スウェーデン

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スウェーデン王国

Konungariket Sverige   スウェーデン語
モットー:( ロイヤル)  " FörSverige– i tiden " [a]
"For Sweden – With the Times" [1]
国歌:  Du gamla、Du fria [b]
(英語:「あなたは古代、あなたは自由」

EU-Sweden (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Sweden.svg
スウェーデンの場所(濃い緑色)

ヨーロッパ (緑と濃い灰色)
欧州連合 (緑)– [凡例]

資本
そして最大の都市
ストックホルム59°21′N 18°4′E
 / 59.350°N 18.067°E / 59.350; 18.067
公用語スウェーデン語[c]
少数民族の言語
民族グループ
(2019)
宗教
(2017)
66.8%キリスト教
—60.3%スウェーデン教会[a]
—6.5%その他のキリスト教
27.0%無宗教
5.0%イスラム教
1.2%その他[8] [9]
住民の呼称
政府単一 議会
立憲君主制
カール16世グスタフ
アンドレアス・ノーレン
• 首相
ステファン・ロベーン
立法府リクスダーゲン
歴史
•統一されたスウェーデン王国が設立されました
12世紀初頭までに
1397〜1523
1814年11月4日-1905年8月[10]
1995年1月1日
領域
• 合計
450,295 km 2(173,860平方マイル)(55番目
• 水 (%)
8.37(2015年現在)[11]
人口
•2021年2月の見積もり
Neutral increase10,402,070 [12]89
• 密度
25 / km 2(64.7 / sq mi)(198番目
GDP  PPP2020年の見積もり
• 合計
Increase5638億8200万ドル[13]39
• 一人あたり
Increase52,477ドル[13]16
GDP  (名目)2020年の見積もり
• 合計
Decrease5289.2億ドル[13]23日
• 一人あたり
Decrease50,339ドル[13]12日
ジニ (2020)Positive decrease 26.9 [14]
HDI  (2019)Increase 0.945 [15]
非常に高い ・ 7位
通貨スウェーデンクローナSEK
タイムゾーンUTC +1 CET
•夏(DST
UTC +2 CEST
日付形式YYYY-MM-DD
運転側[e]
市外局番+46
ISO3166コードSE
インターネットTLD.se [f]
  1. ^FörSverige– I tiden」は、カール16世グスタフの個人的なモットーとして採用されました
  2. ^ Du gamla、Du friaは国歌として正式に採用されたことはありませんが、慣例により採用されています。
  3. ^ 2009年7月1日以来[16] [17]他の5つの言語がされている正式に少数民族の言語として認識さ [18] フィンランド語メアンキエリロマーニサミ、およびイディッシュ語スウェーデンの手話はまた、特別な地位を持っています。
  4. ^ 外国のバックグラウンドを持つ人は、外国生まれの人、または外国生まれの両親と一緒にスウェーデンで生まれた人として定義されます。[19]スウェーデン政府民族性に基づく統計を基にしていないため、スウェーデンの移民とその子孫の民族的背景に関する正確な数値はありませんただし、これは、記録されている移民の国民的背景と混同しないでください
  5. ^ 1967年9月3日 以降
  6. ^ .EUのそれは他と共有されているようドメインはまた、使用されている欧州連合の加盟国。

スウェーデンスウェーデン語Sverige [ˈsvæ̌rjɛ] 聞くAbout this sound)、正式にはスウェーデン王国(スウェーデン語: Konungariket Sverige [kôːnɵŋaˌriːkɛtsvæ̌rjɛ] 聞くAbout this sound)、である北欧の国北欧 [20]ノルウェーの西と北、フィンランドの東国境を接しエーレスンド海峡を渡る橋のトンネルで南西のデンマークとつながっている。 450295平方キロメートル(173860平方マイル)で、スウェーデンは北欧、第3位の国で最大の国であり、欧州連合(EU) および5番目に大きい国ヨーロッパでは。資本と最大の都市であるストックホルム。スウェーデンの総人口は1,040万人です。[12]そして1平方キロメートルあたり25人の住民の低い人口密度(65 /平方マイル)。スウェーデン人の87%は都市部に住んでおり、国土全体の1.5%を占めています。最も集中しているのは国の中央部と南部です。

スウェーデンはフェノスカンジアの地理的地域の一部です気候が原因重要な海上影響でその北の緯度のための穏やかな一般的です。緯度が高いにもかかわらず、スウェーデンはしばしば暖かい大陸の夏があり、北大西洋バルト海、そして広大なロシアの間に位置しています。一般的な気候と環境は、緯度の差が大きいため、南と北で大きく異なり、スウェーデンの多くは確実に寒くて雪の降る冬があります。スウェーデン南部は主に農業ですが、北部は森林が多く、スカンジナビア山脈の一部が含まれています

ゲルマン民族は、以来、スウェーデンに住んでいる先史時代として歴史に新たな、Geats(スウェーデンGötar)とスウェーデン(Svear)として知られている海の人々を構成ノース人を。独立したスウェーデンの国家は12世紀初頭に出現しました。14世紀半ばのペストにより、スカンジナビアの人口の約3分の1が死亡した[21] [22]北ヨーロッパにおけるハンザ同盟の支配は、スカンジナビアを経済的および政治的に脅かしました。これにより、1397年にスカンジナビアのカルマル同盟結成されました[23]。スウェーデンは1523年に去りました。スウェーデンがプロテスタント側で三十年戦争巻き込まれたとき、その領土の拡大が始まり、最終的にスウェーデン帝国が形成されました。これは18世紀初頭までヨーロッパの大国の1つになりましたスカンジナビア半島の外のスウェーデンの領土は、18世紀から19世紀にかけて徐々に失われ、1809年にロシアが現在のフィンランドを併合しました。スウェーデンが直接関与した最後の戦争は、ノルウェーが軍事的に個人に強制された1814年でした。労働組合平和的に溶解しましたそれ以来、スウェーデンは平和であり、外交における中立の公式政策を維持しています。[24] 2014年、スウェーデンは200年の平和を祝い、スイスの平和の記録さえも破りました。[25]スウェーデンは、2009年以来、NATOとの協力に向けて公然と動いてきたが、世界大戦と冷戦の両方を通じて正式に中立であった

スウェーデンは立憲君主制であり、議会 制民主主義であり、立法権は349人の一院制の リクスダーゲンに与えられています。これは単一国家であり、現在21の郡290の市町村に分割されています。スウェーデンは、国民に国民保険高等教育提供する北欧の社会福祉制度維持しています。それは世界で11番目に高い一人当たりの収入を持ち、生活の質、健康、教育、保護において非常に高いランクにあります。市民の自由、経済的競争力、所得の平等ジェンダーの平等繁栄人間開発[26] [27] [28]スウェーデンは1995年1月1日に欧州連合に加盟したが、国民投票後のNATO加盟およびユーロ圏加盟を拒否したそれはまたのメンバーである国連北欧理事会欧州評議会世界貿易機関(WTO)経済協力開発機構(OECD)。

語源

スウェーデンという言葉は、17世紀の中期オランダ語中期低地ドイツ語に由来しています。 1287年には早くも、参照はを参照中期オランダ語で発見されランデバンスウェーデンで、(「()スウェーデン人の土地」)スウェーデン人単数形として。[29]古英語国が指名されたSwéolandSwíoríce古ノルド Svíaríki)。アングロノルマン12日と13世紀の使用SuaneSwaneを(のように形容詞をSuaneis)。ではスコットランド Swaneスウェイン、16世紀に登場します。 初期近代英語スウェランドを使用していました[30]

スウェーデン語名スウェーデン(単語の化合物スヴェアリケと、子音弱化最初の同族に記録子音[k]の、Swēoriceベオウルフ[31]は、文字通り「の領域を意味するスウェーデン人を除く、」Geatsイェータランドを

名前のバリエーションスウェーデンの例外を除いて、ほとんどの言語で使用されているデンマークノルウェーを使用してスウェーデンフェロー Svøríkiアイスランド Svíþjóð、およびいくつかのより多くの注目すべき例外バルト・フィン諸語Ruotsiフィンランド)とRootsiエストニアが)使用されている、名前を一般の沿岸地域から人々を指すものとみなさRoslagenUpplandのとして知られていた、ルーシ、およびそれらを介して語源のための英語名に関連しますロシア[要出典]

スウェーデン人、したがってスウェーデンの語源は「自分自身」を意味するルート* s(w)eから派生することに一般的に同意されており[32] [33] [34]自分自身のゲルマン族を指します。

歴史

先史時代

Vendel時代の国立古代のスウェーデン博物館でヘルメット、

スウェーデンの先史時代はで始まるAllerød発振、12,000 BC周りの暖かい期間[35]後期で旧石器時代 トナカイのキャンプ-hunting Bromme文化を今の国の最南端の州、あるものの中に氷の端にスカニア。この時期はフリント技術を使用した狩猟採集民の小さな集団が特徴でした。[36]

スウェーデンは、西暦98年にタキトゥスによってゲルマニアの書面で最初に記述されました[37]ではゲルマニア44と45彼はスウェーデン人(言及Suionesを(強力な部族のように)自分の腕と男性のための、彼らの強力な艦隊のためだけではなく区別していた船で)船首をそれぞれの端部(でlongships)。[38]どの王(クニンガズ)がこれらのスヴェーア人を支配したは不明ですが、北欧神話は紀元前数世紀に遡る伝説的および半伝説的な王の長い列を示しています。スウェーデン自体の識字能力については、ルーン文字少なくとも西暦2世紀までに南スカンジナビアのエリートの間で使用されていましたが、ローマ時代から現在に至るまでは、主に男性の名前の工芸品の素っ気ない碑文だけであり、南スカンジナビアの人々がプロトを話したことを示しています。当時の北欧語、スウェーデン語や他の北ゲルマン語の祖先の言語[39]

6世紀、ヨルダネススカンザ住む2つの部族に名前を付けました。どちらも現在、スウェーデン人の同義語と見なされていますスエティディスエハンスです。Suetidi、スウェーデン人の古ノルド語の名前であるSvíþjóðのラテン語の形式であると考えられています。ヨルダネスは、スエティディダニが同じ株で最も背が高いと説明しています。彼は後に、他のスカンジナビアの部族が同じ身長であると述べています。[40] Suehansが黒狐スキンの供給者としてローマ世界に知られており、ジョーデーンズによると、と同様の非常に微細なウマ、あったThyringiをゲルマニアとりわけベロGENS IBI moratur Suehans、quae velud Thyringi EQUIS utuntur eximiis)。アイスランドの歴史家スノッリ・ストゥルルソンはまた、スウェーデンの王アディルス(アディルス)が彼の時代の最高の馬を持っていたと書いています。[要出典]

ヴァイキング

バイキング遠征(青い線)

スウェーデンのバイキング時代はおよそ8世紀から11世紀まで続きました。スウェーデンのヴァイキングとグタールは主に東と南を旅し、フィンランド、エストニア、バルト諸国、ロシア、ベラルーシ、ウクライナ、黒海、さらにはバグダッドまで行ったと考えられています。彼らのルートはドニエプル川を南に通過コンスタンティノープルに到達し、そこで何度も襲撃を行った。ビザンチン皇帝 テオフィロスは戦争で彼らの偉大なスキルを気づいた、そしてとして知られている彼の個人的なボディーガードとして機能するためにそれらを招待VarangianガードRusと呼ばれるスウェーデンのバイキングキエフ大公国の創設者であると信じられています[41]アラブの旅行者イブン・ファドランはこれらのヴァイキングを次のように説明した。

彼らは彼らの商人の旅に来て、によって宿営ように私はルーシを見てきましたITIL私は、ナツメヤシのように背が高く、金髪で血色の良い、これほど完璧な物理的標本を見たことがありません。彼らはチュニックもカフタンも着ていませんが、男性は体の片側を覆い、手を自由にしたままの衣服を着ています。それぞれの人は斧、剣、ナイフを持っており、常に彼のそばにいます。剣は幅が広く、溝があり、フランクのようなものです。[42]

バイキングアートの例である、800年から1099年までシェングヴィーデ石碑

これらのスウェーデンのバイキングの行動はギリシャのルーンストーンヴァリャーグのルーンストーンなど、スウェーデンの多くのルーンストーン記念されていますイングランドのルーンストーンなどの石で記念される西方への遠征にもかなりの参加がありました最後の主要なスウェーデンのバイキングの遠征はの不運な遠征されているように見えます遠旅しイングバーSerkland、の領域南東カスピ海そのメンバーはイングヴァール石碑で記念されています、いずれも生存者について言及していません。乗組員に何が起こったのかは不明ですが、彼らは病気で亡くなったと考えられています。

スウェーデン王国

スウェーデン王国がいつどのように誕生したかは不明ですが、スウェーデンの君主制リストはエリク6世をはじめ、スヴェアランド(スウェーデン)とイェータランド(ゴシア)の両方を1つの州として統治したことが知られている最初の王から引用されています。スウェーデンとゴシアは、そのずっと前と古代以来、2つの別々の国でした。それらがどれくらいの期間存在したかは不明です。叙事詩のベオウルフは、6世紀の半伝説的なスウェーデンとイェートの戦争について説明しています。この意味でのイェータランドには、主にエステルイェートランド(東ゴシア)とヴェステルイェートランド(西ゴシア)の州が含まれます。ゴットランド現時点では、スウェーデン人以外(デンマーク、ハンザ同盟、ゴットランド-国内)が異議を唱えていました。当時、スモーランドは松林が深いため誰も興味を示さず、城のあるカルマーの街だけが重要でした。スカンジナビア半島の南西部は、デンマークの3つの州(スカニアブレーキンゲハッランド)で構成されていました。デンマークのハランドの北には、ノルウェーとその州のブーヒュースレーン地方との直接の国境がありましたしかし、ノールランドの南海岸線に沿ってスウェーデン人の入植地がありました

ガムラ・ウプサラ(旧ウプサラ)、スウェーデンの初期の宗教的および政治的に重要な場所

スカンジナビアのバイキング時代の初期には、デンマークのスカニア州のイスタードゴットランド島のパビケンは繁栄した貿易の中心地でしたが、初期のスウェーデン王国の一部ではありませんでした。西暦600年から700年までの大規模な市場であると考えられている遺跡がイスタードで発見されました。[43] 9世紀から10世紀にかけてバルト海地域の重要な貿易の中心地であったパビケンでは、造船所や手工芸品産業のある大きなヴァイキング時代の港の遺跡が発見されました。 800年から1000年の間に、貿易によってゴットランドに豊富な銀がもたらされ、一部の学者によると、この時代のゴットランド人は、スカンジナビアの他の人口を合わせたよりも多くの銀を蓄えていました。[43]

セントアンスガーは通常、829年にキリスト教を導入したとされていますが、新しい宗教は12世紀まで異教に完全に取って代わり始めませんでした。 11世紀には、キリスト教が一般的な宗教となり、1050年からスウェーデンはキリスト教国家として数えられています。 1100年から1400年までの期間は、内部の権力闘争と北欧の王国間の競争によって特徴づけられました。エリク9世エリクの年代記の伝説によると、1150年から1293年にかけて、スウェーデンの王たちはフィンランドタヴァスティアカレリアに対して異教徒のフィンランドへの1第2第3回十字軍行いました。そして、もはやスウェーデンとは関係のないルーシ族との対立を始めました。[44]フィンランドの沿岸地域スウェーデンの植民地化は、12世紀と13世紀にも始まった。[45] [46] 14世紀に、フィンランドの沿岸地域のスウェーデンの植民地化はより組織化され始め、世紀の終わりにフィンランドの沿岸地域のいくつかは主にスウェーデン人が住んでいた。[47]

おそらく13世紀後半に作られたSkogタペストリー

この時期にデンマーク王国の一部であったスカンジナビア半島の南西にあるスカニア、ブレーキンゲ、ハランドの各州を除いて、スウェーデンでは封建制がヨーロッパの他の地域のように発展することはありませんでした。[48]したがって、農民は、スウェーデンの歴史の大部分を通じて、主に自由農民のクラスであり続けた。奴隷(とも呼ばれるthralldom)スウェーデンでは一般的ではなかった、[49]と何が隷属する東バルト海の土地から奴隷を得るために、キリスト教の普及にだけでなく、困難に存在のおかげで追い出される傾向にありました。 、そして16世紀以前の都市の発展によって。[50]確かに、奴隷制と農奴制1335年にマグヌス4世の法令によって完全に廃止されました。元奴隷は農民に吸収される傾向があり、一部は町で労働者になりました。それでも、スウェーデンは物々交換が主要な交換手段であった貧しく経済的に後進国のままでした。たとえば、ダルスランド州の農民はバターをスウェーデンの鉱区に運び、そこで鉄と交換し、それを海岸に持って行き、消費した魚と交換し、鉄は出荷されました。外国。[51]

14世紀の半ばに、スウェーデンは打たれた黒死病[52]スウェーデンとヨーロッパのほとんどの人口は減少した。 (同じ地域の)人口は、19世紀の初めまで再び1348年の数に達しませんでした。人口の3分の1は、1349年から1351年の3年間に亡くなりました。この期間中、スウェーデンの都市はより大きな権利を獲得し始め、特にヴィスビーで活動しているハンザ同盟のドイツの商人の影響を強く受けました。 1319年、スウェーデンとノルウェーはマグヌスエリクソン王の下で統一され、1397年には、デンマークのマルグレーテ1世がカルマル同盟を通じてスウェーデン、ノルウェー、デンマークの同君連合を結成しました。しかし、その支配がデンマークにも集中していたマーガレットの後継者たちは、スウェーデンの貴族を支配することができませんでした。

グスタフ1世 スウェーデンをデンマークのクリスチャン2世から解放しカルマル同盟を終結させましたは17世紀までスウェーデンとポーランドを統治していたヴァーサ王朝を設立しました

多くの場合、スウェーデンの王冠は王国の存在の過程で子供の王に受け継がれました。その結果、実際の権力は、スウェーデン議会によって選ばれた摂政(特にSture家の摂政)によって長期間保持されていました。王デンマークのクリスチャンII腕の力でスウェーデンに彼の主張を主張し、1520にストックホルムのスウェーデン貴族の虐殺を命じこれは「として知られるようになったストックホルムの血液風呂、」および新しい抵抗にスウェーデンの貴族を攪拌し、 1523年の6月6日(現在のスウェーデンの国民の祝日)に、彼らはグスタフ・ヴァサを彼らの王にしました。[53]これは現代スウェーデンの基盤と見なされることもありますその後まもなく、新しい王はカトリックを拒否し、スウェーデンをプロテスタント改革に導きました

ハンザ同盟は、1356年北ドイツのバルト海沿岸のリューベック正式に結成されました。同盟は、バルト海沿岸の国や都市の王子や王族に市民的および商業的特権を求めました。[54]引き換えに、彼らは参加する都市にある程度の保護を提供した。ハンザ同盟は独自の海軍を持っていたため、バルト海を海賊から一掃することができました。[55]ハンザによって得られた特権には、ハンザ市民だけが彼らがいる港からの貿易を許可されるという保証が含まれていました。彼らは、すべての税関と税金がないという合意を求めました。これらの譲歩により、リュベックの商人はストックホルムに群がり、すぐにストックホルムの経済生活を支配するようになり、ストックホルムの港湾都市をスウェーデンの主要な商業および工業都市にしました。[56]ハンザ同盟の貿易では、ストックホルムの輸入の3分の2は繊維構成され、残りの3分の1はでした。スウェーデンからの主な輸出品はでした。[56]

しかし、スウェーデン人はハンザ同盟(主にドイツ市民で構成されている)の独占貿易の立場に憤慨し始め、ハンザに失ったと感じた収入に憤慨した。その結果、グスタフ・ヴァーサまたはグスタフ1世がハンザ同盟の独占力破ったとき、彼はスウェーデンの人々から英雄と見なされました。[57]歴史は現在、グスタフ1世を現代スウェーデン国家の父と見なしている。グスタフによって築かれた基礎は発展するのに時間がかかるでしょう。さらに、スウェーデンが発展し、ハンザ同盟から解放され、黄金時代に突入したとき、農民が伝統的に自由であったという事実は、封建的な地主階級に行くよりも、より多くの経済的利益が彼らに戻ったことを意味しました。[58]

16世紀の終わりは、残りのカトリック教徒と新しいプロテスタントコミュニティの間の競争の最終段階によって特徴づけられました。 1592年、グスタフ・ヴァーサのカトリック孫とポーランドの王ジギスムントは、スウェーデンの即位します。[59]彼は対抗宗教改革開始することによってローマの影響力を強化することを追求し、一時的にポーランド-スウェーデン連合として知られるようになった二重君主制を創設した。プロテスタントに対する不寛容を強く特徴とする彼の専制的支配は、スウェーデンを貧困に陥れ内戦を引き起こした[60]反対に、シギスムンドの叔父で後継者であるチャールズ・ヴァサ、召喚ウプサラ教会会議を1593年に正式に現代確認されたスウェーデンの教会としてルーテルは彼に続いて堆積1599で、ジギスムントは、すべての費用で王位を取り戻すことを試みとの間で戦闘ポーランドとスウェーデンは、次の百年にわたって続けました。[61]

バルト帝国

17世紀の間に、スウェーデンはヨーロッパの大国として台頭しました。バルト帝国が出現する前は、スウェーデンはヨーロッパ文明の周辺にある貧しく人口の少ない国であり、大きな権力や評判はありませんでした。スウェーデンは、グスタフ2世アドルフス王の在任中に大陸規模で目立つようになり三十年戦争を含む複数の紛争でロシアとポーランド-リトアニアの領土を占領しました[62]

三十年戦争中、スウェーデンは神聖ローマ帝国の約半分を征服し、1631年のブライテンフェルト戦いで帝国軍を破った。[63]グスタフ・アドルフスは新しい神聖ローマ帝国になることを計画し、統一されたスカンジナビアと神聖ローマ帝国は、1632年のリュッツェンの戦い亡くなりました1634年のノールドリンゲン戦いの、スウェーデンで唯一の戦争の重大な軍事的敗北により、ドイツの州間の親スウェーデンの感情は薄れました。[63]これらのドイツの州は、スウェーデンの権力から1つずつ排除され、スウェーデンにはドイツ北部の領土がわずかしか残っていませんでした。スウェーデンポメラニアブレーメン-ヴェルデンウィスマール1643年から1645年まで、戦争の最後の数年間、スウェーデンとデンマーク-ノルウェートルステンソン戦争と戦いましたその紛争の結果と三十年戦争の終結は、戦後のスウェーデンをヨーロッパの主要な勢力として確立するのに役立ちました。[63]

スウェーデン帝国1611年と1815年の間に、1658年と1660年の間にその絶対ピークを持ちます。

17世紀半ば、スウェーデンは面積でヨーロッパで3番目に大きな国であり、ロシアとスペインだけを上回りました。スウェーデンはのルールの下での最大の領土範囲に達しチャールズXの後ロスキレの条約をチャールズXの危険なしかし成功した後、1658年にデンマークのベルトの交差点[64] [65]この時期のスウェーデンの成功の基盤は、16世紀におけるグスタフ1世のスウェーデン経済への大きな変化と彼のプロテスタント主義の導入によるものです。[66] 17世紀、スウェーデンは多くの戦争に従事しました。たとえば、ポーランド・リトアニア連邦との間で、双方が今日の領土を争いました。バルト三国、悲惨なキルコルムの戦いがハイライトの1つです。[67]フィンランドの人口の3分の1は、国を襲った1695年から1697年の壊滅的な大飢饉で亡くなりました。[68]飢饉もスウェーデンを襲い、スウェーデンの人口のおよそ10%を殺した。[69]

スウェーデン人は、大洪水として知られるポーランド・リトアニア連邦への一連の侵略を行いました[70]ほぼ絶え間ない戦争の半世紀以上の後、スウェーデンの経済は悪化した。経済を再建し、軍隊を再建することはシャルル10世の息子であるシャルル11世の生涯の任務となりました[71]彼の息子、次のスウェーデンの支配者、カール12世への彼の遺産は、世界で最も優れた兵器の1つであり、大規模な常備軍と偉大な艦隊でした。[72]現時点でのスウェーデンの最大の脅威であるロシアは、より大きな軍隊を持っていたが、装備と訓練の両方ではるかに遅れていた。[73]

大北方戦争の最初の戦いの1つである1700年のナルヴァ戦いの後、ロシア軍はひどく荒廃したため、スウェーデンはロシアに侵攻する機会がありました。[74]しかし、カール12世はロシア軍を追跡せず、代わりにポーランド-リトアニアに背を向け、1702年のクリシュフ戦いでポーランド王アウグスト2世とそのサクソン同盟国を破った。[75]これはロシアに時間を与えた。その軍隊を再建し、近代化する。

1709年のポルタヴァ戦い。その後数年間、ロシアとその同盟国はバルト海沿岸、さらにはフィンランドのすべてのスウェーデン領占領しました。

ポーランドへの侵攻が成功した後、カール12世はロシアへの侵攻を試みることを決意したが、1709年のポルタヴァ戦いでロシアの決定的な勝利に終わった。[76]コサックの襲撃にさらされた長い行進の後、ロシアの皇帝ピーターグレート焦げ地球の技術と1709年の非常に寒い冬、スウェーデン人は砕か士気を弱体化立って、非常にポルタヴァでロシア軍に対して劣勢ました。[77]敗北は、スウェーデン帝国の終焉の始まりを意味した。さらに、東部中央ヨーロッパで猛威を振るう疫病スウェーデンの領土を荒廃させ、1710年に中央スウェーデンに到達した。[78] [79] 1715年にスウェーデンに戻り、チャールズXIIはそれぞれ1716年と1718年にノルウェーに対して2つのキャンペーンを開始した。 2回目の試みでは フレドリクステン要塞の包囲中に射殺されました[80]スウェーデン人はフレドリクステンで軍事的に敗北しなかったが、キャンペーンの全体的な構造と組織は国王の死によって崩壊し、軍は撤退した。

1721年にニスタット条約で広大な土地を譲渡することを余儀なくされたスウェーデンは、帝国として、またバルト海の支配的な国家としての地位を失いました。[81]スウェーデンの影響力が失われると、ロシアは帝国として出現し、ヨーロッパの支配的な国の1つになりました。戦争がついに1721年に終わったとき、スウェーデンは推定20万人の男性を失い、そのうち15万人は現在のスウェーデンの地域から、5万人はスウェーデンのフィンランドの地域からでした[82]

18世紀、スウェーデンにはスカンジナビア以外の領土を維持するのに十分な資源がなく、そのほとんどが失われ、1809年にスウェーデン東部がロシアに敗北し、ロシア帝国のフィンランド大公国の自律性が高まりまし[83]

バルト海でスウェーデンの支配を再確立するために、スウェーデンはナポレオン戦争でその伝統的な同盟国であり恩人であるフランスと同盟を結びました。しかし、1810年に、フランスの元帥であるジャンバプティストベルナドットが、老朽化し​​たカール13世の推定相続人として選ばれました。 1818年、彼はベルナドッテ家を設立し、チャールズ14世の尊号を取得しましたライプツィヒ戦いにおけるスウェーデンの役割は、キール条約で、1814年1月14日にドイツ北部の州と引き換えにノルウェーをスウェーデン国王に譲渡することをフランスの同盟国であるデンマーク-ノルウェーに強制する権限を与えました[84]主権国家としての地位を維持しようとするノルウェー人の試みは、スウェーデンの王カール13世によって拒否されました彼は1814年7月27日にノルウェーに対する軍事作戦を開始し、モス条約で終わり、1905年まで続いたスウェーデンの王冠の下でノルウェーをスウェーデンとの同君連合に強制した[85] 1814年の作戦はスウェーデンが最後だった。戦争で。[86]

近代史

スウェーデン北部の飢餓のイラスト、1867年から1869年の飢饉

スウェーデンの東インド会社Ostindiskaコンパニは、ホームポートの当然の選択だった1731に始まったヨーテボリの口、スウェーデンの西海岸でGOTA ALV川は非常に広く、高海の旅のための郡の最大かつ最高の港があります。貿易は19世紀まで続き、小さな町はスウェーデンの2番目の都市になりました。[87] 18世紀から19世紀にかけて人口が大幅に増加し、1833年に作家のエサイアステングネルは「平和、天然痘ワクチン、ジャガイモ」に起因すると考えた[88]1750年から1850年の間に、スウェーデンの人口は2倍になりました。一部の学者によると、アメリカへの大量移民は飢饉と反乱を防ぐ唯一の方法になりました。1880年代には、人口の1%以上が毎年移住しました。[89]それにもかかわらず、スウェーデンは貧しいままであり、デンマークと西ヨーロッパ諸国が工業化し始めたとしても、ほぼ完全に農業経済を維持していた。[89] [90]

1905年ヨーテボリ船に乗り込むスウェーデン移民

この間、多くの人がより良い生活を求めてアメリカに目を向けました。 1850年から1910年の間に、100万人以上のスウェーデン人が米国に移住したと考えられています。[91] 20世紀初頭、イェーテボリ(スウェーデンで2番目に大きい都市)よりも多くのスウェーデン人がシカゴに住んでいた[92]ほとんどのスウェーデン人移民米国中西部に移住し、ミネソタ州には人口が多く、他の数人は米国とカナダの他の地域に移住した。

19世紀への工業化の速度は遅いものの、絶え間ない革新と急速な人口増加により、農業経済には多くの重要な変化が起こっていました。[93]これらの革新には、政府が後援する囲い込みプログラム、農地の積極的な開発、ジャガイモなどの新しい作物の導入が含まれていました。[93]スウェーデンの農民はヨーロッパの他の場所のように集結したことがなかったので、[94] [要出典]スウェーデンの農業文化はスウェーデンの政治において重要な役割を果たし始めました。センターパーティーと呼ばれる)。[95]1870年から1914年の間に、スウェーデンは今日存在する工業化された経済の発展を始めました。[96]

19世紀後半、スウェーデンでは強力な草の根運動(労働組合、禁酒運動、独立した宗教団体)が発生し、民主主義の強力な基盤が築かれました。 1889年にスウェーデン社会民主党が設立されました。これらの動きは、第一次世界大戦の時までに達成された現代の議会制民主主義へのスウェーデンの移住を促進しました。20世紀に産業革命が進むにつれて、人々は徐々に都市に移り、工場で働き、社会主義組合に参加するようになりました。議会制が再導入された後、1917年に共産主義革命は回避され、国は民主化されました

第一次世界大戦と第二次世界大戦

スウェーデンは第一次世界大戦中は公式に中立でしたが、ドイツの圧力の下でØresundチャネルの採掘、連合国の海運への閉鎖、ドイツ人によるスウェーデンの施設とスウェーデンの使用を許可するなど連合国の勢力に有害な措置を講じました。秘密のメッセージを海外の大使館に送信するための暗号。[97]スウェーデンはまた、ボランティアがために戦うことを許さホワイト警備員に対して、ドイツと並んで紅衛兵にし、ロシアフィンランド内戦、そして簡単には占有オーランド諸島をドイツとの協力で。

第二次世界大戦中のスウェーデンの兵士。スウェーデンは紛争中中立を維持しました。

第一次世界大戦と同様に、スウェーデンは第二次世界大戦中は公式に中立を維持しましたが、第二次世界大戦中の中立性については異議が唱えられています。[98] [99]スウェーデンは、封鎖によって世界の他の地域とのつながりが断たれたため、戦争の大部分でドイツの影響下にあった。[98]スウェーデン政府は、ドイツに公然と異議を唱える立場にはないと感じており[100]、したがっていくつかの譲歩を行った。[101]スウェーデンはまた、戦争中ずっとドイツに鋼と機械加工部品を供給した。スウェーデン政府は、ボランティアと物資を許可することにより冬戦争継続戦争でフィンランドを非公式に支援しましたフィンランドに発送されます。しかし、スウェーデンはドイツに対するノルウェーの抵抗を支持し、1943年にデンマークのユダヤ人ナチス強制収容所への強制送還から救助するのを助けました

戦争の最後の年の間に、スウェーデンは人道的努力において役割を果たし始めました、そして、ナチス占領下のヨーロッパからの数千人のユダヤ人を含む多くの難民は、収容所へのスウェーデンの救助任務のおかげで、そして部分的にスウェーデンが主に北欧諸国とバルト諸国からの難民の避難所[100]スウェーデンの外交官、ラウル・ワレンバーグと彼の同僚は、何万人ものハンガリー系ユダヤ人の安全を確保した。[102]それにもかかわらず、スウェーデン人と他の人は、たとえそれが占領のリスクを高めることを意味したとしても、スウェーデンがナチスの戦争努力に反対するためにもっと多くのことをすることができたかもしれないと主張した。[100]

戦後

ターゲ・エランダー(左)、1946年から1969年までのスウェーデン社会民主党の与党首相

スウェーデンは公式には中立国であり冷戦中はNATOワルシャワ条約機構の加盟国の外にとどまりましたが、個人的にはスウェーデンの指導部は米国や他の西側政府と強い結びつきを持っていました。戦争後、スウェーデンは無傷の産業基盤、社会的安定、そしてその天然資源を利用して、ヨーロッパの再建に供給するために産業を拡大しました。[103]スウェーデンはマーシャルプランの下で援助を受け、OECDに参加した。戦後のほとんどの時代、国は主に労働組合と協力してスウェーデン社会民主党によって統治されていました。と産業。政府は、主に大企業の国際競争力のある製造業を積極的に追求しました。[104]

スウェーデンは、欧州自由貿易連合(EFTA)の創設国の1つでした1960年代、EFTA加盟国は、当時の欧州経済共同体(EEC)インナーシックスとは対照的に、アウターセブンと呼ばれることがよくありました[105]

スウェーデンは、多くの工業国と同様に、1973年から74年および1978年から79年の石油禁輸に続いて、経済の衰退と激変の時期に入りました。[106] 1980年代に、いくつかの主要なスウェーデンの産業が大幅に再構築されました。造船は中止され、木材パルプは近代化された製紙に統合され、鉄鋼業は集中して専門化され、機械工学はロボット化されました。[107]

1970年から1990年の間に、全体的な税負担は10%以上増加し、西ヨーロッパの他の国と比較して成長率は低かった。最終的に、政府は国内総生産の半分以上を使い始めました。この間、スウェーデンの1人当たりGDPランキングは低下しました。[104]

近年の歴史

スウェーデンは1995年に欧州連合に加盟し、2007年にリスボン条約署名しました

国際的な景気後退と反失業政策から反インフレ政策への政策転換と相まって、貸付に対する不十分な統制によって引き起こされた破裂した不動産バブルは、1990年代初頭に財政危機をもたらしました[108]スウェーデンのGDPは約5%減少しました。1992年に、通貨の実行により、中央銀行は一時的に金利を500%に引き上げました。[109] [110]

政府の対応は、支出を削減し、スウェーデンの競争力を向上させるために多数の改革を実施することでした。その中には、福祉国家の削減公共サービスや商品の民営化が含まれます。政治団体の多くがEU加盟を促進し、1994年11月13日にEU加盟を支持する国民投票が52.3%で可決されました。スウェーデンは1995年1月1日に欧州連合に加盟しました。2003年の国民投票では、スウェーデンの有権者加盟国に反対票を投じました。ユーロ通貨。 2006年、スウェーデンは中道右派同盟として数十年にわたって最初の多数党政府を獲得しました現職の社会民主党政府を破った。移民制限のスウェーデン民主党への支持が急速に拡大し2010年彼らがリクスダーゲンに参入した後、同盟は少数派の内閣になりました。

スウェーデンは、防衛技術と防衛産業の分野で他のヨーロッパ諸国との広範な協力に加えて、NATOや他のいくつかの国とのいくつかの合同軍事演習に参加しているものの、軍事的に非同盟を維持しています。とりわけ、スウェーデンの企業は、イラクで米軍が使用した武器を輸出しています。[111]スウェーデンはまた、スウェーデン軍がNATOの指揮下にあるアフガニスタンを含む国際軍事作戦、およびコソボボスニア、ヘルツェゴビナキプロスでのEU後援の平和維持作戦に参加してきた長い歴史がある。スウェーデンも施行に参加しまし国連は、アラブの春の間にリビア上空の飛行禁止区域義務付けましたスウェーデンは2009年7月1日から12月31日まで欧州連合の議長を務めました。

ストックホルムハズビー暴動の2日目。写真は、2013年5月20日、ストックホルム郊外のハスビーで3台の車が燃えているところを示しています。

ここ数十年で、スウェーデンは重要な移民のために、より文化的に多様な国になりました。 2013年には、人口の15%が外国生まれであり、さらに5%が2人の移民の両親から生まれたと推定されました。移民の流入は、新たな社会的課題をもたらしました。ポルトガルの高齢移民の警察による銃撃に続いて発生し2013年のストックホルム暴動含む暴力事件が定期的に発生している[112] [113][114]これらの暴力的な出来事に応えて、反移民野党であるスウェーデン民主党は左翼が彼らの反移民政策を推進した。反対派は、中道右派政府の社会経済政策によって引き起こされた不平等の拡大を非難した[115]

2014年、ステファン・ロベーン(社会民主党)が総選挙で勝利し、新しいスウェーデンの首相になりました。スウェーデン民主党は勢力均衡を維持し、リクスダーゲンで政府の予算を下落させましたが、政府と同盟の間の合意により、政府は権力を握ることができました。[116]スウェーデンは、2015年の欧州移民危機の影響を大きく受け、秋に主にアフリカ中東から数千人の亡命希望者と移民を受け入れたため、最終的に政府は入国規制を強化せざるを得なくなりました。構造。[117]庇護制限のいくつかは後で再び緩和されました。[118]

2018年の総選挙では見た赤-菜右翼に負け座席スウェーデン民主党と旧の中道右派政党の同盟を国会の議席の33%だけを保持しているにもかかわらず、社会民主党と緑の党がために管理形成少数政府のからの供給と信頼に頼って、2019年1月に中央党自由党左翼党

地理

北ヨーロッパに位置するスウェーデンは、バルト海ボスニア湾の西に位置し、長い海岸線を提供し、スカンジナビア半島の東部を形成しています。西にはスカンジナビア山脈(スカンジナビア)があり、スウェーデンとノルウェーを隔てる山脈ですフィンランドは北東に位置しています。デンマーク、ドイツ、ポーランド、ロシア、リトアニアラトビアエストニア海上境界線があり、エーレスンド橋でデンマーク(南西)とつながっています。ノルウェーとの国境(1,619 km long)は、ヨーロッパ内で最も長く途切れることのない国境です。

スウェーデンは緯度55°から70°Nの間にあり、主に経度11°から25°Eの間にありますStora Drammen島の一部は11°のすぐ西にあります)。

スウェーデン南部のスカニア

449964キロで2(173732平方マイル)、スウェーデンは世界で第55位の国であり、[119] 5番目に大きい国ヨーロッパでは、北欧最大の国。スウェーデンで最も標高が低いのは、クリスチャンスタッド近くのハマルション湖の湾で、海抜-2.41 m(-7.91フィート)です。最高点は海抜2,111m(6,926フィート)のケブネカイセです

スウェーデンには、文化、地理、歴史に基づいて、25のまたはlandskapがあります。これらの州は政治的または行政的な目的を果たしていませんが、人々の自己アイデンティティにおいて重要な役割を果たしています。州は通常、3つの大きな土地、部分、北ノールランド、中央スヴェアランド、南イェータランドにグループ化されています。人口の少ないノールランドは、国のほぼ60%を占めています。スウェーデンには、ヨーロッパで最大の保護地域の1つであるVindelfjällen自然保護区もあり、合計562,772ヘクタール(約5,628 km 2)です。

スウェーデンの約15%は北極圏の北にあります。スウェーデン南部は主に農業であり、北に向かって森林被覆が増加しています。スウェーデンの総面積の約65%が森林に覆われています。人口密度が最も高いのは、スウェーデン南部オレサンド地方、西海岸に沿ってブーヒュースレーン中央部まで、そしてメーラレン湖とストックホルムの谷です。ゴットランド島とエーランド島はスウェーデン最大のです。ヴェーネルンヴェッテルンは最大の湖です。ヴェーネルンは後、ヨーロッパで三番目に大きいですラドガ湖湖オネガロシアで。 3番目と4番目に大きい湖MälarenとHjälmaren組み合わせると、これらの湖はスウェーデン南部の地域のかなりの部分を占めています。19世紀にイェータ運河建設されたことで、スウェーデンの南部全体に広がる水路の利用可能性が活用され、湖と川のネットワークを利用して運河を促進することで、ノルチェピングの南のバルト海ヨーテボリの間の潜在的な距離が短くなりました[120]

気候

スウェーデンの大部分は、北緯もかかわらず温暖な気候で主に4つの異なる季節があり、年間を通じて温暖な気温です。極南の冬は通常弱く、雪と氷点下の気温のある短い期間にのみ現れます。秋は、明確な冬の期間がなくても、春に変わる可能性があります。国は3つのタイプの気候に分けることができます:最南端は海洋性気候、中央部は湿潤大陸性気候、そして最北端は亜寒帯気候です。ただし、スウェーデンは、同様の緯度にある他の場所よりもはるかに暖かく、乾燥しており、主にメキシコ湾流[121] [122]と、惑星地球の自転の方向によって引き起こされる一般的な西風のドリフト。大陸の西海岸(ユーラシア大陸の最西端としてスカンジナビアのすべてが属する)は、大陸の東海岸よりも著しく暖かいです。これは、たとえばカナダのバンクーバーハリファックス、ノバスコシアの都市を比較することによっても見ることができます。バンクーバーの西海岸の冬ははるかに穏やかです。また、たとえば、スウェーデン中部と南部は、ロシア、カナダ、および米国北部の多くの地域よりもはるかに穏やかな冬があります。[123]スウェーデンは緯度が高いため、日光の長さは大きく異なります。北極圏の北、太陽は毎年夏の一部に沈むことはなく冬の一部に昇ることもありません。首都ストックホルムでは、日光は6月下旬に18時間以上続きますが、12月下旬には約6時間しか続きません。スウェーデンは、年間1,100〜1,900時間の日光を浴びています。[124] 7月の間、国の北と南の間で気温に大きな違いはありません。山岳地帯を除いて、全国の7月の平均気温は15°C(59°F)から17.5°C(63.5°F)(摂氏2.5度の差)の範囲内ですが、1月は-平均気温は、氷点下からフィンランドとの国境に沿って-15°C(5°F)未満まで変化します(摂氏15度の差)。[125]

スウェーデンのケッペンの気候区分タイプ

スウェーデンでこれまでに記録された最高気温は1947年Målilla38°C(100°F)でしたが[要出典]、1966年2月2日にVuoggatjålmeでこれまでに記録された最低気温は-52.6°C(-62.7°F)でした。[ 126]スウェーデンで予想される気温は、華氏の大きな陸地、ヨーロッパ大陸、ロシア西部の影響を強く受けており、内陸の高温または低温の空気をスウェーデンに簡単に輸送できます。その結果、スウェーデン南部のほとんどの地域は、近くのイギリス諸島のほぼどこよりも夏が暖かくなりスペイン北部と同じくらい南の大陸大西洋岸に沿って見られる気温と一致します。。ただし、冬には、同じ高圧システムによって国全体が氷点下になることがあります。大西洋からの海上緩和があり、スウェーデンの大陸性気候は近くのロシアよりも厳しくない。北と南で気温のパターンは異なりますが、緯度の違いが大きいにもかかわらず、夏の気候は国全体で驚くほど似ています。これは、南部がより多くの水に囲まれており、バルト海と大西洋の空気が南西から低地を通過しているためです。

氷のない大西洋が冬を和らげるスウェーデンに海洋の空気をもたらすことは別として、穏やかさは冬を延期する一般的な低圧システムによってさらに説明されます。冬がようやく突破する頃には、日照時間が急速に上昇し、春には日中の気温が急速に上昇します。晴れた夜の数が増えるにつれ、霜は4月までかなり南にあるのが当たり前のようです。寒い冬は、低圧システムが弱いときに発生します。例として、ストックホルムでこれまでで最も寒い月(1987年1月)は、記録上最も日当たりの良い1月でもありました。[127] [128]

海洋および大陸の空気の低圧および高圧システムの相対的な強さも、非常に変動しやすい夏を定義します。熱い大陸の空気が国を襲うとき、長い日と短い夜はしばしば沿岸地域でさえ30°C(86°F)以上の温度をもたらします。特に内陸部では、夜は通常涼しいままです。沿岸地域では、暖かい夏の間の穏やかな海の影響により、20°C(68°F)を超えるいわゆる熱帯の夜が発生することがあります。[129]特に国の北部では、夏は涼しくなります。移行期は通常非常に広範であり、4シーズンの気候はスウェーデンのほとんどの地域に当てはまります。ただし、一部の年は気象の冬を記録しないスカニアを除きます。 (下の表を参照)または極地の微気候が存在するラップランドの高い山々。

平均して、スウェーデンの大部分は毎年500〜800 mm(20〜31インチ)の降水量を受け取り、世界平均よりもかなり乾燥しています。国の南西部は1,000〜1,200 mm(39〜47インチ)の降水量が多く、北部の一部の山岳地帯は最大2,000 mm(79インチ)の降水量があると推定されています。北部に位置しているにもかかわらず、スウェーデン南部と中央部では、冬によっては雪がほとんど降らない場合があります。スウェーデンのほとんどは雨蔭に位置していますノルウェーとスウェーデン北西部を通るスカンジナビア山脈の。夏の冷たく湿った空気の遮断、およびより大きな陸地は、国のはるか北の暖かく乾燥した夏につながり、緯度65度のボスニア湾沿岸では非常に暖かい夏があります。これは他の場所では前例のないことです。そのような北の海岸線の世界。

バレンツ海が来たる冬に凍りつくことが少なくなり、こうして「アトランティファイド」になるにつれて、追加の蒸発がスウェーデンとヨーロッパ大陸の多くで将来の降雪を増加させると予測されています。[130]

植生

スウェーデンの5つの主要な植生帯の地図

スウェーデンにはかなりの南から北の距離があり(緯度N55:20:13とN69:03:36の間で伸びています)、特に冬の間、大きな気候差を引き起こします。四季の長さと強さの関係は、さまざまな場所で自然に育つ植物が育つ役割を果たしています。スウェーデンは5つの主要な植生帯に分かれています。これらは:

  • 南の落葉樹林地帯
  • 南針葉樹林地帯
  • 北の針葉樹林地帯、またはタイガ
  • アルパインバーチゾーン
  • むき出しの山岳地帯

ネモラル地域としても知られる南部の落葉樹林地帯である南部の落葉樹林地帯は、デンマークと中央ヨーロッパの大部分を含む、より大きな植生地帯の一部です。それはかなり大きな程度で農業地域になる必要がありますが、ますます大きな森がまだ存在しています。この地域は、樹木や低木が豊富にあるのが特徴です。ブナは、最も支配的なツリーですが、オークはまた、小さな森を形成することができます。ニレはかつて森林を形成していましたが、オランダのニレ病のために大幅に減少しました。このゾーン内にその他の重要な樹木には、シデ長老ハシバミスイカズラフライをリンデン(ライム)スピンドルイチイアルダーバックソーンブラックソーンアスペンヨーロピアンナナカマドスウェーデンホワイトビームジュニパーヨーロピアンホリーツタハナミズキヤナギカラマツバードチェリーワイルドチェリーメープルアッシュクリーク沿いのアルダー、砂質の土壌では、白樺松と競争します[131] スプルース在来種ではありませんが、1870年から1980年頃にかけて、広い地域に植栽されました。[132]それらは本来の範囲外にあるために成長が速すぎる傾向があり[133]、年輪間の距離が大きいとボードの品質が低下します。[134]その後、いくつかのトウヒの木は最適な高さに達する前に枯れ始め、針葉樹の多くはサイクロンの間に根こそぎにされた。[135] [136]過去40〜50年の間に、かつてのトウヒの植栽の大部分が落葉樹林で再植林されました。[137]

ボレオネモラル地域としても知られる南針葉樹林地帯は、オークの北の自然限界(limes norrlandicus)とトウヒの南の自然限界[138]によって、南の落葉樹地帯の間に区切られています。そしてタイガはさらに北にあります。このゾーンの南部では、針葉樹種、主にトウヒマツがさまざまな落葉樹と混ざり合って見られます。白樺は主にどこでも育ちます。ブナの北の境界は、このゾーンを横切ります。ただし、これはオークアッシュには当てはまりません。自然地域ではありますが、植えられたトウヒも一般的であり、特にこの植生地帯の南部地域では、トウヒが非常にきつく成長する可能性があるため、そのような木材は非常に密集しています。

北の針葉樹林地帯またはタイガは、オークの自然境界の北から始まります落葉樹の中で重要なのは白樺だけです。トウヒが優勢ですが、森林はゆっくりと、しかし確実に、北に向かって遠くに行くほどまばらに成長します。極北では、樹木間の距離が大きいため、樹木が真の森を形成していると述べることは困難です。[139]

スカンジナビア山脈の高山白樺地帯は、緯度と標高の両方に応じて、より小さな種類の白樺Betula pubescensまたはB.tortuosa)のみが成長できる地域です。この植生帯が終わるところでは、木はまったく成長しません。裸の山岳地帯です。[140]

スウェーデンの2019年森林景観保全指数の平均スコアは5.35 / 10で、172か国中103位にランクされています。[141]

政治

憲法の枠組み

スウェーデンには4つの基本法(スウェーデン語grundlagar)があり、これらが一緒になって憲法を形成します:政府の道具(スウェーデン語Regeringsformen)、継承法スウェーデン語Successionsordningen)、報道の自由法(スウェーデン語Tryckfrihetsförordningen)、および表現の自由に関する基本法(スウェーデン語Yttrandefrihetsgrundlagen)。[142] [143]

The public sector in Sweden is divided into two parts: the legal person known as the State (Swedish: staten)[b] and local authorities:[c] the latter include regional County Councils (Swedish: landsting) and local Municipalities (Swedish: kommuner).[144][145][146][147] The local authorities, rather than the State, make up the larger part of the public sector in Sweden.[148] County Councils and Municipalities are independent of one another, the former merely covers a larger geographical area than the latter.[148][149] The local authorities have self-rule, as mandated by the Constitution, and their own tax base.[145][150] Notwithstanding their self-rule, local authorities are nevertheless in practice interdependent upon the State, as the parameters of their responsibilities and the extent of their jurisdiction are specified in the Local Government Act (Swedish: Kommunallagen) passed by the Riksdag.[145][151]

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy, and King Carl XVI Gustaf is the head of state, but the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions.[152] Under the provisions of the 1974 Instrument of Government, the King lacks any formal political power.[153][154] The King opens the annual Riksdag session, chairs the Special Council held during a change of Government, holds regular Information Councils with the Prime Minister and the Government, chairs the meetings of the Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs (Swedish: Utrikesnämnden), and receives Letters of Credence of foreign ambassadors to Sweden and signs those of Swedish ambassadors sent abroad.[155][156] In addition, the King pays State Visits abroad and receives those incoming as host.[155] Apart from strictly official duties, the King and the other members of Royal Family undertake a variety of unofficial and other representative duties within Sweden and abroad.[157]

Legislative power is vested in the unicameral Riksdag with 349 members. General elections are held every four years, on the second Sunday of September. Legislation may be initiated by the Government or by members of the Riksdag. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to a four-year term. The internal workings of the Riksdag are, in addition to the Instrument of Government, regulated by the Riksdag Act (Swedish: Riksdagsordningen).[158] The fundamental laws can be altered by the Riksdag alone; only an absolute majority with two separate votes, separated by a general election in between, is required.[142]

Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.[159]

The Government (Swedish: Regeringen) operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister — appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag (following an actual vote in the Riksdag before an appointment can be made) — and other cabinet ministers (Swedish: Statsråd), appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister.[160] The Government is the supreme executive authority and is responsible for its actions to the Riksdag.[161]

Most of the State administrative authorities (Swedish: statliga förvaltningsmyndigheter) report to the Government, including (but not limited to) the Armed Forces, the Enforcement Authority, the National Library, the Swedish police and the Tax Agency. A unique feature of Swedish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the pejorative in Swedish political parlance term ministerstyre (English: "ministerial rule") in matters that are to be handled by the individual agencies, unless otherwise specifically provided for in law.

The Judiciary is independent from the Riksdag, Government and other State administrative authorities.[162] The role of judicial review of legislation is not practised by the courts; instead, the Council on Legislation gives non-binding opinions on legality.[163] There is no stare decisis in that courts are not bound by precedent, although it is influential.[164]

Political parties and elections

The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009

The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Swedish politics since 1917, after the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party. After 1932, most governments have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections since World War II—1976, 1979, 1991, 2006 and 2010—have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government.

For over 50 years, Sweden had had five parties who continually received enough votes to gain seats in the Riksdag—the Social Democrats, the Moderate Party, the Centre Party, the Liberal People's Party and the Left Party—before the Green Party became the sixth party in the 1988 election. In the 1991 election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: the Christian Democrats and New Democracy. The 1994 election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. It was not until elections in 2010 that an eighth party, the Sweden Democrats, gained Riksdag seats. In the elections to the European Parliament, parties who have failed to pass the Riksdag threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: the June List (2004–2009), the Pirate Party (2009–2014), and Feminist Initiative (2014–2019).

The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.

In the 2006 general election the Moderate Party formed the centre-right Alliance for Sweden bloc and won a majority of the Riksdag seats. In the 2010 general election the Alliance contended against a unified left block consisting of the Social Democrats, the Greens and the Left Party.[165] The Alliance won a plurality of 173 seats, but remained two seats short of a 175-seat majority. Nevertheless, neither the Alliance, nor the left block, chose to form a coalition with the Sweden Democrats.[166]

The outcome of the 2014 general election resulted in the attainment of more seats by the three centre-left parties in comparison to the centre-right Alliance for Sweden, with the two blocs receiving 159 and 141 seats respectively.[167] The non-aligned Sweden Democrats more than doubled their support and won the remaining 49 seats.[167] On 3 October 2014, Stefan Löfven formed a minority government consisting of the Social Democrats and the Greens.[168][169]

Election turnout in Sweden has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout (80.11% in 2002, 81.99% in 2006, 84.63% in 2010, 85.81 in 2014)[170] and 87.18% in 2018.[171] Swedish politicians enjoyed a high degree of confidence from the citizens in the 1960s, However, that level of confidence has since declined steadily, and is now at a markedly lower level than in its Scandinavian neighbours.[172]

Administrative divisions

Municipal divisions of Sweden

Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 county councils (landsting) and 290 municipalities (kommuner). Every county council corresponds to a county (län) with a number of municipalities per county. County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. Health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions are administered by county councils. Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. Gotland is a special case of being a county council with only one municipality and the functions of county council and municipality are performed by the same organisation.[173]

Municipal and county council government in Sweden is similar to city commission and cabinet-style council government. Both levels have legislative assemblies (municipal councils and county council assemblies of between 31 and 101 members (always an uneven number) that are elected from party-list proportional representation at the general election which are held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.

Municipalities are also divided into a total of 2,512 parishes (församlingar). These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional subdivisions of the Church of Sweden and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.

The Swedish government has 21 County Administrative Boards (Swedish: länsstyrelser), which are responsible for regional state administration not assigned to other government agencies or local government. Each county administrative boards is led by a County Governor (Swedish: landshövding) appointed for a term of six years. The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to 1634 when the counties were created by Lord High Chancellor Count Axel Oxenstierna. The main responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government.

There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.

Political history

Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey

The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown.[174] Establishing the age depends mostly on whether Sweden should be considered a nation when the Svear (Sweonas) ruled Svealand or if the emergence of the nation started with the Svear and the Götar (Geats) of Götaland being united under one ruler. In the first case, Svealand was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way. However, historians usually start the line of Swedish monarchs from when Svealand and Götaland were ruled under the same king, namely Eric the Victorious (Geat) and his son Olof Skötkonung in the 10th century. These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden, although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later.

Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden. Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology.

The title Sveriges och Götes Konung was last used for Gustaf I of Sweden, after which the title became "King of Sweden, of the Goths and of the Wends" (Sveriges, Götes och Vendes Konung) in official documentation. Up until the beginning of the 1920s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends". This title was used up until 1973.[175] The present King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, was the first monarch officially proclaimed "King of Sweden" (Sveriges Konung) with no additional peoples mentioned in his title.

The term riksdag was used for the first time in the 1540s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as 1435, in the town of Arboga.[176] During the Riksdag assemblies of 1527 and 1544, under King Gustav Vasa, representatives of all four estates of the realm (clergy, nobility, townsmen and peasants) were called on to participate for the first time.[176] The monarchy became hereditary in 1544.

Executive power was historically shared between the King and an aristocratic Privy council until 1680, followed by the King's autocratic rule initiated by the commoner estates of the Riksdag. As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in 1719, followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in 1772, 1789 and 1809, the latter granting several civil liberties. Already during the first of those three periods, the 'Era of Liberty' (1719–72) the Swedish Rikstag had developed into a very active Parliament, and this tradition continued into the nineteenth century, laying the basis for the transition towards modern democracy at the end of that century.[177]

In 1866 Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years. In 1971 the parliament became unicameral. Legislative power was (symbolically) shared between the King and the Riksdag until 1975. Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag.

The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014

Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements" (Folkrörelser), the most notable being trade unions, the independent Christian movement, the temperance movement, the women's movement, and the intellectual property pirate movements. Sweden was the first country in the world to outlaw corporal punishment of children by their parents (parents' right to spank their own children was first removed in 1966, and it was explicitly prohibited by law from July 1979[178]).

Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system.[179] The Global Gender Gap Report 2006 ranked Sweden as the number one country in terms of gender equality.[180]

Some Swedish political figures have become known worldwide, among these are: Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, the former Secretary-General of the United Nations Dag Hammarskjöld, the former Prime Minister Olof Palme, the former Prime Minister and later Foreign minister Carl Bildt, the former President of the General Assembly of the United Nations Jan Eliasson, and the former International Atomic Energy Agency Iraq inspector Hans Blix.

Judicial system

The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: The general courts (allmänna domstolar) for criminal and civil cases, and general administrative courts (allmänna förvaltningsdomstolar) for cases relating to disputes between private persons and the authorities.[181] Each of these systems has three tiers, where the top tier court of the respective system typically only will hear cases that may become precedent. There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation. While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts.

Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden

The Supreme Court of Sweden (Swedish: Högsta domstolen) is the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent. The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices (Swedish: justitieråd), appointed by the Government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, and the Government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court.

According to a victimisation survey of 1,201 residents in 2005, Sweden has above-average crime rates compared to other EU countries. Sweden has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems. Bribe seeking is rare.[182]

A mid-November 2013 news report announced that four prisons in Sweden were closed during the year due to a significant drop in the number of inmates. The decrease in the number of Swedish prisoners was considered "out-of-the-ordinary" by the head of Sweden's prison and probation services, with prison numbers in Sweden falling by around 1% a year since 2004. Prisons were closed in the towns of Åby, Håja, Båtshagen, and Kristianstad.[183]

Foreign relations

The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.

Throughout the 20th century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. Sweden's government pursued an independent course of nonalignment in times of peace so that neutrality would be possible in the event of war.[103]

Sweden's doctrine of neutrality is often traced back to the 19th century as the country has not been in a state of war since the end of the Swedish campaign against Norway in 1814. During World War II Sweden joined neither the allied nor axis powers. This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods,[98][100] especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.[100][184] However, Sweden also indirectly contributed to the defence of Finland in the Winter War, and permitted the training of Norwegian and Danish troops in Sweden after 1943.

Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.

During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence.[185] The function of the Swedish military was to deter attack.[186] At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with the Western bloc, especially in the realm of intelligence exchange. In 1952, a Swedish DC-3 was shot down over the Baltic Sea by a Soviet MiG-15 jet fighter. Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO.[187] Another plane, a Catalina search and rescue plane, was sent out a few days later and shot down by the Soviets as well. Prime Minister Olof Palme made an official visit to Cuba during the 1970s, during which he denounced Fulgencio Batista's government and praised contemporary Cuban and Cambodian revolutionaries in a speech.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations. It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World.

On 27 October 1981, a Whiskey-class submarine (U 137) from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country. Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential. The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the 1986 assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach. Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget.

Since 1995 Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.

Military

The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.

The law is enforced in Sweden by several government entities. The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The National Task Force is a national SWAT unit within the police force. The Swedish Security Service's responsibilities are counter-espionage, anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people.

The Försvarsmakten (Swedish Armed Forces) are a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peacekeeping forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war. The armed forces are divided into Army, Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander (Överbefälhavaren, ÖB), the most senior commissioned officer in the country. Up to 1974, the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief, but in reality it was clearly understood through the 20th century that the monarch would have no active role as a military leader.

The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden

Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly. Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely focusing on those otherwise most fit for service. By law, all soldiers serving abroad must be volunteers. In 1975, the total number of conscripts was 45,000. By 2003, it was down to 15,000.

On 1 July 2010, Sweden ended routine conscription, switching to an all-volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.[188][189][190] Emphasis was to be placed on only recruiting those later prepared to volunteer for international service. The total forces gathered would consist of about 60,000 personnel. This in comparison with the 1980s, before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,000,000 servicemembers.

However, on 11 December 2014, due to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system, refresher training.[191] On 2 March 2017, the government decided to reintroduce the remaining part of the Swedish conscription system, basic military training. The first recruits began their training in 2018. As the law is now gender neutral, both men and women may have to serve.[192] Sweden decided not to sign the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[193]

Swedish units have taken part in peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Liberia, Lebanon, Afghanistan and Chad.

Economy

Gross Regional Product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019

Sweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP (gross domestic product) per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens. Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade. Sweden's engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports, while telecommunications, the automotive industry and the pharmaceutical industries are also of great importance. Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. Agriculture accounts for 2% of GDP and employment. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.[194]

Trade unions, employers' associations and collective agreements cover a large share of the employees in Sweden.[195][196] The high coverage of collective agreements is achieved despite the absence of state mechanisms extending collective agreements to whole industries or sectors. Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation (regulation by the labour market parties themselves) over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.[197] When the Swedish Ghent system was changed in 2007, resulting in considerably raised fees to unemployment funds, a substantial decline in union density and density of unemployment funds occurred.[198][199]

Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg

In 2010 Sweden's income Gini coefficient was the third lowest among developed countries, at 0.25—slightly higher than Japan and Denmark—suggesting Sweden had low income inequality. However, Sweden's wealth Gini coefficient at 0.853 was the second highest in developed countries, and above European and North American averages, suggesting high wealth inequality.[200][201] Even on a disposable income basis, the geographical distribution of Gini coefficient of income inequality varies within different regions and municipalities of Sweden. Danderyd, outside Stockholm, has Sweden's highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0.55, while Hofors near Gävle has the lowest at 0.25. In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.35 and 0.55.[202]

In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector; and by international standards, a large public service sector. Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy.[203] High and medium-high technology manufacturing accounts for 9.9% of GDP.[204]

The 20 largest (by turnover) registered Swedish companies in 2007 were Volvo, Ericsson, Vattenfall, Skanska, Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, Electrolux, Volvo Personvagnar, TeliaSonera, Sandvik, Scania, ICA, Hennes & Mauritz, IKEA, Nordea, Preem, Atlas Copco, Securitas, Nordstjernan and SKF.[205] The vast majority of Sweden's industry is privately controlled, unlike many other industrialised Western countries, and, in accordance with a historical standard, publicly owned enterprises are of minor importance.

Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006

An estimated 4.5 million Swedish residents are employed and around a third of the workforce completed tertiary education. In terms of GDP per-hour-worked, Sweden was the world's ninth highest in 2006 at US$31, compared to US$22 in Spain and US$35 in the United States.[206] GDP per-hour-worked is growing 2.5% per year for the economy as a whole and the trade-terms-balanced productivity growth is 2%.[206] According to the OECD, deregulation, globalisation, and technology sector growth have been key productivity drivers.[206] Sweden is a world leader in privatised pensions and pension funding problems are relatively small compared to many other Western European countries.[207] A pilot program to test the feasibility of a six-hour workday, without loss of pay, will commence in 2014, involving the participation of Gothenburg municipal staff. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency.[208]

Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.

The typical worker receives 40% of his or her labour costs after the tax wedge. Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at 52.3% in 1990.[209] The country faced a real estate and banking crisis in 1990–1991, and consequently passed tax reforms in 1991 to implement tax rate cuts and tax base broadening over time.[210][211] Since 1990, taxes as a percentage of GDP collected by Sweden have been dropping, with total tax rates for the highest income earners dropping the most.[212] In 2010 45.8% of the country's GDP was collected as taxes, the second highest among OECD countries, and nearly double the percentage in the US or South Korea.[209] Tax income-financed employment represents a third of the Swedish workforce, a substantially higher proportion than in most other countries. Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early 1990s.[213]

Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe

Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013.[28] Sweden is the top performing country in the 2014 Global Green Economy Index (GGEI).[214] Sweden is ranked fourth in the IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook 2013.[215] According to the book The Flight of the Creative Class by the US economist Professor Richard Florida of the University of Toronto, Sweden is ranked as having the best creativity in Europe for business and is predicted to become a talent magnet for the world's most purposeful workers. The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.[216]

Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona (SEK), a result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum. The Swedish Riksbank—founded in 1668 and thus the oldest central bank in the world—is currently focusing on price stability with an inflation target of 2%. According to the Economic Survey of Sweden 2007 by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mid-1990s, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.[206]

The largest trade flows are with Germany, the United States, Norway, the United Kingdom, Denmark and Finland.

Financial deregulation in the 1980s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early 1990s. Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government. In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. By 2014, legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding. Household debt-to-income rose above 170% as the IMF was calling on legislators to consider zoning reform and other means of generating a greater supply of housing as demand was outstripping what was available, pushing prices higher. By August 2014, 40% of home borrowers had interest-only loans while those that didn't were repaying principal at a rate that would take 100 years to fully repay.[217]

Energy

Sweden's energy market is largely privatised. The Nordic energy market is one of the first liberalised energy markets in Europe and it is traded in NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe and Nord Pool Spot. In 2006, out of a total electricity production of 139 TWh, electricity from hydropower accounted for 61 TWh (44%), and nuclear power delivered 65 TWh (47%). At the same time, the use of biofuels, peat etc. produced 13 TWh (9%) of electricity, while wind power produced 1 TWh (1%). Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.[218] Biomass is mainly used to produce heat for district heating and central heating and industry processes.

The 1973 oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power. The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Among other things, the accident of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (United States) prompted the Riksdag to ban new nuclear plants. In March 2005, an opinion poll showed that 83% supported maintaining or increasing nuclear power.[219] Politicians have made announcements about oil phase-out in Sweden, decrease of nuclear power, and multibillion-dollar investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency.[220][221] The country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular.[220] Sweden was in 2014 a net exporter of electricity by a margin of 16 TWh; the production from windpower mills had increased to 11.5 TWh.[222]

Transport

The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark

Sweden has 162,707 km (101,101 mi) of paved road and 1,428 km (887 mi) of expressways. Motorways run through Sweden and over the Øresund Bridge to Denmark. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway from Uppsala to Gävle was finished on 17 October 2007. Sweden had left-hand traffic (Vänstertrafik in Swedish) from approximately 1736 and continued to do so well into the 20th century. Voters rejected right-hand traffic in 1955, but after the Riksdag passed legislation in 1963 changeover took place on 3 September 1967, known in Swedish as Dagen H.

The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via 100 stations. The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state. The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves. Operators include SJ, Veolia Transport, DSB, Green Cargo, Tågkompaniet and Inlandsbanan. Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket.

Most tram nets were closed in 1967, as Sweden changed from left-side to right-side driving. But they survived in Norrköping, Stockholm and Gothenburg, with Gothenburg tram network being the largest. A new tram line opened in Lund on 13 December 2020.

The largest airports include Stockholm–Arlanda Airport (16.1 million passengers in 2009) 40 km (25 mi) north of Stockholm, Göteborg Landvetter Airport (4.3 million passengers in 2008), and Stockholm–Skavsta Airport (2.0 million passengers). Sweden hosts the two largest port companies in Scandinavia, Port of Göteborg AB (Gothenburg) and the transnational company Copenhagen Malmö Port AB. The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie. Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland.

Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.[223] This includes a route from Umeå across the Gulf of Bothnia to Vaasa in Finland. There are several connections from the Stockholm area across the Sea of Åland to Mariehamn in the Åland Islands as well as Turku and Helsinki on the Finnish mainland and beyond to Estonia and St Petersburg in Russia. Ferry routes from the Stockholm area also connect with Ventspils and Riga in Latvia as well as Gdańsk in Poland across the Baltic Sea. The ferry ports of Karlskrona and Karlshamn in southeastern Sweden serve Gdynia, Poland, and Klaipeda, Lithuania. Ystad and Trelleborg near the southern tip of Sweden have ferry links with the Danish island of Bornholm and the German ports of Sassnitz, Rostock and Travemünde, respectively, and ferries run to Świnoujście, Poland, from both of them. Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry.[224] Its route to Sassnitz started as a steam-operated railway ferry in the 19th century, and today's ferry still carries trains to Berlin during the summer months.[225] Another ferry route to Travemünde originates from Malmö. Despite the opening of the fixed link to Denmark, the Øresund Bridge, the busiest ferry route remains the short link across the narrowest section of the Øresund between Helsingborg and the Danish port of Helsingør, known as the HH Ferry route. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.[226] Ports higher up the Swedish west coast include Varberg, with a ferry connection across the Kattegat to Grenaa in Denmark, and Göteborg, serving Frederikshavn at the northern tip of Denmark and Kiel in Germany. Finally, there are ferries from Strömstad near the Norwegian border to destinations around the Oslofjord in Norway. There used to be ferry services to the United Kingdom from Göteborg to destinations such as Immingham, Harwich and Newcastle, but these have been discontinued.

Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. The lines leave from Visby harbour on the island, and the ferries sail to either Oskarshamn or Nynäshamn.[227] A smaller car ferry connects the island of Ven in Øresund with Landskrona.[228]

Public policy

Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world. According to a 2012 OECD report, the country had the second-highest public social spending as a percentage of its GDP after France (27.3% and 28.4%, respectively), and the third-highest total (public and private) social spending at 30.2% of its GDP, after France and Belgium (31.3% and 31.0%, respectively).[229] Sweden spent 6.3% of its GDP, the 9th-highest among 34 OECD countries, to provide equal access to education.[230] On health care, the country spent 10.0% of its total GDP, the 12th highest.[231]

Historically, Sweden provided solid support for free trade (except agriculture) and mostly relatively strong and stable property rights (both private and public), though some economists have pointed out that Sweden promoted industries with tariffs and used publicly subsidised R&D during the country's early critical years of industrialisation.[232] After World War II a succession of governments expanded the welfare state by raising the taxes. During this period Sweden's economic growth was also one of the highest in the industrial world. A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries (for example the United States).[233]

However, from the 1970s and onwards Sweden's GDP growth fell behind other industrialised countries and the country's per capita ranking fell from 4th to 14th place in a few decades.[234] From the mid-1990s until today Sweden's economic growth has once again accelerated and has been higher than in most other industrialised countries (including the US) during the last 15 years.[235] A report from the United Nations Development Program predicted that Sweden's rating on the Human Development Index will fall from 0.949 in 2010 to 0.906 in 2030.[236]

Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the 1980s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization, financialization and deregulation,[237][238] compared to countries such as France.[206][239] The current Swedish government is continuing the trend of moderate rollbacks of previous social reforms.[206][240] Growth has been higher than in many other EU-15 countries. Also since the mid-1980s, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD. This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services. According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer. Sweden is starting to look like the USA." Nevertheless, it remains far more egalitarian than most nations.[115][241] Partly as a result of these privatisations and widening economic disparity, the Swedes in the 2014 elections put the Social Democrats back in power.[242][243]

Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in 1990. Since the 1930s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls. In June 1990, the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls. As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened.[244]

Since the late 1960s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota (as percentage of GDP) in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries. Sweden has a two-step progressive tax scale with a municipal income tax of about 30% and an additional high-income state tax of 20–25% when a salary exceeds roughly 320,000 SEK per year. Payroll taxes amount to 32%. In addition, a national VAT of 25% is added to many things bought by private citizens, with the exception of food (12% VAT), transportation, and books (6% VAT). Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e.g. electricity, petrol/diesel and alcoholic beverages.

In 2007, total tax revenue was 47.8% of GDP, the second-highest tax burden among developed countries, down from 49.1% 2006.[245] Sweden's inverted tax wedge – the amount going to the service worker's wallet – is approximately 15%, compared to 10% in Belgium, 30% in Ireland, and 50% in the United States.[234] Public sector spending amounts to 53% of the GDP. State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries. Only Denmark has a larger public sector (38% of Danish workforce). Spending on transfers is also high.

In 2015 and 2016, 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Union density in 2016 was 62% among blue-collar-workers (most of them in the Swedish Trade Union Confederation, LO) and 75% among white-collar workers (most of them in the Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees, TCO, and the Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations, SACO).[246] Sweden has state-supported union unemployment funds (Ghent system).[247] Trade unions have the right to elect two representatives to the board in all Swedish companies with more than 25 employees. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: the average worker loses 24 days due to sickness.[213]

The unemployment rate was 7.2% in May 2017 while the employment rate was 67.4%, with the workforce consisting of 4,983,000 people while 387,000 are unemployed.[248][249] Unemployment among youth (aged 24 or younger) in 2012 was 24.2%, making Sweden the OECD country with the highest ratio of youth unemployment versus unemployment in general.[250]

Science and technology

Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize

In the 18th century, Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe.

In 1739, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences was founded, with people such as Carl Linnaeus and Anders Celsius as early members. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. Gustaf Dalén founded AGA, and received the Nobel Prize for his sun valve. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian-American inventor Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.[251]

The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground. Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Losec, an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the 1990s and was developed by AstraZeneca. More recently Håkan Lans invented the Automatic Identification System, a worldwide standard for shipping and civil aviation navigation. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.[251]

Swedish inventors held 47,112 patents in the United States in 2014, according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden.[252]

Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3.5% of GDP to research & development (R&D) per year, making Sweden's investment in R&D as a percentage of GDP the second-highest in the world.[253] For several decades the Swedish government has prioritised scientific and R&D activities. As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.[254] Sweden tops other European countries in the number of published scientific works per capita.[255]

Swedish–ESO Submillimetre Telescope discovered the Boomerang Nebula and the first extragalactic silicon monoxide maser.[256]

In 2009, the decisions to construct Sweden's two largest scientific installations, the synchrotron radiation facility MAX IV Laboratory and the European Spallation Source (ESS), were taken.[257][258] Both installations will be built in Lund. The European Spallation Source, costing some SEK 14 billion to construct,[259] will begin initial operations in 2019 with construction completion scheduled for 2025. The ESS will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today's existing neutron source installations.[260] The MAX IV, costing some SEK 3 billion, was inaugurated on 21 June 2016. Both facilities have strong implications on material research.

Taxes

On average, 27% of taxpayer's money in Sweden goes to education and healthcare, whereas 5% goes to the police and military, and 42% to social security.[261]

The typical worker receives 40% of his or her labour costs after the tax wedge. Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at 52.3% in 1990.[209] The country faced a real estate and banking crisis in 1990–1991, and consequently passed tax reforms in 1991 to implement tax rate cuts and tax base broadening over time.[210][211] Since 1990, taxes as a percentage of GDP collected by Sweden have been dropping, with total tax rates for the highest income earners dropping the most.[212] In 2010 45.8% of the country's GDP was collected as taxes, the second highest among OECD countries, and nearly double the percentage in the US or South Korea.[209]

Pensions

Every Swedish resident receives a state pension. Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions. People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension. There are several types of pensions in Sweden: national retirement, occupational and private pensions. A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions.

Demographics

Population density in the counties of Sweden.
people/km²
  0–9.9
  10–24.9
  25–49.9
  50–99.9
  100–199.9
  200+

The total resident population of Sweden was 10,377,781 in October 2020.[12] The population exceeded 10 million for the first time on Friday 20 January 2017.[262][263]

The average population density is just over 25 people per km2 (65 per square mile), with 1 437 persons per km2 in localities (continuous settlement with at least 200 inhabitants).[264],[265] 87% of the population live in urban areas, which cover 1.5% of the entire land area.[266] 63% of Swedes are in large urban areas.[266] It is substantially higher in the south than in the north. The capital city Stockholm has a municipal population of about 950,000 (with 1.5 million in the urban area and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area). The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö. Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the Öresund. The Öresund Region, the Danish-Swedish cross-border region around the Öresund that Malmö is part of, has a population of 4 million. Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.

Norrland, which covers approximately 60% of the Swedish territory, has a very low population density (below 5 people per square kilometre). The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Low population density exists also in large parts of western Svealand, as well as southern and central Småland. An area known as Finnveden, which is located in the south-west of Småland, and mainly below the 57th parallel, can also be considered as almost empty of people.

Between 1820 and 1930, approximately 1.3 million Swedes, a third of the country's population at the time, emigrated to North America, and most of them to the United States. There are more than 4.4 million Swedish Americans according to a 2006 US Census Bureau estimate.[267] In Canada, the community of Swedish ancestry is 330,000 strong.[268]

There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 2,634,967 (25.5%) inhabitants of Sweden were of a foreign background in 2019, defined as being born abroad or born in Sweden with foreign born parents.[269] Of these inhabitants, 2,019,733 persons were born abroad and 615,234 persons were born in Sweden to parents born abroad. In addition, 780,199 persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.

Sweden has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 41.1 years.[270]

Language

Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language

The official language of Sweden is Swedish,[16][17] a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian, but differing in pronunciation and orthography. Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians. The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania, the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it. Sweden Finns are Sweden's largest linguistic minority, comprising about 5% of Sweden's population,[271] and Finnish is recognised as a minority language.[17] Owing to a 21st-century influx of native speakers of Arabic, the use of Arabic is likely more widespread in the country than that of Finnish. However, no official statistics are kept on language use.[272]

Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: Meänkieli, Sami, Romani, and Yiddish. Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July 2009, when a new language law was implemented.[17] The issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language had been raised in the past, and the Riksdag voted on the matter in 2005, but the proposal narrowly failed.[273]

In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier. In a 2005 survey by Eurobarometer, 89% of Swedes reported the ability to speak English.[274]

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as 1849, and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late 1940s.[275] Depending on the local school authorities, English is currently a compulsory subject between first grade and ninth grade, with all students continuing in secondary school studying English for at least another year. Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include (but are not limited to) German, French and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.

Religion

Religions in Sweden (2018)[5]

  Church of Sweden (57.7%)
  Other Protestants (3.4%)
  Catholic Church (1.2%)
  Other Christian denominations (0.3%)
  Islam (1.9%)
  Other religions (0.3%)
  Unaffiliated (33.5%)

Before the 11th century, Swedes adhered to Norse paganism, worshiping Æsir gods, with its centre at the Temple in Uppsala. With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century. After the Protestant Reformation in the 1530s, a change led by Martin Luther's Swedish associate Olaus Petri, the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread. Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of 1593, and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy, small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen, the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.[276] The Sami originally had their own shamanistic religion, but they were converted to Lutheranism by Swedish missionaries in the 17th and 18th centuries.

The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque

With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism, were allowed to live and work freely in the country. However, until 1860 it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches, and, towards the end of the century, secularism, leading many to distance themselves from church rituals. Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of 1860, but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination. The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the law on freedom of religion in 1951.

In 2000, the Church of Sweden was disestablished. Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church (after Finland did so in the Church Act of 1869).[277]

At the end of 2018, 57.7% of Swedes belonged to the Church of Sweden; this number had been decreasing by about 1.5 percentage points a year for the previous 7 years and one percentage point a year on average for the previous two decades.[278][279][280] Approximately 2% of the church's members regularly attend Sunday services.[281] The reason for the large number of inactive members is partly that, until 1996, children automatically became members at birth if at least one of the parents was a member. Since 1996, only children and adults who are christened become members. Some 275,000 Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches (where congregation attendance is much higher), and due to recent immigration, there are now some 100,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92,000 Roman Catholics living in Sweden.[282]

The first Muslim congregation was established in 1949, when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland. Islam's presence in Sweden remained marginal until the 1960s, when Sweden started to receive migrants from the Balkans and Turkey. Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to 600,000.[283] However, only about 110,000 were members of a congregation around 2010.[284][285][286]

According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010,[287]

  • 18% of Swedish citizens responded that "they believe there is a god".
  • 45% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".
  • 34% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".

According to a Demoskop study in 2015 about the beliefs of the Swedish showed that

  • 21% believed in a god (down from 35 percent in 2008).
  • 16% believed in ghosts.
  • 14% believed in creationism or intelligent design.[288][289]

Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist, preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.[290] Religion continues to play a role in Swedish cultural identity.[291] This is evidenced by the fact that the majority of Swedish adults continue to remain members of the Lutheran Church despite having to pay a church tax; moreover, rates of baptism remain high and church weddings are increasing in Sweden.[291]

Health

Healthcare in Sweden is mainly tax-funded, universal for all citizens and decentralized,[292] although private health care also exists. The health care system in Sweden is financed primarily through taxes levied by county councils and municipalities. A total of 21 councils are in charge with primary and hospital care within the country.

Private healthcare is a rarity in Sweden, and even those private institutions work under the mandated city councils.[293] The city councils regulates the rules and the establishment of potential private practices. Although in most countries care for the elderly or those who need psychiatric help is conducted privately, in Sweden local, publicly funded authorities are in charge of this type of care.[294]

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality. It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water.[295] In 2018, health and medical care represented around 11 per cent of GDP.[296]

Education

Uppsala University (established 1477)

Children aged 1–5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten (Swedish: förskola or, colloquially, dagis). Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. In the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Swedish 15-year-old pupils score close to the OECD average.[297] After completing the 9th grade, about 90% of the students continue with a three-year upper secondary school (gymnasium), which can lead to both a job qualification or entrance eligibility to university. The school system is largely financed by taxes.

The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally[298] by introducing education vouchers in 1992 as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands. Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.[299]

There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden, the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala, Lund, Gothenburg and Stockholm. In 2000, 32% of Swedish people held a tertiary degree, making the country 5th in the OECD in that category.[300] Along with several other European countries, the government also subsidises tuition of international students pursuing a degree at Swedish institutions, although a recent bill passed in the Riksdag will limit this subsidy to students from EEA countries and Switzerland.[301]

The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.[302][303][304][305]

Immigration

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden, and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behaviour.[306]

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity. This is, however, not to be confused with the migrants' national backgrounds, which are recorded.

Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland.[307] Since the early 1970s, immigration to Sweden has been mostly due to refugee migration and family reunification from countries in the Middle East and Latin America.[308] In 2019, Sweden granted 21,958 people asylum, and 21,502 in 2018.[309]

The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in 2019 were from:[310]

  1.  Syria (191,530)
  2.  Iraq (146,048)
  3.  Finland (144,561)
  4.  Poland (93,722)
  5.  Iran (80,136)
  6.  Somalia (70,173)
  7. Former Yugoslavia (64,349)
  8.  Bosnia and Herzegovina (60,012)
  9.  Afghanistan (58,780)
  10.  Turkey (51,689)

According to an official investigation by The Swedish Pensions Agency on order from the government, the immigration to Sweden will double the state's expenses for pensions to the population. The total immigration to Sweden for 2017 will be roughly 180 000 people, and after that 110 000 individuals every year.[311][312]

Crime

Figures from the 2013 Swedish Crime Survey (SCS) show that exposure to crime decreased from 2005 to 2013.[313] Since 2014 there has been an increase in exposure to some categories of crimes, including fraud, some property crime and especially sexual offences (with a 70% increase since 2013, which was partly caused by laws broadening the definition of rape[314]) according to the 2016 SCS.[315] Violence (both lethal and non-lethal) has been on a downward trend the last 25 years.[316] The figures for fraud and property damage (excluding car theft) are in contrast with the numbers of reported crimes under such categories which have remained roughly constant over the period 2014–16.[317] The number of reported sexual offences clearly reflect the figures in the 2016 SCS, and car related damages/theft are also somewhat reflected.[318][319] The number of convictions up to 2013 has remained between 110,000 and 130,000 in the 2000s — a decrease since the 1970s, when they numbered around 300,000 — despite the population growth.[320] Consistent with other Western countries in the postwar era, the number of reported crimes has increased when measured from the 1950s; which can be explained by a number of factors, such as immigration, statistical and legislative changes and increased public willingness to report crime.[321]

Culture

Nationalmuseum in Stockholm

Sweden has many authors of worldwide recognition including August Strindberg, Astrid Lindgren, and Nobel Prize winners Selma Lagerlöf and Harry Martinson. In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. The nation's most well-known artists are painters such as Carl Larsson and Anders Zorn, and the sculptors Tobias Sergel and Carl Milles.

Swedish 20th-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström. In the 1920s–1980s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema. More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson, Lasse Hallström, and Ruben Östlund have received international recognition.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the "sexual revolution", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.[322] The early Swedish film I Am Curious (Yellow) (1967) reflected a liberal view of sexuality, including scenes of love making that caught international attention, and introduced the concept of the "Swedish sin" that had been introduced earlier in the US with Ingmar Bergman's Summer with Monika.

The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.[323]

Sweden has also become very liberal towards homosexuality, as is reflected in the popular acceptance of films such as Show Me Love, which is about two young lesbians in the small Swedish town of Åmål. Since 1 May 2009, Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage,[324] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Cohabitation (sammanboende) by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. As of 2009, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.[325]

Music

The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest

Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the lur (a sort of trumpet), simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. Sweden has a significant folk-music scene. The joik, a type of Sami music, is a chant that is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality. Notable composers include Carl Michael Bellman and Franz Berwald.

Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition. Out of a population of 9.5 million, it is estimated that five to six hundred thousand people sing in choirs.[326]

In 2007, with over 800 million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.[327][328][better source needed] According to one source 2013, Sweden produces the most chart hits per capita in the world, followed by the UK and the USA.[329] Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences. The Centre for Swedish Folk Music and Jazz Research has published an overview of jazz in Sweden by Lars Westin.[330]

Architecture

Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side. As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. This would include the Lund Cathedral from the 11th century and the somewhat younger church in Dalby, but also many early Gothic churches built through influences of the Hanseatic League, such as in Ystad, Malmö and Helsingborg.

Cathedrals in other parts of Sweden were also built as seats of Sweden's bishops. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th. In 1230 the foundations of the Linköping Cathedral were made, the material was there limestone, but the building took some 250 years to finish.

Among older structures are also some significant fortresses and other historical buildings such as at Borgholm Castle, Halltorps Manor and Eketorp fortress on the island Öland, the Nyköping fortress and the Visby city wall.

Around 1520 Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built. Some of the more magnificent include Kalmar Castle, Gripsholm Castle and the one at Vadstena.

In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.

1930 was the year of the great Stockholm exhibition, which marked the breakthrough of Functionalism, or "funkis" as it became known. The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme, offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.

The Ericsson Globe is the largest hemispherical building on Earth, Shaped like a large white ball, and took two and a half years to build. It's located in Stockholm.

Media

Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm

Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter (liberal), Göteborgs-Posten (liberal), Svenska Dagbladet (liberal conservative) and Sydsvenska Dagbladet (liberal). The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet (social democratic) and Expressen (liberal). The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International, was founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local (liberal).[331]

The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden. Licence funded radio broadcasts started in 1925. A second radio network was started in 1954 and a third opened 1962 in response to pirate radio stations. Non-profit community radio was allowed in 1979 and in 1993 commercial local radio started.

The licence-funded television service was officially launched in 1956. A second channel, TV2, was launched in 1969. These two channels (operated by Sveriges Television since the late 1970s) held a monopoly until the 1980s when cable and satellite television became available. The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in 1987. It was followed by Kanal 5 in 1989 (then known as Nordic Channel) and TV4 in 1990.

In 1991 the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network. TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in 1992, becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.

Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in 1999 and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in 2007.

Literature

The writer and playwright August Strindberg

The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök runestone, carved during the Viking Age c. 800 AD. With the conversion of the land to Christianity around 1100 AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages, during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin. Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in 1541. This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.

With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation, the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further. Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm (17th century), who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren (18th century), the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman (late 18th century), the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg (late 19th century), a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame. The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf, (Nobel laureate 1909), Verner von Heidenstam (Nobel laureate 1916) and Pär Lagerkvist (Nobel laureate 1951).

In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou. The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking, Emil, and others. In 2008, the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson, whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.[332] Larsson drew heavily on the work of Lindgren by basing his central character, Lisbeth Salander, on Longstocking.[333]

Holidays

Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden

Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays, Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice; Walpurgis Night (Valborgsmässoafton) on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations. The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia, 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.

6 June is the National Day of Sweden and has since 2005 been a public holiday. Furthermore, there are official flag flying day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor (crayfish dinner parties). Martin of Tours Eve is celebrated in Scania in November with Mårten Gås parties, where roast goose and svartsoppa ('black soup', made of goose stock, fruit, spices, spirits and goose blood) are served. The Sami, one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on 6 February and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July.[334]

Cuisine

Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.

Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway and Finland), was traditionally simple. Fish (particularly herring), meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Spices were sparse. Preparations include Swedish meatballs, traditionally served with gravy, boiled potatoes and lingonberry jam; pancakes; pyttipanna, a spiced fried hash of meat and potatoes originally meant to use up any left-overs of meat; lutfisk; and the smörgåsbord, or lavish buffet. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage, and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance. The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming (a fermented fish) in northern Sweden and eel in southern Sweden.

Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, are still an important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.

In August, at the traditional feast known as crayfish party, kräftskiva, Swedes eat large amounts of crayfish boiled with dill.

Cinema

Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. A number of Swedish people have found success in Hollywood, including Ingrid Bergman, Greta Garbo and Max von Sydow. Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström.

Fashion

Interest in fashion is big in Sweden and the country is headquartering famous brands like Hennes & Mauritz (operating as H&M), J. Lindeberg (operating as JL), Acne, Lindex, Odd Molly, Cheap Monday, Gant, WESC, Filippa K, and Nakkna within its borders. These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.

Sports

Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities. The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports (of which most of the participants are women) have the highest number of practitioners. Thereafter, golf, orienteering, gymnastics, track and field, and the team sports of ice hockey, handball, floorball, basketball and bandy are the most popular in terms of practitioners.[335]

The Swedish national men's ice hockey team, affectionately known as Tre Kronor (English: Three Crowns; the national symbol of Sweden), is regarded as one of the best in the world. The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in 1994 and 2006. In 2006, Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in 1958, and third twice, in 1950 and 1994. Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years, such as Carolina Klüft and Stefan Holm.

Sweden hosted the 1912 Summer Olympics, Equestrian at the 1956 Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup in 1958. Other big sports events include the UEFA Euro 1992, 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup, 1995 World Championships in Athletics, UEFA Women's Euro 2013, and several championships of ice hockey, curling, athletics, skiing, bandy, figure skating and swimming.

Successful football players include Gunnar Nordahl, Gunnar Gren, Nils Liedholm, Henrik Larsson, Freddie Ljungberg, Caroline Seger, Lotta Schelin, Hedvig Lindahl, and Zlatan Ibrahimović. Successful tennis players include former world number 1 players Björn Borg, Mats Wilander and Stefan Edberg. Other famous Swedish athletes include the heavyweight boxing champion and International Boxing Hall of Famer Ingemar Johansson, World Golf Hall of Famer Annika Sörenstam, and multiple World Championships and Olympics medalist in table tennis Jan-Ove Waldner. Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden. This includes alpine skiers Ingemar Stenmark, Anja Pärson and Pernilla Wiberg as well as cross country-skiers Gunde Svan, Thomas Wassberg, Charlotte Kalla and Marcus Hellner, all Olympic gold medalists.

In 2016, The Swedish Poker Federation (Svepof) has joined The International Federation of Poker (IFP).[336]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Monarch and dynastic members of the Royal House must at all times be Protestant Christians of the Church of Sweden, but protestantism has not been the official state religion since the year 2000.[3][4][5] However, the Church is recognized by law[6] and is still supported by the state.[7]
  2. ^ The State (Swedish: staten) is also descriptively translated into English as the "central government", not to be confused with the Government, i.e. the cabinet which is but one organ of the State.
  3. ^ An alternate English translation is "local governments".

References

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