トーゴ

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トーゴ共和国
Républiquetogolaise   フランス語
モットー:  「Travail、Liberte、Patrie」[1] (フランス語)
「Work、Liberty、Homeland」
国歌: テール・ド・番号aïeux (フランス語)
(英語:「私たちの先祖の土地」
Location of Togo (dark blue) in the African Union (light blue)
トーゴの場所(紺色)

アフリカ連合 (ライトブルー)

資本
そして最大の都市
ロメ
6°8′N1 °13′E / 6.133°N 1.217°E / 6.133; 1.217座標6°8'N1 °13'E  / 6.133°N 1.217°E / 6.133; 1.217
公用語フランス語
認識されている国語エウェ語 •カビエ
音声言語
リスト:
民族グループ
99%エウェカビエテムグルマ、およびその他の33のアフリカグループ
1%ヨーロッパ、インド、シロレバノン[2]
宗教
住民の呼称トーゴ
政府単一 支配政党 大統領共和国
• 社長
フォール・ニャシンベ
• 首相
VictoireTomegahDogbé
立法府国民議会
独立
フランスから
1960年4月27日
領域
• 合計
56,785 km 2(21,925平方マイル)(123番目
• 水 (%)
4.2
人口
•2020年の見積もり
8,608,444 [2]100番目
•2010年の国勢調査
6,191,155
• 密度
125.9 / km 2(326.1 / sq mi)(93rd e
GDP  PPP2019年の見積もり
• 合計
149億1900万ドル
• 一人あたり
1,821ドル[4]
GDP  (名目)2019年の見積もり
• 合計
55億9200万ドル
• 一人あたり
682ドル[4]
ジニ (2015)Positive decrease 43.1 [5]
HDI  (2019)Increase 0.515 [6]
 ・ 167位
通貨西アフリカCFAフランXOF
タイムゾーンUTC GMT
運転側
市外局番+228
ISO3166コードTG
インターネットTLD.tg
  1. など、エウェミナアジャ
  2. 最大のものは、エウェ、ミナ、コトコリテムカビエです。
  3. 主にヨーロッパ、インド、シリア-レバノン。
  4. この国の見積もりでは、エイズによる過剰死亡の影響を明確に考慮しています。これにより、平均余命が短くなり、乳児死亡率と死亡率が高くなり、人口と成長率が低くなり、年齢や性別による人口分布が予想よりも変化する可能性があります。
  5. 2017年の数値に基づくランキング(CIA World Factbook – "Togo"

トーゴ/トンɡ / 聞くAbout this sound)、正式にトーゴ共和国フランス語レピュブリックtogolaiseは)、中国である西アフリカ。これは、に囲まれているガーナ西ベニンブルキナファソ[7]は国が南へ拡張ギニア湾、その首都で最大の都市ロメ位置しています。[8]トーゴは57,000平方キロメートル(22,008平方マイル)をカバーし、アフリカで最も小さい国の1つであり、人口は約800万人であり[9]、幅が世界で最も狭い国の1つです。ガーナとそのわずかに大きい東の隣国であるベニンの間は115km(71マイル)未満です。[10] [11]

11世紀から16世紀にかけて、さまざまな部族があらゆる方向からこの地域に侵入しました。 16世紀から18世紀にかけて、沿岸地域はヨーロッパ人が奴隷を購入するための主要な貿易の中心地であり、トーゴとその周辺地域は「奴隷海岸という名前になりました。 1884年、ドイツは現在のトーゴを含む地域をトーゴラントと呼ばれる保護領として宣言しました。後は第一次世界大戦、トーゴ以上のルールは、フランスに移しました。トーゴは1960年にフランスから独立しました。[12] [2] 1967年、ニャシンベエヤデマ軍事クーデターを成功させた後、彼は反共産主義の一党制国家の大統領になりました。最終的に、1993年に、エヤデマは不規則性によって傷つけられた複数政党制の選挙に直面し、彼は大統領に3回勝利しました。彼の死の時、エヤデマは38年間大統領を務め、現代アフリカ史上最も長く奉仕した指導者でした。[13] 2005年、彼の息子のフォール・ニャシンベが大統領に選出された。彼は2021年の時点で事務所を保持し続けています。

トーゴは熱帯サハラ砂漠以南の国、[7]その経済性の高い農業に依存して、[12]の良い成長の季節を提供気候と。公用語はフランス語ですが[12]、他の多くの言語、特にGbeファミリーの言語が話されています。最大の宗教グループは先住民の信念を持つ人々で構成されており、重要なキリスト教徒イスラム教徒の少数派がいます。[12]トーゴは、国連アフリカ連合イスラム協力機構、のメンバーです南大西洋平和協力地帯フランス語圏、および西アフリカ諸国経済共同体

歴史

植民地化前(1884年以前)

考古学的発見は、古代の部族が陶器を生産しを処理することができたことを示しています。トーゴという名前は、エウェ語から「川の後ろ」と訳されています。1490年にポルトガル人到着する前の時期についてはあまり知られていません。11世紀から16世紀にかけて、西からエウェ、東からミナガンなど、さまざまな部族があらゆる方向からこの地域に侵入しました。それらのほとんどは沿岸地域に定住しました。

奴隷貿易は16世紀に始まり、次の200年のために沿岸地域はトーゴとその周辺地域名「稼ぐ、奴隷の検索ではヨーロッパ人のための主要な貿易中心地であった奴隷海岸を」。

植民地時代(1884–1960)

トーゴラント(R. Hellgrewe、1908)

1884年、トーゴヴィルでムラパ3世との文書に署名しました。これにより、ドイツは海岸沿いの領土の保護領主張し、徐々に内陸部の支配を拡大しました。その国境は、ドイツ軍による後背地の占領とフランスとイギリスとの協定への署名の後に定義されました。1905年、これはドイツ領トーゴラントの植民地なりました地元住民は、綿花、コーヒー、ココアを栽培し、高額の税金を支払うことを余儀なくされました。農産物の輸出のために鉄道とロメの港が建設されました。ドイツ人はカカオコーヒー綿の栽培の近代的な技術を導入しました インフラストラクチャを開発しました。

一次世界大戦中、トーゴラントはイギリスとフランスに侵略され、仏のコンドミニアムを宣言しました。 1916年12月7日、マンションは崩壊し、トーゴはイギリスとフランスのゾーンに分割されました。 1922年7月20日、イギリスは国際連盟の委任統治を受け、トーゴの西部を統治し、フランスは東部を統治しました。 1945年、国は3人の代表者をフランス議会に送る権利を受け取りました。

第二次世界大戦、これらの義務となった国連の信託領土イギリス領トーゴランド の住民は、1957年ガーナの新しい独立国の一部としてゴールドコーストに参加することを決議ました。フランス領トーゴランドは1959年にフランス連合内の自治共和国になり、フランスは防衛、対外関係、財政。

現在までの独立(1960年〜現在)

トーゴ共和国は1960年4月27日に宣言されました。1961年の最初の大統領選挙で、シルバヌスオリンピオが初代大統領になり、野党によってボイコットされた選挙で100%の票を獲得しました。 1961年4月9日、トーゴ共和国の憲法が採択されました。これによると、最高の立法機関はトーゴの国会でした[14]

1961年12月、野党の指導者は、反政府陰謀の準備で告発されたために逮捕されました。野党の解散に関する法令が発布された。オリンピオは、米国、英国、西ドイツとの協力関係を確立することにより、フランスへの依存を減らしようとしまし。彼はまた、アルジェリア戦争後に復員したフランス兵の努力を拒否し、トーゴ軍での地位を得ようとした。これらの要因は最終的に1963年1月13日に軍事クーデターを引き起こし、その間に彼はニャシンベエヤデマ軍曹の指揮下で兵士のグループによって暗殺されました[15]非常事態宣言がトーゴで宣言された。

軍はニコラ・グルニツキー率いる暫定政府に権力を譲り渡した。 1963年5月、グルニツキーは共和国大統領選出されました。新しい指導部は、フランスとの関係を発展させる政策を追求した。彼の主な目的は、南北の分裂を弱め、新憲法を公布し、複数政党制を導入することでした。

ちょうど4年後の1967年1月13日、エヤデマニャシンベは無血のクーデターでグルニツキーを倒し、大統領に就任しました。[16]はトーゴ人民連合の集会を創設し、他の政党の活動を禁止し、1969年11月に一党制を導入した。彼は1979年1986年に再選された1983年に民営化プログラムが開始され、1991年に他の政党が許可されました。1993年、EUはパートナーシップを凍結し、1993年1998年2003年のエヤデマの再選を権力の掌握として説明しました。2004年4月、ブリュッセルで欧州連合間で協議が行われました。 とトーゴは協力の再開について。

2017から18トーゴ抗議Gnassingbé家族の50年の支配に対する

EyadémaGnassingbéは、アフリカで最も長い独裁者の支配である38年間の権力の後、2005年2月5日に突然亡くなりました。彼の息子の軍の即時インストール、フォール・ニャシンベ[16]大統領としては、フランスから除いて、広範な国際的な非難を引き起こしました。以下のようないくつかの民主的に選出されたアフリカの指導者たちアブドゥライ・ワッドセネガルオバサンジョナイジェリアは、それによって内切れ間作成、移動をサポートするアフリカ連合を[17]

ニャシンベは政権を離れて選挙を行い、2か月後に勝利しました。野党は選挙結果が不正であると宣言した。 2005年の出来事はEUとの関係を正常化するために行われた民主主義への政府のコミットメントに関する質問につながりまし。EUとの関係は、トーゴの人権状況に関する質問のために1993年に援助打ち切りました。さらに、国連によると、大統領選挙を取り巻く暴力で最大400人が死亡した。約40,000人のトーゴ人が近隣諸国に逃亡した。ニャシンベは2010年2015に再選されました

2017年後半、トーゴ反政府反対運動が勃発しました。これ2005年の選挙後の抗議行動以来最大です。抗議者たちは、彼らが権力を握っていたと主張する家族の一員であるニャシンベの辞任を要求した。国連は、トーゴ治安部隊による弾圧の結果を非難し、ガンビアの外相、ウサイヌ・ダルボエは、ニャシンベが辞任すべきだと言った後、訂正を出さなければならなかった。[18]

2020年2月の大統領選挙で、フォール・ニャシンベはトーゴ大統領として4度目の大統領任期を勝ち取りました。[19]公式の結果によると、彼は投票シェアの約72%のマージンで勝った。これにより、彼は最も近い挑戦者である元首相のアベヨメ・コジョを18%倒すことができました[20] 2020年5月4日、トーゴ軍大隊の指揮官であるビタラ・マジュルバが彼の事務所で死んでいるのが発見された。マジュルバの死の日は、最近再選されたフォール・ニャシンベが彼の調査を行った直後でした。この事件の調査が開始され、彼の死の周りのすべての個人が尋問されています。[21]

地理

ガーナ-トーゴ地形-地形図
トーゴの地図

トーゴの面積は56,785km 2(21,925平方マイル)で、アフリカで最も小さい国の1つです。それはのベニン湾に隣接してます。ガーナは西にあります。東のベニンそして北では、トーゴはブルキナファソに囲まれています。トーゴは主に緯度から11°N、経度から2°Eの間にあります。

ギニア湾のトーゴの海岸は56km(35マイル)の長さで、砂浜のあるラグーンで構成されています。北部では、丘が特徴的な国の中心部とは対照的に、土地は穏やかに転がるサバンナが特徴です。トーゴの南は、広大なラグーンと沼地のある海岸平野に達するサバンナと森林の高原が特徴です。

の最も高い海抜986メートル(3235 ')のアグーです。最長の長さ400km(250マイル)モノ川です。北から南に走っています。

気候

気候は一般に熱帯であり[12]、平均気温は海岸の23°C(73°F)から最北端の地域の約30°C(86°F)の範囲で、乾燥した気候と熱帯サバンナの特徴があります。南には、平均降雨量はそれほど多くありませんが、2つの季節の雨があります(1つ目は4月から7月の間、2つ目は9月から11月の間)。[要出典]

動植物

トーゴには東ギニア森林ギニア森林サバンナモザイク西スーダンサバンナの3つの陸域エコリージョンがあります[22]トーゴの海岸は、沼地マングローブが特徴です。高い人口増加は急速な森林破壊つながり、多くの種を危険にさらしています。この国の2019年の森林景観保全指数の平均スコアは5.88 / 10で、172か国中92位にランクされています。[23]

At least five parks and reserves have been established: Abdoulaye Faunal Reserve, Fazao Malfakassa National Park, Fosse aux Lions National Park, Koutammakou,[24] and Kéran National Park. The most frequently observed animals are giraffes, cape buffalo, hyenas, and lions. Few elephants remain. Common birds are storks and cranes.

Government

Current president of Togo Faure Gnassingbé since 2005
Gnassingbé Eyadéma ruled Togo from 1967 until his death in 2005.

The President is elected by universal and direct suffrage for 5 years. He is also the commander of the armed forces and has the right to initiate legislation and dissolve parliament. Executive power is exercised by the president and the government. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the president.

Togo's transition to democracy is stalled. Its democratic institutions remain nascent and fragile. President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, who ruled Togo under a one-party system, died of a heart attack on 5 February 2005. Gravely ill, he was being transported by plane to a foreign country for care. He died in transit while over Tunisia. Under the Togolese Constitution, the President of the Parliament, Fambaré Ouattara Natchaba, should have become President of the country, pending a new presidential election to be called within sixty days. Natchaba was out of the country, returning on an Air France plane from Paris.[25]

The Togolese army, known as Forces Armées Togolaises (FAT), or Togolese Armed Forces, closed the nation's borders, forcing the plane to land in nearby Benin. With an engineered power vacuum, the Parliament voted to remove the constitutional clause that would have required an election within sixty days and declared that Eyadema's son, Faure Gnassingbé, would inherit the presidency and hold office for the rest of his father's term.[25] Faure was sworn in on 7 February 2005, despite international criticism of the succession.[26]

The African Union described the takeover as a military coup d'état.[27] International pressure came also from the United Nations. Within Togo, opposition to the takeover culminated in riots in which several hundred died. There were uprisings in many cities and towns, mainly located in the southern part of the country. In the town of Aného reports of a general civilian uprising followed by a large scale massacre by government troops went largely unreported. In response, Faure Gnassingbé agreed to hold elections and on 25 February, Gnassingbé resigned as president, but soon afterward accepted the nomination to run for the office in April.[28]

On 24 April 2005, Gnassingbé was elected President of Togo, receiving over 60% of the vote according to official results. His main rival in the race had been Emmanuel Bob-Akitani from the Union des Forces du Changement (UFC) or Union of Forces for Change. However, electoral fraud was suspected, due to a lack of European Union or other independent oversight.[29] Parliament designated Deputy President, Bonfoh Abbass, as interim president until the inauguration.[28] On 3 May 2005, Faure Gnassingbé was sworn in as the new president and the European Union suspended aid to Togo in support of the opposition claims, unlike the African Union and the United States which declared the vote "reasonably fair." The Nigerian president and Chair of the AU, Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ, sought to negotiate between the incumbent government and the opposition to establish a coalition government, but rejected an AU Commission appointment of former Zambian president, Kenneth Kaunda, as special AU envoy to Togo.[30][31] In June, President Gnassingbé named opposition leader Edem Kodjo as the prime minister.

2007年10月、数回の延期の後、比例代表制で選挙が行われた。これにより、人口の少ない北は人口の多い南と同じ数の議員を収容することができました。トーゴ人民連合の大統領支持党集会(RPT)は完全に過半数を獲得し、UFCが2位になり、他の政党は取るに足らない代表を主張しました。再び、不正投票の告発は、市民および軍の治安機関によって支援されたRPTで平準化されました。 EUオブザーバーミッションの存在にもかかわらず、投票のキャンセルと違法投票が行われ、その大部分はRPTの拠点で行われました。選挙は国際社会によって公正であると宣言され、複数政党制が復活して以来初めて、脅迫や暴力行為がほとんどないモデルとして賞賛されました。 2007年12月3日、RPTのKomlan Mallyが、Agboyiborの後任の首相に任命された。しかし、2008年9月5日、わずか10か月の在任後、マリーはトーゴの首相を辞任しました。

Faure Gnassingbé won re-election in the March 2010 presidential election, taking 61% of the vote against Jean-Pierre Fabre from the UFC, who had been backed by an opposition coalition called FRAC (Republican Front for Change).[32] Though the March 2010 election was largely peaceful, electoral observers noted "procedural errors" and technical problems, and the opposition did not recognize the results, claiming irregularities had affected the outcome.[33][34] Periodic protests against Faure Gnassingbé followed the election.[35] In May 2010, long-time opposition leader Gilchrist Olympio announced that he would enter into a power-sharing deal with the government, a coalition arrangement which provides the UFC with eight ministerial posts.[36][37] In June 2012, electoral reforms prompted protesters to take to the street in Lomé for several days; protesters sought a return to the 1992 constitution that would re-establish presidential term limits.[38] July 2012, saw the surprise resignation of the prime minister, Gilbert Houngbo.[39] Days later, the commerce minister, Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu, was named to lead the new government. In the same month, the home of opposition leader Jean Pierre Fabre was raided by security forces, and thousands of protesters again rallied publicly against the government crackdown.[40]

2015年4月、フォール・ニャシンベ大統領が3期目に再選されました。[41] 2020年2月、フォール・ニャシンベは4度目の大統領任期で再び再選された。野党は詐欺や不正行為の多くの告発を持っていました。[42]ニャシンベ家は、1967年以来トーゴを統治しており、アフリカで最も長く続く王朝であることを意味します。[43]

行政区画

Savanes Region, TogoPlateaux Region, TogoKara RegionCentrale Region, TogoMaritime RegionA clickable map of Togo exhibiting its five regions.
About this image

Togo is divided into five regions, which are subdivided in turn into 30 prefectures. From north to south the regions are Savanes, Kara, Centrale, Plateaux and Maritime.

Foreign relations

Although Togo's foreign policy is nonaligned, it has strong historical and cultural ties with western Europe, especially France and Germany. Togo recognizes the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and Cuba. It re-established relations with Israel in 1987.

トーゴは積極的な外交政策を追求し、多くの国際機関に参加しています。特に西アフリカの地域問題やアフリカ連合活躍しています。トーゴと近隣諸国との関係は概ね良好です。

2017年、トーゴは核兵器禁止条約に署名しました[44]

ミリタリー

The military of Togo, in French FAT (Forces armées togolaises, "Togolese armed forces"), consists of the army, navy, air force, and gendarmerie. Total military expenditures during the fiscal year of 2005 totalled 1.6% of the country's GDP.[2] Military bases exist in Lomé, Temedja, Kara, Niamtougou, and Dapaong.[45] The current Chief of the General Staff is Brigadier General Titikpina Atcha Mohamed, who took office on 19 May 2009.[46] The air force is equipped with Alpha jets.[47]

人権記録

Togo was labeled "Not Free" by Freedom House from 1972 to 1998, and again from 2002 to 2006, and has been categorized as "Partly Free" from 1999 to 2001 and again from 2007 to the present. It has very serious and longstanding human-rights problems. According to a U.S. State Department report based on conditions in 2010, these include "security force use of excessive force, including torture, which resulted in deaths and injuries; official impunity; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrests and detention; lengthy pretrial detention; executive influence over the judiciary; infringement of citizens' privacy rights; restrictions on freedoms of press, assembly, and movement; official corruption; discrimination and violence against women; child abuse, including female genital mutilation (FGM), and sexual exploitation of children; regional and ethnic discrimination; trafficking in persons, especially women and children; societal discrimination against persons with disabilities; official and societal discrimination against homosexual persons; societal discrimination against persons with HIV; and forced labor, including by children."[48] Same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Togo,[49] with a penalty of one to three years imprisonment.[50]

Economy

トーゴの輸出の比例代表、2019年

Togo is among the smallest countries in Africa, but possesses valuable phosphate deposits[12] and a well-developed export sector based on agricultural products such as coffee; cocoa bean; and peanuts (groundnuts), which together generate roughly 30% of export earnings.[12] Cotton is the most important cash crop.[51] The fertile land occupies 11.3% of the country, most of which is developed. Major crops are cassava, jasmine rice, maize and millet. Other important sectors are brewery and the textile industry. A permanent problem is the lack of electricity, because the country is able to produce only about a third of its consumption, the rest is covered by imports from Ghana and Nigeria. Low market prices for Togo's major export commodities, however, coupled with the volatile political situation of the 1990s and early 2000s, had a negative effect on the economy.[52]

Togo is one of the least developed countries; the economic situation is still precarious. Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade center. The government's decade-long efforts, supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), to carry out economic reforms, to encourage investment, and to create the balance between income and consumption has stalled. Political unrest, including private and public sector, strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, jeopardized the reform program, shrank the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity.

トーゴは、機械、設備、石油製品、食品を輸入しています。主な輸入相手国は、フランス(21.1%)、オランダ(12.1%)、コートジボワール(5.9%)、ドイツ(4.6%)、イタリア(4.4%)、南アフリカ(4.3%)、中国(4.1%)です。 。主な輸出品は、カカオコーヒー、商品の再輸出、リン酸塩綿花です。主要な輸出相手国は、ブルキナファソ(16.6%)、中国(15.4%)、オランダ(13%)、ベナン(9.6%)、マリ(7.4%)です。

トーゴの漁師

In terms of structural reforms, Togo has made progress in the liberalization of the economy, namely in the fields of trade and port activities. However, the privatization program of the cotton sector, telecommunications and water supply has stalled. The country currently has no debt due to financial assistance from the outside while Togo is likely among the most beneficiary countries under the Initiative help in Heavily Indebted Poor Countries.

12 January 1994 devaluation of the currency by 50% provided an important impetus to renewed structural adjustment; these efforts were facilitated by the end of strife in 1994 and a return to overt political calm. Progress depends on increased openness in government financial operations (to accommodate increased social service outlays) and possible downsizing of the armed forces, on which the regime has depended to stay in place. Lack of aid and depressed cocoa prices generated a 1% fall in GDP in 1998, with growth resuming in 1999. Togo is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[53]

Agriculture

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy,[12] although it is struggling with a chronic shortage of funds for the purchase of irrigation equipment and fertilizers, which has significantly reduced agricultural output. Agriculture generated 28.2% of GDP in 2012 and employed 49% of the working population in 2010. The country is essentially self-sufficient in food production. Livestock production is dominated by cattle breeding.[54][55][citation needed]

Mining

Mining generated about 33.9% of GDP in 2012 and employed 12% of the population in 2010. Togo has the fourth-largest phosphate deposits in the world. Their production is 2.1 million tons per year. Since the mid-90s, however, there has been a decline in the mining industry, and the government will need to invest heavily to sustain it. The mining industry is facing difficulties due to falling phosphate prices on world markets and increasing foreign competition. There are also reserves of limestone, marble and salt.

Industry provides only 20.4% of Togo's national income, because it consists only of a few light industries and builders. Large reserves of limestone allows Togo to produce cement.[54][56]

Transport

Demographics

 
Largest cities or towns in Togo
According to the 2010 Census[57]
Rank Name Region Pop.
Lomé
Lomé
Sokodé
Sokodé
1 Lomé Maritime 1,477,658 Kara
Kara
Kpalimé
Kpalimé
2 Sokodé Centrale 117,811
3 Kara Kara 94,878
4 Kpalimé Plateaux 75,084
5 Atakpamé Plateaux 69,261
6 Dapaong Savanes 58,071
7 Tsévié Maritime 54,474
8 Anié Plateaux 37,398
9 Notsé Plateaux 35,039
10 Cinkassé Savanes 26,926
Women in Sokodé
Population[10][11]
Year Million
1950 1.4
2000 5.0
2018 7.9

The November 2010 census gave Togo a population of 6,191,155, more than double the total counted in the last census. That census, taken in 1981, showed the nation had a population of 2,719,567. The capital and largest city, Lomé, grew from 375,499 in 1981 to 837,437 in 2010. When the urban population of surrounding Golfe prefecture is added, the Lomé Agglomeration contained 1,477,660 residents in 2010.[58][59]

Other cities in Togo according to the new census were Sokodé (95,070), Kara (94,878), Kpalimé (75,084), Atakpamé (69,261), Dapaong (58,071) and Tsévié (54,474). With an estimated population of 7,889,093 (as of 2018), Togo is the 107th largest country by population. Most of the population (65%) live in rural villages dedicated to agriculture or pastures. The population of Togo shows a strong growth: from 1961 (the year after independence) to 2003 it quintupled.[58][59]

Ethnic groups

People of Togo in the 1980s

In Togo, there are about 40 different ethnic groups, the most numerous of which are the Ewe in the south who make up 32% of the population. Along the southern coastline, they account for 21% of the population. Also found are Kotokoli or Tem and Tchamba in the center and the Kabye people in the north (22%). The Ouatchis [fr] are 14% of the population. Sometimes the Ewes and Ouatchis are considered the same, but the French who studied both groups considered them different people.[60] Other Ethnic groups include the Mina, Mossi, the Moba and Bassar, the Tchokossi of Mango (about 8%). There is also a European & Indian population who make up less than 1%.

Religion

Religion in Togo (2010 estimate)[61]

  Christianity (37%)
  Vodun and animism (35.6%)
  Islam (20%)
  None (6.1%)
  Others (1.3%)
Church in Kpalime

According to a 2012 US government religious freedoms report, in 2004 the University of Lomé estimated that 33% of the population were traditional animists, 28% were Roman Catholic, 20% Sunni Muslim, 9% Protestant and another 5% belonged to other Christian denominations. The remaining 5% were reported to include persons not affiliated with any religious group. The report also noted that many Christians and Muslims continue to perform indigenous religious practices.[62]

The CIA World Factbook meanwhile states that 44% of the population are Christian, 14% are Muslim with 36% being followers of indigenous beliefs.[54]

Christianity began to spread from the middle of the 15th century, after the arrival of Portuguese Catholic missionaries. Germans introduced Protestantism in the second half of the 19th century when a hundred missionaries of the Bremen Missionary Society were sent to the coastal areas of Togo and Ghana. Togo's Protestants were known as "Brema," a corruption of the word "Bremen." After World War I, German missionaries had to leave, which gave birth to the early autonomy of the Ewe Evangelical Church.[63]

Languages

Togo is a multilingual country. According to Ethnologue, 39 distinct languages are spoken in the country, many of them by communities that number fewer than 100,000 members.[64] Of the 39 languages, the sole official language is French.[65] Two spoken indigenous languages were designated politically as national languages in 1975: Ewé (Ewe: Èʋegbe; French: Evé) and Kabiyé;[65] they are also the two most widely spoken indigenous languages.

French is used in formal education, legislature, all forms of media, administration and commerce. Ewe is a language of wider communication in the south. Tem functions to a limited extent as a trade language in some northern towns.[66] Officially, Ewe and Kabiye are "national languages", which in the Togolese context means languages that are promoted in formal education and used in the media.

Health

Health expenditure in Togo was 5.2% of GDP in 2014, which ranks the country in 45th place in the world.[54] The infant mortality rate is approximately 43.7 deaths per 1,000 children in 2016.[54] Male life expectancy at birth was at 62.3 in 2016, whereas it was at 67.7 years for females.[54] There were 5 physicians per 100,000 people in 2008[54] According to a 2013 UNICEF report,[67] 4% of women in Togo have undergone female genital mutilation, which is a significantly lower percentage than other countries in the region.

As of 2015, the maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Togo is 368, compared with 350 in 2010 and 539.7 in 1990.[54] The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 100 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 32. In Togo the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 2 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 67.[68]

In 2016, Togo had 4100 (2400 - 6100) new HIV infections and 5100 (3100 - 7700) AIDS-related deaths. There were 100 000 (73 000 - 130 000) people living with HIV in 2016, among whom 51% (37% - 67%) were accessing antiretroviral therapy. Among pregnant women living with HIV, 86% (59% - >95%) were accessing treatment or prophylaxis to prevent transmission of HIV to their children. An estimated <1000 (<500 - 1400) children were newly infected with HIV due to mother-to-child transmission. Among people living with HIV, approximately 42% (30% - 55%) had suppressed viral loads.[69]

Education

Education in Togo is compulsory for six years.[70] In 1996, the gross primary enrollment rate was 119.6%, and the net primary enrollment rate was 81.3%.[70] In 2011, the net enrollment rate was 94%, one of the best in the West African sub-region. The education system has suffered from teacher shortages, lower educational quality in rural areas, and high repetition and dropout rates.[70]

Culture

Traditional Taberma houses

Togo's culture reflects the influences of its many ethnic groups, the largest and most influential of which are the Ewe, Mina, Tem, Tchamba and Kabre.

Despite the influences of Christianity and Islam, over half of the people of Togo follow native animistic practices and beliefs.

Ewe statuary is characterized by its famous statuettes which illustrate the worship of the ibeji. Sculptures and hunting trophies were used rather than the more ubiquitous African masks. The wood-carvers of Kloto are famous for their "chains of marriage": two characters are connected by rings drawn from only one piece of wood.

The dyed fabric batiks of the artisanal center of Kloto represent stylized and colored scenes of ancient everyday life. The loincloths used in the ceremonies of the weavers of Assahoun are famous. Works of the painter Sokey Edorh are inspired by the immense arid extents, swept by the dry wind, and where the soil keeps the prints of the men and the animals. The plastics technician Paul Ahyi is internationally recognized today. He practiced the "zota", a kind of pyroengraving, and his monumental achievements decorate Lomé.

The official Togolese drink is called sodabi, a liquor that is created from the distillation of palm wine.

Sports

Olympics

On 12 August 2008, Benjamin Boukpeti (born to a Togolese father and a French mother) won a bronze medal in the Men's K1 Kayak Slalom, the first medal ever won by a member of the Togolese team at the Olympics.

Football

Football is the most recognized and national sport of Togo. Following suit with Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Ghana and Senegal, Togo qualified for the World Cup in 2006. Togo did not record a win in the group stage. Togo also qualified for CAF. Bachirou Salou was the first known footballer who paved the way for all the international Togolese soccer stars. He successfully played in the German Bundesliga for more than 14 years and is a living legend for the German Clubs Borussia Mönchengladbach and MSV Duisburg, where they even perpetuated him in their stadium. Salou gained 38 caps for Togo during a nine-year span. He played 300 games and scored 69 goals in the German major league. Emmanuel Adebayor is the most famous footballer for Togo, scoring 30 goals for the national team and 97 in the English Premier League.

Basketball

Basketball is Togo's second most practiced sport.[71]

Other

Togo featured a national team in beach volleyball that competed at the 2018–2020 CAVB Beach Volleyball Continental Cup in the men's section.[72]

Media

Mass media in Togo includes radio, television, and online and print formats. The Agence Togolaise de Presse [fr] news agency began in 1975.[73] The Union des Journalistes Independants du Togo press association is headquartered in Lomé.[73]

Celebrations

Togo has secular celebrations. Some of the celebrations include 1 January – "Fête Nationale" (meaning National Celebration in French) and 27 April – Independence day. These celebrations open a window for job opportunities and they attract more tourists.

See also

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Further reading

  • Bullock, A L C, Germany's Colonial Demands (Oxford University Press, 1939).
  • Gründer, Horst, Geschichte der deutschen Kolonien, 3. Aufl. (Paderborn, 1995).
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Military Coups in West Africa Since The Sixties (Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2001).
  • Packer, George, The Village of Waiting (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1988).
  • Piot, Charles, Nostalgia for the Future: West Africa After the Cold War (University of Chicago Press, 2010).
  • Schnee, Dr. Heinrich, German Colonization, Past and Future – the Truth about the German Colonies (George Allen & Unwin, 1926).
  • Sebald, Peter, Togo 1884 bis 1914. Eine Geschichte der deutschen "Musterkolonie" auf der Grundlage amtlicher Quellen (Berlin, 1987).
  • Seely, Jennifer, The Legacies of Transition Governments in Africa: The Cases of Benin and Togo (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).
  • Zurstrassen, Bettina, "Ein Stück deutscher Erde schaffen". Koloniale Beamte in Togo 1884–1914 (Frankfurt/M., Campus, 2008) (Campus Forschung, 931).

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