光沢のある略語のリスト

ウィキペディアから、無料の百科事典
ナビゲーションにジャンプ 検索にジャンプ

この記事では、英語口頭言語[nb1]の言語的インターリニアグロスで使用される文法用語の一般的な略語を示します。

このリストは、最も広く知られている標準であるライプツィヒ光沢規則[2]などの光沢略語の標準在庫によって確立された従来の光沢を提供します。これらは通常、ウィキペディアで使用されるグロスになります。同義の光沢は、参照目的の代替としてリストされています。いくつかのケースでは、長い標準形式と短い標準形式がリストされており、その光沢がまれまたは一般的なテキストを対象としています。

規約

  • 文法上の略語は、一般に、語彙の単語の翻訳と視覚的に区別するために、フルキャップまたはスモールキャップで記述されます。たとえば、大文字または小文字のPAST (多くの場合PSTと省略されます)は、文法的な過去形の形態素を示しますが、小文字の「過去」は、その意味を持つ単語の直訳になります。同様に、(小さい)cap -DOWNは、名目上の語尾変化で使用される処格接尾辞であり、典型的には下向きの方向を示しますが、英語では「down」として翻訳できない場合にも使用される可能性がありますが、小文字の「down」は直接英語です「ダウン」を意味する単語の翻訳。[3]すべての作者がこの規則に従うわけではありません。
  • 人称-性別は、多くの場合、さらに省略されます。この場合、要素はスモールキャップスではありません。たとえば、3SG.Mの場合は3msまたは3msg、2PL.Fの場合は2fpまたは2fpl、1DU.INCLの場合は1di 1PL.EXCL場合は1peです。[4] [nb 2]
  • 作者は、テキスト内で特に頻繁に使用される場合、通常よりも厳密にグロスを省略できます。たとえば、「直前」のIMM.PSTではなくIPです。これにより、略語が光沢のある形態素よりも長い場合に、光沢を解析されたテキストとグラフィカルに整列させることができます。このような短縮形は他の著者とあいまいである可能性があり、テキストはここでは規範として提示されていません。グロスは、読者に負担をかけないように、特定のテキストで一般的でない場合は、標準よりも省略されない場合があります。たとえば、「transitivizer」の場合はTRANSTVZR、「subjunctive」の場合はSUBJUNCTです。極端な場合、光沢はまったく省略されない場合がありますが、COMPLEMENTIZERなどの小さな大文字で書かれているだけです。COMP NTH DRではなくNONTHEMEまたはDOWNRIVER[5]そのような長くて明白な略語[6]以下のリストから省略されていますが、いつでも可能です。
  • 形態素は、それ自体の光沢として使用されることがあります。これは通常、それが議論のトピックであり、著者が同様の意味を持つ他の形態素の中で光沢ですぐに認識されることを望んでいる場合、または単一の従来の略語で光沢を付けるのは実用的ではない複数または微妙な意味を持っている場合に行われます。たとえば、パッセージに2つの対照的な名詞化接尾辞、ɣiŋjolqəlがある場合、それらはGNJQに光沢があり、光沢はテキストで説明されています。[7]これは、形態素の意味が議論されているときにも見られ、何らかの形でそれを光沢化すると、議論が妨げられます。
  • 語彙形態素は通常、小文字を使用して翻訳されますが、テキストで文法的な役割を果たす場合は、小さな大文字で文法的な光沢が与えられる場合があります。例外には、通常は翻訳されない適切な名詞と、複雑すぎて翻訳できない親族用語が含まれます。適切な名詞/名前は、単に光沢の中で繰り返すか、「(name .f)」や「PN(F)」(女性の名前の場合)などのプレースホルダーに置き換えることができます。親族の光沢については、標準的な略語のリストについて、以下の専用セクションを参照してください。
  • レーマンは、構文上の役割の略語は形態学的なカテゴリーではないため、引数のグロスとして使用しないことをお勧めします。代わりに、格のグロスを使用する必要があります。たとえば、AのERGまたはNOMです。[ 8 ]形態構文略語は、グロスに小さなキャップが使用されている場合でも、通常は完全大文字としてタイプセットされます[9]。コア受益者格)、[10] DまたはI(コア与格/間接目的語)、[11] E(感覚動詞の経験者)、[12] GまたはR(目標または受信者)–二重他動詞の間接オブジェクト)、[13] L(位置引数)、[14] OまたはP(他動詞の患者)、S(自動詞の単一引数)、S A(Sa)およびSPまたはSO(Sp、So)(split-Sアラインメントにおけるエージェントおよび患者のような引数)、[15] SeおよびSx(等式/動詞および他動詞の引数)、[11] Su(vtまたはviの主語)、[ 11]とT(テーマ–二重他動詞の直接オブジェクト)。[14]
ただし、これらの略語は、 AV(エージェントボイス)などの対称音声システム(以前は「トリガー」合意と呼ばれ、一部の「フォーカス」(文法的なフォーカスではないため誤解を招く))の光沢の基礎として一般的に使用されます。BF(受益者 'フォーカス')、LT(処格 'トリガー')。
  • 形態素の正確な値を指定するために、「パーティクル」、「インフィックス」、「テンス」、「オブジェクトマーカー」などの一般的な概念のグロスは一般に避けてください。[8]ただし、言語間で値が異なる場合や意味を再構築できない場合、または形態素(記事やアスペクトマーカーなど)が1つしかないためにそのような使用法が明確である場合は、歴史言語学や言語比較に適している可能性があります。そのように光沢を付けることができます。より正確な光沢が誤解を招く可能性がある場合(たとえば、複数の用途がある、または適切に光沢を出すには十分に理解されていないアスペクトマーカー)、構文カテゴリとして光沢を付けると、作成者は数字で曖昧さを解消できます(例:アスペクトマーカーのペアの場合)。このような疑似光沢は、読者が理解するのが難しい場合があります。
  • 著者はまた、言語の形態素や語順を説明するために使用されるなど、概略化された構文解析の一般的な要素にプレースホルダーを使用します。例には、HEADまたはHD'head 'が含まれます。ROOTまたはRT'root '; STEMまたはST 'ステム'; PREFPRFX 、またはPX 'プレフィックス'; SUFFSUFXまたはSX 'サフィックス'; CLITCLまたはENCL '(en)clitic'; PREP '前置詞'およびPOSまたはPOST '後置詞'、'person-number-gender element'およびTAM'tense -aspect-mood element '(NG number-gender、PN person-number、TA tense-aspect、TAME tense-aspect-mood-evidential)など[2] [ 16]これらは形態学的値の光沢ではないため、以下にリストされていません。

リスト

グロスとして使用される省略されていない英語の単語は、以下のリストに含まれていません。ATBYTOUPなどの短いグロスには注意が必要です。これは、略語または(これらの場合のように)グロスとして使用される省略されていない英語の前置詞のいずれかである可能性があります。

以下の光沢の透明なコンパウンド、たとえばREMPSTまたはREM.PST「リモートパスト」、REM「リモート」とPST「パスト」のコンパウンドは個別にリストされていません。

N- ( non-in-un-の一般化されたグロスプレフィックス)で始まる略語は、含まれている代替形式がない限り、個別にリストされません。たとえば、N- non- + PST pastから構成可能であるため、 NPSTnon -pastはリストされませんこの規則は、ライプツィヒの光沢規則に基づいています。[2]一部の作成者は、小文字のnを使用します。たとえば、「非人間」の場合はnHを使用します。[16]

一部のソースは、古典的なlativeLAT、-L)の用語から「方向性」(DIR)に移行しており、略語が同時に変更されています。他の著者は、-lativeと-directiveを対比しています。[17]

一部の情報源では、名詞化と名詞化区別するために代替の略語を使用しています[18]。または、膠着語の独立した光沢よりも合成形態素の複合光沢の短い略語です。[19]歴史言語学で区別されるものもありますが、これらは言語ではめったに区別されない形態統語論的カテゴリーです。そのような使用法は作者に特有である傾向があるので、それらは以下で区別されません。

句読点と数字

従来の光沢 バリアント 意味 リファレンス
- セグメント化可能な形態素の区切り文字、たとえば、レズギ語のamuq'-da-č(stay- FUT - NEG)「滞在しません」 [2]
= ꞊、‿ [ハイフンの代わりにオプション]接語用の区切り文字。たとえば、西グリーンランド語palasi = lu niuirtur = lu(priest = and shopkeeper = and) "司祭と店主の両方" [2] [20]
モーフが複数の光沢でレンダリングされる場合、光沢はピリオドで区切られます。たとえば、French aux chevaux(to .ART.PL horse .PL) "to the horses"
ピリオドは、人と数字の間に使用されません(例:1PL )。 、2SG1DU3NSG(非特異)。
[2]
_ [ピリオドの代わりにオプション]グロスの言語に1語の翻訳がない場合、フレーズにアンダースコアを付けることができます。たとえば、トルコ語のçık -mak(come_out- INF)「出てくる」
1つの単語で光沢のある2単語のフレーズの場合も同様です。
[2] [21]
>、→、: [期間の代わりにオプション]単一の光沢で多個人的合意 の方向、 (a)所有1S› SG1Sの所有者と単一の所有を意味する)または(b)推移性(2› 3は2が3に作用することを意味する)guny -bi-yarluga2DU› 3SG -FUT -poke)「(誰が)槍をやりたいですか?」一部の作者はコロンを使用しています:1S:SG2DU:3SG-FUT- poke。


[2] [22] [23] [4]
[ピリオドの代わりにオプション]セグメンテーションが無関係な場合にグロスを分離します(形態素はセグメント化可能かもしれませんが、作成者はそれらを分離したくありません) [2]
; [ピリオドの代わりにオプション]は、「馬へ」のaux chevaux(to; ART; PL horse; PL )のように、かばん語の形態素で組み合わされた光沢を分離します。一部の作成者は、この規則と以前の規則でコロンを無差別に使用します。[24]
[2] [24]
+ [オプション]複合語または融合形態素。
(1 + 2(包括的)vs 1 + 3(排他的)の人にも使用されます; EMPH +強い強調)
[8] [11] [25] [26]
[ピリオドの代わりにオプション]相互参照:X&Y = X› YまたはY› Xまたはその両方 [8]
/ | あいまいな形態素の代替意味。たとえば、2人称または3人称の形態素の場合は2/3、与格と属格の両方に使用される接尾辞の場合は DAT / GEN 。 [27] [6]
\ [ピリオドの代わりにオプション] Väter-n(父\ PL-DAT.PL)「(私たちの)父へ」(単数形Vater) のように、突然変異によって示される、または突然変異によって影響を受ける形態素 [2]
[...] [ピリオドの代わりにオプション]は、マークされていない要素(fils(son [MSG]MSGのサフィックスはありません)など)を示します。代わりに、nullサフィックス-∅を使用できます。 [2]
(...) [期間の代わりにオプション]秘密の性別 などの固有のカテゴリ(光沢がある場合) [2]
[ハイフンの代わりに必要]は、畳語と畳語を示します(例:ギリシャ語のgé〜graph-PRF〜write- 1SG'I have write '、with word-initial reduplication) [2]
⟨...⟩ <...> [ハイフンの代わりに必要]は中置をマークします(例:⟨ITER⟩Vbは動詞を反復させる単語の最初の中置です) [2]
⟩...⟨ -...-、> ... < [ハイフンの代わりにオプション]接周辞または2部語幹をマークします。2番目の要素は、最初の要素と同じように、またはCIRCSTEM、または$と同じように光沢   を
付けることでき
ます   PART.PRF⟩run⟨CIRCge -lauf-enPART.PRF- run- PART.PRF ge - lauf -en PART.PRF -run- CIRC
 
 
 
[8]
$ (不連続語彙素の2番目の部分) [28]
[オプション]一部の作成者がどの要素がルートであるかをマークするために使用します(⟨x-√yz⟩では、「y」がルートです) [29] [30]
??、X (形態素がわからない、未確認の形態素) [31] [32]
0、Ø ゼロ(null)形態素fils-∅(son- MSG)、MSGの「ゼロ」接尾辞など代わりにブラケットを使用できます。 [2] [33] [8] [34]
0 ゼロ人(フィンランド語、ケールのように 「 1人」) [35]
0 音挿入セグメント(意味的にnull) [10]
1 一人称(1msg、1fpl、1EXCLDEM1など):1HONスピーカー-敬語、1HMLスピーカー-屈辱的/謙虚 [2] [8]
2 二人称 [2]
3 サードパーソン3SG.Mまたは3msgまたは3ms; 3PL.Fまたは3fplまたは3fp; 3DU.Nまたは3nduまたは3nd; N3またはn3非サードパーソン)[場合によっては3sm、3sn、3sf、3pm、3pn、3pfなど。 ] [36] [2] [21]
12、13 包括的で排他的な人(特に1plの形式として考えられていない場合)
(まれに他の数字の複合語、たとえば12デュアルvs 122複数形、33 vs 333 for 3du vs 3plなど)
[24] [37] [27]
3sp 非人格的な「スペース」の主題 [19]
3.3'.CJ (3人称subj、3人称obj conjunct–order動詞) [1]
4 (a)4人称(= OBV
(b)1人称を含む
[38] [39] [1]
I、II、III、IV など。 名詞のクラス/性別 [40] [41] [23]
>≥
<≤
年配および若い:1SG> 'I'(宛先より古い話者)、2SG≤ 'あなた'(同じ年齢以下の宛先に宛てた話者)、3SG> 's / he'((a)話者または(b)より古い指示対象)談話の要件に応じて、宛先) [37]
=≠ 同じ世代と異なる世代:3DU≠「2つ」(異なる世代、たとえば孫と曽孫)、1PL =「私たち」(同じ世代、たとえば私と私の兄弟) [37]
によって異なります [1]

文法上の略語

従来の光沢 バリアント 意味 リファレンス
-A athematic(TAMA athematic緊張-アスペクトムード、ANTA athematic先行詞など) [42]
A- 関連付け(大文字と小文字の省略の接頭辞) [24]
AA 宛先権限(SAを参照) [21]
AB から。ABESSまたはABLと同等である可能性があります。単一の形態素の場合はABE(SS)ABL(AT)ABELなど、そうでない場合はAB-ESSAB-LATまたはAB-DIRAB-ELAなどの複合 [要出典]
AB ABV [要出典] 直示中心の上 [43]
女子修道院長 阿部 AB 欠格別名caritiveケースまたはprivativeケース: 'なし')

Lehmann(2004)は、代わりにprivative( PRV)またはaversive(AVERS )を使用することを推奨しています[8]。

[33] [44] [45]
アビル ABL CAP [要出典] (能力)能力ACQ.ABIL獲得能力、INTR.ABIL固有能力) [46]
ABL ABLA 奪格( 'from') [2] [32]
ABM 奪格-モーダリスの場合 [47]
ABS ABSOL AB [要出典] 絶対格 [2] [18]
ABSL 絶対(無料、法人化されていない形の名詞) [8]
ABST AB cn 抽象的; 概要 [48] [12]
ABSTR アブストラクト(名目上の) [8]
ABSV ABSN 不在(直示中心からずれた場所で発生) [49] [50]
ABT [51]
交流 横切る動き(上り坂/下り坂、川とは対照的に) [要出典]
交流 有生性分類子 [30]
ACC 交流 対格 [2] [52]
ACCOM 付き添い [15]
ACH 業績 [35]
ACP ACCMP 達成 [53] [35]
ACR ACT cn? 俳優の役割 [8]
活動 交流 能動態 [33] [8] [53]
活動 実際 [42] [23]
ACTL 実現 [16]
ACTY アクティビティ [35]
広告 近所の。ADESSまたはALLと同等である可能性があります。単一の形態素の場合はADE(SS)、(不規則なALL)、ADELなど、そうでない場合はAD-ESSAD-LATAD-ELAなどの複合 [16] [17]
広告 エージェントの降格 [20]
広告 抗直示 [7]
ADAP アダプティブ [21]
追加 追加 添加剤の場合; アディティブフォーカス [8] [54] [55]
アデス AD ADE ADES 接格(「at」; LOCよりも具体的)。ADを参照してください [12] [56] [33] [8] [2] [30] [57] [31]
ADEL adelative [58] [8] [12]
ADJ 形容詞ADJZ形容詞) [2] [59] [16]
ADJ 付属物 [51]
ADJZ ADJR 注射器 [59] [60]
ADM アドモン 警戒心(警告) [8] [61]
ADR ADDR AD アドレス指定; 宛先-アンカー/指向/パースペクティブ [17] [16] [22] [62] [1] [21]
ADV adverb ( ial ADVZ〜ADVR副詞); 副詞の場合 [2] [13] [63] [8]
ADV アドバンス [50]
ADVM 副詞マーカー [19]
ADVS ADV ADVRS ADVRST 敵対的(悪意のある人、「一方」) [60] [53] [50] [1]
ADVZ ADVR ADVZR アドバービアライザー [13] [60] [32]
AEQ EQ EQL EQTV aequalis(equalis)ケース like、as)、等式助詞、等式(名義節の形容詞; EQA、EQS =アクティブ、状態動詞) [64] [39] [25] [56] [35]
AFF AFFMT AFFM AFFIRM 肯定的 [33] [50] [60] [16]
影響 愛情深い [24]
AFM 前述の [50]
AFFT AFF 情緒的なケース [60] [65] [23] [16]
FOC _ 引数フォーカスマーカー [1]
AFW 水から離れて(= UH [66]
AGG 集合的、集合的(COLを参照) [32]
AGN AG.N AGNR エージェントの名詞化/名詞 [67] [17] [32]
AGR AG 合意の接辞(通常は数-性別。PNGを参照)
Lehmann(2004)は、合意のカテゴリを避けて指定することを推奨しています。[8]
[2] [26]
AGT AG エージェントケースAGNZエージェント名詞化) [33] [8] [48] [62]
AJC 隣接 [68]
AL エイリアンcn? 譲渡可能な所有 [8] [62]
全て ADL ADDIR 向格( 'to';また 'aditive' [ sic ]、 'adlative'、 'addirective') [2] [12] [38]
ALLOC AL 同種(敬語) [8] [18]
ALTER 代替、= N.EGO [69]
アンビフ 両義代名詞 [23]
AMP 増幅器 [67]
AN ANM ANIM 性別をアニメーション化するANPLは複数形をアニメーション化する; Rを参照 ;人間の指示対象を除外する場合があります) [15] [7] [30] [33]
AN ACNR ACNNR アクション名詞、アクション名詞化 [17] [50] [8]
AN ADN アドノミナライザー [7]
ANA ANP ANAPH 照応(指示、接尾辞) [70] [25] [48] [22] [47]
ANA アクションは狭く回避されました [1]
andative( 'going to'、 cf venitive) [8]
ANP 動詞 [1]
前時制(相対時制;一部の伝統 ではPRFに使用されます) [33]
先行詞(ANTA athematic antecedent、ANTT thematic antecedent) [42]
ANT ANTC 予想される(将来)、予想する [6] [71] [7]
アンティ の前に。ANTESSまたはANTLと同等の場合があります。単一の形態素の場合はANTE(SS)ANTL(AT)ANTELなど、そうでない場合はANT-ESSANT-LATANT-ELAなどの複合 [16] [3]
アンテル anteelative(antelative) [17]
ANTESS ANTE [要出典] アンティシブケース、アンティシブ(「前」) [17]
ANTIC AC ACAUS 逆使役動詞 [72] [58] [8] [73] [50]
ANTIC 予測的(ANT.SU予測的主題) [1]
ANTIP AP APASS APS ANTI ATP 逆受動態 [45] [72] [28] [8] [2] [65] [73] [64] [39] [54] [16]
ANTLAT ANTDIR antelative(ante-lative)、antedirective [17]
AO エージェント指向の動詞 [53]
AOBL 外腹斜筋 [74]
AOR AO アオリスト(= PST.PFV [33] [19]
AP 副詞助詞[注:実際の意味を理解する方がよい] [18]
APF 形容詞の接頭辞 [6]
APL APPL APP AL 適用可能(サブタイプAPL.INSなど)[8] [2] [64] [27] [30]
APPOS アプリ 同格、同格ムード [62] [75] [47]
承認 承認 [76]
4月 APPR 不安な気分、不安な(「少ない」) [1] [8] [42]
APRT PRESP [要出典] PRPART PRP アクティブ分詞現在分詞 [77] [45] [10]
APRX APPR 概算 [15] [16]
APUD 近く、近く。APUDESSまたはAPUDLと同等の場合があります。単一の形態素の場合はAPUDE (SS)APUDL(AT)APUDELなど、そうでない場合はAPUD-ESSAPUD-LATAPUD-ELAなどの複合。 [16] [3]
AR AREA 面積(場所/時間/状況) [59] [68] [1]
ARG 議論の余地がある [78]
美術 記事 [2]
なので aseverative [79]
なので アクター(エージェントロールサブジェクト) [4]
ASC ASSOC ASSC ASS (a)連想ケース( 'with'、 'à'; not = COM)、
(b)連想複数形ASC.PL、ASSOC.PL、ASS.Pも)、
(c)連想ムード
(d)複合語、例:ASSOC.MOT関連モーション
[8] [17] [42] [62] [54] [26] [78] [19] [1]
ASP アスペクト、アスペクト
Lehmann(2004)は、光沢としての「アスペクト」を避け、アスペクトを指定することを推奨しています。[8]
[33]
ASRT ASS ASST ASSERT 断定的なムード [8] [1] [68] [80] [19]
ASSP 過去分詞を主張 [19]
ASSUM ASSU ASS cn? 想定されるムード、想定される証拠 [8] [21]
AST 支援 [80]
ASYM 非対称(= NSYM [21]
at(処格)[光沢としての英語の前置詞] [16]
ATN 注意を引く [47]
ATR ATTR AT attributive(地名から派生したL.ATR属性)、属性 [41] [58] [17] [8]
10時 ATT ATTN 減衰性 [2] [8] [1]
AUD 聴覚証拠、 聴覚 [8] [38]
8月 (a)拡張;
(b)拡張(バントゥー語の名詞クラス)
(c)拡張された数(命令型など)
[58] [8] [54] [4]
AUX 助動詞
PerLehmann(2004)によると、これは形態素を一意に識別する場合にのみ使用する必要があります(つまり、言語に助動詞が1つしかない)[8] 。
[2]
AV AF AT A エージェント/俳優の声/フォーカス/トリガーNAVNAF非俳優の声) [58] [7] [81] [82] [83] [50] [8]
逸らす 嫌悪 [68]
AVR AVERS 嫌悪嫌悪 [84] [8] [35]
BE TB 'be'動詞EXISTCOPの組み合わせ)[cf。COP ] [要出典]
BEL 直示中心の下 [43]
ベン メリット 受益者格( 'for') [2] [26]
BG BCKG バックグラウンド [85] [54]
BI 二価 [79]
ボット 下(おそらく「BTM」も) [51]
BOU BOUND 境界(a。境界を強調する; b。地理的な境界) [21] [24]
BR バインドされたルート [50]
BT 境界トーン [86]
BV [要出典] BF 受益者の声/フォーカス/トリガー [81] [7]
C COMM 通性(C.SGまたはcs共通単数形、C.PLまたはcp共通複数形) [33] [8]
C 現在の証拠 [21]
C コンセプチュアライザー [36]
-C 「コンパス」、相対位置が左、右、前、後ろではなく基本方位に基づいている言語( ABLCコンパス奪格、ALLCコンパス向格) [42]
C- 補完(大文字小文字の省略の接頭辞) [24]
C.EXIST 存在をやめた [1]
車両 CARIT カリビティックケース [87] [88]
カード 基数(形態素または文法的特徴) [8]
CAU CSL 因果関係-最終的なケース; 因果関係 [77] [7]
原因 CAU CS CSTVZR 使役 [2] [52] [76] [31]
CC (a)条件付き変換、(b)節チェーンマーカー [10] [69]
CDM コア開発 [50]
CDN 結合dubitiveニュートラル [19]
CDP 結合点過去形 [19]
CE 継続イベント [67]
セント セントリックケース [73]
CENTRIF 遠心(運動) [6]
CENTRIP 求心力(モーション) [6]
CERT 確実性(証拠) [70] [88]
CESS 終止 [60]
CFOC 対照的な焦点 [51]
チェズ Xの場所で、(フランス語の前置詞chezから) の家で [16]
CHO chomeur [71]
CHR コホータティブ(多くの場合= HORT [47]
CIF 逆の情報の流れ [89]
CIRC CIR CIRCUM (a)状況に応じた( 'in'、 'by')
(b)状況に応じた声(= CV
[8] [81] [10] [88] [11]
CIRC CIRCUM、$ (接周辞の2番目の要素をマークするための空のタグ [2] [28]
CIRC 円周 [16]
CIRCUMESS 循環的 [要出典]
CIS CISL CISLOC cislocative [90] [64] [67] [78]
CIT 引用フォームの終了 [52]
CJT CJ コンジョイント [22] [6]
CL クローズリンク(必要な条件;一時的な近さ) [91]
CL 名詞クラス(バントゥー語) [92]
CL 句レベル、例:&CL句レベル 'および'、COMPL.CL完全句マーキング [31] [19]
CLF CLクラス CLFSR 分類子(ベースまたは形態素)(NCL 名詞クラス)。CLF分類子とCLクラスマーカーを区別するものもあります。[23]
分類子のカテゴリを指定する必要があります[8]。例:「CLF:round」[93]または「CLF.HUM[8]
[2] [33] [89] [60] [6]
CM (a)共役マーカー;
(b)名詞クラスマーカー。
(c)連結マーカー
[19] [55] [7]
CMPD 化合物 [要出典]
CMPL COMPL CPL CMP COMP CMPLT COMPLET 完全な(完全な)側面(例:過去に完了したPAST.COMPL)–通常= PFV [8] [19] [2] [20] [88] [16] [81] [60]
CMPR CMP COMP COMPR CMPAR 比較 [77] [8] [16] [60] [19]
CMT COMM コミットメント、コミットメント [67] [11]
CN 普通名詞(例:CN.DET普通名詞限定詞) [79]
CN 名目上の結合 [59]
CNEG CNG CN コンネガティブ [81] [1] [4]
CNJ CONJ CONJUN 接続詞 [15] [33] [19]
CNS CONSTR CNSTR 状態/フォームを 構築する [94] [78] [1]
CNS CNSQ CONS 結果的(例えば、結果的ムード [21] [64] [42]
CNTF CF CTR CTRFCT CNTR.FACT 反事実条件節、 反事実性 [58] [88] [89] [47] [1] [24]
CNTR CONTR CTR CONT CON 対照的、対照的焦点(= CONTR.FOC)、対照的トピック [19] [58] [52] [73] [62] [23] [10] [7]
CNTR 継続者 [36]
CNTR 反論的 [69]
CEXP CNTREXP 反期待 [51] [1]
CO.AG 共同機関 [88]
COCAUS 付随的-因果的
COH コヒーレンス [50]
COL COLL 集合番号/数字 [8] [15]
COM CMT COMIT 共格(「と一緒に」、「の会社で」) [2] [51] [16]
COMP CMP COMPL COMPLR 補文標識(= SUBR[8] [2] [33] [88] [67] [60]
COMP 思いやり [76]
COMPV COMP 比較ケース(不等比較) [35] [51]
COMPUL 強制 [88]
CON CNA CNTV conative [68] [16] [47] [8]
CON コンクリート [要出典]
CONC CNCS CONCESS 譲歩的(「しかし」)(> CONCP譲歩的粒子) [8] [64] [88] [16] [7]
CONC 同時 [6]
CONC コンコードマーカー[合意を指定するために避けるべき] [78]
COND CND CON 条件法( 'if'、 'would')(GCONDは条件付き、GCCONDは譲歩的条件付き) [2] [12] [77] [7]
CONF CFM確認 確認確認 [19] [7] [48]
CONGR CNGR 合同 [69]
CONJ CJ 接続詞(相互接続関係)、接続詞のマーキング [8] [19] [20]
CONJC CONJ 推測的(証拠的)(NCONJ否定的推測的) [8] [88] [1] [7]
CONN CN CNN CT コネクティブ(パーティクルムードケース [2] [58] [8] [73] [95] [47] [55]
CONR CNCT CON コネクタ [22] [62] [71]
短所 連続; 譲歩的 [22] [25]
CONSEC CONS 連続した気分(「そうそう」) [78] [6]
CONST CNS CST 一定、不変 [67] [47]
続き CNT CTN CONTIN 継続的側面継続的側面 [33] [21] [58] [8] [20] [1]
続き 垂直面に。(英語の連絡先から。) CONTESSまたはCONTL(AT)と同等である可能性があります。単一の形態素の場合はCONTE(SS)CONTL(AT)CONTELなど、そうでない場合はCONT-ESSCONT-LATまたはCONT-DIRCONT-ELAなどの複合。 [16] [3]
続き 連続方向 [24]
続き 論争 [17]
コープ 協同組合 [88] [7]
コード 調整、調整 [16] [69]
COP なれ コピュラ、コピュラ(BEアイデンティティコピュラ、BE.LOC処格-実存コピュラ)[86] [2] [48] [31]
COR COREF CO.REF 共参照、相互参照 [38] [73] [88] [19]
CP 接続分詞 [7]
CQ コンテンツの質問(= WH.Q [31] [96]
CRAS 時制(「明日」) [8]
CRD CARD 枢機卿代名詞 [23] [53]
CRS 現在の関連性マーカー、現在関連性のある状態(完全な場合のように) [97]
CSM 状態変化マーカー [19]
CSO 共同従属者 [98]
CT 状況に応じたトピック [1]
CTEXP 予想外 [70]
CTG CNTG 偶発的な気分 [70] [64] [39]
CNTG 隣接 [96]
CTM CTEMP COTEMP CONTEMP CONT 同時代(同時に/同時に) [70] [39] [23] [53] [78] [1]
クリック率 コントロール [50]
CUS CU CUST CUSTOM 慣習的(USITを参照) [47] [40] [98] [88] [78]
CV [要出典] CF TF 状況/テーマの声/フォーカス/トリガー [58]
履歴書 コピュラ言語化 [98]
履歴書 特徴的な母音 [99]
履歴書 伝達音声(CV状況音声を参照) [100]
CVB CONV CNV C コンバーブ [2] [22] [1] [21]
DAT 与格 [2]
DC デクティックセンター [62]
DC ダウンコースト [要出典]
DD 確かな談話 [101]
DE のイベント、イベントの変更(DSを 参照 [102] [25]
DE 中止されたイベント [67]
-de DE デュアルエクスクルーシブ(= DU.EX [4] [8]
DEAG deagentive [79] [78]
DEB OBLG OBLIG OBL 借金/義務的な気分 [88] [16] [17] [76]
12月 逆使 [10]
DECL DEC DCL 宣言的なムード [2] [1] [69]
DED 演繹的証拠 [52]
DEF DF 確かに [2] [21]
定義 決定的 [78]
DEFOC 焦点ぼけ [88]
DEFR deferential(speaker-humble) [8]
DEI cn?、 DEIC DEIX DX D 直示、直示(12人の D12直示) [15] [16] [74] [8]
DEL.IMP 遅延命令(後で使用するコマンド。IMMを参照) [103]
DEL デラティブケース(「オフ」、「ダウン」) [8]
DEL DLM [要出典] 区切り文字、区切り文字( 'just、only')、区切り 文字 [67]
DEL 熟慮した気分 [要出典]
DEM D 指示語DEM1近接dem、DEM2存在/指定dem、DEM3リモートdem;宛先の近くのDEM.ADDR、基準点より低いDEM.DOWN 、スピーカーの近くのDEM.NEAR〜DEM.NR 、スピーカーの近くのDEM.SP 、より高いDEM.UP基準点) [15] [2] [16] [21]
DEN デニゼン [42]
DENOM 動詞 [14]
DEO DEONT デオンティックムード [84] [25] [37]
DEOBJ 客観的 [72]
DEP D 従属(DEP.FUTのように)、従属節のマーキング(SJVを使用)[8] [40] [73] [19] [1]
DEPO 退屈 [42]
DEPR 卑劣な、卑劣な [38]
DER デリバ 派生、派生形態素(例:ADJ.DER形容詞派生) [40] [89] [77]
デレル derelational [60]
DES DESI cn?、 DESID 希望的ムード(= OPT)(DESN希望的名詞)[10] [33] [8] [79] [25] [63] [78]
DEST 目的のアスペクトまたはケース(「to」)(非定形動詞形式=仰臥位)[8] [33] [56]
DET D 限定詞 [2] [18]
DETR DTRNZ 二重他動詞、二重他動詞 [8] [15] [19]
DETR 有害 [19]
DFLT ディフォルト [104]
DH 下り坂、海側(DRを 参照 [要出典]
-di DI デュアルインクルーシブ(= DU.IN [4] [8]
DIF 直接的な情報の流れ [89]
DIM DIMIN ちっぽけな [33] [14]
DIR.EV DIREV DIR DR DRCT 直接証拠(= EXP ; DIR / INFR直接/推定) [33] [8] [21] [67] [19] [35]
DIR ディレク ディレクティブ、指向性(= LAT); 通常、AD-、POST-、SUB-、SUPER-などの別の要素に接尾辞が付けられます。 [33] [8] [63] [62] [24]
DIR DR (a)直接の場合(> NDIR間接の場合)、
(b)直接音声(INVの反対)
[33] [88] [8]
DIR 指示された(DIRA主題指示、DIRT主題指示) [42]
DIS 脱臼 [25]
DISC DM DSC D 談話マーカー [32] [33] [59] [50]
DIS.CON ディスカーシブコネクタ [32]
DISJ DIS DJ 選言、選言、選言者のマーキング [105] [19] [10] [21]
DISSAT 不満 [76]
DIST DIS DS D DSTL FAR 遠位、遠隔(DIST.FUT、DIST.PST、D.PRF ; DIST.IMPV遠位必須) [2] [14] [39] [7] [31] [19] [1] [30]
DISTR DSTR DISB DIST (a)配布ケース;
(b)分配複数形[要出典]
[2] [37] [60] [10]
DITR 二重他動詞 [20]
DIV 多様性 [10]
DN 動詞名詞 [19]
DNZ デニゼン [51]
DM a)実証マーカー; ディレクティブマーカー(丁寧なコマンド) [23] [21]
行う DO DOBJ 直接目的語(ive) [33] [4]
行う ...(言語化する接尾辞)のように行う [24]
DOM (a)差分オブジェクトマーキング; (b)直接目的語マーカー [106] [16] [55]
ドン 寄付(受益者格の補助) [42] [8]
DOX doxastic [46]
DP 遠い過去。= REM.PST [70]
DP 談話粒子[可能であれば実際の光沢を使用] [19]
DP 運命分詞 [10]
DPAST 直接過去(証拠) [19]
DPC 遠い過去の継続 [50]
DPP 遠い過去の完全 [50]
DR 下流(水に向かって DHを参照) [107] [73]
DR 別の参照 [1]
DS DA 異なるサブジェクト/ actor / agent(サブジェクトの変更)マーカー(DEを 参照 [58] [40] [25]
DSC DISCNT DISCONT 不連続な側面 [67] [58] [56]
DT different taxis [25]
DTR detrimentary [64]
DU DL, d dual number (M.DU or md masculine dual, F.DU or fd feminine dual) [2][40][89]
DUB DBT, DUBIT dubitative mood, dubiative [8][51][53]
DUPLIC, DV duplicative [78][1]
DUR durative aspect (continuous aspect) [2]
DV[citation needed] DF direction voice/focus/trigger [7]
DWN, DN DOWN downward [7][51]
DY DYAD cn? dyadic (e.g. wife-DY 'man and wife') [108][61]
DYN DYNM dynamic aspect / eventive [8][23]
-E (used to form various essive cases)
EA epistemic authority (= EGO) [69]
EC euphonic consonant (= EP) [16]
EFF effector [26]
EFOC extra-focal [79]
EGO egophoric (NEGO non-egophoric) [16][21]
EGR egressive [8]
EI euphonic insertion [15]
ELA EL, ELAT, ELV elative case ('out of') [72][33][45][8][79][6]
ELPA existential + locative + possessive + attributive [69]
EM a) extension marker; b) evaluative marker [16][21]
EMO EMOT[citation needed] emotive [42][80]
EMP EMPH, EM, E (a) emphatic (e.g. emphatic base of pronouns),
(b) emphasizer, emphatic marker (ETOP emphatic topic)
[33][8][89][4][71][7]
END, FP, FIN clause-final particle (joshi)
Per Lehmann (2004), glosses as 'particle' should be avoided; instead translate/gloss the meaning.[8]
[98][106][37]
ENDO endopathic (= EGO) [69]
ENZ enunciative [18]
EP E, EPENTH, EPENT, 0 epenthetic morpheme, epenthetical [15][58][25][78][10]
EPI, EPIS, EM, EPST, EPIST epistemic mood or modality [25][81][93]
EPIT epithet [37]
EQU equative (= COP [69]
ERG ergative case [2]
ES echo subject [1]
ESS essive case ('as') [33]
EV EVD, EVI, EVID evidential (DIR.EV etc.)
[per Lehmann (2004), the particular evidential should be specified][8]
(PREV.EVID.EV previous-evidence evidential)
[15][8][19][50]
EV euphonic vowel (= EP) [16]
EV experiencer voice [71]
EVIT evitative case (= aversive case) [25][42]
EVT eventual [16]
EXAL DEF exaltive/deferential (high-status register) [109][95]
EXC, XS excessive [cf. EXESS 'ex-essive', which is commonly misspelled 'excessive'] [16][19][24]
EXCL, EX EXC, e exclusive person (as in 1EX, 1PL.EX, 1e) [2][14]
EXCLAM EXCLM, EXCL, EXC exclamative, exclamatory [15][88][37][47]
EX.DUR excessive duration [89]
EXEC executive (auxiliary) [69]
EXESS exessive case [110]
EXFOC extrafocal (cleft subordinate clause
EXH ADH exhortative, adhortative [111][96][28]
EXH.FOC exhaustive focus [1]
EXIST EXS, EXST, EXIS, EX, EX.BE existential ('there is') [33][21][16][51][31][1]
EXO exocentric case [73]
EXP, EXPER cn? experiencer, experiencer case [33][15][45][7]
EXP EXPER, EXP.EV experiential, eyewitness = direct evidential (cf. WIT). EXPER.PAST experienced past. [33][8][78][19]
EXPECT expectational [88]
EXPL, EXP expletive (dummy / meaningless form) [25]
EXPR expressive [37][10]
EXT extended (aspect, demonstrative), extendible; extension (sound stretch) [40][53][47][34]
EXT extent [19]
EXT external evidential [69]
EXTRV extraversive (trz by addition of ugr) [8]
EXTT extended topic [69]
EZF, EZ, IZAF ezafe = izafet [16][55][78]
F FEM feminine gender (F.SG, FSG or fs feminine singular, F.PL, FPL or fp feminine plural)
(FEM also 'female speaker')
[2][21]
FA future actor [45]
FAC FACT (a) factive evidential/mood, factual;
(b) factitive (A-FACT NP 'make NP A')
[33][79][88][67][8]
FAM familiar, as for familiar register (as the T–V distinction) and familiar pronominal [58][8]
FC future conjunct (NFC non-future conjunct) [7]
FCL facilitive [16]
FD future disjunct [7]
FH, FIRSTH firsthand (NFH non-firsthand) [35][19]
FI feminine indefinite [1]
FILL, SFL morphological filler, sentence filler (expletive) [76]
FIN finite verb (NFIN non-finite) [33]
FIN finalis [16]
FMR DCSC former, deceased, 'late' [67][21]
FN first (= given) name [86]
FNL phrase-final suffix [6]
FOC focus (confusingly used both for symmetrical voice and for true grammatical focus: A.FOC, AGFOC agent/actor focus; P.FOC, PFOC patient focus; LFOC location focus, BFOC beneficiary focus, ACFOC accompanier focus, IFOC instrument focus, CFOC conveyance focus) [2][35]
FOR FRM, FORM, FRML (a) formal register (as the T–V distinction);
(b) formal mood;
(c) formal case (in the capacity as...)
[77][8][35]
FPRT FP future participle [77][10]
FPST, FP far past [91][19]
FRACT fraction, fractional (numeral) [2]
FREQ FRQ, FR cn? frequentative aspect [8][39]
FRT front [51]
FRUS FRUST, FRST, FR frustrative [37][22][38][34][19]
FS false start [22]
FTV FACT factative tense (PRES if stative, PAST if not) [22][42]
FUNC functional [42]
FUNC functive case [56]
FUT F future tense (FOBJ future objective) [2][19][24]
FUT.INT, ITF future intention, intentional future [88][16]
FV, TV final/terminal vowel [6][1]
G1, G2, G3, G4 etc. GND etc. gender / noun class (e.g. G4 = 4th gender; may be used alongside M, F etc.) [2][55]
GEM generalized evaluative marker [21]
GEN GN, G genitive case, genitive form of pronoun [2][31][71]
GENZ generalized [1]
GER GRD gerund, gerundive (for the latter, use obligative)[8] [33][45][36]
GIV given [112]
GKN general knowledge (evidential) [21]
GM gender marker [or specify the gender] [16]
GNF general non-finite [7]
GNO GNOMIC gnomic (generic) aspect [73][89]
GNR GENR, GNRL, GENER, GENRL, GEN generic, general (e.g. classifier, tense; APPL.GEN general applicative) [8][22][38][61][56][23][1][47]
GNT general tense [16]
GO&, AM, DK associated motion. GO&DO (go to a place and perform the verb) (= ASC.MOT) [23][6][4]
GPST general past [91]
GRP group numeral [17]
gTOP given topic [28]
GV GF, GT goal voice/focus/trigger [how d this diff from PV?] [73][82][15]
H Head [33]
H hearer/reader [33]
H high variety/code, in adiglossic situation [33]
H HUM human, anthropic gender (H.SG or hs human singular, H.PL or hp human plural, ALLH human allative) (cf. R) [42][33][22][54][41]
H higher animacy, higher object (cf. LA) [76][23]
HAB HABIT habitual aspect [8][33]
HBL habilitive [16]
HCR hypocoristic [8]
HES HESIT hesitation, hesitation particle [22][98]
HEST hesternal tense ('yesterday') [8]
HIST historic(al), as in historical present or past historic tense [22]
HNDR number of hundreds (in a numeral)
HOD TOD hodiernal tense ('today' in HOD.FUT/HODFUT hodernial future, HOD.PST/TODP hodernial past) [8][1]
HON HNR, H, HS [suffix] honorific (subject honorific) [33][47][69][71]
HOR horizon of interest [16]
HOR horizontal [28]
HORT HOR [cn] hortative (1st-person imperative) [8]
HPL human plural (H.PL [99]
HR.EV heard evidential (= AUD) [88]
HRS HSY, HS, HRSY, EH hearsay/reported evidential [98][64][38][19][1][4]
HUM HML, HBL cn? humiliative, humble (low-status register) [8][109]
HYP HYPO, HYPOTH cn? hypothetical mood [25][33][8][48]
I inflected (AUX.I inflected auxiliary) [89]
IA involuntary agent [79]
IA indirect agent(ive) [28]
IA instrumental advancement [45]
IAM iamitive [16]
IC involuntary causative (natural or accidental events) [15][30]
IC indirective copula [19]
ICOM involuntary comitative [67]
ICVB, IC imperfective converb [74][10]
IDENT, ID[citation needed] identity, identical (~ NID), [96]
IDENT identificational [53]
IDENTIF identifiable [23]
IDEO IDPH, IDEOPH ideophone (≈ MIM) [18][48][22][38][113]
IE informal ending [11]
IFUT indefinite future [89]
IGN IGNOR ignorative [47][88]
ILL ILLA, ILLAT illative case ('into') [33][80][17]
IM interrogative marker [18]
IMI impersonal infinitive [10]
IMM IM, IMD, IMMED immediate, as in IM.IMP immediate imperative mood, IM.FUT near future tense, IM.PAST/IMPST immediate past; immediate evidential [8][40][47][69]
IMMED immediate past, = IMM.PST [78]
IMN imminent (future) = IMM.FUT [47]
IMP IMPER, IMPV, IMPRT imperative mood [2][14][19][6]
IMPARF imparfait [19]
IMPF IMPERF, IMPRF, IMPFT, IM imperfect (= PST.IPFV) [33][22][16][91][19]
IMPL implicated [1]
IMPOSS modal impossibility [76]
IMPR IMPREC cn? imprecative mood [114][46]
IMPRS IMPERS, IMPR, IMPS cn?, IMPL, IMP impersonal, impersonal verb [58][8][50][65][88][89][30][115]
IN in a container. May be equivalent to INESS or INL. Compounded for INE(SS), INL(AT), INEL etc. if a single morpheme, as IN-ESS, IN-LAT, IN-ELA etc. if not. [16][3]
INAB, IMPOT impotential [46][11]
INABL inablative [30]
INACT inactive [16]
INAL inalienable possession [15][22]
INAN INANIM inanimate gender [15][33][16]
INC increment [42]
INCEP, INC, INCP, IP inceptive (= inchoative or ingressive) [8][60][22][61][68]
INCH INCHO, INC, INH inchoative [8][60][47][7]
INCL, IN INC inclusive person (as 1IN or 1PL.IN) [2]
INCP, INCIP incipient (INCPA athematic incipient, INCPT thematic incipient) [42]
IND INDIC indicative mood [2][18]
INDCAUS indirect causative [74]
INDEP, INDP, IND independent [1][86][21]
INDET indeterminate [116][93]
INDH indefinite human ('somebody') [117]
INDIR indirective (motion inward); indirect(?) (INDIR.COP indirective copula); indirect evidential [88][16][78][19][21]
INDIV individualizer [24]
INDN indefinite non-human ('something') [117]
INEL inelative case ('from within') [12][56]
INESS INE, INES, INSV, IN inessive case ('in') [8][18][55][45][1][57]
INF infinitive [2]
INFL inflectional [33]
INFR INFER, INFERN, INF inferential mood, inferred evidential [8][99][1][19]
ING, INGR ingressive case [39][50]
INJ INTERJ, INTRJ, INTJ, INT, INTER interjection (incl. 'filler'), interjective [47][12][7][33][19][10]
INS INST, INSTR instrumental case [2][60][28]
INS instantiated [42]
INT INTER, INTERR interrogative (= Q); C.INT content interrogative mood [58][8][19][100]
INT internal evidential [69]
INTER within (a solid object). May be equivalent to INTERESS or INTERL. Compounded for INTERE(SS), INTERL(AT), INTEREL etc. if a single morpheme, as INTER-ESS, INTER-LAT, INTER-ELA etc. if not. [16][3]
INTERESS interessive
INTERP interpellative mood [114]
INTF interfix [72]
INTL INTEN, INT intentional conditional, intentive future [111][89][67]
INTRST complement of interest [19]
INTRV introversive [79]
INTS INT, ITS, INTN, INTNS, INTEN, INTENS intensifier, intensive [58][8][47][10][15][88][31][1]
INTV INTENTV intentive [46][23]
INV inverse [58][8]
INVN inverse number (as in Kiowa: sg of default pl, pl of default sg) [35]
INW inward [7]
IO IO, IOBJ indirect object(ive) [65][28][4]
IP immediate past. = IM.PST [38]
IPAST indirective past [19]
IPD impeditive [67]
IPS (a) impersonal passive (passive w/o promotion to subject);
(b) impersonalizer (AGIPS agent impersonalizer)
[8][15][48]
IQ indirect question, self-addressed question [17]
IR irregular (compounded with other glosses, e.g. LOC.IR irregular locative) [31]
IRR IRLS cn?, IRREAL, IR irrealis mood [2][37][4]
IRREL, IRRELEV irrelevence (= NRELEV [88]
IS indirect speech [33]
IS impersonal subject [15]
IS immediate scope [36]
ITER IT, ITE, ITR iterative aspect [33][14][25][47]
ITG intangible [1]
ITM intermittent [47]
ITV ITIV, IT itive [6][28]
IV[citation needed] IF instrument voice/focus/trigger [81][7]
IVC impersonal verb construction [1]
J thematic [42]
JUS JUSS jussive mood [8][67]
KIN kinship suffix [22][23]
KNWN known [54]
-L (used to form various lative cases)
L low variety/code, in adiglossic situation [33]
L local (exophoric) person (= 1/2)
L2 B tags translation as code-switching. [33][56]
LA lower animacy (cf. H) [23]
LAT lative case (= MVMT, direction) [8]
LC limited control [80]
LCL locational [6]
LENGTH vowel or consonant emphasis lengthening [citation needed]
LEX lexical-thematic (affix) [68]
LIG ligature, possessor ligature [22][81][23]
LIM LMT limitative [84][80][7]
LKLY likely (modality) [35]
LL land gender [23]
LL lower level (spatial deixis) [91]
LM landmark [53][36]
LM, LI linking morph, linking interfix [20][7]
LN last (= family) name [86]
LNK LK, LINK linker, linking element: an interfix or a ligature [58][8][62][78][21]
LOC LCV locative case (includes essive case), locative verb (EXIST) [2][47]
LOG logophoric (LOG.A speaker-logophoric PN, LOG.B addressee-logophoric PN) [8][1]
LOQ delocutive [53]
LP linking particle [1]
LQ limiting quantifier [21]
LS lexical stem [16]
LV LF locative/location voice/focus/trigger [81][7][100]
LV linking vowel [20][50]
LV lengthened vowel [7]
M MASC masculine gender (M.SG, MSG or ms masculine singular, M.PL, MPL or mp masculine plural) [2]
M- (a) modal case (prefix on case abbreviation, e.g. MABL modal ablative)
(b) marked (e.g. MNF marked non-future)
[23][24]
MAL malefactive case [38][25]
MALE male speaker [21]
MAN MNR manner; mood–aspect–negation (e.g. purpose-manner converb) [8][79][16][19]
MC modal clitic [21]
MDT, MEDIT meditative [16][78]
M.E. multiple event [88]
MEA measure [67]
MED (a) mediative; (b) medial (e.g. medial past, medial demonstrative = GIV); (c) middle voice (= MID) [14][48][16][78]
MF maximal field of view [36]
MID MD, MP, M middle voice, mediopassive [58][8][53][101][24]
MIM mimetic (≈ IDEO) [113]
MIN minimal number [98][23]
MIR ADM (ad)mirative [73][25][68][88]
MIRN negative mirative [25]
MIS miscellaneous gender [65]
MIT mitigation [46]
MLOC modal locative [6]
MOD, MO modal case (modalis), e.g. certainty [88][39][56][4]
MOD MDL, MP(modal particle) mood, modal, modal particle [33][89][80][56][19][21]
MOD modifier [33][81][56]
MOM momentane, momentative (single-event verb) [58][15][4]
MONO monofocal person [58]
MOT motion (combined with location glosses), mutative [78][99]
MOV MVMT movement [64][38]
MS maximal scope [36]
MSAP main speech-act participant (= 1st person in assertions, 2nd in questions)
MSD MASD maṣdar (verbal noun) [41][56][16]
MT mental state (classifier) [30]
MUL MULT, MLT,[citation needed] MLTP[citation needed] multiplicative case, numeral [77][54]
MULT multal [56]
MVR mover [36]
N NEUT, NT neuter gender (N.SG, NSG or ns neuter singular [cf. NSG non-singular], N.PL, NPL or np neuter plural)
Sometimes = non-human.
[2][72][19][91]
N noun (as a gloss in NZ nominalizer) [72]
N- n-, NON- non-, in-, un-, a-
(e.g. NSG, nSG non-singular;
NPST, nPST non-past;
NF, nF non-feminine;
NFIN, nFIN non-finite;
NPOSS, nPOS non-possessed;
N1, n1 non-1st person [i.e. 2/3], N3 non-3rd person;
NPFV, nPFV imperfective)
[2][8][22][54][16][18][21]
-N name (FN feminine name, GN geographic name, MN masculine name, PN proper name or place name, PLN place name, PSN personal name) [61][7]
NARR NAR cn? narrative tense [58][8]
NC noncontrol [20]
NC noun-class marker [6]
NCOMPL ICP, INC, INCMP, INCPL, INCMPL, INCOMPL incompletive/noncompletive aspect (normally = NPFV) [58][8][88][67][23][78]
NCTM ICM in contemporative (perfective appositional) [39]
NCUR noncurative [17]
NDEF INDF, IDF, INDEF, IND indefinite [2][15][60][10]
NEC necessitative [72][19]
NEG NOT, NG negation, negative (EX.NEG existential negation, ID.NEG identity negation) [2][118][31][21]
NEGAT negatory, negator [42][24]
NEGF final negator [36]
NEGN negative nominalization [24]
NEUT NEUTR, NTR neutral aspect [22][56][96]
NEX non-extended [47]
NF non-final form/marker (cf. non-feminine) [101][27]
NF non-finite (cf. non-feminine) [6]
NFC non-finite conditional [16]
NFIN NF cn? non-finite (nonfinite verb, non-finite clause)
(NF may be ambiguous with non-feminine)
[8]
NFND non-future neutral disjunct [7]
NFPD non-future perfective disjunct [7]
NH NHUM, nH non-human [8][22][16]
NM, NMASC non-masculine [1]
NMZ NMLZ, NLZ, NOMZ, NOMZR, NM, NML, NMNL, NOM, NOMI, NOMIN, NOMN, NOML, NZR, NR, NZ nominalizer/nominalization (e.g. PAT.NZ patient nominalizer) [1][18][50][119][2][37][39][32][89][95][54][56][67][118][78][19][20][36]
NOM NM nominative case [2][52]
NOMS S-only nominative (S case in tripartite system, = NTR) [35]
NONDUM 'not yet' [16]
NONIN noninstigational [38]
N/P neuter plural [53]
NP noun particle (cf. NP 'noun phrase') [19]
NP near past [34]
NPC non-past completive [53]
NPDL noun-phrase delimiter [6]
NPF noun prefix [6]
NPFV IPFV, IPF, IMP, IMPFV, IMPERFV, IMPRF, IMPF imperfective aspect [2][14][101][18][60]
NPOSS, UNPOSS non-possessed (marker of unpossessed noun) [78][19]
NPP non-past progressive [53]
NR near (as in NR.DIST 'near distal') [70]
NS non-subject (see oblique case) [73]
NS non-singular [1]
NSIT, NEWSIT new situation [21][78]
NSP non–speech-participant perspective (cf. NSP non-specific) [21]
NTEL, ATEL, AT atelic [78][30]
NTL neutral direction [7]
NTR INTR cn?, INTRANS, ITR intransitive (covers an intransitive case for the S argument, = NOMS) [2][26][16]
NTS non-topical subject [54]
NUM numeral, numerative (NUM.CL numeral classifier) [33][16][19]
NV neutral version (cf. SBV subjective version) [99]
NVEXP nonvisual experiential (evidential) [19]
NVIS INVIS, NVSEN non-visual (evidential: NVSEN non-visual sensory); invisible (deixis) [22][23][35]
NVN nominal cyclical expansion (cf. VNV) [47]
NVOL invol} nonvolitional, avolitional, involuntative/involitive [50][19][46][16][37]
NW non-witnessed [99]
NX.PST (= UWPST) non-experienced past [80]
-O object(ive) (ABLO objective ablative, EVITO objective evitative), 3mO 3m object, 2SG.O 2sg object [42][37][4]
OBJ OBJV, OB object(ive), object agreement (TOP.OB topical object); objective case [33][8][15][20]
OBL O oblique case, oblique form of pronoun [2][71]
OBS observation [21]
OBV obviative [58][8]
OFC object focus. = O.FOC or P.FOC [80]
OINV inverted object [99]
OM object marker [18]
ONOM onomatopoeia [67][19]
OP object prefix [6]
OPP opposite [60]
OPT optative mood (= DES) [33]
OR orientation (direction) marker [19][21]
OR open reference (not specifically DS or SS) [35]
ORD ordinal numeral [8]
ORD ordinary [120]
ORIG origin, originative [42][23][53]
OS oblique stem [16]
OS onstage region [36]
OTHER non-main speech-act participant (= 2nd or 3rd persion in assertions, 1st or 3rd in questions) [21]
OUT outward [7]
OV objective version [19]
P pre-, post- (P.HOD prehodiernal, P.CRAS postcrastinal) [89]
P proper (as opposed to common: ABS.P absolutitive proper case; GEN.P genitive proper case. Cf. PERS personal (proper) article. [81]
P previous (evidence) [21]
-P possessor: 1P, 2P, 3fP, 3mP (1st, 2nd, 3rd masc & fem possessor). = 1POSS etc. [37]
P.ANT past anterior [6]
P.IMP plural imperative [31]
P/I passive/imperative (= PAS/IMP) [36]
PASS PAS, PSS, PSV passive voice [2][36][11][47]
PABS past absolutive [19]
PAT patientive (= UND)
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding, as it is not the value of a morphological category.[8]
[33]
PAUS pausal, pause [22][78]
PAU PAUC, PA cn?, pc paucal number (M.PAU or mpc masculine paucal, F.PAU or fpc feminine paucal; GPAUC greater paucal) [8][35][25][70]
PC past completive [53]
PC concord particle [19]
PC perfective converb [10]
PCL 'polysemic clause linkage marker' [7]
PCP (a) completive participle; (b) participatory evidence [67][21]
PDR past, deferred realization [19]
PDS previous event, different subject [19]
PE perpetuity [25]
PE previous event [116]
-pe PE plural exclusive (= PL.EX) [4][8]
PEG pegative case (a special case for the giver) [22]
PEJ pejorative [25][39]
PERAMB perambulative [70][32]
PERI peripheral [91]
PERL PER cn?, PRL perlative case [8][53][47]
PERM permission, permissive mood [58]
PERM permanent [6]
PERS P personal (PERS.EV personal evidential / personal experience, PERS.AG personal agency, PERS.EXP personal experience); personal/proper article (= PERS.ART); 'personal' affix (= 4th person) [33][81][88][57][96]
PERS, PERSIS persistive [54][78][20]
PERSE personal experience (= PERS.EV) [26]
PERT pertensive [1]
PERV pervasive [78]
PFV PF, PERFV perfective aspect [2][68][26]
PHAB past habitual [53]
PHAS phasal aspect [67]
-pi PI plural inclusive (= PL.IN) [4][8]
PIMPF progressive imperfective [citation needed]
PIMPV past imperfective [76]
PINF physical inferential [19]
PK personal knowledge [1]
PL p, PLUR plural (but 1PL also 1p, 3PL.M also 3mp) [2][45]
PLUP PLU, PPRF, PPERF, PLUPERF, PLUPRF, PLPF, PLPERF, PPF[citation needed] pluperfect [33][91][28][8][22][16][45][19]
PLUR, VPL PLU, PLR, PL, PLURAC pluractional (= VPL verbal plural) [54][48][80][37][32]
PM predicate marker [18]
PN, PROPN, PR cn proper noun/name, personal name (e.g. PN.DET proper-noun determiner) [79][21]
PO primary object [8]
PO patient-orientated verb [53]
PODIR postdirective (= postlative) [12]
POEL POSTEL postelative case [12]
POESS POSTE, POSTESS postessive case ('after') [12][50][56][17]
POL polite register [33]
POS positive [1]
POSS POS, PO, PSR possessive, possessor (2POSS 2nd-person possessive; POSS.CL possessive classifier) [2][14][20][1]
POSB POSSB, POSSIB possible, modal possibility [58][76][55]
POSSD possessed [23]
POST PO- postlocative (behind). May be equivalent to POSTESS or POSTL. Compounded for POSTE(SS) (POESS), POSTL(AT) (PODIR), POSTEL (POEL) etc. if a single morpheme, as POST-ESS, POST-LAT or POST-DIR, POST-ELA etc. if not. [41][16][3][12]
POST, POSTP postposition, postpositional case [58]
POST post-terminal aspect [19]
POSTL PODIR, POSTLAT, POSTDIR postlative case, or 'postdirective' [12][17]
POT POTEN cn? potential mood (cf. VER) [33][8]
PP (a) predicative possessive particle;
(b) present progressive;
(c) past perfect;
(d) pragmatic particle
[61][27][1][7]
PPA active perfect participle [18]
PPAST post-terminal past [19]
PPF perfect participle [21]
PPFV past perfective (= perfect) [76]
PPP (a) past passive participle;
(b) past perfect participle
[15][18]
PPRT PP, PPT, [cn] PPART, PASTP [cn] passive participle, past participle [80][10][77]
PPS pseudo-passive [47]
PR pragmatic (in PR.PART pragmatic particle) [1]
PRC precedence [47]
PREC precative mood (requests) [8]
PREC, PRECON precondition (PRECA athematic precondition, PRECT thematic precondition) [42][24]
PREC, PRE precise, precision [25][21]
PRED predicative affix, predicative [2][12][23]
PREDICT prediction [88]
PREP preposition, prepositional case [33]
PRET PRT preterite (= PFV.PST) [2][1]
PREV previous (in evidentials) [19]
PREVEN preventative [19]
PRF PFT, PF, PERF perfect [33][54][50][8][60][2]
PRFRM, PERFORM performative [38][78]
PRIOR, PR prior, preceding [42][6]
PRIV PRV, PRVT privative case [8][50][16]
PRO PN, PRN, PRON pronominal base, (PRO only) proform [33][22][54][67]
PROB PB probabilitive [89][19]
PROCOMP procomplement [19]
PROD product verbalizer [19]
PROG PRG, PROGR progressive aspect [2][67][100]
PROH PRH, PROHIB prohibitive mood ('don't!') [2][33][47][19]
PROL PROLAT, PRL prolative case (= VIA) [8][22][16]
PROL prolonged action [115]
PROP PROPR proprietive case (quality of having X) [58][8][72][42][6]
PROP proper-noun marker [6][81]
PROPOS, PROP propositive mood (inclusive jussive) [120][11]
PROS PROSEC prosecutive case ('across', 'along') [121][78]
PROSP PROS, PRSP cn? prospective aspect or mood (PPROS past prospective) [8][95][56][7]
PROT protasis [89]
PROV pro-verb [10]
PROX PX, PRX proximal demonstrative; proximate (e.g. PROX.IMP proximate imperative) [2][31][19][100]
PRP property predication [7]
PRS PRES, PR present tense [2][60][1]
PRSC prescriptive [61]
PRSV presentative [36]
ps- pseudo: psAP pseudo-antipassive, psPASS pseudo-passive [28]
PS passing state [25]
PS passé simple [19]
PS undergoer (patient-role subject) [4]
PSA previous same agent of v.t. (PSS previous same subject) [67]
PSS previous event, same subject of v.i. (PSA previous same agent); PSSI and PSST previous event, same subject of v.i. and v.t. [67][19]
PSSM, PSSD possessum (impersonal), possessed [48][50]
PSSR possessor [64]
PST PAST, PA, PS, P, PAS past tense (e.g. PINDEF past indefinite, MPST modal past, SPST simple past) [2][53][1][19][32][7]
PSTN past nominalization [24]
PST.PR past/present (different readings on different word classes) [31]
PT potent case inflection [23]
PTCL, PRT, PTC, PT, PTL, PCL, PART particle
(Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding this and instead translating/glossing the meaning.),[8]
particalizer
[58][33][77][12][13][47][41]
PTCP {PART, PCP, PPL, PTP, PPLE, PRTC, PTCPL, PARTIC, PARTICIP, P participle, participial (mood) [2][33][11][8][13][41][26][47][101][21][18][78]
PTH path [21]
PTV PRTV, PAR, PART, PRT, PTT, PARTVE partitive case [33][8][13][60][35][19]
PUNC PUNCT, PNC, PU, PNCL, PCT, PNCT punctual aspect, punctiliar [6][58][8][14][38][25][35][36]
PRP PURP, PUR purposive case/converb (NPRP non-purposive) [35][2][100]
PV PF, PT, OV patient/object voice/focus/trigger[is Starosta 'object focus' true focus, not voice?] [81][7][83][82][71]
PV pivot form/nominal [53]
PV possessive verbalizer [21]
PVB PREV, PRV, PV preverb [22][58]
PVP post-verbal particle (only particle so glossed) [96]
PX possessive suffix [57]
Q QST, QUES, QUEST, QP question word or particle (= INT) [2][47][14][73]
QM quantity marker [26]
QU, QM, QM question marker (usually = Q) [2][36][73]
QUAL qualifier [68][54]
QUANT QNT quantifier [33][16][86]
QUOT QUO, QT quotative (quotative case, quotative mood, quotation marker) [2][118][1]
QV quotative verb [98]
R rational gender (thinking beings) (R.SG or rs rational singular, R.PL or rp rational plural) [citation needed]
-R reflexive (e.g. 3R 3rd-person reflexive) [47]
R- relational (prefix on case abbreviation) [24]
R.EXT, RT.EXT root extension [16][6]
R/A realis/assertive [23]
RA repeated action [19]
RA relative agreement [20]
RAR raritive [56]
RE refactive [16]
REA reactive (responding) [47]
REAL RLS, RL, R realis mood [8][48][80][54]
REC RCT, R recent, recent past (REC.PST, REC.P recent past tense, R.PRF recent perfect) [8][19][35][7]
REC receptive [69]
RECP RCP, RECIP, RECIPR, REC reciprocal voice [2][42][36][60]
RED, RDP, REDUP, RDPL, DUP[citation needed] reduplication, reduplicant (avoid if possible; instead gloss with meaning of reduplicated element) [58][22][23][80]
REF RFR referential, referentive [40][73][20][50]
REFL RFL, RFLX, REFLX, REF, RFLEX, RX, R reflexive (reflexive pronoun/possessive, reflexive voice; 'R' used with person-number-gender) [2][65][64][89][53][31][4][55][47]
REG regal (e.g. pronouns) [37]
REG regularity [47]
REGR REG regressive [1][37]
REL R (a) relative clause marker (RELZ relativizer);
(b) relative pronoun affix;
(c) relational (REL.CL relational classifier)
(d) relative case (possessor + A role)
(e) e.g. PAST.REL relative past
[2][15][26][45][1][19][4][35]
REL.FUT relative future [88]
RELEV relevance [88]
REM RM, RMT remote: REM.PST or REM.P or REMP remote past tense, REM.FUT or REM.F or REMF remote future tense; also REM remote past tense [58][8][21][40][18][1][35]
REP REPET, RPT (a) repetitive aspect (cf ITER)
(b) repetitive numeral
(c) repeated word in repetition
[8][33][16][17][1][86]
RES RESU, RESULT resultative (RES.N resultative noun) [2][118][78][17]
RES resignative [21]
RESID residue class [91]
RETURN returnative [6]
REV revisionary [1]
RF referential-focus [71]
RLN relational [20]
RSM, RES[citation needed] resumptive marker, resumptive pronoun [54]
RESP respect [58]
RESP responsive [88]
RET RETRO retrospective (recollection; synonym for 'perfect' in some traditions) (PRETRO past retrospective) [95][7]
REV reversative, reversive [25][101][6]
REV reverential [21]
R/M reflexive/middle voice [37]
RM relative marker [78]
RNR result nominalizer [19]
ROOT R, $ (empty tag to mark second element of a divided root) [2][16][28]
ROY royal (e.g. pronouns) [37]
RP (a) recent past, = REC.PST
(b) remote past, = REM.PST
[38][27]
RP reflexive-possessive [21]
RPC remote past continuous [53]
RPI remote past inferred [50]
RPR remote past reported [50]
RPST remote past [91]
RPT RPRT, REP, RPR, REVID reported evidential (= HSY); reportative [32][8][33][88][67][19][50][47][21][7]
RPV remote past visual [50]
RQ RHET, RQT rhetorical question [16][25][81][47]
RR, R reflexive/reciprocal [76][67]
RSN reason [64]
RST REST, RES, RSTR restrictive (restrictive numeral, adverbial) [69][116][10][7][34]
RT roundtrip [6]
RV[citation needed] RF reason voice/focus/trigger [7]
-S subjective (ABLS subjective ablative, EVITS subjective evitative), 3fS 3f subject [42][37]
SA speaker authority (cf. AA) [21]
SAA speaker-addressee authority [21]
SAL salient [25]
SAP speech-act participant (cf. MSAP) [28]
SBEL SUBEL subelative case ('from under') [12]
SBEN self-benefactive [62]
SBESS SUBE cn?, SUBESS subessive case ('under') [12][8]
SBJ SUBJ, S, S/A, SBJT, SJ subject case, subject agreement (NSBJ non-subject) [2][33][60][67][122][19]
SBV, SUBJ subjective, subjective speaker perspective [99][69]
SCEP sceptical [88]
SD sudden-discovery tense [19]
SDS simultaneous event, different subject [19]
SE same event (cf SS) (SE.DA same event, different argument/subject) [102][25]
SEC second-hand (SEC.EV secondhand evidential, IMP.SEC secondhand imperative) [88][19]
SEJ sejunct (opposite of conjunct) [42]
SEM SMLF, SEMEL semelfactive aspect ('once') [123][8][35]
SEM special evaluative marker [21]
SEN SNS, SENS, SENS.EV sensory evidential mood, = VIS+AUD (NVSEN non-visual sensory) [35][21][8][19]
SEP spatial separation, separative [16][1]
SEQ SQ sequential [58][8][1]
SER serial marker [15][23]
SF subject focus [19]
SF stem formation [50]
SF sentence-final marker [21]
SFN softener [47]
SFOC sentence focus [53]
SFP, SFS sentence-final particle/suffix [19][7]
SG s, SING singular (but 1SG also 1s, 3SG.M also 3ms) [2][45]
SGV SGT, SING, SINGL, SGLT singulative number, singulative nominal [8][48][54][1]
SH subject honorific [95]
SIM SIMUL simultaneous aspect, simultaneity [56][58][8][15][116]
SIMV SIM, SML similative (e.g. plural based on prototypical member of group) [56][15][116][16]
sIN singular intransitive action [19]
SINV inverted subject [99]
SIT situative (situational aspect) [30][78]
SJV SBJV, SUBJ, SUBJV, SUB, SB, SU subjunctive mood (SUB and SUBJ may be ambiguous with 'subject') [27][2][33][18][78][1][99][32][36][19]
SKT KST[citation needed] suck-teeth (= kiss-teeth) [86]
SL same level (spatial deixis) [91]
SM series marker [16]
SMBL SEMBL semblative [23][65][42]
SMI semeliterative [1]
SMR same reference [1]
SO same object [1]
SOC (a) sociative case (socialis); (b) sociative causative [55][78][116]
SP SPC, SPEC, SPCF, SPECFC specific, specifying (NSP, NSPC, NSPEC nonspecific: cf. also NSP entry) [8][86][38][61][71][28]
SP sentence particle (= FP). See usage note at particle and FP. [89][86]
SP simple past,[citation needed] perfective past [80]
SP subject prefix [6]
SP speaker: SP.PROX speaker-proximate, DEM.SP demontrative near speaker [23][16]
SPAT spatial [93]
SPECFR SPEC specifier [33][38]
SPECL SPEC speculative mood [19][33]
SPKR speaker-anchored, speaker perspective [62][21]
SPL spotlighting [47]
SR (a) same referent, (b) switch reference [23][69]
SRC, SO source [50][55]
SRP self-reporting pronoun [98]
SS SA same-subject/actor/argument marker (cf SE) [58][8][40][25]
SSO same-subject overlap ('while') [31]
SSS same-subject succession ('then') [31]
SSS simultaneous event, same subject (SSSI of intransitive clause, SSST of transitive clause) [19]
STAT STV, ST, STA, STT stative aspect, stative verb [8][15][81][47]
STEM ST, $ (empty tag to mark second element of a divided stem) [2][79][28]
STIM stimulative [38]
STR strong [1]
SUB sublocative (under). May be equivalent to SUBESS or SUBL. Compounded for SUBE(SS) (SBESS), SUBL(AT) (SBDIR), SUBEL (SBEL) etc. if a single morpheme, as SUB-ESS, SUB-LAT or SUB-DIR, SUB-ELA etc. if not. [41][16][3][12]
SUBL SBDIR, SUBLAT, SUBDIR sublative case ('down under'), also 'subdirective' [77][12][17]
SUBR SUB, SUBORD, SBRD, SR subordinator ('that'), subordinate [33][19][58][20][8][64][50]
SUBS subsequent [6][96]
SUBSEC subsecutive mood [78]
SUBST substitutive [16]
SUBZ,[citation needed] SBST substantivizer (= nominalizer) [56][26]
SUC successive ('then') [7]
SUG suggestive mood [78]
SUP supine [33]
SUP [dbl check next] superlative (most: cf. super-lative, super-essive) [8]
SUP, SUPL cn?, SUPPL supplicative, supplication [33][6]
SUPEL SREL, SUPEREL superelative case ('from on top of', 'from above') [56][12]
SUPER SUP-, SPR superlocative. May be equivalent to SUPERESS or SUPERL. Compounded for SUPERE(SS) (SUPESS), SUPERL(AT) (SUPDIR), SUPEREL (SUPEL), SUPERABL etc. if a single morpheme, as SUPER-ESS, SUPER-LAT or SUPER-DIR, SUPER-ELA etc. if not. [41][16][3][12][74]
SUPESS SUP, SUPE cn?, SRESS, SPRESS, SUPER, SUPERESS cn? superessive case ('above'; 'on') [8][33][30][12][16][28]
SUPL SUPLAT, SUPDIR, SRDIR, SPR super-lative, superdirective ('to above') [8][33][12][77][60][17]
SUPP PSUP, PRESUPP (pre)suppositive, presumptive, suppositional, presupposition [19][21][78][24]
SURP surprise [81]
SVC serial verb construction [115]
SW switch [69]
SYM symmetric [21]
-T trigger (used for AT, PT, GT etc.) [old fashioned; 'voice' is now standard] [82]
-T thematic (TAMT thematic tense-aspect-mood, ANTT thematic antecedent, etc.) [42]
T, TMP temporal [19][6]
TA T/A tense/aspect [15][65][56]
TAG tag question [16][7]
TAM TMA tense–aspect–mood [15][79][86]
TEL (a) telic aspect (cf PFV) (A:TEL anticipatory telic, C:TEL culminatory telic)
(b) contrastive emphasis
[124][54][23][1]
TEMP TEM temporal case; temporal converb [33][77][99]
TEMP temporarily [6]
TENS number of tens (in a numeral)
TENT tentative [56][50]
TER TERM, TERMIN terminative ~ terminalis ('up to') (case, aspect) [33][77][78]
TERM non-subject [19]
TH, THM, THEM, THEMAT thematic element (e.g. thematic consonant, suffix); theme [15][42][16][99][115][24][36]
TJ trajector [53]
TKN teknonym [47]
TM- tense marker: TMhrs, TMdays, TMyrs for events hours, days, years ago [37]
TND tendency [47]
TNS T, TENS, TS tense
Lehmann (2004) recommends avoiding this and specifying the tense.[8]
[33][65][23][19]
TOP TP, TPC topic marker (TOPP topical patientive) [2][40][22][54]
TOPZ, TOPR topicalizer [60]
TOT totalitative, totality [15][25]
TR TRANS, TRNS transitive verb (TRZ, TRR transitivizer); transitive case (rare) [2][60][50]
TR transitional sound [54]
TR trajector [36]
TRANSF, TRNSF transformative ('becoming', dynamic equiv. of essive) [22][8]
TRANSP (transposition of deictic zero away from ego, e.g. 'uphill' from an object rather than from the speaker) [125]
TRANSL TRA, TRAL, TRANS, TRNSL, TRANSLV cn?, TRANSLAT, TRLtranslative, TSLtranslocative (a) translative case (becoming, into);
(b) translocative (across; may be compounded for e.g. ANT-TRANS pass in front of, POST-TRANS pass behind, SUB-TRANS pass under)
[8][33][64][77][16][3][30][6]
TRI TRL, TR trial number [35][8][4]
TRIP retriplication [note: usually best to gloss with the meaning and ⟨~⟩] [126]
TRM transmutative [64]
TRN transnumeral (neither SG nor PL) [54][18]
TRPOSS transfer of possession [22]
TRZ TZ transitivizer [80][18]
TS (a) thematic suffix; (b) tense [16][19]
TV thematic vowel [80][32]
TVF truth-value focus [73]
U uninflected (AUX.U uninflected auxiliary) [89]
UA unit augmented [23]
UC upcoast [citation needed]
UF uncertain future [98]
UGR, UG, UND, U cn? undergoer role (cf PAT) [8][40][65][2][100][69]
UH uphill, inland (= AFW. cf UR.) [citation needed]
UL upper level (spatial deixis) [91]
UNCERT uncertain mood [78]
UNIF unified [4]
UNSP UNSPEC unspecified (person, tense) [15][8][54][23]
UNW 'unwillingness' marker [79]
UP upward [7]
UR upriver (cf UH away from the water) [73]
USIT usitative, for usual, customary or typical events [65][53]
UTIL utilitive [42]
UV UF undergoer voice/focus/trigger (= { PV + LV + CV }) [81][127]
UV uncertain visual [21]
UWPST unwitnessed past [99]
V viewer [36]
-V trigger (used for AV, PV, LV, CV etc.) [citation needed]
VA verbal adjective [19]
VAL valency-increasing; valence marker [15][28]
VAL validator [78][32]
VB V verbal (as a gloss in VBZ, VZ verbalizer, VPL verbal plural = PLUR, VCL verb class, VD verbal dative, VALL verbal allative, etc.) [33][8][72][116][24]
VBZ VBLZ, VBLZR, VERB, VERBL, VBZR, VLZ, VR, VZ verbalizer [1][119][6][63][8][80][60][7][50][32]
VCL verb class marker / classifier [23]
VCO voluntary comitative [67]
Vd VD, v.d. verb, ditransitive (e.g. as a covert category) [128]
VE VEG vegetable (food) gender. Some authors distinguish VE gender from VEG food affix.[23] [65]
VEN VENT venitive/ventive (coming towards; cf andative) [8][28][78][6]
VER veridical, veridical mood (certain conditional; cf. POT) [73]
VERIF verificative [38][16]
VERS versionizer; versative [16][74]
VERT vertical classifier [22][54][19]
Vi VI, v.i. verb, intransitive (e.g. as a covert category) [128]
VIA vialis case [64][70]
VIRT virtual mode [129]
VIS VS, VEVID (a) visual evidential (PRES.VIS present visual, VIS.P previous visual evidence);
(b) visible (demonstrative, e.g. 3vis)
[22][54][8][69][7]
VLOC verbal locative [21]
VN verbal noun [22][14]
VNV verbal cyclical expansion (cf. NVN) [47]
VOC vocative case [2]
VOL volitive mood; volitional (cf. AVOL avolitional) [111][116]
VP verbal particle [19]
Vr VR, v.r. verb, reflexive (e.g. as a covert category) [128]
VSM verb-stem marker [67][23]
Vt VT, v.t. verb, transitive (e.g. as a covert category) [128][15]
WH.EX exclamatory wh- clause ('what a ...!') [citation needed]
WH interrogative pronoun (wh-word), wh- agreement [56][16]
WHQ WH.Q wh- question [16][130][20]
WIT witnessed evidential (cf. EXP) [38][16]
WP, WPST witnessed past [80][99]
X ? (unidentified morpheme) [32][31]
YNQ, PQ, P.INT, PI yes–no question, polar question/interrogative (e.g. PC vs CQ) [130][16][19][1]
-Z -(al)izer (e.g. ADJZ adjectivizer, NZ nominalizer, TRZ transitivizer, VBZ verbalizer)
ZO zoic gender (animals) [131]

Kinship

It is common to abbreviate grammatical morphemes but to translate lexical morphemes. However, kin relations commonly have no precise translation, and in such cases they are often glossed with anthropological abbreviations. Most of these are transparently derived from English; an exception is 'Z' for 'sister'. (In anthropological texts written in other languages, abbreviations from that language will typically be used, though sometimes the single-letter abbreviations of the basic terms listed below are seen.) A set of basic abbreviations is provided for nuclear kin terms (father, mother, brother, sister, husband, wife, son, daughter); additional terms may be used by some authors, but because the concept of e.g. 'aunt' or 'cousin' may be overly general or may differ between communities, sequences of basic terms are often used for greater precision. There are two competing sets of conventions, of one-letter and two-letter abbreviations:[132][133][47][24]

Gloss Meaning Equivalent sequence of nuclear relations
A Au aunt = MZ or FZ / MoSi or FaSi
B Br brother [basic term]
C Ch child = S or D / So or Da
Cu cousin = MZD, MZS, MBD, MBS, FZD, FZS, FBD, FBS
= MoSiDa, MoSiSo, MoBrDa, MoBrSo, FaSiDa, FaSiSo, FaBrDa, FaBrSo
D Da daughter [basic term]
e, E o, el elder/older (e.g. eB, eZ)[54]
ex ex- (e.g. exH, exW)
F Fa father [basic term]
F female kin
G Gr grand- e.g. GF = PF (MF or FF); GS = CS (SS or DS)
e.g. GrFa = PaFa (MoFa or FaFa); GrSo = ChSo (SoSo or DaSo)
Gen generation (see below)
H Hu husband [basic term]
LA La -in-law e.g. BLA = WB or HB or ZH / BrLa = WiBr or HuBr or SiHu
M Mo mother [basic term]
M male kin
Ne nephew = BrSo or SiSo
Ni niece = BrDa or SiDa
P Pa parent = M or F / Mo or Fa
S So son [basic term]
SI Sb sibling = B or Z / Br or Si
SP Sp spouse = H or W / Hu or Wi
st step-
U Un uncle = MB or FZ / MoBr or FaBr
W Wi wife [basic term]
y, Y y, yo younger (e.g. yB, yZ)
Z Si sister [basic term]
(m.s.) male speaking (when kin terms differ by gender of speaker)
(f.s.) female speaking
μ male ego (when kin terms differ by gender of the person they are related to)
φ female ego
parallel (across a brother–brother or sister–sister link)
+ cross (across a brother–sister link)
os opposite sex (of ego) (some langs distinguish siblings of the same and opposite gender from the ego; e.g. for some Tok Pisin speakers, a woman's susa (osSb, from English 'sister') is her brother and her brata (ssSb, from English 'brother') is her sister)
ss same sex (as ego)

These are concatenated, e.g. MFZS = MoFaSiSo 'mother's father's sister's son', yBWF = yBrWiFa 'younger brother's wife's father'. 'Elder/older' and 'younger' may affix the entire string, e.g. oFaBrSo (an older cousin – specifically father's brother's son), MBDy (a younger cousin – specifically mother's brother's daughter) or a specific element, e.g. MFeZS 'mother's father's elder sister's son', HMeB 'husband's mother's elder brother'.

'Gen' indicates the generation relative to the ego, with ∅ for the same (zero) generation. E.g. Gen∅Ch (child of someone in the same generation, i.e. of a sibling or cousin); ♂Gen+1F (female one generation up, i.e. mother or aunt, of a male); Gen−2M (male two generations down, i.e. grandson or grandnephew).

'Cross' and 'parallel' indicate a change or lack of change in gender of siblings in the chain of relations. Parallel aunts and uncles are MoSi and FaBr; cross-aunts and uncles are FaSi and MoBr. Cross-cousins (+Cu) and parallel cousins (∥Cu) are children of the same. Parallel niece and nephew are children of a man's brother or woman's sister; cross-niece and nephew are the opposite. 'Elder' and 'younger' occurs before these markers: o∥Cu, y+Cu, and the gender of the ego comes at the very beginning, e.g. ♂o∥CuF, ♀y+CuM.

Literature

  • Leipzig Glossing Rules
  • Payne, Thomas E. 1997. Describing Morphosyntax.
  • Summary of case forms: Blake, Barry J. (2001) [1994]. Case (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 195–206.

Notes

  1. ^ The transcription and glossing of sign languages is in its infancy. Glossing is typically a sign-by-sign translation with almost no grammatical parsing. Some of the few standardized conventions are:
    A— (sign A held in its final position)
    A#B (A and B signed simultaneously)
    A^B (host-clitic combination)
    ____t (non-manual marking for topic)
    ____y/n (non-manual marking for polar question)
    IX or INDEX (3rd-person referents / pointing signs)[1]
  2. ^ 3SG.N should be fully abbreviated to 3ns, rather than to *3nsg, to avoid confusion with 3NSG (3 non-singular).

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Alexandra Aikhenvald & RMW Dixon (2017) The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Typology
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc Comrie, B., Haspelmath, M., & Bickel, B. (2008). The Leipzig Glossing Rules: Conventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses. Department of Linguistics of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology & the Department of Linguistics of the University of Leipzig. Retrieved January, 28, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nina Sumbatova, 'Dargwa', in Maria Polinskaya (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Elena Filimonova (2005) Clusivity
  5. ^ Jeanette Sakel & Daniel Everett (2012) Linguistic Fieldwork: A Student Guide
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Antoine Guillaume & Harold Koch (2021) Associated Motion. De Gruyter
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb Tasaku Tsunoda (ed.) Mermaid Construction: A Compound-Predicate Construction with Biclausal Appearance. De Gruyter.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd Christian Lehmann (2004), Interlinear morphemic glossing, In: Booij, Geert & Lehmann, Christian & Mugdan, Joachim & Skopeteas, Stavros (eds.), Morphologie. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Flexion und Wortbildung. 2. Halbband. Berlin: W. de Gruyter (Handbücher der Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 17.2), p. 1834-1857, taken from authors draft
  9. ^ For instance in Paulus Kieviet (2017) A grammar of Rapa Nui, where textual abbreviations such as A, S, O, DO are set in full caps, contrasting with interlinear glosses in small caps. Full capital N and V are also used for 'noun' and 'verb', A/M 'aspect/mood marker', PND 'post-nominal demonstrative, QTF 'quantifier', SVC 'serial verb construction', etc.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Irina Nikolaeva & Maria Tolskaya (2001) A Grammar of Udighe. Mouton de Gruyter.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k John Du Bois, Lorraine Kumpf & William Ashby (2003) Preferred Argument Structure
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Martin Haspelmath (2011) A Grammar of Lezgian
  13. ^ a b c d e f Seppo Kittilä, Katja Västi, Jussi Ylikoski (2011) Case, Animacy and Semantic Roles
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Andrej Malchukov, Bernard Comrie & Martin Haspelmath, eds. (2010) Studies in Ditransitive Constructions: A Comparative Handbook
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Mark Donohue & Søren Wichmann (2008) The Typology of Semantic Alignment
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck Maria Polinskaya (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Nina Sumbatova (2003) A grammar of Icari Dargwa. Lincom Europa.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Bernd Heine & Tania Kuteva (2006) The changing languages of Europe.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da Alexandra Aikhenvald (2004) Evidentiality. OUP.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Paul Kroeber (1999) The Salish language family: reconstructing syntax. University of Nebraska Press.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi Ad Foolen, Gijs Mulder & Helen de Hoop (2018) Evidence for Evidentiality. John Benjamins.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak A. A. Kibrik (2011) Reference in Discourse
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Dana Louagie (2019) Noun Phrases in Australian Languages: A Typological Study
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Nicholas Evans (1995) A Grammar of Kayardild, Mouton de Gruyter
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Swintha Danielsen, Katja Hannss, Fernando Zúñiga (2014) Word Formation in South American Languages
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Greville Corbett (2000) Number
  27. ^ a b c d e f g N. J. Enfield (2002) Ethnosyntax: Explorations in Grammar and Culture
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Wolfgang Schulze (2010) The Grammaticalization of Antipassives
  29. ^ Nicole Kruspe (2004) A Grammar of Semelai
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Alan Kaye (2007) Morphologies of Asia and Africa. Eisenbrauns.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Marvin Beachy (2005) An Overview of Central Dizin Phonology and Morphology
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Gale Goodwin Gómez & Hein van der Voort (2014) Reduplication in Indigenous Languages of South America
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd The encyclopedia of language & linguistics (2nd ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-08-044854-1.
  34. ^ a b c d e Ryan Pennington (2016) A grammar of Ma Manda: a Papuan language of Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Michael Piotrowski (2015) Systems and Frameworks for Computational Morphology. Fourth International Workshop, SFCM 2015, Stuttgart, Germany, September 17–18, 2015. Proceedings.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Tasaku Tsunoda & Taro Kageyama, eds. (2006) Voice and Grammatical Relations: In Honor of Masayoshi Shibatani
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Randy LaPolla & Rik de Busser (2015) Language Structure and Environment Social, p 80ff, 109.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Desmond Derbyshire & Geoffrey Pullum (2010) Handbook Amazonian Languages
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mary Swift (2004) Time in Child Inuktitut: A Developmental Study of an Eskimo–Aleut Language
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m William Foley (1986) The Papuan Languages of New Guinea, Cambridge University Press
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i G. Authier & T. Maisak, eds. (2011) Tense, mood, aspect and finiteness in East Caucasian languages. Brockmeyer, Buchum.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Erich Round (2013) Kayardild Morphology and Syntax
  43. ^ a b Diana Forker (2019) Elevation as a category of grammar: Sanzhi Dargwa and beyond
  44. ^ Dianne Jonas, John Whitman, Andrew Garrett (2012) Grammatical Change: Origins, Nature, Outcomes
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Blake, Barry J. (2001) [1994]. Case (Second ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Christian Lehmann, G. E. Booij, Joachim Mugdan, Stavros Skopeteas, Wolfgang Kesselheim (2000) Morphologie: Ein Internationales Handbuch Zur Flexion und Wortbildung. Volume 2.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Osahito Miyaoka (2012) A Grammar of Central Alaskan Yupik (CAY). De Gruyter.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Terrill Schrock (2017) The Ik language: Dictionary and grammar sketch
  49. ^ Pier Bertinetto, Karen Ebert & Casper de Groot, 'The progressive in Europe'. In Östen Dahl (ed.) Tense and Aspect in the Languages of Europe.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Niels Smit (2010) FYI: Theory and typology of information packaging
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gwendolyn Hyslop (2017) A Grammar of Kurtöp. Brill.
  52. ^ a b c d e f Pamela Munro (1987) Muskogean Linguistics
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa William McGregor (2013) Verb Classification in Australian Languages
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Anne Storch, Gerrit Dimmendaal (2014) Number – Constructions and Semantics
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lars Johanson & Martine Robbeets (2012) Copies Versus Cognates in Bound Morphology. Brill.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Johan van der Auwera (2011) Adverbial Constructions in the Languages of Europe
  57. ^ a b c d Marja-Liisa Helasvuo & Lyle Campbell (2006) Grammar from the Human Perspective
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am Song, Jae Jung, ed. (2011). The Oxford handbook of linguistic typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. xvii–xxii. ISBN 978-0-19-928125-1. OCLC 646393860.
  59. ^ a b c d e Ileana Paul (2014) Cross-linguistic Investigations of Nominalization Patterns
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Darrell T. Tryon (2011) Comparative Austronesian Dictionary
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h Åshild Næss, Even Hovdhaugen (2011) A Grammar of Vaeakau-Taumako
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Marian Klamer, Antoinette Schapper, Creville Corbett (2017) The Alor-Pantar languages: History and typology
  63. ^ a b c d Bernard Comrie (2012) Relative Clauses in Languages of the Americas: A Typological Overview
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Santa Barbara Papers in Linguistics, volumes 7–8, 1996, p 16
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Anna Siewierska & Jae Jung Song (1998) Case, Typology, and Grammar: In Honor of Barry J. Blake
  66. ^ Lawrence Morgan (1991) A Description of the Kutenai Language, volume 1
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Katharina Haude, Pieter Muysken, Rik van Gijn (2011) Subordination in Native South American Languages
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Olga Lovick (2020) A Grammar of Upper Tanana, volume 1.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Floyd, Norcliffe & San Roque (2018) Egophoricity
  70. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Doris Payne (1990) Amazonian Linguistics
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Guzman & Bender, eds. (2000) Grammatical Analysis: Studies in Honor of Stanley Starosta. University of Hawaii Press
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Martin Haspelmath & Andrea Sims (2010) Understanding Morphology. 2nd edition. Hodder Education
  73. ^ a b c d e f