オクラホマ州タルサ

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オクラホマ州タルサ
Downtown Tulsa skyline
タルサのダウンタウンのスカイライン
Official seal of Tulsa, Oklahoma
密閉
ニックネーム: 
「世界の石油の首都」、「タルサタウン」、「Tタウン」、「バイブルベルトのバックル」、「918」
モットー: 
「新しい種類のエネルギー」
タルサのインタラクティブマップ
座標:36°07′53″ N 95°56′14″ W / 36.13139°N 95.93722°W / 36.13139; -95.93722座標36°07′53″ N 95°56′14″ W  / 36.13139°N 95.93722°W / 36.13139; -95.93722
アメリカ
オクラホマ
オセージロジャーズタルサワゴナー
政府
 • タイプ市長議会
 • 市長GTバイナムR
領域
 • 201.77平方マイル(522.59 km 2
 • 土地197.48平方マイル(511.47 km 2
 • 水4.30平方マイル(11.13 km 2
標高
722フィート(194 m)
人口
 2010[2]
 • 391,906
 • 見積もり 
(2019)[3]
401,190
 •ランク米国:47位
 • 密度2,031.57 /平方マイル(784.39 / km 2
 • メトロ
991,561(米国:50位
 •  CSA
1,231,458(米国:45位
 • 住民の呼称
トゥルサン
タイムゾーンUTC-6CST
 •夏(DSTUTC-5CDT
郵便番号
郵便番号[4]
市外局番539/918
FIPSコード40-75000
GNIS機能ID1100962 [5]
Webサイトwww.cityoftulsa.org

タルサ /トンʌリットルəは、 /で2番目に大きい都市である国家オクラホマ第47回-最も人口の多い米国では都市。 2019年7月の時点で、人口は401,190人で、2010年の国勢調査から11,129人増加しています。[6]これはMSAに991,005人、CSAに1,251,172人の居住者がいる地域であるタルサ大都市圏の主要自治体です[7]都市は、として機能郡シートタルサ郡、オクラホマ州で最も人口密度の高い郡[8]で、都市開発はオセージロジャーズワゴナーの各郡に広がっています。[6]

タルサは1828年から1836年にかけて、ネイティブアメリカンクリーク族のロカポカバンドによって定住しました。タルサの大部分は、今でもマスコーギー(クリーク)族の領土の一部です[9] [a]

歴史的に、堅調なエネルギー部門がタルサの経済を支えてきました。しかし、今日、都市は多様化しており、主要なセクターには、金融、航空、電気通信、テクノロジーが含まれています。[10]市内の2つの高等教育機関には、NCAAディビジョンIレベルのスポーツチームオーラルロバーツ大学タルサ大学があります。 20世紀のほとんどの間、この都市は「世界の石油の首都」というニックネームを持ちアメリカの石油産業にとって最も重要なハブの1つとして主要な役割を果たしました[11]

グリーンカントリーとして知られる州の地域であるオクラホマ州北東部オーセージヒルズオザーク山脈のふもとのアーカンソー川沿いにあります。オクラホマの文化芸術の中心地と見なされている[12] [13]タルサには、2つの美術館、フルタイムのプロのオペラとバレエ団、そしてアールデコ建築が国内で最も集中している場所の1つがあります。[14]この都市は、Partners for Livable Communitys、[15] Forbes[16]およびRelocate Americaによって、アメリカで最も住みやすい大都市の1つと呼ばれています。[17] FDi Magazine 2009年に都市をランク付けしました。未来の都市のために米国で8。[18] 2012年、タルサはBusinessWeekによって米国のトップ50の都市にランクされました[19]タルサの人々は「タルサ」と呼ばれています。

歴史

Meadow Goldの看板は、何十年もの間、タルサのルート66の旅行者を迎えてきました

タルサが現在存在する地域は、キカプー(キカプー)、ワザゼマザ(オセージ)、マスコギー(クリーク)、カド族などの土地にあるインディアン準州と見なされており[20]最初に正式に定住する前のことです。 1836年にロカポカ族とクリーク族。[21]彼らは、現在のシャイアンアベニューと18番街の交差点にあるクリークカウンシルオークツリーの下に小さな集落を設立した。この地域とこの木、アラバマ州タラシー地域に戻った川の曲がり角と以前のクリークカウンシルオークツリーの涙の道の生存者のチーフトゥカバチと彼の小グループを思い出させました。彼らは彼らの新しい集落をタラシと名付けました、後に「タルサ」になったクリーク語で「旧市街」を意味します。[21]タルサ周辺地域は、米国南部からオクラホマに移住した他のいわゆる「文明化五部族」のメンバーによっても定住した。現代のタルサのほとんどはクリークネーションにあり、一部はチェロキーオーセージネーションにあります。

オクラホマは南北戦争中はまだ州ではありませんでしたが、タルサ地域は戦闘のシェアを見ました。Chusto-Talasah戦いはタルサの北側で行われ、いくつかの戦いと小競り合いが近くの郡で行われました。戦後、部族は連邦政府と再建条約に署名し、場合によってはかなりの土地の譲歩が必要になりました。南北戦争後の数年間と世紀の変わり目頃、現在タルサとなっているアーカンソー川沿いの地域には、伝説的なワイルドバンチドルトンギャングリトルなど、一連のカラフルな無法者が定期的に住んでいたか、訪れていました。ブリッチ

2020年、最高裁判所は、タルサの大部分を含むオクラホマ東部の大部分がインド国の範疇に入り、この地域の法域の大部分を再形成したとの判決を下しました。Muscogee(Creek)、Cherokee、Chickasaw、Choctaw、およびSeminoleの部族コミュニティは、勝利のための長年の戦いとしてこの決定を歓迎しました。[22]

法人化と「石油資本」の繁栄

1898年1月18日、タルサは正式に法人化され、エドワード・カルキンスが市の最初の市長に選出されました。[23]

タルサは、1901年に最初の油井であるスーという名の少年[23]が設立されたときアーカンソー川のほとり近くの小さな町でした。石油の多くは、鉱業権がオセージ国のメンバーによってヘッドライトのシステムの下で所有されていた土地で発見されました。 1905年までに、大規模なグレンプール石油保護区(タルサのダウンタウンの南約15マイル、現在のグレンプールの町のある場所)の発見により、この地域のますます多くの油田に起業家が殺到しました。タルサの人口は1901年から1930年の間に14万人以上に膨れ上がった。[24]南とテキサスから最も頻繁に移住したオクラホマ北東部の初期の入植者とは異なり、これらの新しい石油駆動の入植者の多くは、東海岸と中西部の下部の商業の中心地からタルサにやって来ました。この移住は、都市の人口統計を近隣のコミュニティから区別し(タルサは、ほとんどのオクラホマの都市よりも大きく、より著名なカトリックとユダヤ人の人口を持っています)、初期のタルサの高級地区のデザインに反映されています。

1920年のタルサの地図

20世紀のほとんどの間「世界の石油の首都」として知られていたこの都市のエネルギー産業での成功は、当時人気のあったアールデコ様式の建設ブームを引き起こしました。[11]石油産業からの利益は大恐慌の間も続き、1930年代の米国の大部分よりも都市の経済がうまくいくのを助けました。[25]

1921年の人種虐殺

20世紀初頭、タルサは、当時米国で最も繁栄した黒人コミュニティの1つであるブラックウォールストリート」の本拠地でした。[26]に位置グリーンウッドの近所、それはの場所だったタルサの人種虐殺は、「単一の最悪の事件と言わアメリカの歴史の中で人種的暴力」、[27]ホワイトTulsansの暴徒が殺害されている黒Tulsans、略奪と黒人コミュニティを奪い、家や企業を焼き払った。[26]1921年5月31日と6月1日の16時間の虐殺は、州知事によって国家警備隊員が連れてこられたときにのみ終了しました。公式報告は後に23人の黒人と16人の白人の市民が殺されたと主張したが、他の推定では300人もの人々が死亡したと示唆しており、そのほとんどが黒人である。[26] 800人以上が負傷して地元の病院に入院し、1,256の住居からなる35の街区が火事で破壊されたため、推定1000人の黒人が家を失った。物的損害は180万ドルと推定されました[26]暴力の生存者に対する賠償金を得る努力は成功しなかったが、21世紀初頭に市と州によって事件が再検討され、起こった恐ろしい行動が認められた。[28]

20世紀

カインのボールルームは、20世紀初頭に「ウエスタンスウィングのカーネギーホール」[29]として知られるようになりました。

1925年には、タルサのビジネスマンサイラス・エイブリーとして知られている、「の父ルート66、」[30]結ぶ道路を作成するために彼のキャンペーン始まったシカゴロサンゼルスを確立することにより、米国のハイウェイ66協会の「都市にニックネームを獲得し、タルサでの国道66号線発祥の地。[31]完成すると、米国のルート66はタルサの発展に重要な役割を果たしました。この都市は、メドウゴールドサインやカトーサのブルーホエールなどのルート66のアイコンで迎えられた旅行者に人気の休憩所として機能しました。この期間中、ボブ・ウィルズと彼のグループ、テキサス・プレイボーイズ、タルサのダウンタウンにある小さなボールルームで彼らの長いパフォーマンスのスティントを始めました。 1935年、カインのボールルームがグループの拠点となり[29]ウエスタンスウィングの音楽を生み出したことで広く知られています。会場はその歴史を通じて有名なミュージシャンを魅了し続け、現在も運営されています。[29]

20世紀半ばの残りの期間、市は公園、教会、美術館、バラ園を建設し、インフラを改善し、全国的な広告を増やすというマスタープランを持っていました。[11] Spavinawダム市の水需要に対応するために、この時代に建ては、時代の最大の公共事業の一つと考えられました。[32] 1950年代、タイム誌はタルサを「アメリカで最も美しい都市」と呼んだ。[11]

テキサス州とオクラホマ州の石油に大きく依存している地域は、過剰と石油産業の大量流出によりガス価格の急落に見舞われたため、1982年の全国的な景気後退は市の経済に大きな影響を与えました[33]石油産業に大きく依存しているタルサは、石油価格の下落によって最も打撃を受けた都市の1つでした。[33] 1992年までに、州の経済は完全に回復したが[33]、指導者たちは石油やエネルギーとは関係のない分野への拡大に取り組んだ。

1997年4月20日には、ワイルドキャットの上の機械的故障ジェットコースターベルのアミューズメントパークには、別のコースターに衝突し、外れるとロール後方にチェーン丘の頂上近くに車を引き起こしました。その事故で14歳の子供1人が死亡し、他の6人が負傷した。[34] [35] [36] [37]事故後に分解された。[38]

21世紀のタルサ

2003年、タルサのインフラと観光産業を強化し活性化するために、「ビジョン2025」プログラムが有権者によって承認されました。イニシアチブの要となるプロジェクトであるBOKセンターは、市内のマイナーリーグのホッケーチームとアリーナフットボールチームの本拠地であり、主要なコンサートやコンベンションの会場となるように設計されました。有名な建築家シーザーペリによって設計された多目的アリーナは、2005年に着工し[39]、2008年8月30日にオープンしました。[40]

2020年7月、最高裁判所は、マクガート対オクラホマ州で、刑法に関連するため、タルサを含むオクラホマ州東部の多くがネイティブアメリカンの土地として残っているとの判決を下しました。[41]オクラホマ東部の土地の多くの所有権は、南北戦争後のネイティブアメリカン居留地が南軍を支持したために失われた。具体的には、これらの土地でのネイティブアメリカンによる犯罪の起訴は、オクラホマ州の裁判所ではなく、主要犯罪法に基づく部族裁判所および連邦司法管轄に属します。[42]

地理

地域地図

タルサは、オクラホマ州の北東の隅グレートプレーンズの端とオザークの麓の間の、なだらかな丘の一般的に森林に覆われた地域にあります。市は東部程度タッチクロスティンバー生態域森林草原東の湿潤林西の乾燥機の平野から遷移し。[43]西向きよりも温暖な気候で、タルサは「グリーンカントリー」への玄関口として機能します。"、オクラホマ州の中央部と西部に比べて、この地域の緑豊かな植生と比較的多数の丘や湖に由来する、オクラホマ州北東部の人気のある公式の呼称[44]は、主に中央部ユナイテッドの乾燥したグレートプレーンズ地域にあります。国。の西の端の近くに位置し、米国インテリアハイランド、北東オクラホマ州オクラホマの11エコ地域の7を含む、状態の最も地形的に多様な部分である、[45]と、よりその州立公園の半分以上。[46]地域30の湖または貯水池を含み[47]、隣接するカンザス州ミズーリ州、およびアーカンソータルサ市地理座標は、海抜700フィート(210 m)の標高で、北緯36度7分53秒西経95度56分14秒(36.131294、-95.937332)[48]です。  / 36.13139°N 95.93722°W / 36.13139; -95.93722

地形

この都市は、広い砂底の水路を流れる著名なアーカンソー川の両側に発展しました。タルサ地域を通るその流れは、上流の洪水調節貯水池によって制御されていますが、その幅と深さは、大雨や深刻な干ばつの時期など、年間を通じて大きく変動する可能性があります。タルサのダウンタウンに隣接する地域では、常に完全な水路を維持するために低水ダムが建設されました。川のこの部分はジンク湖として知られていました。しかし、タルサ市はダムの劣化を許し、設計された湖を維持する機能を失いました。[49] [50]

樹木が茂り、公園や水域が豊富なこの街には、「シャドウマウンテン」や「ターキーマウンテン」など、特に南部にさまざまな地形を作り出すいくつかの著名な丘があります。中央部と北部は一般的に平坦から緩やかな起伏がありますが、オーセージヒルズが街の北西部に伸びていると、景観がさらに変化します。ホームズピーク、市の北部、で最も高いポイントであるタルサのメトロエリア1360フィート(415メートル)で、[51]によると、米国国勢調査局、市は186.8平方マイル(484キロの総面積がある2) 、そのうち182.6平方マイル(473 km 2)は土地で、4.2平方マイル(11 km 2)です。)(2.24%)は水です。

街並み

センテニアルパークとダウンタウンのパノラマビュー、西向き

アーキテクチャ

Philtower後半に建てられた、ゴシックリバイバルのスタイルは、現代のオフィスビルに囲まれています。
タルサのマンホールの蓋

20世紀初頭のタルサでの建築ブームは、米国でのアールデコ建築の台頭と同時に起こりました。[25]最も一般的にはジグザグと合理化のスタイルで、[25]街のアールデコは、主にダウンタウンとミッドタウンの古い地区全体に点在しています。ミッドコンティネントタワーボストンアベニューメソジスト教会、ウィルロジャース高校、フィルタワーなどの大規模なアールデコ建築のコレクションは、保存と建築への関心を促進するイベントを魅了しています。[要出典]

さらに、街の初期の繁栄は、多くのエレガントな職人、グルジア、童話、チューダー、ギリシャ復興、イタリアン、スペイン復興、植民地時代の復興の家の建設に資金を提供しました(その多くはタルサのアップタウンとミッドタウン地区にあります)。この期間にタルサで働いていた著名な建築家や企業には、チャールズディルベック、[52] ジョンダンカンフォーサイスネルピーターズが含まれます。

二十世紀の成長は、市内に有名なタルサの建築家によっていくつかの建物を含む現代的な建築様式の大きなベース、与えたブルース・ゴフアダ・ロビンソンをプレーリー学校はタルサに非常に影響を与えた:バリー・バーンはタルサの王たるキリスト教会を設計して、1927年に、フランク・ロイド・ライトのミッドタウンタルサ住宅プロジェクトWesthopeが完了しました。特に、20世紀半ばには、タルサに豊かな近代建築がもたらされました。タルサのミースの訓練を受けたモダニスト、ロバート・ロートン・ジョーンズは、タルサ国際空港を含むこの地域の多くの建物を設計しました。[53]タルサで働いている他の著名なモダニストには、先駆的なテキサスの建築家オニールフォード[54]、アールデコ時代にも活躍していたジョセフR.コベルリングジュニアが含まれます。南、東、ミッドタウンのタルサには、タルサの戦後の繁栄を反映した牧場やミッドセンチュリーモダンの家が数多くあります。

BOKタワーこの期間中に構築されたが、オクラホマ州で第二に高いビル、ミズーリ、周囲の状態であるニューメキシコ州アーカンソー州、カンザス。[55]タルサには、ダウンタウンから遠く離れたオーラルロバーツ大学の向かいの南タルサにあるシティプレックスタワーを含む、州で3番目と4番目に高い建物もあります[56]この地域のユニークな建築物の1つであるオーラルロバーツ大学は、ポストモダンの未来的なスタイルで建てられており、鋭い噴出エッジと明確な幾何学的形状を備えた明るい金色の構造が組み込まれています。BOKセンター、タルサの新しいアリーナには、ネイティブアメリカン、アールデコ、現代建築様式など、街で最も有名なテーマの多くが組み込まれています。[57]建築の象徴となることを目的としており、[58]建物は、マレーシアのペトロナスタワーの建築家であるシーザーペリによって設計されました。

近所

タルサのダウンタウンは、州間高速道路244、ハイウェイ64、ハイウェイ75によって作成された内部分散ループに囲まれた約1.4平方マイル(3.6 km 2のエリアです[59]このエリアは、タルサの金融およびビジネス地区として機能しますこの地域の歴史的建造物を利用する計画を含む、観光を引き出すための大規模なイニシアチブの焦点。[60]タルサのコンベンションスペースの多くは、タルサパフォーミングアーツセンタータルサコンベンションセンターBOKセンターなどのダウンタウンにあります。ダウンタウンの著名な地区には、ブルードーム地区、ブレイディーアーツ地区、「オイルキャピタルヒストリックディストリクト」、グリーンウッドヒストリカルディストリクト、オーウェンパーク歴史地区、およびタルサドリラーズの野球であるONEOKフィールドのサイトが2010年にオープンしました。[61] [62] [63]

アーカンソー川は西タルサや市内の他の地域との間に分裂をマーク。

街の歴史的な住宅の中心地はミッドタウンとして知られるエリアにあり、アールデコからギリシャ復興に至るまでの建築で20世紀初頭に建てられた高級地区が含まれています。タルサ大学、白鳥の湖周辺、フィルブルック博物館、そしてティカスクエア、チェリーストリート、ブルックサイドの高級ショッピング地区がこの地域にあります。市の南半分の大部分は1970年代以降に開発されており、低密度の住宅や小売店の開発が含まれています。人里離れた家と郊外の近所が特徴のこの地域には、州最大のショッピングモールの1つであるウッドランドヒルズモールサザンヒルズカントリークラブがあります。、およびオーラルロバーツ大学。ハイウェイ169の東、61番街の北には、多様な人種構成が市の東部を示しており、アジアメキシコの大規模なコミュニティと市の製造業の多くがあります。

アーカンソー川の西にあるタルサの地域はウェストタルサ呼ばれ、大きな公園、荒野保護区、大規模な石油精製所が特徴です。市の北層にはOSU-タルサギルクリースミュージアムタルサ国際空港タルサ動物園タルサ航空宇宙博物館、および米国で3番目に大きい市立公園であるモホークパークがあります。[64]

歩きやすさ

2016年、ウォークスコアは、人口が20万人を超える米国の141都市の中でタルサを34番目に「最も歩きやすい」とランク付けしました。[65]

自転車

タルサには多くのサイクリングトレイルがあり[66]、ダウンタウンに保護された自転車レーンを設置しています。[67] このインフラストラクチャを拡張するための追加の取り組みは、市の「GoPlan」の一部として含まれています。[68] [69]

気候

トゥルサは湿潤亜熱帯品種(ケッペンCfa)の温帯気候で、年間平均気温は57°F(14°C)、平均降水量は41インチ弱です。平均月間降水量は12月から2月に最も低く、5月に劇的にピークに達し、平均5.9インチの降雨量になります。6月上旬はまだ濡れている可能性がありますが、6月下旬から8月末までは頻繁に乾燥します。平均して、タルサは9月と10月初旬に二次降雨のピークを経験します。温帯の典型的なように、気象パターンは季節によって異なり、時折極端な気温と降雨量があります。[70]

タルサのダウンタウンでのは春によく見られます。

主に春と初夏ヶ月で、市は厳しいが施され雷雨大きな含む雹を、損傷風、そして、時折、竜巻[70]その年間降水量の不均衡な配分と領域を設けます。[71]しかしながら、悪天候は今シーズンに限定されない。たとえば、1975年12月5日と1982年12月24日に、タルサは竜巻を経験しました。[70]のために、主要な洪水イベントのためにその可能性、市は全国で最も大規模な治水システムの一つを開発しました。[72]失速によって引き起こされた深刻な洪水の後、1984年に包括的な洪水管理計画が策定された。一晩で15インチ(380 mm)の雨が降り、14人が死亡、288人が負傷し、7,000棟の建物が破壊され、合計1億8000万ドルの被害が発生した前線[72] 1990年代初頭[72]および2000年に再び[73]連邦緊急事態管理庁は、氾濫原管理において国をリードするものとしてタルサを称えた。 3桁の気温(≥38°C)は年間平均11日間観測され、7月から9月初旬にかけて100°F(38°C)を超えることもあります[74][70]記録された最高気温は1936年8月10日で115°F(46°C)でした。[75]夏季の高温多湿による空気循環の欠如は、オゾン濃度の上昇につながり、市は「オゾン警報」を発表し、すべての関係者が大気浄化法米国環境保護庁に準拠するように働きかけます。標準。[76]秋の季節は通常短く、快適で晴れた日とそれに続く涼しい夜で構成されます。[74]冬の気温は、一般的に穏やかですが、3泊で10°F(-12°C)を下回り[77]、時には0°F(-18°C)を下回ります。最新のそのような発生は-13です。 2021年2月16日の°F(-25°C)の測定[78]季節的な降雪量は平均9.6インチ(24.4 cm)、[77]そして記録されている3つの冬だけが公式に雪の痕跡を記録したか、雪が降らなかった。最新のものは1910–11である。[78]記録された最低気温は、1930年1月22日の-16°F(-27°C)でした。

オクラホマ州タルサタルサ国際)の気候データ、1981年から2010年の法線、極端な1893年から現在[b]
1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月
記録的な高°F(°C) 82
(28)
90
(32)
99
(37)
102
(39)
100
(38)
108
(42)
113
(45)
115
(46)
109
(43)
98
(37)
89
(32)
80
(27)
115
(46)
平均最大°F(°C) 70.1
(21.2)
74.9
(23.8)
83.4
(28.6)
86.8
(30.4)
91.3
(32.9)
95.4
(35.2)
101.9
(38.8)
102.2
(39.0)
96.2
(35.7)
88.2
(31.2)
79.0
(26.1)
70.1
(21.2)
103.9
(39.9)
平均最高気温°F(°C) 48.0
(8.9)
53.2
(11.8)
62.4
(16.9)
71.8
(22.1)
79.4
(26.3)
87.5
(30.8)
93.1
(33.9)
93.1
(33.9)
83.9
(28.8)
73.0
(22.8)
60.9
(16.1)
49.3
(9.6)
71.4
(21.9)
日平均°F(°C) 38.0
(3.3)
42.5
(5.8)
51.5
(10.8)
60.8
(16.0)
69.5
(20.8)
77.8
(25.4)
83.1
(28.4)
82.5
(28.1)
73.3
(22.9)
62.0
(16.7)
50.5
(10.3)
39.7
(4.3)
60.9
(16.1)
平均最低°F(°C) 27.5
(-2.5)
31.3
(-0.4)
40.1
(4.5)
49.3
(9.6)
59.1
(15.1)
67.7
(19.8)
72.7
(22.6)
71.3
(21.8)
62.1
(16.7)
50.6
(10.3)
39.6
(4.2)
29.6
(-1.3)
50.2
(10.1)
平均最小°F(°C) 10.4
(-12.0)
13.5
(-10.3)
22.9
(-5.1)
33.5
(0.8)
44.8
(7.1)
56.4
(13.6)
63.4
(17.4)
60.5
(15.8)
46.0
(7.8)
34.5
(1.4)
23.4
(-4.8)
12.6
(-10.8)
4.6
(-15.2)
低い°F(°C)を記録する −16
(−27)
−15
(−26)
−3
(−19)
22
(-6)
32
(0)
49
(9)
51
(11)
48
(9)
35
(2)
15
(-9)
10
(-12)
−8
(−22)
−16
(−27)
平均降水量インチ(mm) 1.66
(42)
1.85
(47)
3.29
(84)
3.79
(96)
5.91
(150)
4.72
(120)
3.36
(85)
2.90
(74)
4.26
(108)
3.93
(100)
2.81
(71)
2.49
(63)
40.97
(1,041)
平均降雪インチ(cm) 2.7
(6.9)
1.8
(4.6)
2.1
(5.3)
痕跡 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
痕跡 0.7
(1.8)
2.3
(5.8)
9.6
(24)
平均降水日数(0.01インチ以上) 6.1 6.6 8.7 8.5 10.5 9.8 6.4 6.6 8.0 7.9 6.8 7.0 92.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 1.9 1.3 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1.6 5.6
Average relative humidity (%) 66.7 65.2 61.6 61.2 69.1 69.3 63.6 64.5 70.1 66.4 67.4 68.5 66.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 175.8 171.7 219.6 244.4 266.7 294.8 334.7 305.3 232.5 218.6 161.1 160.8 2,786
Percent possible sunshine 57 56 59 62 61 67 75 73 63 63 52 53 63
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[77][78][79]

August 6, 2017 tornado

An EF2 tornado struck Tulsa early on the morning of Sunday, August 6, 2017.[80][81] The funnel touched down just after 1 A.M. near 36th Street and Harvard Avenue, then travelled in an easterly direction for about six minutes. The heaviest property damage occurred along 41st Street between Yale Avenue and Sheridan Road. Two restaurants, TGI Friday's and Whataburger, were particularly hard hit, with several people being sent to hospitals for treatment.[82] The Whataburger was later bulldozed; it was rebuilt in 2019.[83]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
19001,390
191018,1821,208.1%
192072,075296.4%
1930141,25896.0%
1940142,1570.6%
1950182,74028.5%
1960261,68543.2%
1970331,63826.7%
1980360,9198.8%
1990367,3021.8%
2000393,0497.0%
2010391,906−0.3%
2019 (est.)401,190[3]2.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[84]
2018 Estimate[85]
Map of racial distribution in Tulsa, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

According to the 2010 Census, Tulsa had a population of 391,906 and the racial and ethnic composition was as follows:[2]

Tulsa is sometimes considered the "buckle of the Bible Belt";[87] it is the home of Oral Roberts University and the university's Prayer Tower.

As of the 2010 census, there were 391,906 people, 163,975 households, and 95,246 families residing in the city, with a population density of 2,033.4 inhabitants per square mile (785.1/km2) There were 185,127 housing units at an average density of 982.3 per square mile (379.2/km2). Of 163,975 households, 27% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were non-families. Of all households, 34.5% are made up of only one person, and 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 people and the average family size was 3.04.[2]

In the city proper, the age distribution was 24.8% of the population under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older, while the median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males, while for every 100 females over the age of 17 there were 90.4 males. In 2011, the median income for a household in the city was $40,268 and the median income for a family was $51,977. The per capita income for the city was $26,727. About 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line.[2] Of the city's population over the age of 25, 29.8% holds a bachelor's degree or higher, and 86.5% have a high school diploma or equivalent.[2][88]

Metropolitan area

The Tulsa MSA's location (red) in the state of Oklahoma with the Tulsa-Bartlesville CSA (pink)

The Tulsa Metropolitan Area, or the region immediately surrounding Tulsa with strong social and economic ties to the city,[89] occupies a large portion of the state's northeastern quadrant. It is informally known as "Green Country", a longstanding name adopted by the state's official tourism designation for all of northeastern Oklahoma (its usage concerning the Tulsa Metropolitan Area can be traced to the early part of the 20th century).[90]

The Census Bureau defines the sphere of the city's influence as the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), spanning seven counties: Tulsa, Rogers, Osage, Wagoner, Okmulgee, Pawnee, and Creek. The 2015 U.S. Census estimate shows the Tulsa MSA to have 981,005 residents[7] In 2015, U.S. Census estimates show the Tulsa-Muscogee-Bartlesville CMSA to have 1,151,172 residents.[91][92]

Religion

Tulsa has a large conservative following, with the majority of Tulsans being Christians. The second-largest religion in Tulsa is Islam, followed by Buddhism and Judaism.

Tulsa is part of the Southern region demographers and commentators refer to as the "Bible Belt," where Protestant and, in particular, Southern Baptist and other evangelical Christian traditions are very prominent. In fact, Tulsa, home to Oral Roberts University, Phillips Theological Seminary, and RHEMA Bible Training College (in the suburb of Broken Arrow), is sometimes called the "buckle of the Bible Belt".[93][94] Beyond Oral Roberts and Kenneth E. Hagin, a number of prominent Protestant Christians have lived or studied in Tulsa, including Joel Osteen, Carlton Pearson, Kenneth Copeland, Billy Joe Daugherty, Smokie Norful and Billy James Hargis. Tulsa is also home to a number of vibrant Mainline Protestant congregations. Some of these congregations were founded during the oil boom of the early twentieth century and are noted for striking architecture, such as the art deco Boston Avenue Methodist Church and First Presbyterian Church of Tulsa. The metropolitan area has at least four religious radio stations (KCFO, KNYD, KXOJ, & KPIM), and at least two religious TV stations (KWHB & KGEB).

While the state of Oklahoma has fewer Roman Catholics than the national average,[95] Tulsa has a higher percentage owing in large part to the influx of Eastern and Midwestern settlers during the oil boom. Tulsa's Catholic community is atypically prominent for a Southern city and includes Governor and U.S. Senator Dewey F. Bartlett, Congressmen James R. Jones and John A. Sullivan, Governor Frank Keating, U.S. Ambassador to the Holy See Francis Rooney, and Mayors Dewey F. Bartlett, Jr., Robert J. LaFortune, Bill LaFortune and G. T. Bynum. Holy Family Cathedral serves as the Cathedral for the Diocese of Tulsa.

Tulsa is also home to the largest Jewish community in Oklahoma, with active Reform, Conservative and Orthodox congregations.[96] Tulsa's Jewish community includes several of America's most generous philanthropists including George Kaiser and Lynn Schusterman. Tulsa's Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art offers the largest collection of Judaica in the South-Central and Southwestern United States.

Tulsa is also home to the progressive All Souls Unitarian Church, reportedly the largest Unitarian Universalist congregation in the United States.[97][98][99]

Chùa Tam Bào (Vietnamese: "Three Jewels Temple"), Oklahoma's only Buddhist temple, was established in east Tulsa in 1993 by Vietnamese refugees. A 57-foot-tall granite statue of Quan Âm (commonly known by her Chinese name, Guanyin) is located in the grounds.[100]

Economy

The BOK Tower serves as the world headquarters for Williams Companies.

Energy industry's legacy and resurgence

Traditionally, Tulsa's economy has been led by the energy industry. The United States Oil and Gas Association, formerly the Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association, was founded in Tulsa on October 13, 1917, six months after the entry of the United States into World War I. At the time Tulsa called itself "The Oil Capital of the World". At its creation, the association worked to provide petroleum to the Allied forces. In the decades since its establishment, the association is recognized as a leading advocate for producers of domestic oil and gas.[101]

Over the city's history many large oil companies have been headquartered in the city, including Warren Petroleum (which merged with Gulf Oil in what was then the largest merger in the energy industry), Skelly Oil, Getty Oil and CITGO. In addition, ConocoPhillips was headquartered in nearby Bartlesville. Industry consolidation and increased offshore drilling threatened Tulsa's status as an oil capital, but new drilling techniques and the rise of natural gas have buoyed the growth of the city's energy sector.

Today, Tulsa is again home to the headquarters of many international oil- and gas-related companies, including Williams Companies, ONE Gas, Syntroleum, ONEOK, Laredo Petroleum, Samson Resources, Helmerich & Payne, Magellan Midstream Partners, and Excel Energy.

Diversification and emerging industries

Tulsa has diversified to capitalize on its status as a regional hub with substantial innovation assets. Products from Tulsa manufacturers account for about 60% of Oklahoma's exports,[102] and in 2001, the city's total gross product was in the top one-third of metropolitan areas, states, and countries, with more than $29 billion in total goods, growing at a rate of $250 million each year.[103] In 2006, Forbes magazine rated Tulsa as second in the nation in income growth, and one of the best cities in the country to do business with.[104] Usually among the lowest in the nation in terms of cost of doing business, the Tulsa Metropolitan Area in 2005 was rated among the five lowest metropolitan areas in the United States for that category.[105]

Tulsa's primary employers are small and medium-sized businesses: there are 30 companies in Tulsa that employ more than 1,000 people locally,[106] and small businesses make up more than 80% of the city's companies.[107]

During a national recession from 2001 to 2003, the city lost 28,000 jobs.[102] In response, a development initiative, Vision 2025, promised to incite economic growth and recreate lost jobs. Projects spurred by the initiative promised urban revitalization, infrastructure improvement, tourism development, riverfront retail development, and further diversification of the economy. By 2007, employment levels had surpassed pre-recession heights[102][108] and the city was in a significant economic development and investment surge.[109] This economic improvement is also seen in Tulsa's housing trends which show an average of a 6% increase in rent in 2010.[110] Since 2006, more than 28,000 jobs have been added to the city. The unemployment rate of Tulsa in August 2014 was 4.5%.[111][112]

Though the oil industry has historically dominated Tulsa's economy, efforts in economic diversification have created a base in the sectors of aerospace, finance, technology, telecommunications, high tech, and manufacturing.[10] A number of substantial financial corporations are headquartered in Tulsa, the largest being the BOK Financial Corporation. Among these financial services firms are energy trading operations, asset management firms, investment funds, and a range of commercial banks. The national convenience store chain QuikTrip, fast-casual restaurant chain Camille's Sidewalk Cafe, and pizza chain Mazzio's are all headquartered in Tulsa, as is Southern regional BBQ restaurant Rib Crib. Tulsa is also home to the Marshall Brewing Company.

Tulsa is also home to a burgeoning media industry, including PennWell, consumer review website ConsumerAffairs, Stephens Media Group, This Land Press, Educational Development Corporation (the parent publisher of Kane/Miller), GEB America, Blooming Twig Books, and a full range of local media outlets including such as Tulsa World and local magazines, radio and television. Tulsa is also a hub for national construction and engineering companies including Manhattan Construction Company and Flintco. A number of the Cherokee Nation Businesses are also headquartered or have substantial operations in Tulsa.

Tulsa's aerospace industry is substantial and growing. An American Airlines maintenance base at Tulsa International Airport is the city's largest employer and the largest maintenance facility in the world, serving as the airline's global maintenance and engineering headquarters.[113] American Airlines announced in February, 2020 that it will pour $550 million over seven years into its maintenance base, this being the largest single economic development investment in city history.[114] The Tulsa Port of Catoosa and the Tulsa International Airport house extensive transit-focused industrial parks.[115][116] Tulsa is also home to a division of Lufthansa, the headquarters of Omni Air International, and the Spartan School of Aeronautics.

Tulsa is also part of the Oklahoma-South Kansas Unmanned Aerial Systems (drone) industry cluster, a region which awarded funding by the U.S. Small Business Administration to build on its progress as a hub this emerging industry.[117]

As the second largest metropolitan area in Oklahoma and a hub for the growing Northeastern Oklahoma-Northwest Arkansas-Southwestern Missouri corridor, the city is also home to a number of the region's most sophisticated law, accounting, and medical practices. Its location in the center of the nation also makes it a hub for logistics businesses; the Tulsa International Airport (TUL) and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa, connect the region with international trade and transportation.

Amazon recently announced plans to build a more than 600,000-square-foot fulfillment center near Tulsa International Airport. The company will invest an estimated $130 million for this state-of-the-art facility, which will employ around 1,500 people with an annual payroll of roughly $50 million.[118]

Culture

Tulsa culture is influenced by the nearby Southwest, Midwest, and Southern cultural regions, as well as a historical Native American presence. These influences are expressed in the city's museums, cultural centers, performing arts venues, ethnic festivals, park systems, zoos, wildlife preserves, and large and growing collections of public sculptures, monuments, and artwork.[119]

Museums, archives and visual culture

Tulsa is home to several museums. Located in the former villa of oil pioneer Waite Phillips in Midtown Tulsa, the Philbrook Museum of Art is considered one of the top 50 fine art museums in the United States and is one of only five to offer a combination of a historic home, formal gardens, and an art collection.[120] The museum's expansive collection includes work by a diverse group of artists including Pablo Picasso, Andrew Wyeth, Giovanni Bellini, Domenico di Pace Beccafumi, Willem de Kooning, William Merritt Chase, Auguste Rodin and Georgia O'Keeffe. Philbrook also maintains a satellite campus in downtown Tulsa.

In the Osage Hills of Northwest Tulsa, the Gilcrease Museum holds the world's largest, most comprehensive collection of art and artifacts of the American West.[121] The museum includes the extensive collection of Native American oilman and famed art collector Thomas Gilcrease with numerous works by Frederic Remington, Thomas Moran, Albert Bierstadt and John James Audubon among the many displayed.

On the west bank of the Arkansas River in the suburb of Jenks, the Oklahoma Aquarium is the state's only freestanding aquarium, containing over 200 exhibits, including a shark tank.[122]

In addition, the city hosts a number of galleries, experimental art-spaces, smaller museums, and display spaces located throughout the city (clustered mostly in downtown, Brookside, and the Pearl District). Living Arts of Tulsa, in downtown Tulsa, is among the organizations dedicated to promoting and sustaining an active arts scene in the city.

Cultural and historical archives

Opened in April 2013, the Woody Guthrie Center in the Tulsa Arts District is Tulsa's newest museum and archive. In addition to interactive state-of-the-art museum displays, the Woody Guthrie Center also houses the Woody Guthrie Archives, containing thousands of Guthrie's personal items, sheet music, manuscripts, books, photos, periodicals, and other items associated with the iconic Oklahoma native.[123] The archives of Guthrie protégé, singer-songwriter Bob Dylan will also be displayed in Tulsa when a new facility designed to showcase The Bob Dylan Archive is completed.

With remnants of the Holocaust and artifacts relevant to Judaism in Oklahoma, the Sherwin Miller Museum of Jewish Art preserves the largest collection of Judaica in the Southwestern and South-Central United States.[124] Other museums, such as the Tulsa Historical Society, the Tulsa Air and Space Museum & Planetarium, the Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame, and the Tulsa Geosciences Center, document histories of the region, while the Greenwood Cultural Center preserves the culture of the city's African American heritage, housing a collection of artifacts and photography that document the history of the Black Wall Street before the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.

Public art

Since 1969, public displays of artwork in Tulsa have been funded by one percent of its annual city budget.[119] Each year, a sculpture from a local artist is installed along the Arkansas River trail system, while other sculptures stand at local parks, such as an enlarged version of Cyrus Dallin's Appeal to the Great Spirit sculpture at Woodward Park.[119] At the entrance to Oral Roberts University stands a large statue of praying hands, which, at 60 feet (18 m) high, is the largest bronze sculpture in the world.[125] As a testament to the city's oil heritage, the 76-foot (23 m) Golden Driller guards the front entrance to the Tulsa County Fairgrounds. Tulsa has a number of exhibits related to U.S. Route 66, including The Cyrus Avery Centennial Plaza, located next to the east entrance of the historic 11th Street Bridge. The Plaza contains a giant sculpture weighing 20,000 pounds (9,100 kg) and costing $1.178 million[126] called "East Meets West" of the Avery family riding west in a Model T Ford meeting an eastbound horse-drawn carriage.[127] In 2020, Avery Plaza Southwest is scheduled to open, at the west end of the bridge, and should include replicas of three neon signs from Tulsa-area Route 66 motels from the era, being the Will Rogers Motor Court. Tulsa Auto Court, and the Oil Capital Motel.[128] Tulsa has also installed "Route 66 Rising," a 70' by 30' sculpture on the road's eastern approach to town at East Admiral Place and Mingo Road.[129] In addition, Tulsa has constructed twenty-nine historical markers scattered along the 26-mile route of the highway through Tulsa, containing tourist-oriented stories, historical photos, and a map showing the location of historical sites and the other markers.[130] The markers are mostly along the highway's post-1932 alignment down 11th Street, with some along the road's 1926 path down Admiral Place.[130]

The iconic Golden Driller, built in 1953 for the 1966 International Petroleum Exposition,[131] now stands at the Tulsa County Fairgrounds.

Performing arts, film and cultural venues

Tulsa contains several permanent dance, theater, and concert groups, including the Tulsa Ballet, the Tulsa Opera, the Tulsa Symphony Orchestra, Light Opera Oklahoma, Signature Symphony at TCC, the Tulsa Youth Symphony, the Heller Theatre, American Theatre Company, which is a member of the Theatre Communications Group and Oklahoma's oldest resident professional theatre, and Theatre Tulsa, the oldest continuously operating community theatre company west of the Mississippi River.[132] Tulsa also houses the Tulsa Spotlight Theater at Riverside Studio, which shows the longest-running play in America (The Drunkard) every Saturday night. Many of the world's best choreographers have worked with Tulsa Ballet including: Leonide Massine, Antony Tudor, Jerome Robbins, George Balanchine, Paul Taylor, Kurt Jooss, Nacho Duato (ten works), Val Caniparoli who is its resident choreographer (with seven works and four world premieres), Stanton Welch, Young Soon Hue, Ma Cong, Twyla Tharp and many others. In its first international tour in 2002, Tulsa Ballet was declared by the Portuguese national magazine Semanario "One of the best in the world." The company has received two feature articles in Dance Magazine during the past seven years, which has been featured in the New York Times, Pointe Magazine and Dance Europe among others. In March 2008, Tulsa Ballet was featured on the cover of Pointe magazine- a distinction given to only one ballet company each year. In April 2008, Tulsa Ballet completed an ambitious $17.3 million integrated campaign, which was celebrated at the opening of the brand new Studio K; an on-site, three hundred-seat performance space dedicated to the creation of new works.

Tulsa's music scene is also famous for the eponymous "Tulsa Sound" which blends rockabilly, country, rock 'n' roll, and blues and has inspired local artists like J.J. Cale and Leon Russell as well as international superstars like Eric Clapton.

A number of concert venues, dance halls, and bars gave rise to the Tulsa Sound but Cain's Ballroom might be the best known. Cain's is considered the birthplace of Western Swing,[133] housed the performance headquarters of Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys during the 1930s. The centerpiece of the downtown Brady Arts District, the Brady Theater, is the largest of the city's five operating performing arts venues that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[134] Its design features extensive contributions by American architect Bruce Goff.

Large performing arts complexes include the Tulsa Performing Arts Center, which was designed by World Trade Center architect Minoru Yamasaki, the Cox Business Center, the art deco Expo Square Pavilion, the Mabee Center, the Tulsa Performing Arts Center for Education, and the River Parks Amphitheater and Tulsa's largest venue, the BOK Center. Ten miles west of the city, an outdoor amphitheater called "Discoveryland!" holds the official title of the world performance headquarters for the musical Oklahoma!.[135]

The city's film community hosts annual festivals such as the Tulsa United Film Festival and Tulsa Overground Film and Music Festival.

Outdoor attractions

The river parks trail system traverses the banks of the Arkansas River.

The city's zoo, the Tulsa Zoo, was voted "America's Favorite Zoo" in 2005 by Microsoft Game Studios in connection with a national promotion of its Zoo Tycoon 2 computer game.[136] The zoo encompasses a total of 84 acres (34 ha) with over 2,600 animals representing 400 species.[137] The zoo is located in 2,820-acre (1,140 ha) Mohawk Park (the third largest municipal park in the United States) which also contains the 745-acre (301 ha) Oxley Nature Center.[64][138]

Tulsa's River Parks contain many monuments and attractions, such as these fountains.

The Tulsa State Fair, operating in late September and early October, attracts over one million people during its 10-day run,[139] and the city's Oktoberfest celebration was named one of the top 10 in the world by USA Today and one of the top German food festivals in the nation by Bon Appetit magazine.[140] A number of other cultural heritage festivals are held in the city throughout the year, including the Intertribal Indian Club Powwow of Champions in August; Scotfest, India Fest, Greek Festival, and Festival Viva Mexico in September; ShalomFest in October; Dia de Los Muertos Art Festival in November; and the Asian-American Festival in May. The annual Mayfest arts and crafts festival held downtown was estimated to have drawn more than 365,000 people in its four-day run in 2012.[141] On a smaller scale, the city hosts block parties during a citywide "Block Party Day" each year, with festivals varying in size throughout city neighborhoods.[142] Tulsa has one major amusement park attraction, Safari Joe's H2O Water Park (formerly Big Splash Water Park), featuring multi-story water slides, large wave pools, and a reptile exhibit. Until 2006, the city also hosted Bell's Amusement Park, which closed after Tulsa County officials declined to renew its lease agreement.[143]

Music

Western Swing, a musical genre with roots in country music, was made popular at Tulsa's Cain's Ballroom. The Tulsa Sound, a variation of rockabilly, blues, and rock 'n' roll, was started and largely developed by local musicians J. J. Cale and Leon Russell in the 1960s and 1970s. The Tulsa Sound heavily influenced musicians Eric Clapton and Jimmy Markham.[144] Musicians from Tulsa or who started their musical careers in Tulsa include Garth Brooks, The Gap Band, Hanson, Caroline's Spine, Ronnie Dunn, Gene Autry, David Gates, Jamie Oldaker, Jim Keltner, Bob Wills,[145] David Cook,[146] Broncho, Tyson Meade, John Moreland, John Calvin Abney, The Damn Quails, LANY, Kristin Chenoweth, JD McPherson,[147] St. Vincent and Wilderado.[148] In 2012, Tulsa was ranked as having one of the best music scenes outside of New York, Los Angeles and Nashville.[149]

Cuisine

Tulsa restaurants and food trucks offer a number of cuisines, but several cuisines are particularly prominent in its culinary landscape because of its distinctive history.

BBQ

Tulsa is known nationally for its barbecue offerings; its barbecue reflects its midpoint location "between pig country and cow country," that is, in the transition zone between the South and the West.[150] The city's barbecue is also helped by its geography; the wood used in barbecuing is abundant in Northeastern Oklahoma (including pecan, oak, hickory, mesquite and maple). The region's ethnic diversity is felt, too: its BBQ traditions bear the influences of white, African-American and American Indian foodways.[151] Tulsa is also home to the nationally acclaimed premium smoker manufacturer Hasty-Bake Company. Some Tulsa based barbecue joints have expanded even beyond the state's borders, including Rib Crib and Billy Sims Barbecue. The prize-winning Oklahoma Joe's was founded by Oklahoman Joe Davidson, who mastered his craft at Tulsa's T-Town BBQ Cook-Off.[152]

Oklahoma barbecue is also unique in its emphasis on hickory-smoked baloney, nicknamed "Oklahoma tenderloin," and its fried okra.[153]

Lebanese steakhouses

Lebanese steakhouses were once numerous in the region stretching from Bristow, Oklahoma to Tulsa, but now mostly exist in the Tulsa region.[154] These restaurants were founded by Syrian and Lebanese families who immigrated to Oklahoma before statehood.[155] Traditionally, many of these restaurants had live entertainment (including performers like Ella Fitzgerald and the Ink Spots) and featured Mediterranean dishes like tabbouleh, rice pilaf and hummus alongside local favorites like smoked BBQ bologna.

Chili and Coney Island hot dogs

Oklahomans have been consuming chili since well before statehood, owing to the influence of Mexican-American culture on the state.[156] In 1910, iconic Tulsa restaurant Ike's Chili Parlor opened and Ivan "Ike" Johnson is purported to have acquired his recipe from a Hispanic-Texan named Alex Garcia.

Greek immigrants to Tulsa who came by way of Brooklyn, Pennsylvania and Michigan brought with them the tradition of Coney Island-style hot dogs with chili on a bun.[157] Today, a related group of Greek-American families operate Coney restaurants around the city, including Coney I-Lander which opened in 1926 and was described by food writers Jane and Michael Stern as perfectly delivering "the cheap-eats ecstasy that is the Coney's soul".[158] Many of these restaurants sell Greek food, either year round or at Tulsa's annual Greek Holiday, sponsored by Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church (which dates to 1925).[159]

Southern "homestyle" food

By and large, Tulsa's traditional cuisine reflects the influence of Southern foodways, particularly "upland South and... Texas where many of Oklahoma's nineteenth-century population originated."[160] The prominence of certain foods reflects the agricultural heritage of the surrounding regions. For instance, at the suggestion of experts at what is now Oklahoma State University, peanuts became a major crop in now eastern Oklahoma as a means for lessening the reliance on cotton cultivation.[161] Chicken-fried steak is part of the state meal of Oklahoma and is the signature dish at a number of Tulsa restaurants.[162][163]

Wild onion dinner

The wild onion dinner is a festive gathering that originated with the Southeastern tribes which call Eastern Oklahoma home. The meals often feature wild onion, pork, frybread, corn bread, Poke salad and a unique dish known as grape biscuits.[164] The Tulsa Indian Women's Club has been holding annual Wild Onion Dinners since at least 1932.[165]

Baking and confectionery

Tulsa is home to the Oklahoma Sugar Arts Show, a premier sugar craft competition hosted by Tulsa-based Food Network personality Kerry Vincent.[166] Tulsa is also home to the nationally renowned Pancho Anaya Mexican bakery, recognized by Food & Wine as one of America's 100 best bakeries.[167] Tulsa is home to several national dessert companies:Daylight Donuts was founded in Tulsa and remains headquartered there, as is the Bama Pie Company.

Breweries

Brewing in Tulsa dates back to at least the late 1930s with the Ahrens Brewing Company and their Ranger Beer line. The Ahrens Brewing Company opened in May 1938.[168] Tulsa's craft beer scene has boomed since legislation passed allowing for microbreweries to serve the public directly (Tulsa's first microbrewery in the post-World War II era was Marshall Brewing Company in 2008).[169]

Sports

The centerpiece of the Vision 2025 projects, the BOK Center, opened in August 2008.

Tulsa supports a wide array of sports at the professional and collegiate levels. The city hosts two NCAA Division I colleges and multiple professional minor league sports teams in baseball, football, hockey, and soccer.[170]

Professional sports

Club Sport League Venue
FC Tulsa Men's Soccer USL Championship ONEOK Field
Tulsa Oilers Ice hockey ECHL BOK Center
Tulsa Drillers Baseball Texas League (AA) ONEOK Field
Tulsa Athletic Men's soccer National Premier Soccer League Veteran’s Park
FC Tulsa Spirit Women's soccer Women's Premier Soccer League Case Soccer Complex
Tulsa Rugby Football Club Rugby Union Division II Rugby 37th Riverside Field

Tulsa's Class AA Texas League baseball team is called the Tulsa Drillers; famous former Drillers include Sammy Sosa, Matt Holliday, and Iván Rodríguez.

In 2008, Tulsa funded $39.2 million to build a new ballpark in the Greenwood District near downtown for the Drillers. The ground breaking was held on December 19, 2008. ONEOK bought the naming rights for $10 million for the next 25 years. The first game at ONEOK Field was held on April 8, 2010. Country music star Tim McGraw threw out the first pitch.[171]

The 19,199-seat BOK Center is the centerpiece of the Vision 2025 projects and was completed in August 2008; the BOK Center was in the top ten among indoor arenas worldwide in ticket sales for the first quarter of 2009 when it was the home for the city's Tulsa Shock WNBA, Tulsa Talons arena football, and Tulsa Oilers ice hockey teams.[172]

College sports

School Nickname Colors Association Conference
University of Tulsa Golden Hurricane Old Gold, Royal Blue and Crimson NCAA Division I American
Oral Roberts University Golden Eagles Vegas Gold and Navy Blue NCAA Division I Summit
Rogers State University Hillcats Blue and Red NCAA Division II Mid-America

Two Tulsa universities compete at the NCAA Division I level: the University of Tulsa Golden Hurricane, and the Oral Roberts University Golden Eagles. The University of Tulsa's men's basketball program has reached the Sweet Sixteen three times, made an appearance in the Elite Eight in 2000, won the NIT championship in 1981 and 2001, and won the inaugural College Basketball Invitational in 2008.[173][174] The Tulsa football team has played in 16 bowl games, including the Sugar Bowl (twice) and the Orange Bowl.[175] Oral Roberts University's men's basketball team reached the Elite Eight in 1974 and won the Mid-Continent Conference title three straight years, from 2005 to 2007.[176]

The University of Tulsa also boasts one of the nation's top tennis facilities, the Michael D. Case Tennis Center, which was host to the 2004 and 2008 NCAA tennis championships. The Golden Hurricane Tennis program has a string of success, including men's Missouri Valley championships in 1995 and 1996, men's Conference USA championships in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2011 and women's Conference USA championships in 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011. In 2007, Tulsa's top-ranked player Arnau Brugués-Davi ranked as high as #1 in the nation and a four time All-American, advanced to the quarterfinals of the singles competition at the NCAA Men's Tennis Championship, improving on his 2006 round of sixteen appearances.

Golf

Tulsa is home to the famous Southern Hills Country Club, which is one of only two courses that have hosted seven men's major championships: three U.S. Opens and four PGA Championships, the most recent in 2007.[177] The course has held five amateur championships[177] and from 2001 to 2008 the LPGA had a regular tour stop, latterly known as the SemGroup Championship at Cedar Ridge Country Club.[178]

Tulsa also hosts two golf courses designed by famed golf course architect A.W. Tillinghast: the Oaks Country Club and Tulsa Country Club. The Tom Fazio-designed Golf Club of Oklahoma is located just outside of Tulsa.

Professional soccer

Tulsa is home to FC Tulsa, which competes in the USL Championship.

From 1978 to 1984, the city hosted the Tulsa Roughnecks, who played in the now-defunct North American Soccer League and won that league's championship in 1983. Also in 1984, the city hosted the Oklahoma Outlaws of the now-defunct United States Football League for a single season.[179]

High school sports

At the secondary level, the Tulsa area is home to several high school athletic programs that are frequently ranked among the best nationally, particularly in football (e.g. Broken Arrow High School, Union High School, Booker T. Washington, and Jenks High School).[180]

Running, biking and trails

The city's running and cycling communities support events such as the Tulsa Tough cycling race, the Hurtland cyclocross, the Route 66 Marathon,[181] and the Tulsa Run, which features over 8000 participants annually.[182] Another popular gambling draw, horse racing events are housed by the Fair Meadows Race Track and Will Rogers Downs in nearby Claremore.

Saint Francis Tulsa Tough Ride and Race is a three-day cycling festival in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It features both non-competitive riding through scenic areas around the Tulsa Metropolitan Area and professional level races. It is held each year on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, the second weekend in June. Just as popular as the biking itself is the weekend-long festivities at Crybaby Hill, for it is held in the Riverview District.[183][184] The Blue Dome District hosts its race on the first night and takes riders down East 2nd Street by Arnie's Bar, the Dilly Diner, and El Guapo's Mexican Cantina. "This race is super fast as riders weave through crowded streets lined with cheering spectators, live music, and tons of vendors". Events include the Men's Cat 3, Women's Pro 1/2, Men's 1/2 and Men's Pro 1.[185]

The University of Tulsa football team competes at the NCAA Division 1 level.

Motorsports

In motorsports, Tulsa annually hosts the Chili Bowl indoor race at the Tulsa Expo Center. The race was initially sponsored by the Chili Bowl food company of Bob Berryhill. The race has since accommodated "over two hundred race rigs, bleachers for thousands of people and an ever-growing trade show".[186]

Parks

As of 2016, the city of Tulsa manages 134 parks spread over 8,278 acres (3,350 ha).[187][188] Woodward Park, a 45-acre (18 ha) tract located in midtown Tulsa, doubles as a botanical gardens featuring the Tulsa Municipal Rose Garden, with more than 6,000 rose plants in 250 varieties, and the Linnaeus Teaching Gardens, which demonstrate the latest and most successful techniques for growing vegetables, annuals, perennials, woody plants and groundcovers.[189]

Some Tulsa-area parks are run by Tulsa County Parks. These include the 270-acre LaFortune Park in Midtown Tulsa,[190] and the 192-acre Chandler Park.[191]

Some parks are under the Tulsa River Parks Authority. These include a series of linear parks that run adjacent to the Arkansas River for about 10 miles (16 km) from downtown to the Jenks bridge. Since 2007 a significant portion of the River Parks area has been renovated with new trails, landscaping, and playground equipment. The River Parks Turkey Mountain Urban Wilderness Area on the west side of the Arkansas River in south Tulsa is a 300-acre area that contains over 45 miles of dirt trails available for hiking, trail running, mountain biking and horseback riding. And, after years of planning, generous donations and input from the community, 66 acres of central Tulsa was transformed into Gathering Place, a $465 million park that opened September 8, 2018.[192][193] The project is spearheaded and largely funded by the George Kaiser Family Foundation. With a $100 million endowment for maintenance and family programming from the George Kaiser Family Foundation alone, it one of the largest and most ambitious public parks ever created with private funds.[194] The main attractions are the Chapman Adventure Playground, the Williams Lodge, a boathouse, splash playground, great lawn, outdoor sports courts, a skate park, a wetland pond and garden, and numerous trails among other locations.[195] Tulsa's Gathering Place was named the Best New Attraction in the Nation in 2018 through the USA Today Readers’ Choice awards.[196] In 2019, Gathering Place made Time Magazine's list of The World's 100 Greatest Places of 2019,[197][198] National Geographic's list of 12 Mind-Bending Playgrounds Around the World,[199] and the American Planning Association's list of six great public spaces in America.[200] It was named the best city park in the nation in a 2021 USA Today readers’ choice competition.[201] Groundbreaking on the anchor project for phase two, Discovery Lab, occurred in February 2020.[202] The $47 million, 50,000 square foot Discovery Lab will be a hands-on museum also featuring classrooms, a café, grand plaza, and 300-seat amphitheater.[202] It is expected to be completed by the late summer of 2021.[202]

Government

The Tulsa City Hall serves as the base for most city government functions.

A mayor-council government has been in place in Tulsa since 1989 when the city converted from a city commission government deemed wasteful and less efficient.[203] Since the change, Tulsa mayors have been given more power in accordance with a strong mayoral system and have greater control of a more consolidated array of governmental branches.[203] Plurality voting is used to elect mayors, who serve a term in office of four years. The present mayor of Tulsa is Republican G. T. Bynum who won the 2016 mayoral election and took office on December 5, 2016.[204] Another Tulsa political figure, Jim Inhofe, who now represents Oklahoma in the United States Senate, served as the mayor of Tulsa early in his political career.[205]

A city councilor from each of the city's nine council districts is elected every two years, each serving a term of two years. Councilors are elected from their own respective districts based on a plurality voting system, and serve on the Tulsa City Council. As a whole, the council acts as the legislative body of the city government, which aims to pass laws, approve the city budget, and manage efficiency in the city government. In accordance with the mayor-council form of government, the Tulsa City Council and the office of the Mayor coordinate in city government operations. A third body of the government, the city auditor, is elected independently of the city council and mayor to ensure that the auditor can act in an objective manner. The auditor is elected for a term of two years.[203] Phil Wood, a Democrat, held the position for 21 years before being defeated by Republican Preston Doerflinger in the 2009 election.[206] The city serves as the seat of county government for Tulsa County, and lies mostly within Oklahoma's 1st congressional district, with its far northwestern areas in southern Osage County in Oklahoma's 3rd congressional district. Municipal and State laws are enforced in Tulsa by the Tulsa Police Department, an organization of 781 officers as of 2012.[207][208]

Crime rate

Tulsa
Crime rates* (2017)
Violent crimes
Homicide70
Rape423
Robbery964
Aggravated assault2,757
Total violent crime4,214
Property crimes
Burglary5,574
Larceny-theft13,054
Motor vehicle theft3,460
Arson144
Total property crime22,088
Notes

*Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.

2017 population: 404,868

Source: 2017 FBI UCR Data

Tulsa experienced elevated levels of gang violence in the late 1980s and early 1990s when crack cocaine flooded neighborhoods in North Tulsa. Tulsa gang problems became noticeable after an outbreak of gang-related crime between 1980 and 1983, which was traced to the Crips, a local gang which had been founded by two brothers whose family had recently moved to Oklahoma from Compton[209] In 1986 gang graffiti started to show up on walls and drive-by shootings started occurring on late nights.[210] In 1990 the city hit a record of 60 homicides, the highest since the 1981 peak.[211] North Tulsa has the highest crime rate in the city with public housing projects being the most heavily affected areas.[212][213]

Education

The McFarlin Library serves the University of Tulsa campus.

K–12 education

The Presbyterian Church (PCUSA) established the Presbyterian Mission Day School, a one-story building at what would become 4th Street and Boston Avenue in 1884. A second story was soon added to accommodate the number of children who were to attend. This school operated until 1889.[214] When Tulsa incorporated in 1899, it took over the school and became the first public school. James M. Hall and three other men bought the property with their own funds and held the title until the city could reimburse them.[214][215]

Tulsa built its first two public schools in 1905. The construction of more schools began accelerating in 1906. In December 1907, control of the public schools passed from the city government to the Tulsa Board of Education.[214]

Tulsa High School opened in 1906 on the same block formerly occupied by the Presbyterian mission school, which had been razed. The new school was a three-story cream colored brick building with a dome. The school was accredited by the North Central Association of Schools and Colleges in 1913. It proved too small by 1916, when Tulsa voters approved a bond issue to construct a new high school at Sixth Street and Cincinnati Avenue, which was renamed Central High School. The north half of this facility opened in 1917, while the south half opened in 1922.[216] This building remained in this service until 1976, when it was replaced by a new building on West Edison Street. The old building was taken over by the Public Service Company of Oklahoma.[214]

There are three primary public school districts in the city of Tulsa. Tulsa Public Schools, with nine high schools and over 41,000 students, is the second-largest school district in Oklahoma[217] and includes Booker T. Washington High School, a magnet school judged to be the 65th best high school in the United States by Newsweek magazine in 2008.[218] Each with one upper high school, Jenks Public Schools, Union Public Schools and Broken Arrow Public Schools are the city's three other primary districts, covering the southern/far east portions of the city near the towns of Jenks and Broken Arrow. In 2006, there were more than 90,000 students attending Tulsa County's public schools.[219]

A variety of independent and sectarian schools exist in Tulsa, also. Most, but not all, of the private schools have religious affiliations with various Christian, Jewish[220] or Muslim[221] denominations. The Catholic Diocese of Tulsa supports a system of parochial and diocesan schools, including Bishop Kelley High School, administered by the LaSallians (French Christian Brothers). Another Catholic high school, Cascia Hall Preparatory School, is administered by Augustinians.[222] Holland Hall School is independent but historically affiliated with the Episcopal Church. Riverfield Country Day School is non-sectarian.

Public libraries

The largest library system in the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, the Tulsa City-County Library, contains over 1.7 million volumes in 25 library facilities.[223] The library is active in the community, holding events and programs at most branches, including free computer classes, children's storytimes, business and job assistance, and scholarly databases with information on a variety of topics.[219] The McFarlin Library at the University of Tulsa is a federal depository library holding over three million items.[224] Founded in 1930, the library is known for its collection of Native American works and the original works of Irish author James Joyce.[224] The Tulsa City-County Library and the University of Tulsa's Law Library are also federal depository libraries, making Tulsa the only city in Oklahoma with more than two federal depository libraries.[225] The Tulsa City County Library's Downtown branch was massively renovated and opened to the public on Saturday, October 1, 2016.

Higher education

The first institute of higher education was established in Tulsa when Kendall College, a Presbyterian school, moved from Muskogee to Tulsa in 1907. In 1920, the school merged with a proposed McFarlin College to become the University of Tulsa (abbreviated as TU). The McFarlin library of TU was named for the principal donor of the proposed college, oilman Robert M. McFarlin.[citation needed]

The Graduate Center houses Oral Roberts University's graduate college.

Tulsa has 15 institutions of higher education, including two private universities: the University of Tulsa, a school founded in 1894, and Oral Roberts University, a school founded by evangelist Oral Roberts in 1963.[citation needed]

The University of Tulsa has an enrollment of 4,192 undergraduate and graduate students[226] and is ranked 83rd among national doctoral universities in U.S. News and World Report's 2009 edition of America's Best Colleges and among the best 123 Western Colleges by the Princeton Review in 2007, which also ranks it in the top ten schools nationally for quality of life, overall happiness of students, and relationship with the community.[227] In addition to doctoral and masters programs, TU is home to the University of Tulsa College of Law and the Collins College of Business. TU also manages the famous Gilcrease Museum in northwest Tulsa and hosts the Alexandre Hogue Gallery on its main campus.[citation needed]

Oral Roberts University, a charismatic Christian institution with an enrollment of 5,109 undergraduate and graduate students,[228] was rated in 2007 by the Princeton Review one of the 123 best in the Western United States and among the West's top 50 Master's Universities by U.S. News and World Report in 2005.[229][non-primary source needed]

Both of the state's flagship research universities have campuses in Tulsa:[citation needed]

Rogers State University in Claremore, Oklahoma is the Tulsa area's original public, undergraduate-focused, four-year university. Tulsa Community College (TCC), the largest community college in Oklahoma, operates four campuses spread across the area as well as a conference center in Midtown,[230] and has a partnership allowing students to complete four-year bachelor's degrees through OU-Tulsa, OSU-Tulsa, LU-Tulsa and NSU-Broken Arrow.[231] Tulsa also has a Tulsa branch of Langston University, the only historically black college or university in the state, founded in 1897. Tulsa previously had a branch campus of St. Gregory's University, a Catholic university with its main campus in Shawnee, Oklahoma; however, that school went into bankruptcy in 2017.

The Spartan School of Aeronautics enrolls 1,500 students at its flight programs near Tulsa International Airport[232] and the city's vocational education is headed by Tulsa Technology Center, the oldest and largest vocational technology institution in the state.[233] Virginia College is a school focusing on career training in Business and office, Health and Medical and Network Engineering and has a campus in Tulsa. The college offers day and night classes, several of which are available online.[234]

Among trade schools located in Tulsa are Community Care College (including branches Oklahoma Technical College and Clary Sage College),[235] Holberton School Tulsa, and Tulsa Tech.[236]

Media and communications

The Tulsa World operates primarily from its headquarters in downtown Tulsa.

Print

Tulsa's leading newspaper is the daily Tulsa World, the second most widely circulated newspaper in Oklahoma with a Sunday circulation of 189,789.[237]

The Tulsa Voice is an Alt-Weekly newspaper covering entertainment and cultural events. Covering primarily economic events and stocks, the Tulsa Business Journal caters to Tulsa's business sector. Other publications include the Oklahoma Indian Times, the Tulsa Daily Commerce and Legal News, the Tulsa Beacon, This Land Press, and the Tulsa Free Press. The first black-owned newspaper was the Tulsa Star, which ceased publication when its office burned during the Tulsa race massacre. It was succeeded by the Oklahoma Eagle, which began publishing using the press salvaged from the Star's office.[238]

Until 1992, the Tulsa Tribune served as a daily afternoon newspaper competing with the Tulsa World. The paper was acquired by the Tulsa World that year. Urban Tulsa Weekly served as the city's alt-weekly paper from 1991 until its closure in 2013.[239]

Television

Tulsa is also served by television and radio broadcasting networks. All major U.S. television networks are represented in Tulsa through local affiliates in the designated market area (a region covering a 22-county area serving the northeastern and east-central portions of Oklahoma, and far southeastern Kansas); these include NBC affiliate KJRH-TV (channel 2), CBS affiliate KOTV-DT (channel 6), ABC affiliate KTUL (channel 8), PBS station KOED-TV (channel 11, a satellite of the state-run OETA member network), CW affiliate KQCW-DT (channel 19), Fox affiliate KOKI-TV (channel 23), MyNetworkTV affiliate KMYT-TV (channel 41), Ion Television owned-and-operated station KTPX-TV (channel 44). The market is also home to several religious stations including TBN owned-and-operated station KDOR-TV (channel 17), religious/secular independent station KWHB (channel 47), and Oral Roberts University-owned KGEB (channel 53, which is distributed nationwide via satellite as GEB America).

Cable television service in the area is provided by Cox Communications, which acquired Tele-Communications Inc. (TCI)'s franchise rights to the area in a $2.85-billion deal (which also included the purchase of AT&T Broadband's Louisiana cable systems, minority ownership of TCA Cable TV systems in Texas, Louisiana and New Mexico, and TCI's Peak Cablevision systems in four other Oklahoma cities, and select markets in Arkansas, Utah and Nevada) in July 1999; Cox assumed control of TCI's Tulsa-area systems on March 15, 2000.[240][241]

Infrastructure

Transportation

The Tulsa Transit bus network, operating from its Denver Avenue Station transit center in downtown, helps meet city infrastructure needs.

Transportation in Tulsa is aided by Tulsa Transit's bus network of 97 vehicles[242] and two primary airports, while the Tulsa Port of Catoosa provides transportation of goods and industry through international trade routes. Though internal transportation is largely dependent on automobiles, the city was ranked in 2005 among the five lowest metropolitan areas for average price of gas at the pump.[243]

Highways

Tulsa has an extensive highway system that connects drivers to many cities in the region such as Joplin, Missouri on the Will Rogers Turnpike and Oklahoma City on the Turner Turnpike. Most commuters use the highway system in Tulsa to get to and from work. Highways that run through Tulsa are I-44, I-244, US-412, US-169, OK-66, US-64, US-75, OK-11, OK-51, Creek Turnpike, and Gilcrease Expressway. In 2011, the Oklahoma Department of Transportation reported that Tulsa's busiest freeway was US-169 with about 121,500 vehicles daily between 51st and 61st Streets, and its second busiest freeway was OK-51 with about 104,200 vehicles between Memorial and I-44.[244] Surrounding Downtown is the Inner Dispersal Loop (sometimes called the "I-D-L"), which connects Downtown with almost all the highways in Tulsa.

Buses

Tulsa Transit, the city's transit bus operator, runs 97 buses on 19 different routes across Tulsa and in surrounding suburbs such as Broken Arrow, Sand Springs and Jenks. Tulsa Transit has two stations: the Memorial Midtown Station at 7952 E. 33rd St. in Midtown Tulsa, and the Denver Avenue Station at 319 S. Denver, across from the BOK Center in Downtown. Most routes go through one or both of the stations, facilitating the commute to work and events in Downtown or Midtown. Buses stop at specific stops such as Tulsa Community College, Oklahoma State University-Tulsa, CityPlex Towers, Cox Communications, the various medical facilities in Tulsa, and many shopping destinations, hotels, and schools. The bus schedules are periodically changed; votes are taken by Tulsa Transit to help decide what are the best specifics for certain routes.[245] Tulsa debuted its first bus rapid transit line, Aero on Peoria Avenue, in November 2019.[246] The service has more frequent buses, upgraded stations, and faster travel times.[247]

An American Eagle aircraft in new livery at Tulsa International Airport

Intercity bus service is provided by both Greyhound Lines and Jefferson Lines. The station for both is at 317 S. Detroit, 5 blocks from Tulsa Transit's Downtown bus terminal. As to private chartered bus companies, Red Carpet Charters[248] a/k/a Red Carpet Trailways of Tulsa is an independent member of the Trailways Charter Bus Network.[249]

Airports

The Tulsa International Airport, which is has service on thirteen commercial airlines (nine passenger and four cargo ones), serves more than three million travelers annually, with almost 80 departures every day.[116] In 2007, the airport completed most of an expansion project, which included larger terminal sizes and the addition of restaurants and shops. In 2011, the airport opened the newly renovated Concourse B, complete with skylights, open gate holds, an average of 76 ways to charge a device per gate, and much more. Concourse A is under renovation.[116] Richard L. Jones, Jr. Airport, a/k/a Jones-Riverside Airport, a general aviation airport in West Tulsa, saw 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008, making it the busiest airport in Oklahoma and the fifth-busiest general aviation airport in the nation.[250] Its operations contribute over $3.2 million to the economy annually.[250] The Tulsa Airports Improvement Trust also manages the Okmulgee Regional Airport in Okmulgee, Oklahoma, further to the south of Tulsa.[251][252]

Railways

Freight railways bisect the city in every direction; the state's chief freight rail transporter is BNSF, which operates the Cherokee Rail Yard in Tulsa, which includes a freight terminal, diesel shop and hump yard for railcar sorting.[253] Other Class I transporters are Union Pacific Railroad, and Kansas City Southern Railway (via a short-line switch on the South Kansas and Oklahoma Railroad).[254]

There are no mass transit rail lines in Tulsa, but the prospect of passenger rail lines from Downtown Tulsa to the suburb of Broken Arrow is being studied.[255] Long-distance passenger rail transportation serves Tulsa only through Greyhound bus lines, which provide bus connections to nearby cities with Amtrak stations.[256]

The Tulsa Port of Catoosa.

Beginning in February 2014, a limited number of test trips of the Eastern Flyer were run, connecting the Tulsa and Oklahoma City metros via train on Sundays.[257] The private passenger operation by the Iowa Pacific was at one point scheduled for regular daily operations from May 2014,[258] but never started; and, Iowa Pacific later dropped out of the process.[259] Due to contractual provisions of its 2014 purchase from the State of Oklahoma of the “Sooner Sub” trackage running from Sapulpa, Oklahoma near Tulsa to Del City, Oklahoma near Oklahoma City, the Stillwater Central Railroad was obligated to start such a service by August 2019.[259] But on August 5, 2019, the Stillwater Central opted to instead default under the agreement and pay the contractual $2.8 million in penalties for not establishing the service.[260]

Tulsa has two static displays of antique steam railroad locomotives for free public viewing: the 1917 wood-burning Dierks Forest 207, a Baldwin 2-6-2 Prairie-type located at the Tulsa State Fairgrounds;[261] and, the 1942 oil-burning Frisco Meteor 4500, a Baldwin 4-8-4 Northern-type at the Route 66 Historical Village at 3770 Southwest Blvd.[262]

Port of Catoosa

At the head of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, the Tulsa Port of Catoosa is an inland port in the United States and connects barge traffic from Tulsa to the Mississippi River via the Verdigris River and the Arkansas River. The facility is one of the largest riverports in the United States[263] and contributes to one of the busiest waterways in the world via its course to the Gulf of Mexico.[264]

Medical facilities

In 2010 Saint Francis completed a new Children's Hospital.

The Saint Francis Health System owns several hospitals with a central location at Saint Francis Hospital in the southern part of the city. The facility contains 700 doctors and 918 beds,[265] and with more than 7,000 employees, the network is the second-largest healthcare employer in the state.[266] The health system also operates a heart hospital, which was named by General Electric in 2004 one of the most advanced heart hospitals in the nation.[267] St. John Medical Center, located in an 11-story midtown center, employs nearly 700 doctors.[268] Other networks, such as Hillcrest Health System, operate a number of facilities in varying sizes.[269] Beginning in 2007, the city elected to renew a five-year contract with EMSA for ambulance service after a period of consideration to switch to the Tulsa Fire Department for providing such services.[270]

In popular culture

Notable people

Sister cities

Coat of arms at sister city Celle, granite artwork below signpost

In accordance with the Tulsa Global Alliance, which operates in conjunction with Sister Cities International, an organization that began under President Dwight Eisenhower in 1956, Tulsa has been given eight international sister cities in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding:[273]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ According to the July 2020 US Supreme Court ruling McGirt v. Oklahoma, much of eastern eastern Oklahoma including parts of Tulsa are part of various Indian reservations for the purpose of federal criminal prosecutions. Tribe members may also be exempt from certain regulations issued by non-tribal governments.[9]
  2. ^ Official records for Tulsa kept August 1893 to December 1930 at downtown and at Tulsa Int'l since January 1931. For more information, see Threadex

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