アメリカ合衆国の領土の変遷

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アメリカ合衆国の領土の変遷のアニメーションマップ(クリックしてフルサイズの画像を表示
おそらく1970年代に作成された、領土の取得と州の日付を描いた米国国勢調査局の地図
2007年の領土取得を描いた米国国勢調査局の地図

米国はで、1776年7月4日に作成された独立宣言13のイギリスの植民地では北米1776年7月2日リー決議で、植民地は自由で独立した州であると決議した。組合はで正式にされた連合規約施行された全13州によって批准された後、1781年3月1日に。彼らの独立性はによって認識された英国パリ条約締結され、1783年のアメリカ独立戦争を。これにより、コロニーのサイズが実質的に2倍になり、宣言線越えミシシッピ川まで西に伸びることができるようになりました。この土地は領土と州に編成されましたが、元の植民地のいくつかが主張した海から海への助成金との対立は残っていました。やがて、これらの助成金は連邦政府に譲渡されました。

国の最初の大規模な拡大は、1803年のルイジアナ買収によって国の領土が2倍になりましたが、スペインのフロリダとの南東の国境は、それとオレゴン国に対するスペインの主張が1821年に米国に譲渡されるまで、多くの論争の対象でした。オレゴンカントリーは米国に太平洋へのアクセスを許可しましたが、それはしばらくの間英国と共有されていました[1] 1845年のテキサス共和国の併合は、米墨戦争直接つながり、その後、勝利したアメリカ合衆国がメキシコの北半分を獲得しました。すぐにカリフォルニア州になったものを含む、の領土[2]しかし、国の発展が西に進むにつれて奴隷制の問題はより重要になり、新しい領土が奴隷制やミズーリ妥協流すカンザスなどの出来事を許可するかどうかについて活発な議論が行われました。これは、南部の州の政府が国からの離脱を宣言し、アメリカ連合国を形成した1860年と1861年に頭角を現しましたアメリカ南北戦争は、 1865年連合の敗北とする状態の最終的な再入院に至った米国議会米国の明白な運命に対する文化的信念は、19世紀の西方への拡大に強い推進力をもたらしました。

北米を超えた国の拡大は、1856年にグアノ島法が成立したことから始まり、太平洋とカリブ海にある多くの小さな無人の、しかし経済的に重要な島々が主張されました。[3]これらの主張のほとんどは、他の国からの主張の競合またはグアノが採掘されたために最終的に放棄されました。太平洋の拡大は、5年前にハワイの政府転覆した後、1898年にハワイ併合されたことで最高潮に達しました北米で最後の大規模な買収であるアラスカは、1867年にロシアから購入さました。

スペイン帝国からキューバの独立とUSSメインの沈没への支援は、1898年に米西戦争引き起こしそこで米国はグアムプエルトリコフィリピンを獲得数年間キューバを占領しました。 。アメリカ領サモアは、第二次サモア内戦の終結後の1900年に米国に買収されました[4]米国は、1917年にデンマークから米領バージン諸島を購入しました。[5]グアムとプエルトリコは依然として領土です。フィリピンは、第二次世界大戦の主要な劇場となった後、1946年に独立しました。戦後、多くの島々国連から米国に委託さ[6]北マリアナ諸島は米国の領土であり続けたが、マーシャル諸島ミクロネシア連邦パラオは独立国として信託統治領から出現した。最後の大きな国際的変化は、1904年の買収であり、1979年にパナマ運河地帯パナマ戻った。パナマ運河を支配していた、法人化されていない米国の領土。この地域に対する正式な支配の最終的な譲渡は、1999年にパナマに対して行われました。

内部の国境に関しては、領土のサイズが大きく変わる可能性がありますが、一度確立された州は一般的に最初の国境を保持します。メイン州ケンタッキー州バーモント州ウェストバージニア州の4つのだけが、別の州が主張する土地から作成されました。他のすべては、領土から、または買収から直接作成されました。ルイジアナ州ミズーリ州ネバダ州ペンシルベニア州の4つの州は、連邦への最初の入国後に追加の連邦領土を取得することにより、大幅に拡大しました最後の状態連続した米国一般に「米国本土48州」と呼ばれる、1912年に認められました。第五十と最新の状態は1959年に入院しました。

マップの凡例

マップの色の鍵
  アメリカ合衆国の州(国内地図)、アメリカ合衆国の誰もが認める地域(紛争地図)
  アメリカ合衆国の領土(国内地図)
  アメリカ合衆国の紛争地域
  イベントによりエリアが変更

1776–1784(アメリカ独立戦争)

日にち イベント マップの変更
1776年7月2日および1776年7月4日 北アメリカのグレートブリテン王国の13植民地は、アメリカ合衆国としての独立まとめて宣言しましたが[a]、いくつかの植民地はすでに個別に独立を宣言していました:[7]

首都は特に設立されていません。当時、大陸会議フィラデルフィアで開催されました[24] [25]

多くの州は、国境を漠然と定義し、調査していました。活発な論争がない限り、これらはマップで争われているとは記されていません。ノースカロライナ州の国境は特に調査が不十分であり、サウスカロライナ州との国境はいくつかの部分で行われており、そのどれも憲章の精神に真に一致していなかった[26] [27]。バージニア州との国境は内陸のほぼ半分でしか調査されなかった。海から。

北東部のいくつかの州では、主張が重複していました。コネチカット、マサチューセッツ湾、ニューヨークはすべて、受け入れられた国境の西側の土地を主張し、互いに重複し、バージニアによるかなりの主張がありました。3つのうち、コネチカットだけがその主張を真剣に追求しましたが、バージニアは広大な北西部に対して最も正当な主張をしており、郡に分割し、ある程度の制限された管理を維持していると考えられています。

マチャイアスシール島ノースロック、現在まで論争が続いている北東海岸沖の2つの小さな島を含む、新しいアメリカ合衆国全体がイギリスによって主張されました。[28]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 4, 1776

紛争:

Map of the international disputes involving the United States in central North America from July 4, 1776, to January 15, 1777

1776年9月20日 ニューキャッスル、ケント、サセックスの各郡は、デラウェア州に憲法を制定し、デラウェア州と改名しまし[29] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on September 20, 1776
1776年9月28日 ペンシルバニア州は、制定された憲法を自身に名前を変更、ペンシルベニア州の連邦を[30] マップに変更はありません
1776年12月20日 フィラデルフィア前進していたイギリスを避けるために、大陸会議はボルチモアで会合を始めまし[24] [25] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 20, 1776
1777年1月15日 ニューハンプシャーグラントとして知られるニューヨークの北東部地域は独立をニューコネチカットとして宣言しました[31] [32] [33] 紛争:

Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on January 15, 1777

1777年3月4日 大陸会議はに戻ったフィラデルフィアによってそれへの脅威後のイギリス軍は終了しました。[24] [25] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 4, 1777
1777年6月4日 新しいコネチカットはバーモントに改名されました[33] [31] 紛争:

Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on June 4, 1777

1777年9月27日 大陸会議は逃げたフィラデルフィアでのアメリカの敗北後にブランディワインの戦い、そして簡単にはで会ったランカスター、ペンシルバニア[24] [25] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on September 27, 1777
1777年9月30日 大陸会議はから離れて移動し続け、フィラデルフィアに定住、ニューヨーク、ペンシルベニア州[24] [25] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on September 30, 1777
1778年6月11日 バーモント州、1778年3月12日にニューハンプシャー州のいくつかの町で構成される「東連合」と呼ばれるものを主張し、州が沿岸地域に集中しすぎていることを懸念してバーモント州に加わるよう要請した。バーモント州はこの地域を完全に支配することはできませんでした。[31] [34] [35] [36] [b] 紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on June 11, 1778
1778年10月21日 大陸会議からの圧力によりバーモント州は東連合の併合を撤回した。立法府は1779年2月12日に、東連合は当初から無効と見なされるべきであると宣言しました。[34] [35] [36] 紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on October 21, 1778
1779年7月2日 大陸会議はに戻ったフィラデルフィア、次のイギリスの 撤退[24] [25] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 2, 1779
1779年8月31日 バージニア州ペンシルベニア州南西部にその主張明け渡した[19] [37] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 31, 1779
1780年3月 ノースカロライナ州バージニア州はさらに内陸の国境を調査しました。バージニア州の調査はテネシー川に到達しましたが、ノースカロライナ州の調査はカンバーランドギャップまでしか行われず、2つの調査は約2マイル離れていたため、両州が主張する薄い地域が作成されました。国境は北緯36度30分をたどることを目的としていましたが、初期の測量エラーにより北緯が変わり、テネシー川に到達するまでに17マイル離れた距離に達しました。[38] [23] Map of the change to the United States in central North America in March 1780
1780年10月25日 マサチューセッツ湾州は憲法を制定し、マサチューセッツ連邦と改名しました Map of the change to the United States in central North America on October 25, 1780
1781年3月1日 連盟の記事は、発効しました。[39] マップに変更はありません
1781年4月4日 バーモントは再び、バーモントとの合流を望んでいたニューハンプシャーのいくつかの町からなる東連合を主張した1778年の最初の試みよりも多くの町が関心を持っていましたが、国境の正確な範囲は不明です。バーモント州はこの地域を完全に支配することはできませんでした。[31] [40] [35] [36] [c] 紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on April 4, 1781
1781年6月16日 バーモント州、主にバーモント州の東方への拡大の試みを相殺するため、ニューヨーク州のいくつかの町で構成される「ウェストユニオン」と呼ばれるものを主張したバーモント州はこの地域を完全に支配することはできませんでした。[31] [35] [41] [42]これが発生した具体的な日付は不明です。情報筋は6月16日、6月26日、7月18日を示唆している。[d] 紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on June 16, 1781
1782年2月22日 バーモント州は、ニューハンプシャーからの東連合ニューヨークからの西連合を併合する試みを断念した[31] [36] [42] [43] 紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on February 22, 1782
1782年10月29日 連邦政府は受け入れ割譲からニューヨークの状態は、1780年2月17日に割譲その西部の主張、のを。ニューヨークは、新しい西側の境界線をオンタリオ湖の西端から南に引いた線であると宣言しました。その最大の解釈では、状態が囲まれた面積主張していたエリー湖ヒューロン湖ミシガン湖をイリノイ州ミシシッピ州、およびテネシー川。アパラチア山脈沿って北に進み、ペンシルベニア州との国境で終わります。[44]この主張がどこから来たのかは不明です。多くの情報筋は、ニューヨークがそれを放棄したと述べていますが、それがどのように入手されたかについて詳しく述べているものはほとんどありません。ある情報筋によると、それはこの地域の大部分を征服したシックスネイションズによる割譲でした[45]しかしながら、ニューヨークはこれらの主張を真剣に執行したことは一度もない。割譲には、ペンシルベニア州の北にあるニューヨークの小さな先端が含まれていました。これは、エリートライアングルとして知られるようになりました[46] [17] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on October 29, 1782
1782年12月30日 連合会議は、その土地と宣言したコネチカットの北部に記載ペンシルベニア州は、これに終了しようとすると、ペンシルベニア州の一部であったPennamite-ヤンキー戦争を[47] [19]請求はコネチカットの最北端と最南端の境界線の延長はスキップし、西方だったニュージャージー州ニューヨークをコネチカットの北部国境は数マイル北のだったものの、ペンシルベニア州の北部国境、ニューヨークの小さなスライバーでしたまた主張した。紛争はしばらく続くでしょうが、これはコネチカットによる正式な主張の終わりでした。 Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 30, 1782
1783年6月30日 1783年ペンシルベニア反乱とそれに対するペンシルベニア政府の反応により、連合会議はフィラデルフィアを離れプリンストンに向かった[24] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 30, 1783
1783年11月26日 連合会議はで再招集アナポリス[24] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 26, 1783
1784年3月1日 バージニア州は、オハイオ川の北西にある主張を連邦政府に譲渡しました[48] [23]コネチカットは、バージニアの割譲と重複していた西部の土地を主張し続けた。 Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 1, 1784
1784年5月12日 グレートブリテン は米国の独立を認め、国に対する主張を終わらせた。[49] [50] [e] 1781年10月19日のヨークタウンでのフランス系アメリカ人の勝利の後、軍事行動はほぼ終了したが、条約はアメリカ独立戦争を終結させた

曖昧さと地理に関する知識が乏しいため、条約はいくつかの分野で不明確でした。

パリ平和はまた、フランススペインとの条約を含み、イギリスはフロリダスペインに譲り渡した西フロリダを所有している間、イギリス軍は国境を北に移動し、スペインへの割譲はイギリス植民地の全範囲に適用されたようでした。しかし、英米条約は西フロリダの米国への拡大を認め、ジョージアを南から31度に拡大し、西フロリダの当初の定義のみがスペインに譲渡されることを示した。地元のスペインの知事もミシシッピ川沿いの砦を占領する動きをしましたテネシー川の南のすべてに対する主張を伴う; これらの主張がどれほど公式または強力であったかは不明であり、西フロリダの国境を含む他のスペインの主張と矛盾しているため、マッピングされていません。[51]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 12, 1784

紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on May 12, 1784

1784–1803(領土の組織)

日にち イベント マップの変更
1784年8月23日 ノースカロライナ州中部(現在のテネシー州東部)のある地域は、この地域に対する州の統治に不満を持っており、フランクランド州としてからの独立を宣言しました[f] [52]フランクランド政府はこの地域をある程度支配し、州としての請願を行い、必要な9州のうち7州からの支援を受けたが、数年しか続かなかった。[53] [54] 非公式の変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 23, 1784
1784年11月1日 連合会議はショートの時間のために移動トレントン[24] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 1, 1784
1785年1月11日 連合会議はに移動し、ニューヨーク、そして5年間そこに落ち着くでしょう。[24] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 11, 1785
1785年4月19日 連邦政府は、マサチューセッツ州からの極端な西側の主張割譲受け入れましたが、これは真剣に執行されることはありませんでした。[g] [44] [13] 紙のみでの変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on April 19, 1785
1785年6月 フランクリン国はベンジャミンフランクリンが州を支持することを奨励するために、フランクリン国に改名されましたが、彼は断りました。[53] 非公式の変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America in June 1785
1786年9月13日 コネチカットは、西部保護区を除いて、西部の主張を連邦政府に明け渡したが、彼らが譲渡された地域をどの程度支配していたかは不明である。[h] [8] [55] 紙のみでの変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on September 13, 1786
1786年12月16日 マサチューセッツ ニューヨーク西部にその主張を放棄たが、主張は「主権ではなく土壌」であったため、マサチューセッツがこの地域を支配していたかどうかは不明である。[i] [44] [13]この土地は、後にフェルプスとゴーハムの購入として知られていました 紙のみでの変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 16, 1786
1787年7月13日 以前にバージニア州によって譲渡されオハイオ川の北西の領土組織され、一般に北西部領土として知られるようになりました[56] [57] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 13, 1787
1787年8月9日 サウスカロライナはその西側の主張を連邦政府に譲り渡したが[58] [22]、それは不正確な地理の結果であり、サウスカロライナは実際にこの土地に対する主張を保持したことはなかった。主張は、ノースカロライナ州の国境とトゥガルー川の源流の間の細長い土地でしたが、当時は不明でしたが、川はノースカロライナ州で発生しました。この割譲の東部は、ジョージアが技術的にすでに土地を主張しているにもかかわらず、1802年ジョージア与えられることになります。 紙のみでの変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 9, 1787
1787年12月7日 デラウェアは、合衆国憲法を批准した最初の州になりました[59] マップに変更はありません
1787年12月12日 ペンシルベニア州は、憲法を批准した2番目の州になりました[60] マップに変更はありません
1787年12月18日 ニュージャージー憲法を批准した3番目の州になりました[61] マップに変更はありません
1788年1月2日 ジョージア州憲法を批准した4番目の州になりました[62] マップに変更はありません
1788年1月6日 コネチカット憲法を批准する5番目の州になりました[63] マップに変更はありません
1788年2月6日 マサチューセッツ州は、憲法を批准した6番目の州になりました[64] マップに変更はありません
1788年4月28日 メリーランド州憲法を批准した7番目の州になりました[65] マップに変更はありません
1788年5月23日 サウスカロライナ州は、憲法を批准した8番目の州になりました[66] マップに変更はありません
1788年6月21日 ニューハンプシャー憲法を批准した9番目の州になりました[67]この時点で、憲法は、同じものを批准した9つの州の積極的な統治文書となった(第7条による)。 マップに変更はありません
1788年6月25日 バージニア州憲法を批准する10番目の州になりました[68] マップに変更はありません
1788年7月26日 ニューヨーク憲法を批准する11番目の州になりました[69] マップに変更はありません
1789年2月 フランクリン国の知事であるジョン・セビアはノースカロライナへの忠誠を誓い、フランクリンの主張された独立を事実上終わらせた。[53] [70] 非公式の変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America in February 1789
1789年8月7日 北西部領土は下再編された憲法[71] マップに変更はありません
1789年11月21日 ノースカロライナ州は、憲法を批准する12番目の州になりました[72] マップに変更はありません
1790年4月2日 ノースカロライナ州はその西半分を連邦政府に譲渡しました。[j] [73] [54] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on April 2, 1790
1790年5月26日 ノースカロライナによって最近譲渡された土地はサウスウェスト準州として一般に知られているオハイオ川の南の領土として組織されました[54] [74] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 26, 1790
1790年5月29日 ロードアイランド憲法を批准する13番目の州になりました[75] マップに変更はありません
1790年12月6日 パーレジデンス法米国の議会はに移転フィラデルフィアまで10年間、連邦地区が建設され、準備ができました。[24] [25] [76] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 6, 1790
1791年3月4日 1777年以来独立し行動しているにもかかわらずニューヨークの一部と見なされていたバーモント州、14番目の州として認められました。[k] [31] [77] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 4, 1791

紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on March 4, 1791
1791年3月30日 コロンビア特別区連邦区1800によって連邦政府を収容するために計画されたが、して形成されたことにより、割譲地からメリーランド州バージニア州[78] [79]でその南端で、100平方マイルダイヤモンドからなるジョーンズポイントまたがります、ポトマック川しかし、それはまだその名前を与えられておらず、単に連邦地区と呼ばれています。1791年9月、都市の計画を担当する委員はそれを「コロンビアの領土」と呼び、さまざまな法律がコロンビア特別区に言及していますが、非公式な場合もあります。この地域は、少なくとも1871年の有機的な行為が行われるまで、正式に「コロンビア特別区」と名付けられたようには見えません[80]「コロンビア」という名前は非常に早い段階から、そして少なくとも政府によって非公式に使用されていたので、地図はこの日付から「コロンビア特別区」を使用します。 Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 30, 1791
1792年3月3日 ペンシルベニア州は、連邦政府からエリートライアングル購入しました[19] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 3, 1792
1792年6月1日 1789年に州が連邦政府に割譲することに合意したバージニア州の西半分[81]は、15番目の州であるケンタッキー州として認められた[l] [83] [82] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 1, 1792
1792年6月12日 デラウェア州は新しい憲法を制定し、それ自体をデラウェア州に改名しました[84] マップに変更はありません
1795年8月3日 アメリカ合衆国と西部インディアン連邦の代表はグリーンビル条約に署名し北西インディアン戦争を終結させオハイオ州のほとんどをアメリカ合衆国の支配下に置きました。[85] マップに変更はありません
1796年2月29日 イギリス デトロイトを含む、まだ占領している北西部のいくつかの砦を放棄することに同意したジェイ条約はまた、境界を決定するための手数料のために提供ウッズの湖の北西のポイントソースミシシッピ川を、と考えるためにどの川セントクロア川を[86] マップに変更はありません
1796年4月25日 北半分ウェストフロリダをして譲らスペイン地域をめぐる紛争を解決します、。[87] [88] 紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on April 25, 1796
1796年6月1日 南西部領土は第十六状態として入院したテネシー州[54] [89] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 1, 1796
1798年4月7日 以下のためにヤズー土地詐欺、行為は大統領の権限のジョン・アダムスと交渉する委員を任命するグルジア西部の土地を譲るについて。この法律は、ジョージア州がまだ領土に対する権利を保持していることを維持しながら、最近西フロリダによって譲渡された地域のジョージア州の南西部からミシシッピ準州作成しました。[90] [91] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on April 7, 1798
1798年10月25日 コミッショナーは、マサチューセッツ州イギリスの国境の下部、つまり東南北線の起点となるセントクロワ川の水源について合意しました[92] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on October 25, 1798

紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on October 25, 1798
1800年6月9日 コネチカット西部保護区を連邦政府に譲渡し、連邦政府は北西部領土に割り当てました[93]そうする法律は、1800年4月28日に議会で可決され、コネチカットはこの日にそれを承認した。[94] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 9, 1800
1800年7月4日 インディアナ準州北西部領土の西半分から組織されました[m] [96] [95] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 4, 1800
1800年11月17日 米国の議会はに移動し、ワシントンコロンビア、今建てられ、資本の準備ができ。[24]これは、居住法で定められた12月1日の日付の2週間前でした。ジョン・アダムズ大統領は、再選されるのに十分な南部の票を確保することを期待して、議会に早期に行動するよう促したが、これは失敗した。[97] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 17, 1800
1801年1月1日 グレートブリテン王国を 統一して、アイルランドの王国自体の名前を変更し、イギリス[98] Map of the change to international disputes involving the United States in central North America on January 1, 1801
1801年2月27日 コロンビア特別区をして整理します[79] [99] マップに変更はありません
1802年4月26日 ジョージア州は、ヤズーランドとして知られる西半分を連邦政府に譲渡しました[n]同時に、連邦政府はサウスカロライナによって以前に割譲された土地の東部をジョージアに割譲したが、実際にはジョージアは技術的にすでに土地の所有権を保持していた。地理の理解。[11] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on April 26, 1802
1803年3月1日 北西部領土の南半分は、インディアナ準州の薄いスライバーとともにオハイオ州の17番目の州として認められました。北西部領土の残りの部分はインディアナ準州に移されました。[100] [56]西の国境は、グレートマイアミ川の河口から真北に向かう線だった。北の国境の連邦政府の定義は、ミシガン湖の南端から東に引かれた線でしたが、オハイオ州憲法は、線はミシガン湖の南端からモーミー湾の最北端の、本質的にはエリー湖ミシガン湖の南がどれだけ広がっているかを当時誰も知らなかったため、州の境界に関するこれらのさまざまな説明と地理に関する不正確な知識によって引き起こされた混乱は、トレドストリップをめぐる紛争につながるでしょう Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 1, 1803
1803年11月3日 テネシー州バージニアの国境が再調査されて確立され、国境のその部分をめぐる紛争は終結した。ケンタッキー州テネシー州の国境は、当初の調査に従ったにもかかわらず、漠然と定義されたままでした。[38] [101] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 3, 1803

1803〜 1818年(ルイジアナ買収)

日にち イベント マップの変更
1803年12月20日 米国 フランスからルイジアナ買収を行っ。これは、ニューオーリンズでの正式な売上高の日付です。購入は1803年4月30日に完了した。[102]移管は、1804年3月10日、3国の旗の日として知られるルイジアナ北部のセントルイス認められる

この買収により、米国はミシシッピ川流域全体に拡大しました[o]、南部のルイジアナを構成する範囲はスペインと争われまし。米国は、購入にはペルディード川の西の西フロリダの一部が含まれると主張しました。、スペインはそれが西フロリダの西の国境で終わったと主張したのに対して; [p] [103]そして、米国がサビーン川を国境と主張したためニュースペインとの南西の国境争われたが、スペインはそれがカルカシュー川などであると主張した[102]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 20, 1803

紛争:

Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on December 20, 1803

1804 サウスウィックジョグ」は、コネチカット州からマサチューセッツ州に移管され、2つの州の国境をめぐる長年の意見の不一致を解消しました。[13] Map of the change to the United States in central North America sometime in 1804
1804年3月27日 テネシー州ミシシッピ準州の間の土地は以前ジョージア州によって譲渡され、ミシシッピ準州に割り当てられました。[91] [104] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 27, 1804
1804年10月1日 オーリンズ準州北33°の南にあるルイジアナ買収から組織され、残りはルイジアナ地区に指定され、インディアナ準州の管轄下に置かれました[105] [106] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on October 1, 1804
1805年6月30日 ミシガン準州ミシガン湖の南端から東にある線の北、および湖の北端から北にある線の東にあるインディアナ準州から組織されました[107] [108]国境の南東部は、その線の北にあるトレドストリップを主張したオハイオの定義と技術的に矛盾していたしかし、ミシガン湖の正確な位置はまだわかっていませんでした。 Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 30, 1805
1805年7月4日 ルイジアナ地区は、として組織されたルイジアナ準州[106] [109] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 4, 1805
1809年3月1日 イリノイ準州インディアナ準州の西半分から組織されました[q] [111] [110] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 1, 1809
1810年9月26日 ウェストフロリダの共和国からの独立を宣言したスペインの面積と主張し、西フロリダの西ペルディド川をそれはその領土に対するある程度の支配を維持した。[112] 紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on September 26, 1810
1810年12月10日 ウィリアムCCクレイボーン率いる軍隊は、1810年10月27日のジェームズマディソン大統領による布告を受けてパール川の西にある西フロリダの一部を所有しました。米国は、スペイン領フロリダに対して反乱を起こし、西フロリダ共和国を形成した地域を含む、ルイジアナ買収の地域の一部と見なしていた。マディソンの布告は、それがオーリンズ準州の「一部としてとられる」ことになっていると述べた[103] [102] [113]モビール湾の西、パール川に面した土地は占領され、事実上併合された。1811年に軍によって。[114] :2a 地図 紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on December 10, 1810
1812年4月30日 オーリンズ準州のほとんどはルイジアナ州の18番目の州として認められました[r] [106] [115]南東部の残りの部分は、短期間定義がなかったため、おそらく組織化されていない領域になりました。 Map of the change to the United States in central North America on April 30, 1812
1812年5月14日 パール川の東にある西フロリダの主張された部分はミシシッピ準州に割り当てられましたが、モビール湾周辺の地域はスペイン領フロリダの管理下にありました[91] [116] 1813年4月、アメリカ合衆国はモービルとその周辺地域をペルディード川まで軍事的に占領した Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 14, 1812
1812年6月4日 その名前がルイジアナ州と共有されたためルイジアナ領土ミズーリ準州に改名されました[117] [118] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 4, 1812
1812年8月4日 パール川の西にある西フロリダの残りの主張された部分は、1812年4月14日に議会で可決された法律への州の同意に続いルイジアナに追加された。[119] [120] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 4, 1812
1812年8月16日 1812年の米英戦争中に、デトロイト砦 の駐屯軍が降伏しイギリスミシガン準州の首都であり人口の中心であるデトロイトを占領しました[121] 紛争:
Map of the change to the disputes involving the United States in central North America on August 16, 1812
1813年9月29日 デトロイト砦エリー湖戦いに続いてアメリカ軍によって奪還されミシガン準州の支配権を取り戻しました[121] [122] 紛争:
Map of the change to the disputes involving the United States in central North America on September 29, 1813
1814年8月24日 イギリス軍はワシントンを占領して燃やしましたが、翌日撤退を余儀なくされました。ジェームズ・マディソン大統領メリーランド州ブルックビルに避難したが、首都の機能は一時的に停止された[123] マップに変更はありません
1816年12月11日 インディアナ準州の南部は、イリノイ準州ミシガン準州のごく一部とともに、19番目の州であるインディアナ州として認められました[s]ミシガン湖の向こう側にあるインディアナ準州の残りの部分は、組織化されていない領土になりました。[95] [124] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 11, 1816
1817年3月3日 アラバマ準州ミシシッピ準州の東半分から組織されました[t] [126] [125] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 3, 1817
1817年12月10日 ミシシッピ準州は、20番目の州であるミシシッピとして認められました[91] [127] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 10, 1817
1818年2月6日 アラバマ準州ミシシッピ州と誤って重複した説明でタスカルーサ郡作成しましたそれは郡の境界を「トンベックベ川への真西のコース、そこから綿繰り機への同じ道」を走っていると説明した。[128]当時は不明であったが、トンビッグビー川コットンジン港の起源はミシシッピ州にあった。 紙のみでの変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 6, 1818
1818年6月30日 1812年米英戦争を終わらせるゲント条約の条件に従い、イギリスムース島マサチューセッツに返還し、アメリカはカンポベッロ島ディア島グランドマナン島をイギリスに返還しました。戦争中の反対側。[129] マップに変更はありません
1818年12月3日 北緯42度30分南イリノイ準州の半分は、21番目の州であるイリノイ州として認められました残りの領土は、最近インディアナ準州の一部となった未組織の領土とともに、ミシガン準州に割り当てられました[110] [130] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 3, 1818

1819–1845(北西拡張)

日にち イベント マップの変更
1819年1月30日 1818年の条約が設定し、施行された49°北との国境としてイギリスの西の森の湖を、また確立オレゴン国のイギリスとの共有領域として。[1] [131] [132]オレゴンカントリーには明確な北限はありませんでしたが、ロシアが所有する土地にはあまり侵入しなかったと推測できますこの地図は、簡単にするために、北に54°40 'に後で確立された線を使用しています。 Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 30, 1819

北米北西部:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on January 30, 1819
1819年7月4日 アーカンソー準州ミズーリ準州の南のスライスから組織されました[u] [133] [134] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 4, 1819
1819年12月14日 アラバマ準州は、22番目の州であるアラバマとして認められました[125] [135]州法は、ミシシッピ州の確立された郡に侵入することが発見された場合の調整のために、南北を意図したミシシッピ州との国境の南部の調査を規定した後にそうすることが発見されました。 Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 14, 1819
1820年3月15日 一部としてミズーリ妥協メイン州の地区、北部と別部品マサチューセッツは、第二十三の状態として認められたメイン[136] [137] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 15, 1820
1820年4月21日 これは、「アーカンソー準州」の代わりに正式に使用されているアーカンソー準州という名前の最も早い既知の日付です[138] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on April 21, 1820
1820年5月12日 ケンタッキー州テネシー州の国境が確立されました。カンバーランドギャップテネシー川の境界が北緯36度30分から北に17マイルも曲がったという事実を補うために、ミシシッピ川のその緯度から始まり、東にテネシーに向かって新しい調査が行われました。川、したがって、境界のこの最後のビットが元の理想に合うことを保証します。[38] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 12, 1820
1820年7月19日 暫定国境がミシシッピに侵入したため、アラバマを州として認める法律に従って、アラバマミシシッピの間の縦方向の南の国境の重なりが解決されました。[125] [139]調査の結果、南の国境の終点は東に約3.8マイル移動し、アラバマのワシントン郡の当時の北西の角まで国境が変わった。これが起こった日付は不明です。入手可能な情報源は、1820年5月29日付けの未発表の報告書、または1820年7月19日の新線の境界設定の完了のいずれかを示しています。 紙のみでの変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North Ameirca on July 19, 1820
1820年12月19日 アラバマはいくつかの郡の境界を再定義し、1818年2月6日に作成されたミシシッピの誤った重なりを終わらせた[140] 紙のみでの変更:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 19, 1820
1821年2月22日 スペインアダムズ・オニス条約が発効しました。[103]含まれる多くの変更: Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 22, 1821

紛争:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on February 22, 1821
1821年7月10日 東フロリダスペインによって正式に米国に移管されまし[141] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 10, 1821
1821年7月17日 西フロリダスペインによって正式に米国に移管されまし[141] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 17, 1821
1821年8月10日 南東隅ミズーリ準州は、第二十四状態、として入院したミズーリ、未組織の領土になって休息。[w] [118] [142] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 10, 1821
1822年3月30日 かつての東フロリダ西フロリダをとして組織されたフロリダ準州[143] [144] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 30, 1822
1824年5月26日 ミズーリ州の西の国境の西40マイルの地点から南の線の西にあるアーカンソー準州の半分は、組織化されていない領土に戻されました。[134] [145] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 26, 1824
1825年1月12日 A treaty with the Russian Empire established 54°40′ north as the northern border of Oregon Country for American purposes; a separate treaty created the same border between Russia and the United Kingdom.[146] As this was likely the de facto border anyway, the region is already mapped with this line. no change to map
May 6, 1828 A treaty with the Cherokee moved the western border of Arkansas Territory, returning part of it to unorganized territory.[x][134][148] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 6, 1828
January 20, 1831 King William I of the Netherlands, having been asked per the Treaty of Ghent to arbitrate the disputed border between Maine and the United Kingdom, rendered his decision: Since reconciling the treaty with the maps given was too difficult, he drew a compromise line. The British government accepted it, but Maine protested, and on January 19, 1832, the American government rejected it.[149] no change to map
July 9, 1832 The region of New Hampshire north of the Connecticut Lakes, which was disputed with the United Kingdom, declared independence as the Republic of Indian Stream.[150] While tiny, it does appear to have maintained some control over its territory. Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on July 9, 1832
June 28, 1834 Michigan Territory gained a large parcel of land from unorganized territory, extending west to the Missouri River and White Earth River.[108][151] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 28, 1834
August 5, 1835 The Republic of Indian Stream recognized the jurisdiction of New Hampshire, thus ending its claimed independence. The date given is of a communication sent to British authorities;[152] other sources note a resolution passed by the citizens of Indian Stream on April 2, 1836.[150] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on August 5, 1835
June 15, 1836 Arkansas Territory was admitted as the twenty-fifth state, Arkansas.[134][153] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 15, 1836
July 3, 1836 Wisconsin Territory was organized from the western bulk of Michigan Territory.[y][154][155] The two large peninsulas between the Great Lakes remained in Michigan Territory; the upper peninsula was included in exchange for the territory abandoning its claim to the Toledo Strip. The territory initially rejected this plan, but would accept it on December 14. Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 3, 1836
December 14, 1836 Michigan Territory agreed to abandon its claim to the Toledo Strip, ending its dispute with Ohio.[156] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 14, 1836
January 26, 1837 Michigan Territory was admitted as the twenty-sixth state, Michigan.[108][157] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 26, 1837
March 28, 1837 The Platte Purchase, obtained from several nations including the Potawatomi, Ioway, Missouria, Otoe, and Sac and Fox,[158] transferred some land from unorganized territory to northwest Missouri, extending its northern border west to the Missouri River.[118][159] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 28, 1837
July 3, 1838 Iowa Territory was organized from Wisconsin Territory west of the Mississippi River.[160][161] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 3, 1838
February 11, 1839 Missouri claimed an area north of its border with Iowa Territory, initiating the long dispute known as the Honey War.[162] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 11, 1839
May 21, 1840 Surveying conducted along the border with Texas concluded that the area claimed by Arkansas for Miller County belonged to Texas.[163] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 21, 1840
November 10, 1842 The Webster–Ashburton Treaty defined the border with the United Kingdom east of the Rocky Mountains.[164][165] One source also mentions it very slightly altering the maritime boundary between Michigan and Wisconsin Territory.[166] The treaty resolved the disputes over the northern borders of Maine and New Hampshire,[z] the northeastern border of Wisconsin Territory,[aa] and Sugar Island with Michigan.

The border between New York and Vermont on the one side, and the United Kingdom on the other, was clarified by the treaty. In 1816, construction began on an unnamed fort nicknamed "Fort Blunder" on a peninsula in Lake Champlain that, while south of the surveyed border, was discovered to be north of 45° north, which was the border set by the Treaty of Paris and thus in British territory. Consequently, construction on the fort was abandoned. The Webster–Ashburton Treaty specified that section of the border was to follow the surveyed line, rather than the exact parallel, thus moving the fort's area into the United States, and a new fort, Fort Montgomery, would be built on the spot in 1844.[168] As the earlier line was surveyed, even though it did not match the definition, it was deemed to be the legitimate border.

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 10, 1842

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on November 10, 1842
July 5, 1843 Local settlers created a provisional government for Oregon Country. While not official, it did maintain some jurisdiction over the area.[169] Unofficial change: Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 5, 1843

Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on July 5, 1843
March 3, 1845 Florida Territory was admitted as the twenty-seventh state, Florida.[144][170] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 3, 1845

1845–1860 (Southwest expansion)

Date Event Change Map
December 29, 1845 The Republic of Texas was annexed and admitted as the twenty-eighth state, Texas, extending the United States southwest to the Rio Grande.[171][172] All of Texas was claimed by Mexico. While many sources state that Mexico recognized the independence of the eastern portion of Texas, the treaties were rejected by the Mexican government. Texas formally handed over sovereignty to the United States in a ceremony on February 19, 1846.[173] The annexation led to the beginning of the Mexican–American War a few months later.[173] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 29, 1845

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on December 9, 1845
June 15, 1846 The Oregon Treaty established 49° north west of the Lake of the Woods as the continental border (so it did not include Vancouver Island) with land held by the United Kingdom. The sharing of Oregon Country ended, and the United States portion became unorganized territory.[174]

The treaty was vague on which strait should be the border between Vancouver Island and the continent, thus causing a dispute over ownership of the San Juan Islands.[175] It specified "through the middle of the said channel and of Fuca Straits, to the Pacific Ocean".

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 15, 1846

Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on June 15, 1846

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on June 15, 1846
September 22, 1846 Following the capture on August 18, 1846, of Santa Fe, the capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México,[176] a code of laws known as the Kearny Code was created for the area.[177][178] The region overlapped with Texas' claim, though Texas had little to no control over the area outside of its eastern quarter. Unofficial change:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on September 22, 1846
December 28, 1846 The portion of Iowa Territory south of 43°30′ north and east of the Big Sioux River was admitted as the twenty-ninth state, Iowa. The remainder became unorganized territory.[161][179] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 28, 1846
March 13, 1847 The District of Columbia retroceded Alexandria County back to Virginia.[79] Congress passed the act on July 9, 1846,[180] residents of Alexandria County were proclaimed by the president to have agreed to it on September 7, 1846,[181] and Virginia took possession of the land on this date.[182] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 13, 1847
May 29, 1848 The southern bulk of Wisconsin Territory was admitted as the thirtieth state, Wisconsin.[ab] The remainder became unorganized territory.[155][183] However, the citizens of the remainder decided to continue on with a civil government, and even elected a delegate to the United States House of Representatives who would be seated on January 15, 1849, essentially making this region a de facto continuation of Wisconsin Territory.[184] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 29, 1848
July 4, 1848 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican–American War and ceded a large parcel of land from Mexico, consisting of its territories of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México, and its claim to Texas.[ac][186] Due to a disagreement over the southern border of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, a border dispute began.[185] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 4, 1848

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on July 4, 1848
August 14, 1848 Oregon Territory was organized from the unorganized territory that was formerly part of Oregon Country.[187][188] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 14, 1848
February 13, 1849 The boundary dispute between Iowa and Missouri known as the Honey War was resolved by the Supreme Court of the United States. The resulting border was the Sullivan Line that existed before the dispute, roughly splitting the two claims.[189] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 13, 1849
March 3, 1849 Minnesota Territory was organized from the region that had been operating as de facto Wisconsin Territory, and unorganized territory east of the Missouri and White Earth Rivers.[190][167] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 3, 1849
March 12, 1849 A local government formed the State of Deseret and claimed a vast portion of the southwest, including most of the Mexican Cession. Though it petitioned to be admitted to the United States, the proposal was rejected and, in 1850, Utah Territory was formed instead.[191] The claimed area overlapped slightly with Texas' claimed area, as well as part of Oregon Territory. Unofficial change:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 12, 1849
November 24, 1849 Texas, with consent from the United States Congress,[192] extended its border with Louisiana from the west bank of the Sabine River to the middle of the river.[192][193][194][195] no change to map
September 9, 1850 The western portion of the Mexican Cession was admitted as the thirty-first state, California.[ad][2][196] The portion of the remainder north of 37° north and west of the summit of the Rocky Mountains was organized as Utah Territory.[197][198] Part of Utah Territory overlapped with the portion of Texas that would be purchased on December 13, 1850, but the law authorizing the purchase was passed on this day, so the borders of Utah Territory assumed the purchase will go through. Map of the change to the United States in central North America on September 9, 1850
December 9, 1850 The United Kingdom ceded less than one acre of underwater rock known as Horseshoe Reef in Lake Erie near Buffalo, New York for a lighthouse. It was surrounded by British waters, thus creating a form of enclave.[199] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 9, 1850
December 13, 1850 The federal government purchased the western claims of Texas.[ae][172] New Mexico Territory was organized from the part of this land east of the Rio Grande, along with the remaining unorganized territory from the Mexican Cession.[af][201][200] New Mexico Territory included all of the area that had been governed under the Kearny Code. Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 13, 1850
April 5, 1851 The State of Deseret dissolved itself, its functions and territory largely having been superseded by Utah Territory.[202] Unofficial change:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on April 5, 1851
March 2, 1853 Washington Territory was organized from the half of Oregon Territory north of 46° north and the Columbia River.[203][204] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 2, 1853
May 30, 1854 Kansas Territory was organized from unorganized territory north of 37° north, and Nebraska Territory was organized north of 40° north.[205][206][207] Much of the remaining unorganized territory, east of 100° west, became known as Indian Territory, designated as a place to resettle Indian tribes.

A small strip between the Texas Panhandle and Kansas Territory was unclaimed, due to falling south of Kansas Territory's border but north of 36°30′ north established in the Missouri Compromise as the northern limit of slavery, and thus Texas could not have it. This became known as the Public Land Strip, or sometimes "No Man's Land".[208]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 30, 1854
June 30, 1854 The United States purchased a large parcel from Mexico known as the Gadsden Purchase, as it offered a much better route for a southern transcontinental railroad.[ag][209][210] This resolved the border dispute, since the disputed land was included in the purchase.[185] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 30, 1854

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on June 30, 1854
August 4, 1854 The recently obtained Gadsden Purchase was assigned to New Mexico Territory.[200][211] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 4, 1854
January 11, 1855 Due to its inaccessibility from the rest of the state, Boston Corner was transferred from Massachusetts to New York.[212][213][214] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 11, 1855
March 6, 1855 The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Florida in a boundary dispute with Georgia, setting the state boundary line along McNeil's line.[215] no change to map
October 28, 1856 Baker Island and Jarvis Island were claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on October 28, 1856
May 11, 1858 The eastern half of Minnesota Territory was admitted as the thirty-second state, Minnesota.[ah] The remainder became unorganized territory.[167][216] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 11, 1858
August 31, 1858 Navassa Island was claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on August 31, 1858
December 3, 1858 Howland Island was claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on December 3, 1859
February 14, 1859 The western half of Oregon Territory was admitted as the thirty-third state, Oregon.[ai] The remainder was transferred to Washington Territory.[188][217] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 14, 1859
July 6, 1859 A team of surveyors created the "Middleton Offset", a small notch in the border between Kentucky and Tennessee. It is unknown exactly why this was done, though one theory is a local landowner wanted his property in Tennessee.[218][219] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 6, 1859
September 6, 1859 Johnston Atoll was claimed under the Guano Islands Act,[3] though it had been claimed by Hawaii in 1858.[220] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on September 6, 1859
November 7, 1859 A local government was set up encompassing parts of the territories of Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington, with the name of Jefferson Territory.[aj] While never recognized by the federal government, it generally held control over the area until Colorado Territory was established, which adopted most of its laws.[221] Unofficial change:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 7, 1859
December 27, 1859 Enderbury Island, McKean Island, Phoenix Island, and Starbuck Island were claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on December 27, 1859
December 29, 1859 Christmas Island and Malden Island were claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on December 29, 1859
February 8, 1860 Texas created Greer County, claiming part of Indian Territory based on a different understanding from the federal government of which fork of the Red River was the border between the two.[222]

Atafu, Birnie Island, Butaritari, Caroline Island, Fanning Island, Flint Island, Gardner Island, Canton Island, Kingman Reef, Manihiki, Marakei, Nukunono, Palmyra Atoll, Penrhyn, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Swains Island, Sydney Island, Vostok Island, and Washington Island were all claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Many additional islands were listed as bonded on this date, but based on the coordinates they were either phantoms or duplicates. In addition, Sarah Ann Island was claimed, which may have existed and would be sighted as late as 1917, but has since disappeared.[223]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 8, 1860

Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on February 8, 1860

1860–1865 (Civil War)

Date Event Change Map
December 20, 1860 In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln, South Carolina proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from the Congress of the United States.[224] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on December 20, 1860

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on December 20, 1860
January 9, 1861 Mississippi proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 9, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on January 9, 1861
January 10, 1861 Florida proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 10, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on January 10, 1861
January 11, 1861 Alabama proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 11, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on January 11, 1861
January 19, 1861 Georgia proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 19, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on January 19, 1861
January 26, 1861 Louisiana proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224] However, the 1st and 2nd congressional districts, around New Orleans, maintained representation in Congress. Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 26, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on January 26, 1861
January 29, 1861 The bulk of Kansas Territory east of 25° west from Washington was admitted as the thirty-fourth state, Kansas. The remainder became unorganized territory.[206][225] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 29, 1861
February 8, 1861 The Confederate States of America was formed by representatives of the seceded states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina.[226] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on February 8, 1861
February 28, 1861 Colorado Territory was organized from portions of Nebraska Territory, New Mexico Territory, and Utah Territory, along with unorganized territory.[ak][228][227] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 28, 1861
March 2, 1861 Texas proclaimed its secession from the Union and was admitted to the Confederate States,[224][229] withdrawing from Congress.

Dakota Territory was organized from Nebraska Territory and the unorganized territory north of it.[al] Nebraska Territory's western border was moved to 27° west from Washington, gaining small portions of Utah Territory and Washington Territory.[207][230][231] Nevada Territory was organized from Utah Territory west of 39° west from Washington.[232][233]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 2, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on March 2, 1861
March 28, 1861 Representatives in the southern half of New Mexico Territory proclaimed an independent Arizona Territory south of 34° north.[234] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on March 28, 1861
April 12, 1861 The Battle of Fort Sumter in South Carolina begins the American Civil War. Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on April 12, 1861
April 17, 1861 Following the Battle of Fort Sumter and President Abraham Lincoln's call for troops to respond, Virginia proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224] However, the 1st (along the Eastern Shore), 7th (near Washington, D.C.), and 10th, 11th, and 12th (in the northwest of the state) congressional districts maintained representation in Congress. Map of the change to the United States in central North America on April 17, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on April 17, 1861
May 6, 1861 Arkansas proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 6, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on May 6, 1861
May 7, 1861 Virginia was admitted to the Confederate States.[235] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on May 7, 1861
May 16, 1861 Kentucky declared itself neutral in the American Civil War. no change to map
May 20, 1861 Arkansas was admitted to the Confederate States.[236]

North Carolina proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 20, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on May 20, 1861
May 21, 1861 North Carolina was admitted to the Confederate States. The law admitting the state required a presidential proclamation before it was to take effect,[237] which sources say took place on this date;[238] the only primary source found so far is a statement from Jefferson Davis on July 20 stating that the proclamation had been made.[239] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on May 21, 1861
June 6, 1861 Robert Williamson Steele, governor of Jefferson Territory, declared the territory disbanded and handed over the government to the first governor of Colorado Territory.[221] Unofficial change:
Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 6, 1861
June 8, 1861 Tennessee proclaimed its secession from the Union, withdrawing from Congress.[224] However, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th congressional districts in the central part of the state maintained representation in Congress. Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 8, 1861

Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on June 8, 1861
June 25, 1861 The federal government recognized the Restored Government of Virginia in Wheeling as the legitimate government of Virginia.[240] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 25, 1861
July 2, 1861 Tennessee was admitted to the Confederate States.[241] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on July 2, 1861
August 1, 1861 Following Confederate victory in the First Battle of Mesilla, Arizona Territory was proclaimed as part of the Confederate States.[242] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on August 1, 1861
September 13, 1861 Following the Confederate occupation of Columbus, Kentucky, on September 3, 1861, the state abandoned neutrality and aligned with the Union government.[243] no change to map
October 31, 1861 A splinter government in Neosho, Missouri, declared the secession of the state from the United States.[224] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on October 31, 1861
November 20, 1861 A convention in Russellville, Kentucky, declared the formation of a splinter government in Bowling Green and the secession of Kentucky from the United States.[224] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on November 20, 1861
November 28, 1861 The splinter Neosho government of Missouri was admitted to the Confederate States. The Confederate States never held much power over the state, but it was given full representation in the legislature.[244] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on November 28, 1861
December 10, 1861 The splinter Bowling Green government of Kentucky was admitted to the Confederate States. The Confederate States never held much power over the state, but it was given full representation in the legislature.[245] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on December 10, 1861
December 21, 1861 The Confederate States ratified treaties with the Osage, and the Seneca and Shawnee.[246][247] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on December 21, 1861
December 23, 1861 The Confederate States ratified treaties with the Cherokee, granting them a delegate to the Congress of the Confederate States, and with the Seminole, granting them a delegate to be shared with the Creek.[246][247] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on December 23, 1861
December 31, 1861 The Confederate States ratified treaties with the Choctaw and Chickasaw, granting them a delegate in the Congress of the Confederate States; with the Comanche; with the Creek, granting them a delegate to be shared with the Seminole; and the Quapaw.[246][247] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on December 31, 1861
March 1, 1862 A decree by the Supreme Court of the United States took effect, modifying the border between Massachusetts and Rhode Island.[am][13][248] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 1, 1862
April 15, 1862 Palmyra Atoll was annexed by Hawaii, and the American claim falls dormant.[249] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on April 15, 1862
July 14, 1862 The slice of Utah Territory west of 38° west from Washington was transferred to Nevada Territory.[233][250] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 14, 1862
December 30, 1862 The Swan Islands were claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on December 30, 1862
February 24, 1863 Arizona Territory was organized from the half of New Mexico Territory west of 32° west from Washington.[251][252] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 24, 1863
March 3, 1863 Idaho Territory was organized from the parts of Dakota Territory and Nebraska Territory west of 27° west from Washington, and the half of Washington Territory east of the Snake River and a line north from the mouth of the Clearwater River.[253][254] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 3, 1863
March 4, 1863 Due to disruption in voting and low turnout, no one was allowed to take the seats in the United States House of Representatives held by the Unionist areas of Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia, effectively expelling the states.[255] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 4, 1863
June 20, 1863 The northwestern counties of Virginia, represented by the Restored Government of Virginia in Wheeling, were split from the rest of Virginia and admitted to the Union as the thirty-fifth state, West Virginia.[an][257][256] The Restored Government of Virginia was relocated to Alexandria. Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 20, 1863
August 5, 1863 Berkeley County was transferred by the federal government from Virginia to West Virginia.[258] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 5, 1863
November 2, 1863 Jefferson County was transferred from Virginia to West Virginia.[259] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 2, 1863
May 26, 1864 Montana Territory was organized from the northeast third of Idaho Territory,[ao] and the southeast third of Idaho Territory was transferred to Dakota Territory.[ap][260][231][261] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 26, 1864
October 15, 1864 Malden Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on October 15, 1864
October 31, 1864 Nevada Territory was admitted as the thirty-sixth state, Nevada.[233][263] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on October 31, 1864
May 5, 1865 The Confederate States cabinet met in Washington, Georgia, and dissolved.[264] Military surrenders were scattered throughout 1865, but the most important is regarded as that of the Army of Northern Virginia following the Battle of Appomattox Court House on April 9. Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on May 5, 1865

1866–1897 (Reconstruction and western statehood)

Date Event Change Map
May 5, 1866 The slice of Utah Territory west of 37° west from Washington was transferred to Nevada.[265] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 5, 1866
July 24, 1866 Tennessee was readmitted to Congress.[266] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 24, 1866
December 26, 1866 Starbuck Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on December 26, 1866
January 18, 1867 The northwestern corner of Arizona Territory, west of the Colorado River and 37° west from Washington, was transferred to Nevada. The law transferring the land was approved May 5, 1866, but unlike the Utah Territory transfer of that day, this transfer was contingent on the state accepting it.[265][267] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 18, 1867
March 1, 1867 Nebraska Territory was admitted as the thirty-seventh state, Nebraska.[207][268] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 1, 1867
July 1, 1867 Canada was formed from several British colonies, including New Brunswick, thus inheriting the dispute over Machias Seal Island and North Rock. Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on July 1, 1867
August 28, 1867 Midway Atoll was claimed.[269] An attempt had been made at the time of its discovery in 1859 to claim it under the Guano Islands Act.[270] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 28, 1867
October 18, 1867 Alaska was purchased from the Russian Empire and designated the Department of Alaska.[aq][272][273] Due to a vague description and lack of quality surveying, the southeastern border with British holdings was unclear and disputed.[271] Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on October 18, 1867
June 22, 1868 Arkansas was readmitted to Congress.[274] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 22, 1868
June 25, 1868 Florida was readmitted to Congress.[275] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 25, 1868
July 4, 1868 North Carolina was readmitted to Congress.[276] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 4, 1868
July 9, 1868 Louisiana and South Carolina were readmitted to Congress.[277]

Caroline Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 9, 1868

Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on July 9, 1868
July 13, 1868 Alabama was readmitted to Congress.[278] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 13, 1868
July 25, 1868 Georgia was readmitted to Congress.[279]

Wyoming Territory was organized from portions of Dakota, Idaho, and Utah Territories.[ar][281][280] The territory would remain under the jurisdiction of the Dakota Territory until its own government was organized on May 19, 1869.[282] The act organizing Wyoming Territory became law on this date, but it is unclear if the territory could be considered "organized" until May 19, 1869, as the act specifies it was not to take effect until a government is organized; however, all sources use this date as the creation, and most use it for the organization, of the territory. A tiny portion of the Dakota Territory was erroneously left behind on the western side of Wyoming Territory.[283]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 25, 1868
August 12, 1868 The list of bonded guano island claims mentions "Islands in Caribbean Sea not named" bonded on this date, but it is unknown to what this is referring.[3] no change to map
December 11, 1868 Serrana Bank was claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Colombia has claimed it throughout its history. Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on December 11, 1868
March 3, 1869 Georgia was again expelled from Congress following failures of Reconstruction in the state.[284] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 3, 1869
November 22, 1869 Bajo Nuevo Bank, Pedro Cays, Quita Sueño Bank, and Roncador Bank were claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3][269] Except for Pedro Cays, Colombia has claimed them throughout its history. Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on November 22, 1869
January 26, 1870 Virginia was readmitted to Congress.[285] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 26, 1870
February 23, 1870 Mississippi was readmitted to Congress.[286] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 23, 1870
March 30, 1870 Texas was readmitted to Congress.[287] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 30, 1870
July 15, 1870 Georgia was again readmitted to Congress.[288]

The North-Western Territory was transferred by the United Kingdom to Canada, thus transferring its portion of the Alaska boundary dispute.[289]

Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 15, 1870

Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on July 15, 1870
February 9, 1871 A small parcel was transferred from Dakota Territory to Nebraska following a sudden change in course of the Missouri River.[207][290] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 9, 1871
July 20, 1871 British Columbia joined Canada, transferring the dispute over the San Juan Islands as well as its portion of the Alaska boundary dispute.[291] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on July 20, 1871

Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on July 20, 1871
October 21, 1872 The dispute with Canada over the San Juan Islands was resolved in the favor of the United States claim.[175] Disputes:
Map of the change to the international disputes involving the United States in central North America on October 21, 1872
1873 Vostok Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[292] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean sometime in 1873
February 17, 1873 The small portion of Dakota Territory that was left behind when Wyoming Territory was created was transferred to Montana Territory.[283][293] Map of the change to the United States in Central North America on February 17, 1873
August 1, 1876 Colorado Territory was admitted as the thirty-eighth state, Colorado.[227][294] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 1, 1876
August 13, 1877 The United Kingdom created the British Western Pacific Territories, including Atafu and Nukunono.[295] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 13, 1877
March 3, 1879 The border across the Chesapeake Bay between Maryland and Virginia was decided via arbitration. It is unknown if any land actually changed hands.[12] too vague to map
September 8, 1879 Arenas Key, claimed by Mexico; the Morant Cays; and Serranilla Bank, claimed by Colombia, were claimed by the United States under the Guano Islands Act;[3] according to the Office of Insular Affairs, Serranilla Bank was claimed again on September 13, 1880.[269] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on September 8, 1879
April 7, 1880 A very small area of Fair Haven, Vermont was transferred to New York due to a change in the course in the Poultney River.[31][296] too small to map
September 13, 1880 Western Triangle Island, claimed by Mexico, was claimed by the United States under the Guano Islands Act.[3] The list of bonded claims also mentions a "De Anes" island claimed on this date, with coordinates matching Isla de Aves; however, the same list points out that the claim to "Aves Island" was found to be invalid. Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on September 13, 1880
1881 Flint Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[297] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean sometime in 1881
May 23, 1882 The area between 43° north and the Keya Paha and Niobrara Rivers was transferred from Dakota Territory to Nebraska.[231][298] The act was passed in Congress on March 28 and accepted by the Nebraska legislature on this date.[299] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 23, 1882
June 1, 1882 The Morant Cays and Pedro Cays were annexed by the United Kingdom to Jamaica; it appears they were no longer claimed by the United States after this.[300] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on June 1, 1882
May 17, 1884 The Department of Alaska was organized into the District of Alaska.[301] Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on May 17, 1884
June 21, 1884 The Alacrans Islands, claimed by Mexico, were claimed under the Guano Islands Act.[3] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on June 21, 1884
March 15, 1888 Fanning Island was annexed by the United Kingdom; it appears the island was no longer claimed by the United States after this.[302] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on March 15, 1888
March 17, 1888 Christmas Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on March 17, 1888
October 26, 1888 The Cook Islands became a protectorate of the United Kingdom, thus initiating a claim on the atolls of Pukapuka, Manihiki, Penrhyn, and Rakahanga.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on October 26, 1888
May 29, 1889 Washington Island was annexed by the United Kingdom; it appears the island was no longer claimed by the United States after this.[302] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on May 29, 1889
June 3, 1889 Jarvis Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on June 3, 1889
June 26, 1889 Sydney Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on June 26, 1889
June 29, 1889 Phoenix Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on June 29, 1889
July 10, 1889 Birnie Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on July 10, 1889
November 2, 1889 Dakota Territory was split in half along the "seventh standard parallel north", a few miles south of 46° north, and admitted as the thirty-ninth state, North Dakota, and the fortieth state, South Dakota.[231][303] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 2, 1889
November 8, 1889 Montana Territory was admitted as the forty-first state, Montana.[260][303] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 8, 1889
November 11, 1889 Washington Territory was admitted as the forty-second state, Washington.[204][303] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 11, 1889
May 2, 1890 Oklahoma Territory was organized from the Public Land Strip and the western half of Indian Territory, except for the Cherokee Outlet, which would be added later upon cession from the Cherokee.[as][305][304] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 2, 1890
July 3, 1890 Idaho Territory was admitted as the forty-third state, Idaho.[254][306] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 3, 1890
July 10, 1890 Wyoming Territory was admitted as the forty-fourth state, Wyoming.[280][307] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 10, 1890
March 8, 1892 The Gilbert Islands became a protectorate of the United Kingdom, thus initiating a claim on Butaritari and Marakei.[262] No record of a United States claim exists after this point, so it is assumed this is when the claim fell dormant. Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on March 8, 1892
May 28, 1892 Gardner Island was claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on May 28, 1892
September 16, 1893 Per a treaty with the Cherokee, the federal government purchased the Cherokee Outlet in the Indian Territory and opened it to settlement, transferring it to Oklahoma Territory as provided in the Oklahoma Organic Act.[304][308] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on September 16, 1893
November 17, 1894 The Alacrans Islands, Arenas Key, and Western Triangle Island were stricken from the list of claimed guano islands.[3] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on November 17, 1894
January 4, 1896 Utah Territory was admitted as the forty-fifth state, Utah.[198][309] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 4, 1896
March 16, 1896 The dispute between the federal government, on behalf of Oklahoma Territory, and Texas over Greer County was resolved in favor of the federal claim.[222] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 16, 1896
July 24, 1897 Due to an earlier shift in the course of the Missouri River, an island was transferred from Nebraska to South Dakota.[310] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on July 24, 1897

1898–1945 (Pacific and Caribbean expansion)

Date Event Change Map
August 12, 1898 The Republic of Hawaii was annexed.[311] The ceremony to transfer sovereignty occurred on this date; the act was signed on July 7, 1898.[312] Johnston Atoll was not included with Hawaii, nor was Sikaiana Atoll, which had been ceded to Hawaii in 1856 by its residents and approved by King Kamehameha IV. However, the annexation was based on the islands named in a report of the Hawaiian Commission, which omitted Sikaiana.[313][314] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 12, 1898
January 17, 1899 Wake Island was claimed.[315] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on January 17, 1899
April 11, 1899 Guam, Porto Rico, and, on agreed payment of $20 million, the Philippines were ceded by Spain following the Spanish–American War.[316] The Philippines were claimed by the First Philippine Republic. The ceded region for the Philippines included the island of Palmas, which was administered by the Netherlands. This overlap would not be noticed until January 21, 1906.[317] While the United States occupied Cuba for a time, it was not ceded nor claimed. Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on April 11, 1899

Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on April 11, 1899
February 16, 1900 The United States took ownership of the Samoan Islands east of 171° west, per the terms of the Tripartite Convention.[318] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on February 16, 1900
February 19, 1900 The newly acquired Samoan islands were established as Naval Station, Tutuila. It included all of the islands granted by the Tripartite Convention, though formal cession of the islands by local authorities would take place later in 1900 and 1904.[318] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on February 19, 1900
April 12, 1900 Porto Rico was organized into a civil territory.[319] no change to map
April 17, 1900 The island of Tutuila was formally ceded to the United States and added to Naval Station, Tutuila.[318][320] As the United States had already claimed the island on February 19, 1900, no change is mapped. The treaty would be ratified by Congress on February 20, 1929. no change to map
June 14, 1900 The former Republic of Hawaii was organized into Hawaii Territory.[321][322] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on June 14, 1900
March 3, 1901 The transfer for a thin sliver of Bristol, Tennessee, to Bristol, Virginia, was approved by Congress after having been approved by both states.[323][324] The location of the border along Main Street (now State Street) between the two cities was either the northern sidewalk of the street, or down the middle of the street; Tennessee's cession of the northern half of the street laid the issue to rest. too small to map
March 23, 1901 The president of the First Philippine Republic, Emilio Aguinaldo, was captured, and the republic was dissolved.

On this same date several islands, Cagayan de Sulu and Sibutu among them, were purchased from Spain and assigned to the Philippines, which was then being governed as a U.S. insular area. The borders specified in the Treaty of Paris of 1898 had excluded these islands; the new treaty simply ceded "any and all islands belonging to the Philippine Archipelago".[325][326]

Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on March 23, 1901
October 20, 1903 The Alaska boundary dispute with Canada was resolved, generally in favor of the United States claim.[271] Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on October 20, 1903
December 10, 1903 Land along southern Guantánamo Bay was leased in perpetuity from Cuba for use as a naval base;[327] the treaty took effect February 23, 1903, and the formal handover occurred on this date.[328] no change to map
May 4, 1904 The United States took ownership of the Panama Canal Zone. At this stage, only the most basic borders were defined; it was a zone surrounding the canal on each side for five miles, but excluded the cities of Colón and Panama City, which remained exclaves of Panama, as well as the water for their harbors.[329] The Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty granting it to the United States was ratified on February 26, 1904.[330] A formal border agreement, which also gave the Canal Zone some land and a lighthouse in northwest Colón, would be ratified on June 15, 1904.[331][332] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on May 4, 1904
July 16, 1904 The Manuʻa islands were formally ceded to the United States and added to Naval Station, Tutuila.[318] As the United States had already claimed the islands on February 19, 1900, no change is mapped. The treaty would be ratified by Congress on February 20, 1929. no change to map
December 12, 1904 The "Taft Agreement" was made with Panama on December 3, with one of its sections refining the maritime boundary of the harbor of Panama City and the Panama Canal Zone.[333][334] It became effective December 12. no change to map
February 10, 1905 The border between Arkansas and Indian Territory was slightly adjusted near Fort Smith, Arkansas, transferring a small amount of land on the east side of the Poteau River to Arkansas.[335][336] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 10, 1905
November 16, 1907 Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory were combined and admitted as the forty-sixth state, Oklahoma.[304][337] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 16, 1907
April 11, 1908 A boundary treaty with the United Kingdom on behalf of Canada redefined the maritime borders between the United States and Canada.[338] Among other changes, this "de-enclaved" Horseshoe Reef in Lake Erie by making the water around it contiguous with the water on the American side of the border.[199][339] no change to map
January 1, 1909 The new Constitution of Michigan included some area of Wisconsin within its definition of Michigan.[340] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 1, 1909
August 20, 1910 A boundary treaty with the United Kingdom on behalf of Canada addressed a slight uncertainty in the maritime border in Passamaquoddy Bay between Maine and Canada.[341][342][343] The border was adjusted to run east of Pope's Folly Island, which previously lay on the border line, and had been the subject of some debate for many years.[344][345] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 20, 1910
July 17, 1911 Naval Station, Tutuila, was renamed American Samoa;[346] the station continued to operate separate from territorial governance until 1951. Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on July 17, 1911
January 6, 1912 New Mexico Territory was admitted as the forty-seventh state, New Mexico.[200][347] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 6, 1912
February 14, 1912 Arizona Territory was admitted as the forty-eighth state, Arizona.[251][348] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on February 14, 1912
August 24, 1912 The District of Alaska was reorganized as the Alaska Territory.[349] Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on August 24, 1912
January 31, 1913 New Mexico filed suit in the Supreme Court against Texas over the "Country Club Dispute", questioning whether the present course or the 1850 course of the Rio Grande should be their border.[350] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 31, 1913
August 5, 1914 The Corn Islands were leased from Nicaragua for a period of 99 years; however, this was not a full transfer of sovereignty, and the islands were never administered as an insular area.[351] no change to map
May 1, 1915 The borders of the Panama Canal Zone were explicitly defined. Whereas the original definition was a simple corridor surrounding the canal, this treaty specified the actual border. Among the changes this caused were: a slice of Canal Zone was ceded to Panama so Panama City would be connected with the rest of the country; the middle island of the Las Tres Hermanas Islands, which marked the border of Panama City's harbor, was wholly made part of Canal Zone; Gatun Lake and other surrounding waters were formally annexed to the territory; and an area of northwest Colón was ceded to Canal Zone.[352][353][354] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on May 1, 1915
May 27, 1915 Under Article II of the 1903 Treaty, the United States expropriated from Panama several areas around the mouth of the Rio Chagres, annexing them to the Panama Canal Zone.[355] too small to map
December 8, 1915 The United States expropriated from Panama a triangle of land, which included the historic Fort San Lorenzo, between the Rio Chagres, Caribbean Sea and the Panama Canal Zone, to which it was annexed.[355] too small to map
January 17, 1916 Navassa Island was formally claimed for lighthouse purposes.[356] no change to map
March 31, 1917 The Danish Virgin Islands (excluding Water Island) were purchased from Denmark[357] and renamed the United States Virgin Islands.[358] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on March 31, 1917
July 12, 1918 The United States expropriated from Panama 2.6 hectares of land at Punta Paitilla in Panama City and annexed it to the Panama Canal Zone.[359] That area was enlarged to about 50 hectares within several months.[355][360][361][362] too small to map
August 21, 1918 The United States expropriated from Panama land between the Rio Chagres and the Quebrada Majagual and annexed it to the Panama Canal Zone.[355][362] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on August 21, 1918
September 13, 1918 Minnesota and Wisconsin exchanged islands in the Mississippi River: Island Seventytwo was transferred to Winona, Minnesota, and Barron's Island was transferred to La Crosse, Wisconsin.[155][363] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on September 13, 1918
September 18, 1919 The island of Largo Remo was annexed to the Panama Canal Zone under the United States right of expropriation in the 1903 Canal Treaty.[364] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on September 18, 1919
June 16, 1920 Fifteen hectares on the island of Taboga Island were annexed to the Panama Canal Zone.[365] too small to map
June 30, 1921 The "Wedge" dispute between Delaware and Pennsylvania was resolved in Delaware's favor. The disputed land had generally been administered by Delaware, even electing a member of the Delaware legislature in the mid-19th century,[366] but federal maps had included the land as part of Pennsylvania at least as late as 1900.[367] The states had agreed on a resolution, and it was affirmed by an act of Congress on this date.[368][369] Some sources, both contemporary and modern, note that, in the original process of resurveying the border in 1892, a very thin, horn-shaped region along the arc was transferred from Delaware to Pennsylvania;[366][369][370] however, no federal maps found reflect this, and it is unclear if this transfer actually occurred. Map of the change to the United States in central North America on June 30, 1921
May 10, 1922 Kingman Reef was formally annexed.[371] no change to map
October 8, 1923 Michigan expanded its claim to Wisconsin territory, though Wisconsin never lost control over the area.[340] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on October 8, 1923
November 15, 1923 The Swan Islands were claimed by Honduras.[372] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on November 15, 1923
February 1, 1924 The future area for Madden Lake was annexed to the Panama Canal Zone under the United States right of expropriation in the 1903 Canal Treaty.[332][373][374] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on February 1, 1924
March 4, 1925 Swains Island was added to American Samoa.[375] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on March 4, 1925
July 17, 1925 The border with Canada was adjusted in several places.[376][377] The only change to a land border redefined how the border between the Lake of the Woods and the Rocky Mountains should be considered; previously, the border followed the curve of the parallel between each border monument, while the treaty changed this to straight lines between each monument. Through this, the United States netted a gain of between 30 and 35 acres of land. Due to the extremely small shift, the lack of specific documentation of where the changes occurred, and the lack of any human impact, this change is not mapped. There was also a change to the border in the Lake of the Woods; due to a surveying anomaly, the previous border intersected itself several times in the lake, creating enclaves of United States water surrounded by Canadian water. The treaty changed the border to use the southernmost intersection as the northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods. Finally, the maritime border in the Bay of Fundy was adjusted, netting Canada roughly 9 acres of water. too small to map
March 1, 1926 The Supreme Court of the United States resolved the conflict between Michigan and Wisconsin in the favor of Wisconsin.[340] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 1, 1926
July 29, 1926 Johnston Atoll was established as a federal bird refuge and placed under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Agriculture.[378] The atoll had originally been claimed by both the United States and Hawaii in 1858, but little activity apart from guano mining had taken place, and it had been largely abandoned for decades.[220] no change to map
November 22, 1926 The Supreme Court of the United States defined the border between Michigan and Wisconsin, transferring all islands south of the Quinnesec Falls on the Menominee River to Wisconsin, and all islands north of the falls to Michigan; it is unknown specifically which islands were transferred in this fashion. However, an error in the border description introduced a small overlap between the two states over several islands in Lake Michigan north of the Door Peninsula.[379] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on November 22, 1926
July 18, 1927 The United States expropriated from Panama another 33 hectares of land on the islands of Taboga and Taboguilla and annexed them to the Panama Canal Zone.[355] too small to map
October 26, 1927 Two bancos along the Colorado River were ceded from Mexico to Arizona.[380][381] too small to map
December 5, 1927 The "Country Club Dispute" between New Mexico and Texas was resolved in Texas's favor.[382] Map of the change to the United States in Central North America on December 5, 1927
April 4, 1928 The Island of Palmas Case was decided in the favor of the Netherlands, ceding Palmas to the Dutch East Indies.[317] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on April 4, 1928
September 24, 1928 The United States expropriated from Panama three hectares of land at El Cerro de Doscientos Pies ("200-Foot Hill") near Las Minas Bay and annexed it to the Panama Canal Zone.[355][362] too small to map
July 22, 1930 The United States expropriated from Panama 25 hectares on Jicarita Island and 60 hectares at Punta Morro de Puercos and annexed them to the Panama Canal Zone.[355] too small to map
April 15, 1931 The United States expropriated from Panama additional areas around the soon-to-be-built Madden Dam and annexed them to the Panama Canal Zone.[355][362] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on April 15, 1931
May 3, 1932 The United States adjusted the border at Punta Paitilla in the Canal Zone, returning a small amount of land to Panama. This was the site for a planned new American embassy, which had to be built on foreign soil.[383] too small to map
May 17, 1932 Porto Rico was renamed Puerto Rico.[384] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on May 17, 1932
December 13, 1932 The Mangsee Islands and seven of the Turtle Islands were ceded by the United Kingdom from North Borneo to the Philippines. The islands were supposed to be included in the 1900 transfer of islands from Spain to the United States. Per the terms of the treaty, the United Kingdom continued to administer the islands until requested, and, after the Philippines' independence, the Philippine government made such a request and took control.[385] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on December 13, 1932
May 29, 1933 The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the border between New Hampshire and Vermont was the low water mark of the west bank of the Connecticut River; Vermont had sought to have the border placed in the middle of the river.[43] no change to map
November 13, 1933 A treaty created the Rio Grande Rectification Project, which, from 1935 to 1938, straightened and stabilized the path of the Rio Grande through the El PasoJuárez Valley. By the end of the project, 174 parcels had been transferred between Mexico and Texas, each side receiving an equal area of land.[386][387] too small to map
December 29, 1934 Kingman Reef was placed under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of the Navy.[371] no change to map
November 15, 1935 The Philippine Islands obtain self-governing status as ordained by the United States Congress as the Commonwealth of the Philippines, with Manuel L. Quezon as its president. no change to map
March 16, 1936 The de jure overlap between Michigan and Wisconsin was resolved by the Supreme Court of the United States.[388] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on March 16, 1936
May 13, 1936 Baker Island, Howland Island, and Jarvis Island were formally annexed and placed under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of the Interior,[389] ending the United Kingdom's claim to Jarvis Island.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on May 13, 1936
June 22, 1936 The U.S. Virgin Islands were organized into a civil territory.[390] no change to map
August 6, 1936 Canton Island, Enderbury Island, and McKean Island were claimed by the United Kingdom.[262] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 6, 1936
April 6, 1939 The condominium of the Canton and Enderbury Islands was established with the United Kingdom.[391] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on April 6, 1939
July 27, 1939 Panama gained a sovereign corridor that was carved out of the Panama Canal Zone connecting Colón with the rest of Panama, along with a three-dimensional "tube" of sovereignty for a future crossing over an American highway. A corridor consisting of the road from the Canal Zone boundary to Madden Dam was annexed to the Canal Zone.[392] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on July 27, 1939
August 16, 1939 This is the earliest date so far discovered for when the United States began claiming Fakaofo, Funafuti, Hull Island, Niulakita, Nukufetau, and Nukulaelae.[393] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 16, 1939
December 10, 1941 Governor George McMillin surrendered Guam to the Japanese military.[394] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on December 10, 1941
December 23, 1941 The garrison on Wake Island surrendered to the Japanese military.[395] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on December 23, 1941
March 26, 1942 The government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines evacuated from the territory in the face of Japanese advance. A government-in-exile would be established in Washington, D.C. on May 17, 1942. The United States Army Forces in the Far East would surrender on April 9, 1942, following the Battle of Bataan, and the final military holdouts would surrender on May 6, 1942, following the Battle of Corregidor.[396] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on March 26, 1942
October 14, 1943 The Second Philippine Republic was established as a puppet state of Japan.[396] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on October 14, 1943
June 19, 1944 Water Island was purchased from the East Asiatic Company, a private shipping company based in Denmark (which at the time was under German occupation).[397] no map available
August 10, 1944 Guam was captured from Japan.[394] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 10, 1944
August 17, 1945 The Second Philippine Republic, in exile in Tokyo since April 3, 1945, was dissolved. The process of re-establishing the Commonwealth government on Philippine soil had started on October 23, 1944.[396] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 17, 1945
September 4, 1945 The Japanese garrison on Wake Island surrendered to the United States.[395] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on September 4, 1945

1946–present (Decolonization)

Date Event Change map
July 4, 1946 The Commonwealth of the Philippines became independent as the Republic of the Philippines.[398] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on July 4, 1946
July 18, 1947 The United Nations entrusted the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to the United States.[6] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on July 18, 1947
January 1, 1949 The Tokelau Islands were incorporated into New Zealand, which inherited the claims on Atafu, Fakaofo, and Nukunono.[399] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on January 1, 1949
August 1, 1950 Guam was organized into a civil territory.[400][401] no change to map
August 3, 1950 Kansas and Missouri exchanged small portions of land along the Missouri River, due to shifts in the river following a flood in 1944.[402] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on August 3, 1950
April 11, 1955 Panama's corridor connecting Colón with the rest of Panama was realigned within the Panama Canal Zone. Several three-dimensional "tubes" of sovereignty were also created, allowing Panamanian bridges to pass over rivers and a highway at several locations within the Canal Zone.[403][404] too small to map
August 23, 1955 Several border locations of the Panama Canal Zone were redefined. Punta Paitilla, the land held on Taboga Island, and the remaining American holdings in Colón and Panama City were ceded to Panama.[332][405] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on August 23, 1955
January 3, 1959 The Alaska Territory was admitted as the forty-ninth state, Alaska.[272] Northwestern North America:
Map of the change to the United States in northwest North America on January 3, 1959
August 21, 1959 Most of Hawaii Territory was admitted as the fiftieth state, Hawaii. Palmyra Atoll was excluded from statehood and remained a territory.[249][322] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 21, 1959
August 25, 1961 About 20 acres of land was transferred from Minnesota to North Dakota near Fargo, North Dakota.[167][406] too small to map
January 14, 1964 The Chamizal, a tract of land between El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, was divided between the United States and Mexico.[407] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on January 14, 1964
August 4, 1965 The Cook Islands became self-governing from New Zealand. It claimed the atolls of Pukapuka, Manihiki, Penrhyn, and Rakahanga.[408] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on August 4, 1965
December 30, 1966 Land on Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean was leased from the United Kingdom for use as a military base.[409] no change to map
April 25, 1971 The lease of the Corn Islands from Nicaragua was terminated.[351] no change to map
September 1, 1972 The United States recognized the sovereignty of Honduras over the Swan Islands.[351][410] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on September 1, 1972
March 1, 1977 The United States claimed maritime borders west of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, within the Dixon Entrance, and in the Beaufort Sea that conflicted with claims of Canada.[411] no change to map
May 26, 1977 Several parcels were exchanged between Texas and Mexico along the Rio Grande in areas near Presidio and Hidalgo, Texas,[412] including the Horcón Tract, on which the town of Río Rico was located,[413] and Beaver Island near Roma, Texas. In addition, Mexico ceded 823 acres (3.33 km2) to the U.S., while the U.S. ceded 2,177 acres (8.81 km2) to Mexico, primarily to straighten sections of the Rio Grande for flood control.[414] Map of the change to the United States in central North America on May 26, 1977
December 16, 1977 A treaty defining the maritime border with Cuba was signed; though it has never been ratified by the United States Senate, it is provisionally enforced by agreement renewed every two years.[343] no change to map
October 1, 1978 Tuvalu became independent from the United Kingdom. It claimed the atolls of Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita.[415] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on October 1, 1978
July 12, 1979 The Republic of Kiribati became independent from the United Kingdom. It claimed Birnie Island, Canton Island, Caroline Island, Christmas Island, Enderbury Island, Flint Island, Gardner Island, Hull Island, Malden Island, McKean Island, Phoenix Island, Starbuck Island, Sydney Island, and Vostok Island. This dissolved the condominium of the Canton and Enderbury Islands.[416] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on July 12, 1979
October 1, 1979 The Panama Canal Zone was ceded to Panama. The United States and Panama continued to share operational control of the canal until December 31, 1999, when it would be fully turned over to Panama.[417] The United States retained control over several hundred specified areas to be turned over in piecemeal fashion over the years. Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on October 1, 1979
November 24, 1980 The maritime border between the United States and Venezuela was defined.[343][418] no change to map
September 17, 1981 The United States recognized the sovereignty of Colombia over Roncador Bank and Serrana Bank, and the claim on Quita Sueño Bank was abandoned by the United States, as it was no longer above the seas at high tide, and thus the government considered it unclaimable.[351][419] Caribbean Sea:
Map of the change to the United States in the Caribbean Sea on September 17, 1981
September 3, 1983 The United States recognized the sovereignty of the New Zealand territory of Tokelau over Atafu, Fakaofo, and Nukunono, and defined the maritime border with Tokelau.[343][351][420] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on September 3, 1983
September 8, 1983 The United States recognized the sovereignty of the Cook Islands over Pukapuka, Manihiki, Penrhyn, and Rakahanga, and the maritime border with the Cook Islands was defined.[343][351][421] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on September 8, 1983
September 23, 1983 The United States recognized the sovereignty of Kiribati over Birnie Island, Canton Island, Caroline Island, Christmas Island, Enderbury Island, Flint Island, Gardner Island, Hull Island, Malden Island, McKean Island, Phoenix Island, Starbuck Island, Sydney Island, and Vostok Island.[351][422]

The United States recognized the sovereignty of Tuvalu over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita.[351][423]

Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on September 23, 1983
October 12, 1984 The International Court of Justice made its judgment on where the maritime border should be in the Gulf of Maine between the United States and Canada.[424][343] No land changed hands. The scope of the case did not include the sovereignty of Machias Seal Island, but the judgment enabled defining the extent of the disputed water area around that island (an area of 210 square nautical miles).[411] no change to map
October 21, 1986 The Marshall Islands District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands became independent as the Republic of the Marshall Islands.[425] The Marshall Islanders had claimed Wake Island as part of their territory since at least 1973, and continued that after independence.[426] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on October 21, 1986
November 3, 1986 Most of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands was dissolved by the United Nations. The districts of Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Yap became independent as the Federated States of Micronesia. The Mariana Islands District, having already been taking moves towards integration with the United States, became a territory of the United States, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.[425] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on November 3, 1986
June 1, 1990 The maritime border between the United States and the Soviet Union was provisionally defined.[427][343] The two countries agreed on this date to abide by the terms of the treaty pending its ratification and entry into force,[428] but while it was ratified by the United States Senate on September 16, 1991,[429] it is unknown if either the Soviet Union or its successor state, Russia, ratified it.[citation needed] no change to map
October 1, 1994 The remaining district of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Palau District, became independent as the Republic of Palau, dissolving the TTPI.[430] Pacific Ocean:
Map of the change to the United States in the Pacific Ocean on October 1, 1994
June 1, 1995 The maritime border between the United States and territories of the United Kingdom in the Caribbean Sea was defined.[343][431][432] no change to map
January 16, 1997 Navassa Island was transferred to the United States Department of the Interior.[433][434] no change to map
November 13, 1997 The maritime border between the United States and Mexico was defined.[343][435] no change to map
May 26, 1998 The Supreme Court ruled that extra land added to Ellis Island since the original island was officially granted to New York in an interstate compact with New Jersey in 1834 belonged to New Jersey, owing to the fact that the island was within the territorial waters of New Jersey. The original natural boundary of Ellis Island remained an enclave of New York.[436] no change to map
December 31, 1999 All former Panama Canal Zone parcels not turned over since 1979, as well as all joint canal operations areas, were transferred to Panama. too small to map
January 17, 2001 The maritime border between the United States and Mexico on the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Mexico beyond 200 nautical miles was defined.[343][437] no change to map
November 24, 2009 Six islands along the Rio Grande were ceded from Texas to Mexico, and three islands and two bancos were ceded from Mexico to Texas. The transfer, which had been pending for 20 years, was the first application of Article III of the 1970 Boundary Treaty.[343][381][438] too small to map
September 23, 2014 The maritime border between the United States and Niue was defined.[343][439] The treaty was signed on May 13, 1997, but it was not ratified by the United States until at least 2002, and the United Nations shows it as entering into force on this date.[440] no change to map
January 1, 2017 The border between North Carolina and South Carolina was clarified following years of surveys and negotiation, moving 19 homes across state lines.[441][442] too small to map
November 30, 2020 The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations adopted a constitutional amendment, renaming itself the State of Rhode Island.[443][444] no change to map

Bancos along the Rio Grande

An example of a banco, created when a meander is cut off by a new, shorter channel, leaving a cut-off section of land surrounded by a U-shaped (oxbow) lake.

The Banco Convention of 1905 between the United States and Mexico allowed, in the event of sudden changes in the course of the Rio Grande (as by flooding), for the border to be altered to follow the new course.[445] The sudden changes often created bancos (land surrounded by bends in the river that became segregated from either country by a cutoff, often due to rapid accretion or avulsion of the alluvial channel), especially in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. When these bancos are created, the International Boundary and Water Commission investigates if land previously belonging to the United States or Mexico is to be considered on the other side of the border.[446] In all cases of these adjustments along the Rio Grande under the 1905 convention, which occurred on 37 different dates from 1910 to 1976, the transferred land was minuscule (ranging from one to 646 acres) and uninhabited.[447][448][449]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The borders of the country followed the colonial borders; for simplicity, the maps use the borders defined in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The only substantive difference between the borders before and after the Treaty of Paris is the southwest border: when Great Britain had ownership over West Florida, they had moved its border north, to a line east from the mouth of the Yazoo River, and that area thus did not belong to Georgia; the treaty granted the area between this and 31° north to the United States.
  2. ^ The New Hampshire towns petitioning to join Vermont were: Apthorp (now Littleton), Bath, Canaan, Cardigan (now Orange), Cornish, Dresden (now part of Hanover), Enfield, Franconia, Gunthwaite (now Lisbon), Haverhill, Landaff, Lebanon, Lyman, Lyme, Orford, and Piermont.[34] The specific extent of the towns annexed is unknown, as township borders were often delineated only when a dispute arose; the map uses the common interpretation.
  3. ^ The New Hampshire towns petitioning to join Vermont were: Acworth, Alstead, Bath, Cardigan (now Orange), Charlestown, Chesterfield, Claremont, Cornish, Croydon, Dorchester, Dresden, Franconia, "Gilsom" (likely Gilsum), Grafton, Grantham, Gunthwaite (now Lisbon), Hanover, Haverhill, Hinsdale, Landaff, Lancaster, Lebanon, "Leinster" (possibly Lempster), Lincoln, Lyman, Lyme, Marlow, Newport, Piermont, Plainfield, Richmond, Saville (now Sunapee), Surry, Walpole, and Westmoreland.[40] The specific extent of the towns annexed is unknown, as township borders were often delineated only when a dispute arose; the map uses the common interpretation.
  4. ^ The New York towns petitioning to join Vermont were: "Black-Creek" (unknown; possibly is or is near Hebron), Cambridge, Fort Edward, Granville, "Greenfield" (unknown; there is a town named Greenfield but it lies west of the Hudson River, which was explicitly the western extent of the West Union), Hoosick, Kingsbury, "Little Hoosack" (unknown; presumably near Hoosick), Saratoga, "Scorticook" (possibly Schaghticoke), Skeensborough (now Whitehall), and "Upper-White-Creek" (probably White Creek).[41] The specific extent of the towns annexed is unknown, as township borders were often delineated only when a dispute arose; the map uses the common interpretation.
  5. ^ The treaty established the boundaries of the new country, from the Bay of Fundy: up the "St. Croix River" (which river this referred to was disputed) to its source; north to the height of the land (the "Northwest Angle of Nova Scotia"); along the height of the land to the "northwesternmost Head" of the Connecticut River (which source this referred to was disputed); down that to 45° north; west to the St. Lawrence River; up that to the Great Lakes, through Lake Ontario, the Niagara River, Lake Erie, the Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, St. Clair River, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior; to "Long Lake" (which lake this referred to was disputed) towards the Lake of the Woods; to the northwest angle of the Lake of the Woods; then west to the Mississippi River. However, the Lake of the Woods was north of the source of the Mississippi River; maps universally show this undefined border as a straight line, nearly straight south, between the two points. From there, it followed the Mississippi River down to 31° north; east to the Chattahoochee River; down that to the Flint River; a line from there to the source of the St. Mary's River; then down that to the Atlantic Ocean.[50]
  6. ^ The boundaries of Frankland were never defined; the map uses the common depiction of it.
  7. ^ Massachusetts's ceded claim was a strip of land west of New York and Pennsylvania stretching to the Mississippi River, bounded by the latitudes of Massachusetts Bay Colony's original charter: on the north by a line west from one league north of Lake Winnipesaukee, and on the south by a line west from Massachusetts' southwest corner.[44]
  8. ^ Connecticut's ceded claim was a strip of land west of 120 miles west of Pennsylvania (the western border of its Western Reserve) stretching to the Mississippi River, bounded by 41° north and the southern edge of Massachusetts's western claim, roughly 42°2′ north.[44]
  9. ^ Massachusetts's ceded claim was the portion of New York 82 miles west of where the Delaware River left New York, to an unclear western boundary, with one source saying it was as far as one mile east of the Niagara River.[44]
  10. ^ The new North Carolina–federal border was, from the north, southwest along various ridges of the Great Smoky Mountains; however, issues caused surveyors to eventually run a line roughly due south rather than continue along the ridge.[18]
  11. ^ The new New York–Vermont border was, from the north: Lake Champlain, the Poultney River, then south following borders of townships.[31]
  12. ^ The new Kentucky–Virginia border was, from the south: north along the Cumberland Mountains and Pine Mountain to the Russell Fork; northeast to the Tug Fork; then down that to the Big Sandy River and to the Ohio River.[82]
  13. ^ The new Indiana Territory–Northwest Territory border was, from the south, a line from the mouth of the Kentucky River to Fort Recovery, then north.[95]
  14. ^ The new Georgia–federal border was, from the south, up the Chattahoochie River to its great bend (near West Point), then a line from there towards and past Nickajack. The border's description said it would go until it reached the Tennessee River, and follow that up the river to Tennessee, but the river lay entirely within Tennessee.[11]
  15. ^ There was some question as to whether the purchase also included the basins of the Missouri River and the Red River of the North, but the question was not relevant before the Treaty of 1818 definitively settled the border. Maps universally show the purchase including the Missouri River basin but excluding the Red River basin.[102]
  16. ^ The western border of West Florida was a series of waterways, mainly the Mississippi, Iberville, and Amite Rivers, and Lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas.[103]
  17. ^ The new Illinois Territory–Indiana Territory border was, from the south, the Wabash River up to Post Vincennes, then north.[110]
  18. ^ The northwestern remainder of Orleans Territory presumably rejoined Louisiana Territory, as its extent was still vaguely defined.
  19. ^ Indiana was defined as the territory north of the Ohio River and east of the Wabash River, but while the territory's line turned north at Post Vincennes, the state's border continued up the Wabash until it reached the point where a line drawn north from Post Vincennes would last intersect the river as it weaved back and forth. The northern border of the state was a line east from 10 miles north of the southern tip of Lake Michigan, until it reached the meridian that formed Ohio's western border, which was a line drawn north from the mouth of the Great Miami River.[95]
  20. ^ The new Alabama Territory–Mississippi Territory border was, from the north: up the Tennessee River to Bear Creek (around today's Pickwick Lake); a line to the northwestern corner of Washington County, Mississippi Territory; then south.[125]
  21. ^ The new Arkansaw Territory–Missouri Territory border was, from where the Mississippi River meets 36° north: west to the St. Francis River, up that to 36°30′ north, then west.[118]
  22. ^ The new border was, from the Gulf of Mexico: up the Sabine River to 32° north; north to the Red River; up that to 100° west; north to the Arkansas River; up that to its source; north to 42° north; then west to the Pacific Ocean.[103]
  23. ^ The new Missouri–federal border was, from the mouth of the Des Moines River: up the river to a point west of the Des Moines Rapids on the Mississippi River, west to a point north of the mouth of the Kansas River, then south.[118]
  24. ^ The new Arkansas Territory–federal border, from the north, a line from the southwestern corner of Missouri to a point on the Arkansas River "100 paces east" of Fort Smith, as the border of the lands of the Eastern Choctaw, then south.[134] However, the Arkansas Supreme Court determined in 1909 that the "100 paces east" was a clerical error, and that logically it should have said "100 paces west".[147]
  25. ^ The new Michigan Territory–Wisconsin Territory border was, from Lake Superior: up the Montreal River to Lac Vieux Desert; a line to the source of the Menominee River; then down that to Green Bay. However, this definition was impossible: The Montreal River ended long before it reached Lac Vieux Desert. The issue would be resolved in 1850.[108]
  26. ^ The new northeastern border was, from Passamaquoddy Bay: up the St. Croix River to its source; north to the St. John River; up that to the St. Francis River; up that to its source outlet at Lake Pohenegamook; southwest to the northwest branch of the St. John River; a line from there to where the St. John River crosses 46°25’ north; up the river to its source; along the highlands to the source of Halls Stream, then down that to 45° north.[137][14]
  27. ^ The new northern border was, from Lake Superior: up the Pigeon River to the many lakes and rivers of the Boundary Waters, eventually reaching the Rainy River; then down that to the Lake of the Woods.[167]
  28. ^ The new Wisconsin–Wisconsin Territory border was, from Lake Superior: up the St. Louis River to its first rapids; south to the St. Croix River; then down that to the Mississippi River.[155]
  29. ^ The new international border was, from the Rio Grande: along the southern and western border of New Mexico until it meets the Gila River; down that to the Colorado River; then a line to a point one league south of the port of San Diego. However, the southern border of New Mexico was in question, with the US claim being 31°52′ north, and the Mexican claim being 32°22′ north.[185]
  30. ^ The new California–federal border was, from the north: south along 120° west to 39° north; a line to where the Colorado River intersects 35° north; then down the Colorado River.[2]
  31. ^ The new Texas–federal border was, from the south: up the Rio Grande to 32° north; east to 103° west; north to 36°30′ north; then east.[172]
  32. ^ The borders of New Mexico Territory were, from where its border with Texas ended at 36°30′ north and 103° west: north to 38° north; west to the summit of the San Juan Mountains (called then the Sierra Madre); south along the ridge to 37° north; then west.[200]
  33. ^ The new international border was, starting from where the Rio Grande crosses 31°47′ north: west 100 miles; south to 31°20′ north; west to 111° west; a line to a point on the Colorado River 20 miles below the mouth of the Gila River; then up the Colorado River.[209]
  34. ^ The new Minnesota–federal border was, from the north: up the Red River to the Bois de Sioux River; up that to Lake Traverse and its southern tip; a line to Big Stone Lake and through that to its southern tip; then south.[167]
  35. ^ The new Oregon–Washington Territory border was, from the north, up the Snake River to the mouth of the Owyhee River, then south.[188]
  36. ^ The claimed borders of Jefferson Territory were between 37° north, 43° north, 102° west, and 110° west.[221]
  37. ^ The borders of Colorado Territory were parallels 32° north, 37° north, and Washington meridians 25° west and 32° west.[227]
  38. ^ The new Nebraska Territory–Dakota Territory border was, from the east: up the Missouri River to the Niobrara River; up that to the Keya Paha River; up that to 43° north; then west.[207]
  39. ^ The decree transferred land from the left bank of the Blackstone River to Rhode Island, including what is now East Providence, in exchange land around Fall River being transferred to Massachusetts.[13]
  40. ^ The Virginia counties that became West Virginia were: Barbour, Boone, Braxton, Brooke, Cabell, Calhoun, Clay, Doddridge, Fayette, Gilmer, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Hancock, Hardy, Harrison, Jackson, Kanawha, Lewis, Logan, McDowell, Marion, Marshall, Mason, Mercer, Monongalia, Monroe, Morgan, Nicholas, Ohio, Pendleton, Pleasants, Pocahontas, Preston, Putnam, Raleigh, Randolph, Ritchie, Roane, Taylor, Tucker, Tyler, Upshur, Wayne, Webster, Wetzel, Wirt, Wood, and Wyoming.[256]
  41. ^ The new Idaho Territory–Montana Territory border was, from the north: south along 39° west from Washington to the crest of the Bitterroot Range and the Rocky Mountains; along that to 44°30′ north; east to 34° west from Washington; north to 45° north; then east.[260]
  42. ^ The new Dakota Territory–Idaho Territory border was, from the south: north along 33° west from Washington to the crest of the Rocky Mountains, then northwest along that to the new tripoint with Montana Territory.[231]
  43. ^ The borders of the Department of Alaska were, from the Dixon Entrance: Up the Portland Channel to 56° north; then along the "summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast" (the definition of which was disputed) to 141° west; then north.[271]
  44. ^ The borders of Wyoming Territory were parallels 41° north and 45° north, and Washington meridians 27° west and 34° west.[280]
  45. ^ The new Oklahoma Territory–federal border was, from where the Red River meets 98° west: north to the Canadian River; down that to Seminole land; north along that border to the North Canadian River; down that to Creek land; north and east along that border to 96° west; then north. This omits the Cherokee Outlet, whose complex borders separated the main portion of Oklahoma Territory from the former Public Land Strip.[304]

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