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Mathematics is the study of representing and reasoning about abstract objects (such as numbers, points, spaces, sets, structures, and games). Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Used for calculation, it is considered the most important subject. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries and sometimes leads to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered. (Full article...)

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animation of the act of "unrolling" a circle's circumference, illustrating the ratio pi (π)
Credit: John Reid
Pi, represented by the Greek letter π, is a mathematical constant whose value is the ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter in Euclidean space (i.e., on a flat plane); it is also the ratio of a circle's area to the square of its radius. (These facts are reflected in the familiar formulas from geometry, C = π d and A = π r2.) In this animation, the circle has a diameter of 1 unit, giving it a circumference of π. The rolling shows that the distance a point on the circle moves linearly in one complete revolution is equal to π. Pi is an irrational number and so cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers; as a result, the decimal expansion of π is nonterminating and nonrepeating. To 50 decimal places, π  3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510, a value of sufficient precision to allow the calculation of the volume of a sphere the size of the orbit of Neptune around the Sun (assuming an exact value for this radius) to within 1 cubic angstrom. According to the Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem, first proved in 1882, π is also a transcendental (or non-algebraic) number, meaning it is not the root of any non-zero polynomial with rational coefficients. (This implies that it cannot be expressed using any closed-form algebraic expression—and also that solving the ancient problem of squaring the circle using a compass and straightedge construction is impossible). Perhaps the simplest non-algebraic closed-form expression for π is 4 arctan 1, based on the inverse tangent function (a transcendental function). There are also many infinite series and some infinite products that converge to π or to a simple function of it, like 2/π; one of these is the infinite series representation of the inverse-tangent expression just mentioned. Such iterative approaches to approximating π first appeared in 15th-century India and were later rediscovered (perhaps not independently) in 17th- and 18th-century Europe (along with several continued fractions representations). Although these methods often suffer from an impractically slow convergence rate, one modern infinite series that converges to 1/π very quickly is given by the Chudnovsky algorithm, first published in 1989; each term of this series gives an astonishing 14 additional decimal places of accuracy. In addition to geometry and trigonometry, π appears in many other areas of mathematics, including number theory, calculus, and probability.

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Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms
Image credit: User:Booyabazooka

An algorithm is a procedure (a finite set of well-defined instructions) for accomplishing some task which, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. The computational complexity and efficient implementation of the algorithm are important in computing, and this depends on suitable data structures.

Informally, the concept of an algorithm is often illustrated by the example of a recipe, although many algorithms are much more complex; algorithms often have steps that repeat (iterate) or require decisions (such as logic or comparison). Algorithms can be composed to create more complex algorithms.

The concept of an algorithm originated as a means of recording procedures for solving mathematical problems such as finding the common divisor of two numbers or multiplying two numbers. The concept was formalized in 1936 through Alan Turing's Turing machines and Alonzo Church's lambda calculus, which in turn formed the foundation of computer science.

Most algorithms can be directly implemented by computer programs; any other algorithms can at least in theory be simulated by computer programs. In many programming languages, algorithms are implemented as functions or procedures. (Full article...)

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General Foundations Number theory Discrete mathematics
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Algebra Analysis Geometry and topology Applied mathematics
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