, and Los Tres have reached international success. In February, annual music festivals are held in Viña del Mar.[202]

Literature

Pablo Neruda
Gabriela Mistral
Pablo Neruda and Gabriela Mistral, Nobel Prize recipients in literature

Chile is a country of poets.[203][204] Gabriela Mistral was the first Latin American to receive a Nobel Prize in Literature (1945). Chile's most famous poet is Pablo Neruda, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature (1971) and is world-renowned for his extensive library of works on romance, nature, and politics. His three highly personalized homes in Isla Negra, Santiago and Valparaíso are popular tourist destinations.

Among the list of other Chilean poets are Carlos Pezoa Véliz, Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas, Pablo de Rokha, Nicanor Parra and Raúl Zurita. Isabel Allende is the best-selling Chilean novelist, with 51 millions of her novels sold worldwide.[205] Novelist José Donoso's novel The Obscene Bird of Night is considered by critic Harold Bloom to be one of the canonical works of 20th-century Western literature. Another internationally recognized Chilean novelist and poet is Roberto Bolaño whose translations into English have had an excellent reception from the critics.[206][207][208]

Cuisine

Chilean asado (barbecue) and marraqueta

Chilean cuisine is a reflection of the country's topographical variety, featuring an assortment of seafood, beef, fruits, and vegetables. Traditional recipes include asado, cazuela, empanadas, humitas, pastel de choclo, pastel de papas, curanto and sopaipillas.[209] Crudos is an example of the mixture of culinary contributions from the various ethnic influences in Chile. The raw minced llama, heavy use of shellfish and rice bread were taken from native Quechua Andean cuisine, (although now beef brought to Chile by Europeans is also used in place of the llama meat), lemon and onions were brought by the Spanish colonists, and the use of mayonnaise and yogurt was introduced by German immigrants, as was beer.

Folklore

The folklore of Chile, cultural and demographic characteristics of the country, is the result of mixture of Spanish and Amerindian elements that occurred during the colonial period. Due to cultural and historical reasons, they are classified and distinguished four major areas in the country: northern areas, central, southern and south. Most of the traditions of the culture of Chile have a festive purpose, but some, such as dances and ceremonies, have religious components. [210]

Mythology

Chilean mythology is the mythology and beliefs of the Folklore of Chile.

This includes Chilote mythology, Rapa Nui mythology and Mapuche mythology.

Sports

Chile's most popular sport is association football. Chile has appeared in nine FIFA World Cups which includes hosting the 1962 FIFA World Cup where the national football team finished third. Other results achieved by the national football team include two Copa América titles (2015 and 2016), and two runners up positions, one silver and two bronze medals at the Pan American Games, a bronze medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics and two third places finishes in the FIFA under-17 and under-20 youth tournaments. The top league in the Chilean football league system is the Chilean Primera División, which is named by the IFFHS as the ninth strongest national football league in the world.[211]

The main football clubs are Colo-Colo, Universidad de Chile and Universidad Católica. Colo-Colo is the country's most successful football club, having both the most national and international championships, including the coveted Copa Libertadores South American club tournament. Universidad de Chile was the last international champion (Copa Sudamericana 2011).

Tennis is Chile's most successful sport. Its national team won the World Team Cup clay tournament twice (2003 & 2004), and played the Davis Cup final against Italy in 1976. At the 2004 Summer Olympics the country captured gold and bronze in men's singles and gold in men's doubles. Marcelo Ríos became the first Latin American man to reach the number one spot in the ATP singles rankings in 1998. Anita Lizana won the US Open in 1937, becoming the first woman from Latin America to win a Grand Slam tournament. Luis Ayala was twice a runner-up at the French Open and both Ríos and Fernando González reached the Australian Open men's singles finals. González also won a silver medal in singles at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

At the Summer Olympic Games Chile boasts a total of two gold medals (tennis), seven silver medals (athletics, equestrian, boxing, shooting and tennis) and four bronze medals (tennis, boxing and football). In 2012, Chile won its first Paralympic Games medal (gold in Athletics).

The Chilean national polo team with President Michelle Bachelet and the trophy of the 2015 World Polo Championship.

Rodeo is the country's national sport and is practiced in the more rural areas of the nation. A sport similar to hockey called chueca was played by the Mapuche people during the Spanish conquest. Skiing and snowboarding are practiced at ski centers located in the Central Andes, and in southern ski centers near to cities as Osorno, Puerto Varas, Temuco and Punta Arenas. Surfing is popular at some coastal towns. Polo is professionally practiced within Chile, with the country achieving top prize in the 2008 and 2015 World Polo Championship.

Basketball is a popular sport in which Chile has earned a bronze medal in the first men's FIBA World Championship held in 1950 and winning a second bronze medal when Chile hosted the 1959 FIBA World Championship. Chile hosted the first FIBA World Championship for Women in 1953 finishing the tournament with the silver medal. San Pedro de Atacama is host to the annual "Atacama Crossing", a six-stage, 250-kilometre (160 mi) footrace which annually attracts about 150 competitors from 35 countries. The Dakar Rally off-road automobile race has been held in both Chile and Argentina since 2009.

Cultural heritage

The cultural heritage of Chile consists, first, of its intangible heritage, composed of various cultural events and activities, such as visual arts, crafts, dances, holidays, cuisine, games, music and traditions. Secondly, its tangible heritage consists of those buildings, objects and sites of archaeological, architectural, traditional, artistic, ethnographic, folkloric, historical, religious or technological significance scattered through Chilean territory. Among them, some are declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage of 1972, ratified by Chile in 1980. These cultural sites are the Rapa Nui National Park (1995), the Churches of Chiloé (2000), the historical district of the port city of Valparaíso (2003), Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works (2005) and the mining city Sewell (2006).

In 1999 the Cultural Heritage Day was established as a way to honour and commemorate Chile's cultural heritage. It is an official national event celebrated in May every year.[212]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ In Chilean Spanish, pronunciation ranges from [ˈʃi.leː] ~ [ˈt͡siːle] on a spectrum from lower to upper classes, respectively, the former being a somewhat-stigmatized basilect. See the Sample section for an IPA transcribed text in a lower-class form of the dialect.
  2. ^ Since 1961, all claims to Antarctic land are de jure suspended under the Antarctic Treaty System

Citations

  1. ^ a b Central Intelligence Agency (2016). "Chile". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  2. ^ "Estudio Monitoreo Post Plebiscito 2020 - 25 Octubre 2020" (PDF). Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (October 2006). "Compendio estadístico 2006" (PDF). Retrieved 29 November 2007.
  4. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  5. ^ a b c "RESULTADOS CENSO 2017" (PDF). RESULTADOS DEFINITIVOS CENSO 2017. National Statistics Institute. 1 January 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d "Chile". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
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Further reading

  • Simon Collier and William F. Sater, A History of Chile, 1808–1894, Cambridge University Press, 1996
  • Paul W. Drake, and others., Chile: A Country Study, Library of Congress, 1994
  • Luis Galdames, A History of Chile, University of North Carolina Press, 1941
  • Brian Lovemen, Chile: The Legacy of Hispanic Capitalism, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, 2001
  • John L. Rector, The History of Chile, Greenwood Press, 2003
  • Christian Balteum: The Strip. A marxist critique of a semicomparador economy, University of Vermont Press, 2018

External links