From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
X x
(See below)
Writing cursive forms of X
Writing systemLatin script
TypeAlphabetic and Logographic
Language of originLatin language
Greek language
Phonetic usage[x]
Unicode codepointU+0058, U+0078
Alphabetical position24
(speculated origin)
Time period~-700 to present
Descendants • ×

Variations(See below)
Other letters commonly used withx(x)
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

X, or x, is the twenty-fourth and third-to-last letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is "ex" (pronounced /ˈɛks/), plural exes.[2]


Greek Chi Etruscan
Chi uc lc.svg EtruscanX-01.svg

In Ancient Greek, 'Χ' and 'Ψ' were among several variants of the same letter, used originally for /kʰ/ and later, in western areas such as Arcadia, as a simplification of the digraph 'ΧΣ' for /ks/. In the end, more conservative eastern forms became the standard of Classical Greek, and thus 'Χ' (Chi) stood for /kʰ/ (later /x/; palatalized to [ç] in Modern Greek before front vowels). However, the Etruscans had taken over 'Χ' from western Greek, and it therefore stands for /ks/ in Etruscan and Latin.

The letter 'Χ' ~ 'Ψ' for /kʰ/ was a Greek addition to the alphabet, placed after the Semitic letters along with phi 'Φ' for /pʰ/.

Pronunciation and use

Pronunciations of Xx
Language Dialect(s) Pronunciation (IPA) Environment Notes
Afar /ɖ/
Albanian /dz/ xh=//
Basque /ʃ/
Catalan /gz/
/ʃ/ Usually (word-initially, after consonants, i, au, eu, in some surnames such as Rexach)
Mandarin Standard /ɕ/ In Pinyin latinization
Cou /ɨ/ ~ /ʉ/ Possibly the only case in the world of <x> used as a vowel.
Dutch /ks/ Usually Letter mainly used in loanwords
/s/ In Texel
English /gz/ Before a stressed vowel
/gʒ/ Before <i> and a stressed vowel
/h/ Don Quixote, Oaxaca, words derived from Classical Nahuatl/Nahuatl
/ks/ Usually; before an unstressed vowel
/kʃ/ Before <i> and an unstressed vowel
/z/ Word-initially
Esperanto silent Comes after some letters to alter their sound; see X-convention
Galician /(k)s/ Some words In learned loanwords
/ʃ/ Usually
German /ks/ Letter mainly used in loanwords
French /gz/ Mainly in the prefix ex- followed by a vowel; sometimes word-initially
/ks/ Usually; in Aix- (prefix or name of several places)
/s/ In six (6), dix (10), Auxerre, and Bruxelles (Brussels)
silent Word-finally with no liaison
/z/ Word-finally with liaison; in sixième (6th) and dixième (10th)
Indonesian /s/ In the beginning of a word Mainly used in loanwords for science
/ks/ In the middle or the end of a word, although words borrowed with the letter x in the middle or the end of a word are always replaced by the letters 'ks'. For example, the word 'maximum' and 'climax' in Indonesian would be 'maksimal' and 'klimaks'. Letter x on the middle or the end of a word only occurs in names.
Italian /ks/ Letter mainly used in learned loanwords
Kurdish /x/
Lao /ɕ/ Latinization
Leonese /ʃ/
Ligurian /ʒ/
Maltese /ʃ/
Nahuatl /ʃ/
Nguni /ǁ/
Norwegian /ks/ Archaic
Oromo //
Pirahã /ʔ/
Polish /ks~gz/
Portuguese /gz/ In the prefix hexa- ("hexa-")
/ks/ Some words Mainly in learned loanwords
/s/ When preceded by <e> and a consonant; some words
/ʃ/ Word-initially; in words derived from Tupi; usually
/z/ In the prefix ex- ("ex-") before a vowel
Sardinian /ʒ/
Sicilian /ʃ/ Pronunciation for Old Sicilian words See e.g. Craxi, Joppolo Giancaxio
/k(ə)s(ə)/ Pronunciations for loanwords
Somali /ħ/, /ʜ/
Spanish /(k)s/ Usually
/s/ Word-initially
/(t)ʃ/ In some names and words
Swedish /ks/
Venetian /s/ In Venexia "Venice"
/z/ Usually
Vietnamese /s/


In English orthography, ⟨x⟩ is typically pronounced as the voiceless consonant cluster /ks/ when it follows the stressed vowel (e.g. ox), and the voiced consonant /ɡz/ when it precedes the stressed vowel (e.g. exam). It is also pronounced /ɡz/ when it precedes a silent ⟨h⟩ and a stressed vowel (e.g. exhaust).[3] Before ⟨a⟩, {angbr|i}} or ⟨u⟩, it can be pronounced /kʃ/ or /ɡʒ/ (e.g. sexual and luxury); these result from earlier /ksj/ and /ɡzj/. It also makes the sound /kʃ/ in words ending in -xion. When ⟨x⟩ ends a word, it is always /ks/ (e.g. fax), except in loan words such as faux (see French, below).

There are very few English words that start with ⟨x⟩ (the fewest of any letter). When ⟨x⟩ does start a word, it is usually pronounced 'z' (e.g. xylophone, xenophobia, and xanthan). When starting in some names or as its own representation it is pronounced 'eks', in rare recent loanwords or foreign proper names, it can also be pronounced /s/ (e.g. the obsolete Vietnamese monetary unit xu) or /ʃ/ (e.g. Chinese names starting with Xi like Xiaomi or Xinjiang). Many of the words that start with ⟨x⟩ are of Greek origin, or standardized trademarks (Xerox) or acronyms (XC). In abbreviations, it can represent "trans-" (e.g. XMIT for transmit, XFER for transfer), "cross-" (e.g. X-ing for crossing, XREF for cross-reference), "Christ-" (e.g. Xmas for Christmas, Xian for Christian), the "crys-" in crystal (XTAL), or various words starting with "ex-" (e.g. XL for extra large, XOR for exclusive-or).

X is the third least frequently used letter in English (after ⟨q⟩ and ⟨z⟩), with a frequency of about 0.15% in words.[4]

Other languages

In Latin, ⟨x⟩ stood for [ks]. In some languages, as a result of assorted phonetic changes, handwriting adaptations or simply spelling convention, ⟨x⟩ has other pronunciations:

  • In Basque, ⟨x⟩ represents [ʃ]. Additionally there is the digraph ⟨tx⟩ [tʃ].
  • In Dutch, ⟨x⟩ usually represents [ks], except in the name of the island of Texel, which is pronounced Tessel. This is because of historical sound-changes in Dutch, where all /ks/ sounds have been replaced by /s/ sounds. Words with an ⟨x⟩ in the Dutch language are nowadays usually loanwords. In the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, family names with ⟨x⟩ are not uncommon (e.g. Dierckx, Hendrickx, Koninckx, Sterckx, Vranckx).
  • In Norwegian, ⟨x⟩ is generally pronounced [ks], but since the 19th century, there has been a tendency to spell it out as ⟨ks⟩; it may still be retained in personal names, though it is fairly rare, and occurs mostly in foreign words and SMS language. Usage in Danish and Finnish is similar (while Swedish, on the other hand, makes frequent use of ⟨x⟩ in native words as well as in loanwords).
  • In German, generally pronounced [ks]; in native words, however, such as Ochs or wachsen, the cluster [ks] is often written ⟨chs⟩.
  • French: at the ends of words, silent (or [z] in liaison if the next word starts with a vowel). Three exceptions are pronounced [s]: six ("six"), dix ("ten") and in some city names such as Bruxelles (although some people pronounce it 'ks') or Auxerre; it is fully pronounced [ks] in Aix, the name of several towns. It is pronounced [z] in sixième and dixième. Otherwise [ks] or (primarily in words beginning with ex- followed by a vowel) [ɡz].
  • In Italian, ⟨x⟩ is either pronounced [ks], as in extra, uxorio, xilofono,[5] or [ɡz], as exogamia, when it is preceded by ⟨e⟩ and followed by a vowel. In several related languages, notably Venetian, it represents the voiced sibilant [z]. It is also used, mainly amongst the young people, as a short written form for "per", meaning "for": for example, "x sempre" ("forever"). This is because in Italian the multiplication sign (similar to ⟨x⟩) is called "per". However, ⟨x⟩ is found only in loanwords, as it is not part of the standard Italian alphabet; in most words with ⟨x⟩, this letter may be replaced with 's' or 'ss' (with different pronunciation: xilofono/silofono, taxi/tassì) or, rarely, by 'cs' (with the same pronunciation: claxon/clacson).
  • In Old Spanish, ⟨x⟩ was pronounced [ʃ], as it is still currently in other Iberian Romance languages. Later, the sound evolved to a hard [x] sound. In modern Spanish, due to a spelling reform, whenever ⟨x⟩ is used for the [x] sound it has been replaced with ⟨j⟩, including in words that originally had ⟨x⟩ such as ejemplo or ejercicio, though ⟨x⟩ is still retained for some names (notably 'México', even though 'Méjico' may sometimes be used in Spain). Presently, ⟨x⟩ represents the sound [s] (word-initially), or the consonant cluster [ks] (e.g. oxígeno, examen). Rarely, it can be pronounced [ʃ] as in Old Spanish in some proper nouns such as 'Raxel' (a variant of Rachel) and Uxmal.
  • In Galician and Leonese, ⟨x⟩ is pronounced [ʃ] in most cases (often used in place of etymological g or j). The pronunciation [ks] occurs in learned words, such as 'taxativo' (taxing). However, Galician speakers tend to pronounce it [s], especially when it appears before plosives, such as in 'externo' (external).
  • In Catalan, ⟨x⟩ has three sounds; the most common is [ʃ]; as in 'xarop' (syrup). Other sounds are: [ks]; 'fixar' (to fix), [ɡz]; 'examen'. In addition, [ʃ] gets voiced to [ʒ] before voiced consonants; 'caixmir'. Catalan also has the digraph ⟨tx⟩, pronounced [tʃ].
  • In Portuguese, ⟨x⟩ has four main sounds; the most common is [ʃ], as in 'xícara' (cup). The other sounds are: [ks] as in 'flexão' (flexion); [s], when preceded by E and followed by a consonant, as in 'contexto' ([ʃ] in European Portuguese), and in a small number of other words, such as 'próximo' (close/next); and (the rarest) [z], which occurs in the prefix 'ex-' before a vowel, as in 'exagerado' (exaggerated). A rare fifth sound is [ɡz], coexisting with [z] and [ks] as acceptable pronunciations in exantema and in words with the Greek prefix 'hexa-'.
  • In Sardinian and Ligurian, X represents [ʒ].
  • In Venetian, it represents the voiced alveolar sibilant [z] much like in Portuguese 'exagerado', English 'xylophone' or in the French 'sixième'. Examples from medieval texts include raxon (reason), prexon (prison), dexerto (desert), chaxa/caxa (home). Nowadays, the best-known word is xe (is/are). The most notable exception to this rule is the name Venexia [veˈnɛsja] in which ⟨x⟩ has evolved from the initial voiced sibilant [z] to the present day voiceless sibilant.
  • In Albanian, ⟨x⟩ represents [dz], while the digraph ⟨xh⟩ represents [dʒ].
  • In Maltese, ⟨x⟩ is pronounced [ʃ] or, in some cases, [ʒ] (only in loanwords such as 'televixin', and not for all speakers).
  • In Polish, ⟨x⟩ was used prior to 19th century both in loanwords and native words and was pronounced [ks] or [ɡz], e.g. xiążę, xięstwo (now książę, księstwo). Later was replaced by ⟨ks⟩ and ⟨gz⟩ in almost all words and remained only in a few loanwords as 'xenia' (xenien), surnames as Axentowicz, Jaxa, Koxowski, Mixtacki, Rexemowski, Xiężopolski, names as Xawery, Xymena and abbreviations.

Additionally, in languages for which the Latin alphabet has been adapted only recently, ⟨x⟩ has been used for various sounds, in some cases inspired by European usage, but in others, for consonants uncommon in Europe. For these no Latin letter stands out as an obvious choice, and since most of the various European pronunciations of ⟨x⟩ can be written by other means, the letter becomes available for more unusual sounds.

Other systems

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, ⟨x⟩ represents a voiceless velar fricative.

Other uses

In mathematics, x is commonly used as the name for an independent variable or unknown value. The modern tradition of using x, y and z to represent an unknown (incognita) was introduced by René Descartes in La Géométrie (1637).[6] As a result of its use in algebra, X is often used to represent unknowns in other circumstances (e.g. X-rays, Generation X, The X-Files, and The Man from Planet X; see also Malcolm X).

On some identification documents, the letter X represents a non-binary gender, where F means female and M means male.[7][8]

In the Cartesian coordinate system, x is used to refer to the horizontal axis.

It is also sometimes used as a typographic approximation for the multiplication sign, ×. In mathematical typesetting, x meaning an algebraic variable is normally in italic type (), partly to avoid confusion with the multiplication symbol. In fonts containing both x (the letter) and × (the multiplication sign), the two glyphs are dissimilar.

It can be used as an abbreviation for 'between' in the context of historical dating; e.g., '1483 x 1485'.

Maps and other images sometimes use an X to label a specific location, leading to the expression "X marks the spot".[9]

The Roman numeral X represents the number 10.[10][11]

In art or fashion, the use of X indicates a collaboration by two or more artists, e.g. Aaron Koblin x Takashi Kawashima. This application, which originated in Japan, now extends to other kinds of collaboration outside the art world.[12] This usage mimics the use of a similar mark in denoting botanical hybrids, for which scientifically the multiplication × is used, but informally a lowercase "x" is also used.

In text language, at the end of a letter or at the end of an email 'x' can mean a kiss.[13]

An X rating denotes media such as movies that are intended for adults only.

Related characters

Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet

  • X with diacritics: Ẍ ẍ Ẋ ẋ X̂ x̂ [14]
  • IPA-specific symbols related to X: χ
  • Teuthonista phonetic transcription-specific symbols related to X:[15]
  • ˣ : Modifier letter small x is used for phonetic transcription
  • ₓ : Subscript small x is used in Indo-European studies[16]

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

  • Χ χ : Greek letter Chi, from which the following derive:
    • Х х : Cyrillic letter Kha
    • Ⲭ ⲭ : Coptic letter Khe, which derives from Greek Chi
    • 𐍇 : Gothic letter enguz, which derives from Greek Chi
    • 𐌗 : Old Italic X, which derives from Greek Chi, and is the ancestor of modern Latin X
      •  : Runic letter Gyfu, which may derive from old Italic X
  • Ξ ξ : Greek letter Xi, which was used in place of Chi in the Eastern (and the modern) Greek alphabets


Computing codes

Character information
Preview X x
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 88 U+0058 120 U+0078
UTF-8 88 58 120 78
Numeric character reference &#88; &#x58; &#120; &#x78;
EBCDIC family 231 E7 167 A7
ASCII 1 88 58 120 78
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

In the C programming language, "x" preceded by zero (as in 0x or 0X) is used to denote hexadecimal literal values.

X is commonly used as a prefix term in nouns related to the X Window System and Unix.[2]

Other representations

See also


  1. ^ as in the English word luxurious
  2. ^ a b "X", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "ex", op. cit.
  3. ^ Venezky, Richard (1 January 1970). The Structure of English Orthography. The Hague: Walter de Gruyter. p. 40. ISBN 978-3-11-080447-8.
  4. ^ Mička, Pavel. "Letter frequency (English)". Algoritmy.net. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  5. ^ "Dizionario di ortografia e pronunzia" [Dictionary of Spelling and Pronunciation]. Dizionario di ortografia e pronunzia (in Italian). Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  6. ^ Cajori, Florian (1928). A History of Mathematical Notations. Chicago: Open Court Publishing. p. 381. ISBN 9780486161167. See History of algebra.
  7. ^ Holme, Ingrid (2008). "Hearing People's Own Stories". Science as Culture. 17 (3): 341–344. doi:10.1080/09505430802280784. S2CID 143528047.
  8. ^ "New Zealand Passports - Information about Changing Sex / Gender Identity". Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  9. ^ "X marks the spot". Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  10. ^ Gordon, Arthur E. (1983). Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy. University of California Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780520038981. Retrieved 3 October 2015. roman numerals.
  11. ^ King, David A. (2001). The Ciphers of the Monks. p. 282. ISBN 9783515076401. In the course of time, I, V and X became identical with three letters of the alphabet; originally, however, they bore no relation to these letters.
  12. ^ "X: Mark of Collaboration - Issue No. 0053X - Arkitip, Inc". arkitip.com.
  13. ^ Epstein, Nadine (2020-10-07). "A whole lot of history behind 'x' and 'o', kiss and hug". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2021-03-12.
  14. ^ Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF).
  15. ^ Everson, Michael; Dicklberger, Alois; Pentzlin, Karl; Wandl-Vogt, Eveline (2011-06-02). "L2/11-202: Revised proposal to encode "Teuthonista" phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF).
  16. ^ Anderson, Deborah; Everson, Michael (2004-06-07). "L2/04-191: Proposal to encode six Indo-Europeanist phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF).

External links

  • Media related to X at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of X at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of x at Wiktionary
  • "X" . The American Cyclopædia. 1879.