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ケニア共和国

Jamhuri ya Kenya スワヒリ語
モットー: ハランベ(スワヒリ語)「みんなで集まろ
う」
国歌: おお、万物のイェトゥ
(英語:「すべての被造物の神よ」
Kenya (orthographic projection).svg
Location Kenya AU Africa.svg
資本
そして最大の都市
ナイロビ16'S36°48'E
 / 1.267°S 36.800°E / -1.267; 36.800
公用語
国語スワヒリ語[1]
民族グループ
(2019 [2]
宗教
(2019 [2]
住民の呼称ケニア
政府単一 大統領 立憲 共和制
• 社長
ウフル・ケニヤッタ
• 副社長
ウィリアム・ルト
ケネス・ルサカ
ジャスティン・ムトゥリ
マーサ・クーメ
ポール・キハラ・カリウキ
立法府議会
上院
国民議会
独立
英国から
1963年12月12日
•共和国宣言
1964年12月12日
領域
• 合計
580,367 km 2(224,081平方マイル)[3] [4]48番目
• 水 (%)
2.3
人口
•2021年の見積もり
54,985,698 [5]29日
•2019年の国勢調査
47,564,296 [6]
• 密度
78 / km 2(202.0 / sq mi)(124番目
GDP  PPP2020年の見積もり
• 合計
2508.5億ドル[7]
• 一人あたり
5,274ドル[8]
GDP  (名目)2020年の見積もり
• 合計
1091億1600万ドル[8]
• 一人あたり
2,296ドル[8]
ジニ (2015)Positive decrease 40.8 [9]
HDI  (2019)Increase 0.601 [10]
ミディアム ・ 143位
通貨ケニアシリングKES
タイムゾーンUTC +3 EAT
日付形式dd / mm / yy(AD
運転側
市外局番+254
ISO3166コードKE
インターネットTLD.ke
[11] CIAによると、この国の推定値は、エイズによる死亡率の影響を明確に考慮に入れています。これにより、平均余命が短くなり、乳児死亡率と死亡率が高くなり、人口と成長率が低くなり、年齢や性別による人口分布が変化する可能性があります。

ケニア、正式にはケニア共和国スワヒリ語Jamhuri ya Kenya)は、東アフリカの国です。 580,367平方キロメートル(224,081平方マイル)のケニアは、総面積で世界で48番目に大きい国です。 2019年の国勢調査では4,760万人以上の人口を抱え、[12]ケニアは29番目に人口の多い国です。[6]ケニアの首都で最大の都市はナイロビであり、最古の都市で最初の首都は沿岸都市のモンバサです。キスム市は3番目に大きな都市であり、ビクトリア湖の内陸港でもあります。その他の重要な都市中心部には次のものがありますナクルエルドレット。 2020年の時点で、ケニアはナイジェリアと南アフリカに次ぐサハラ以南のアフリカで3番目に大きな経済です。[13]ケニアのに囲まれ、南スーダン、北西にエチオピア北部に、ソマリア東へ、ウガンダ西へ、タンザニア南部にあり、インド洋南東へ。

関連するアーティファクトと骨格材料の考古学的年代測定によると、クシテスは紀元前3、200年から1300年の間にケニアの低地に最初に定住しました。この段階は、低地サバンナ牧歌的新石器と呼ばれます。ナイロートを話す牧畜民(ケニアのナイロートスピーカーの祖先)は、紀元前500年頃に現在の南スーダンからケニアに移住し始めました。[14]ヨーロッパとの接触は1500年にポルトガル帝国始まりましたが、ケニアの効果的な植民地化は19世紀にヨーロッパの内部探検中に始まりました。現代のケニアはによって設立された保護領から出現しました1895年の大英帝国と、1920年に始まったその後のケニア植民地。イギリスと植民地の間の数多くの紛争により、1952年に始まったマウマウ革命と、その後の1963年の独立宣言が行われました。独立後もケニアは連邦のメンバー現在の憲法は、交換するために、2010年に採択された1963年の独立構成を

ケニアは大統領 代表の民主共和国であり、選出された役人が国民を代表し、大統領が国家元首と政府の長です。[15]ケニアでのメンバーである国連国連の連邦世界銀行国際通貨基金(IMF) COMESA国際刑事裁判所、およびその他の国際機関。GNI 1460の、[16]ケニア低中所得経済です。ケニアの経済は、東部および中央アフリカで最大である[17] [18]主要な地域商業ハブとして機能するナイロビ[18]農業は最大のセクターです。お茶とコーヒーは伝統的な換金作物ですが、生花は急成長している輸出品です。サービス産業はまた、主要な経済ドライバ、特に観光です。ケニアは東アフリカ共同体貿易圏のメンバーですが、一部の国際貿易組織はそれをアフリカの角の一部として分類しています。[19]アフリカはケニア最大の輸出市場であり、欧州連合がそれに続く。[20]

語源

ケニア共和国はケニア山にちなんで名付けられました。現代の名前の最も初期の記録されたバージョンは、19世紀にドイツの探検家ヨハンルートヴィヒクラフによって書かれました。伝説の長距離商人チーフキヴォイが率いるカンバキャラバンと一緒に旅行している間、クラフは山頂を見つけ、それが何と呼ばれるか尋ねました。 Kivoiは「彼に言ったKI-Nyaa」または「Kĩĩma-Kĩĩnyaaそのピークに黒い岩と白い雪のパターンは、男性ダチョウの羽の彼を思い出したせいか、」。[21]ケニア山の斜面に生息するアギクユ族はキクユ族のキリマ・キリニャガと呼び、エンブーは「キレニャア」と呼んでいます。 3つの名前はすべて同じ意味です。[22]

ルートヴィヒ・クラフはその名前をケニアケグニアの両方として記録しました[23] [24] [25]いくつかは、これはアフリカの発音の正確な表記であったことを述べている/ K ɛ N J ə /[26]スコットランドの地質学者で自然主義者であるジョセフ・トンプソンズによって描かれた1882年の地図は、ケニア山をケニア山として示した。[21]国の名前として、山の名前、パルスプロトトが受け入れられた国が東アフリカ保護区と呼ばれた植民地時代の初期には、広く公式に使用されることはありませんでした。正式名称は1920年にケニア植民地に変更されました

歴史

人間の先史時代

トゥルカナ少年、1.6百万年前の原人のに属する化石ホモ・エレクトス

ケニアで見つかった化石は、霊長類が2,000万年以上この地域に生息していたことを示しています。近くに最近の知見トゥルカナ湖があることを示すヒト科のようなホモハビリス(180万〜2.5年前)とホモ・エレクトス(190万350,000年前)は、現代の可能性直接の祖先あるホモサピエンス、とにケニアに住んでいた更新世の時代。[27]

1984年のトゥルカナ湖での発掘調査中に、古人類学者のリチャードリーキーはカモヤキメウの支援を受けて、160万年前のホモエレクトスの化石であるトゥルカナボーイを発見しました。初期の類人猿に関する以前の研究はオロロゲサイリハイラックスヒルでの予備的な考古学研究を担当したメアリリーキールイスリーキーによって特に確認されています。以前のサイトでのその後の作業は、GlynnIsaacによって行われました[27]

ケニアを含む東アフリカは、現代人(ホモサピエンス)が住んでいたと考えられている最も初期の地域の1つです。約32万年前の2018年に、オロルゲサイリーのケニアの遺跡で 長距離貿易ネットワーク(黒曜石などの商品を含む)を含む現代の行動の早期出現、顔料の使用、および可能性のある製造の証拠が見つかりました。尖頭器の。このサイトでの2018年の3つの研究の著者は、これらの行動の証拠が、最も初期の既知のホモサピエンスの化石遺跡(モロッコのジェベルイルードフロリスバッドなど)とほぼ同時代のものであると観察しています。南アフリカで)、そして彼らは、ホモサピエンス種の出現の頃にアフリカで複雑で現代的な行動がすでに始まっていたことを示唆している[28] [29] [30]

新石器時代

現在のケニアの最初の住民は、現代のコイサン族の話者に似た狩猟採集民グループでした。[31]これらの人々は後に、アフリカからの農牧民主義者のクシ語派(ケニアのクシ語派の話者の祖先)に大部分が置き換えられた[32]完新世初期に、地域の気候は乾燥した状態から湿った状態に移行し、より好ましい環境で農業や牧畜などの文化的伝統を発展させる機会を提供しました[31]

紀元前500年ごろ、Nilotic -speaking牧畜民を(ケニアNiloticスピーカーへの先祖は)現代スーダン南部からケニアへの移行を開始しました。[14] [33] [34]ケニアのナイロートグループには、カレンジンサンブルルオトゥルカナマサイが含まれます。[35]

西暦1千年紀までに、バントゥー語を話す農民は、最初は海岸沿いにこの地域に移住していました。[36]バントゥー族は、現在ナイジェリア東部カメルーン西部にあるベヌエ川沿いの西アフリカで生まれました[37]バントゥー族の移住は、この地域に農業と製鉄業の新たな発展をもたらした[37]ケニアのバンツー基は、キクユLuhyaカンバKisiiメルKuriaAembuAmbeereをワダウィダ-ワツウェタ、ワポコモ、ミジケンダなど。

ケニアの内部で注目すべき先史時代のサイトでは、(おそらくarchaeoastronomical)サイトが含まNamoratungaの西側のトゥルカナ湖との壁決済Thimlich OhingaMigori郡

スワヒリ貿易期間

ラムの伝統的なスワヒリ彫刻の木製ドア

ケニアの海岸は、農業、漁業、金属生産、および外国との貿易で経済を支えた鉄工労働者とバントゥー自給自足農民、ハンター、漁師のコミュニティのホストを務めていました。これらのコミュニティは、この地域で最も初期の都市国家を形成し、総称してアザニアと呼ばれていました[38]

西暦1世紀までに、モンバサマリンディザンジバルなどの多くの都市国家アラブ人との貿易関係を確立し始めました。これは、スワヒリ語状態の増加、経済成長、の導入につながったイスラム教アラビア語スワヒリ語への影響バンツー言語文化の拡散だけでなく、より大きな取引ネットワークのメンバーになってスワヒリ都市国家。[39] [40]多くの歴史家は、都市国家はアラブ人またはペルシャ人の商人によって設立されたと長い間信じていましたが、考古学的な証拠により、学者は都市国家を先住民の発展として認識しました。 。[41]

キルワスルタンは、中世だったスルタンを中心キルワ現代タンザニア、。その高さで、その権威はケニアを含むスワヒリ海岸の全長に及んだ。それはによって10世紀に設立されたと言われたアリ・イブン・アル・ハッサン・シラジ、[42]ペルシャからスルタン・シラーズイラン南部インチ[43]しかしながら、学者たちは、アラブまたはペルシャの都市国家の起源の主張は、スワヒリ語が国内および国際的に自分たちを正当化しようとした試みであると示唆している[44] [45]10世紀以来、キルワの支配者たちは精巧な珊瑚のモスクを建設し、銅貨を導入し続けました。[46]

スワヒリ語は、アラビア語ペルシア語、その他の中東および南アジアの外来語を含むバントゥー語で、後に異なる民族間の貿易のための共通語として開発されました[38]スワヒリ語には、英語からの外来語もあります。

初期のポルトガル植民地化

ケニアでのポルトガルの存在は1498年から1730年まで続きました。モンバサは1593年から1698年まで、そして再び1728年から1729年までポルトガルの支配下にありました。

スワヒリ語はモンバサを主要な港湾都市に建設し、他の近隣の都市国家や、ペルシャ、アラビア、さらにはインドの商業の中心地との貿易関係を確立しました。[47] 15世紀までに、ポルトガルの航海者ドゥアルテ・バルボサは次のように述べています。カンベイやマリンディからやってきたソファラなど、ザンジバル島に向けて航海する人たち。」[48]

17世紀、スワヒリ海岸は征服され、オマーンザンジバルのプランテーションの需要を満たすために奴隷貿易を拡大したオマーンアラブ人の直接の支配下に置かれました[49]当初、これらの商人は主にオマーンから来ていましたが、後に多くはザンジバルから来ました(ティップーティップなど)。[50] さらに、ポルトガル人はイギリスの奴隷制度廃止論者による大西洋奴隷貿易の中断に応えて、オマーンとザンジバリの貿易業者から奴隷を購入し始めた。

何世紀にもわたって、ケニアの海岸は多くの商人や探検家のホストとなっています。ケニアの海岸に並ぶ都市の中にはマリンディがあります。14世紀以来、スワヒリの重要な集落であり続け、かつてはアフリカ大湖沼地域での支配力でモンバサに匹敵していました。マリンディは伝統的に外国勢力にとって友好的な港湾都市でした。1414年、明王朝を代表する中国の商人で探検家の鄭和は彼の最後の「宝の航海」の1つで東アフリカの海岸訪れました[51] マリンディ当局はまた、1498年にポルトガルの探検家ヴァスコダガマ歓迎した

イギリスのケニア(1888–1962)

ケニアの植民地時代の歴史は、1885年ザンジバル王国の沿岸所有物にドイツの保護領が設立され、1888年に帝国イギリス東アフリカ会社到着したことから始まります。ドイツが沿岸の所有物を1890年にイギリス。これに続いて、国を通過するウガンダ鉄道が建設されました[52]

鉄道の建設は、1890年から1900年までの10年間、オルコイヨットコイタレルアラサモエイが率いるナンディ人など、一部の民族グループによって抵抗されましたが、最終的にはイギリス人が鉄道を建設しました。ナンディは、最初の民族グループは、鉄道の建物を崩壊からそれらを停止するためにネイティブ予備に置かれることになっていました。[52]

鉄道建設の時代には、建設に必要な熟練した労働力の大部分を提供したインド人労働者のかなりの流入がありました。[53]彼らとその子孫のほとんどは後にケニアに留まり、イスマーイール派イスラム教徒シーク教徒のコミュニティなど、いくつかの異なるインドのコミュニティの中核を形成した[54]

ツァボを通る鉄道を建設している間、多くのインドの鉄道労働者と地元のアフリカの労働者がツァボの人食い人として知られている2頭のライオンに襲われました[55]

1914年8月の第一次世界大戦の勃発時に、イギリス領東アフリカの知事(保護領は一般に知られていました)とドイツ領東アフリカは、若い植民地を直接の敵対から遠ざけるために最初に休戦に合意しました。しかし中佐ドイツの軍事司令官であるポール・フォン・レットウ・ヴォルベックは、可能な限り多くの英国の資源を拘束することを決意しました。ドイツから完全に切り離されたレットウ・ヴォルベックは、効果的なゲリラ戦キャンペーンを実施し、土地を離れて生活し、イギリスの物資を捕獲し、無敗のままでした。彼は最終的に北ローデシアに降伏し(現在のザンビア)1918年に休戦協定が調印されてから14日後。[53]

フォンLettowを追いかけるために、英国は展開英印軍のから部隊をインドが、歩いて遠く内部に物資を輸送する恐るべき物流を克服するためにポーターを大量に必要としていました。キャリア隊が形成され、最終的には長期的な政治に貢献する40万人のアフリカ人の上に動員されました。[53]

1920年、東アフリカ保護区は植民地になり、最も高い山にちなんでケニアと改名されました。[52]

20世紀初頭、中央高地の内部はイギリス人や他のヨーロッパ人の農民によって定住し、彼らはコーヒーと紅茶を裕福に農業するようになりました。[56](1人の入植者の視点からのこの変化の期間の1つの描写は、1937年に出版されたデンマークの作家バロネスカレンフォンブリクセンフィネッケによる回想録Out of Africaにあります)。 1930年代までに、約3万人の白人入植者がこの地域に住み、市場経済への貢献により政治的な声を上げました。[53]

中央の高地にはすでにキクユ族の100万人以上のメンバーが住んでおり、そのほとんどはヨーロッパの言葉で土地の主張がなく、巡回農民として暮らしていました。彼らの利益を守るために、入植者はコーヒーの栽培を禁止し、小屋税を導入し、土地を持たない人々は彼らの労働と引き換えにますます少ない土地を与えられました。土地から生計を立てる能力が低下するにつれて、都市への大規模な流出が起こりました。[53] 1950年代までに、ケニアには80,000人の白人入植者が住んでいた。[57]

全体を通して、第二次世界大戦ケニアだったイギリスのための人材と農業の重要な源。ケニア自体は、イタリア軍が侵攻した1940〜41年に連合軍とイタリア軍の戦った場所でしたワジルマリンディも爆撃されました。

1952年、エリザベス王女と夫のフィリップ王子、ケニアツリートップスホテル休暇を過ごしていました。そのとき、父親のジョージ6世が眠っていました。若い王女は彼女の旅行を短くし、王位に就くためにすぐに家に帰りました。彼女は1953年にウェストミンスター寺院でエリザベス2世女王に戴冠し、英国のハンターで自然保護者のジムコーベット(王室の夫婦に同行)がそれを述べたように、彼女はアフリカの木に王女を登り、女王を降ろしました。[58]

マウマウ団の乱

1950年代にイギリスの植民地制度と戦っマウマウ団のケニアの反乱軍指導者であるデダンキマジの像

1952年10月から1959年12月まで、ケニアはイギリスの支配に対するマウマウの反乱から生じた非常事態にありましたケニア土地自由軍としても知られるマウマウ団は、主にキクユ族のメンバーでした。[要出典]

知事は、王立アフリカ小銃隊を含むイギリス軍とアフリカ軍を要請し、入手した。イギリス軍は反乱鎮圧作戦を開始した。 1953年5月、ジョージ・アースキン将軍が植民地軍の最高司令官を務め、ウィンストン・チャーチルの個人的な支援を受けました[59]

1954年1月15日のワルヒウイトテ(nom de guerre "General China"の捕獲とその後の尋問により、イギリス軍のマウマウ団の指揮体制がより深く理解されました。アンビル作戦は、戦争評議会の承認を得て陸軍が数週間計画した後、1954年4月24日に開戦しました。この作戦により、ナイロビは事実上軍事包囲下に置かれた。ナイロビの居住者はスクリーニングされ、マウマウ団の支持者の容疑者は収容所に移動しまし。 80,000以上のメンバーキクユ民族グループがされた拘留キャンプで開催された残忍な治療をしばしば受け、裁判なし。[60]ホームガードは、イギリス軍や王立アフリカ小銃隊などの外国軍ではなく、ロイヤリストのアフリカ人で構成されていたため、政府の戦略の中核を形成しました緊急事態の終わりまでに、ホームガードは4,686人のマウマウを殺害しました。これは反乱軍全体の42%に相当します。

1956年10月21日にニエリデダンキマジが捕らえられたことは、マウマウ団の最終的な敗北を意味し、軍事攻撃を本質的に終わらせました。[59]この期間中に、土地所有権に対する政府の大幅な変更が発生した。これらの中で最も重要なのは、支持者に報酬を与え、マウマウを罰するために使用されスウィンナートン計画でした

ケニア国民投票のソマリア、1962年

ケニアが独立する前に、現在のケニア北部フロンティア地区のソマリア民族は、ケニア含まれないように陛下の政府に請願しました。植民地政府は、1962年にケニアで最初の国民投票を行い、ケニアのソマリアがソマリアに参加する意欲を確認することを決定した[61]。

投票の結果は、ケニアのソマリア人の86%が加入したかったことが示されたソマリアのが、英国の植民地統治は、結果を拒否し、ソマリア、ケニアに残りました。[62] [63]

独立

ケニアの初代大統領兼創設者であるジョモ・ケニヤッタ

立法評議会へのネイティブケニア人の最初の直接選挙は1957年に行われました。

「穏健な」地元のライバルに権力を渡すという英国の希望にもかかわらず、政府を形成したのジョモ・ケニヤッタケニアアフリカ民族同盟(KANU)でしたケニアの植民地とケニアの保護領はそれぞれ1963年12月12日に終了し、ケニア全土に独立が与えられました。イギリスはケニアの植民地に対する主権を譲渡しました。ザンジバルのスルタンは、植民地の独立と同時に、ケニアの保護領に対する主権を失い、ケニア全体が1つの主権国家になることに同意しました。[64] [65]このようにして、ケニアは1963年のイギリスのケニア独立法の下で独立国になりました。ちょうど12か月後の1964年12月12日、ケニアは「ケニア共和国」という名前で共和国になりました。[64]

同時に、ケニア軍は、ソマリア共和国で彼らの親族に加わりたいと望んでい北フロンティア地区に住むソマリア民族の反政府勢力シフタ戦争を戦った[66] 1967年10月にアルーシャ覚書の署名で停戦に達したが、1969年まで比較的不安が広がった。[67] [68]さらなる侵略を阻止するために、ケニアは1969年にエチオピアとの防衛協定に署名した。事実上。[69]

ケニアの初代大統領

1964年12月12日、ケニア共和国が宣言され、ジョモ・ケニヤッタがケニアの初代大統領になりました。[70]ケニヤッタの下で、汚職は政府、公務員、および経済界全体に広まった。ケニアッタと彼の家族は、1963年以降、不動産の大量購入を通じて自分たちを豊かにしたため、この腐敗に巻き込まれました。中央、リフトバレー、海岸州での買収は、土地のないケニア人の間で大きな怒りを引き起こしました。彼の家族は彼の大統領職を利用して、財産を取得する際の法的または行政上の障害を回避しました。ケニヤッタ家は沿岸ホテル事業にも多額の投資を行い、ケニヤッタはレナードビーチホテルを個人的に所有していました。[71]

ジョモ・ケニヤッタ大統領の混合遺産は、ケニアの独立10周年で強調されました。1973年12月にニューヨークタイムズ掲載された記事は、ケニアのリーダーシップとケニアが実用主義と保守主義のモデルとして浮上したことを称賛しました。ケニアのGDPは年間6.6%の割合で増加しており、人口増加率の3%以上を上回っています。[72]しかしながら、アムネスティ・インターナショナルは、人権侵害の観点からの安定の代償を述べることによってこの記事に応えた。オギンガ・オディンガケニア人民連合(KPU))が始めた野党は、キスム虐殺後の1969年に禁止されたそして、KPUの指導者たちは、国連の世界人権宣言に重大な違反をしたとして、裁判なしに拘留されていた[73] [74]ケニア学生自治会、エホバの証人およびすべての野党は非合法化された。[73]ケニヤッタは1978年8月22日に彼が死ぬまで統治した。[75]

モイ時代

ケニアの第二大統領ダニエル・アラップ・モイとジョージ・W・ブッシュ、2001年

1978年のケニヤッタの死後、ダニエル・アラップ・モイが大統領に就任しました。彼は大統領職を維持し、1979年、1983年(スナップ選挙)、および1988年に行われた選挙すべて一党制の下で行われた)で反対されなかった。 1983年の選挙は、1年早く行われ、1982年8月2日の軍事クーデターの失敗の直接の結果でし

1982年のクーデターは、低位の空軍軍人である上級二等兵ヒゼキヤ・オチュカによって首謀され、主に空軍の入隊した男性によって上演されました。それは、ベテランのソマリア軍当局者であるマフムード・モハメド参謀総長によって指揮された軍隊によってすぐに抑圧された[76]彼らには、警察の準軍組織であるGeneral Service Unit(GSU)と、後に通常の警察が含まれていた。

1980年ガリッサの虐殺続いて、ケニア軍は1984年にワジル郡の数千人の民間人に対してワガラの虐殺犯しました残虐行為の公式調査は後に2011年に命じられた。[77] [説明が必要]

1988年に行われた選挙では、有権者が秘密投票を行う代わりに、支持候補者の後ろに並ぶことになっていマロロンゴ(待ち行列)システムが登場しました[78]これは非常に非民主的な政権のクライマックスと見なされ、憲法改正への広範な動揺につながった。次の年に、1つの政党のみを許可する条項を含むいくつかの論争のある条項が変更されました。[79]

複数政党制民主主義への移行

1991年、ケニアは26年間の一党支配の後、複数政党制に移行しました。 1992年10月28日、モイ大統領は任期終了の5か月前に議会を解散した。その結果、議会のすべての選挙議席と大統領の準備が始まりました。選挙は1992年12月7日に行われる予定でしたが、遅れにより同年12月29日に延期されました。与党であるKANUの他に、選挙に参加した他の政党には、FORDケニアとFORDAsiliが含まれていました。この選挙は、大規模な敵対者への脅迫と選挙当局への嫌がらせによって特徴づけられました。大統領が権力を維持するために選挙結果を不正に操作したとして非難されたため、人種的暴力によって伝播された経済危機をもたらしました。[80] [81][82]この選挙は、モイのリーダーシップの終焉とKANUの支配の始まりを意味するため、ケニアにとってターニングポイントであった。モイは大統領職を維持し、ジョージ・サイトティが副大統領になりました。権力を握ったものの、KANUは100議席を獲得し、6つの野党に88議席を失った。[80] [82]

ラウンド1(1992年12月29日):選挙結果 タリー
登録選挙人の数 7,900,366
有権者 5,486,768(69.4%)
空白または無効な投票用紙 61,173
有効票 5,425,595
ラウンド1:座席の配分
政党 合計
ケニアアフリカ民族同盟(KANU) 100
民主主義回復フォーラム(FORD-ケニア) 31
民主主義回復フォーラム(FORD-Asili) 31
民主党(DP) 23
ケニア社会会議(KSC) 1
ケニア全国大会(KNC) 1
ケニアの独立候補者党(PICK) 1

1992年の選挙は、KANUによる25年以上の統治の後、複数政党制の政治の始まりを示しました。[80]選挙後の小競り合いの後、5,000人が殺され、さらに75,000人が家を追われた。[83]次の5年間で、次の選挙に備えて多くの政党連合が結成された。1994年、ジャラモギオギンガオディンガが亡くなり、いくつかの連合が彼のFORDケニア党に加わり、国民民主同盟と呼ばれる新しい党を結成しました。しかし、この党は意見の不一致に悩まされていた。1995年にリチャードリーキーがサフィナ党を結成したが、1997年11月まで登録を拒否された。[84]

1996年、KANUは憲法を改正し、Moiが次の任期で大統領を務めることができるようにしました。その後、モイは再選に立候補し、1997年に第5期を勝ち取った。[85]彼の勝利は、彼の主要な敵であるキバキオディンガから詐欺である強く批判された[84] [86]この勝利に続いて、モイは憲法上、次の大統領任期を争うことを禁じられた。1998年以降、モイは国の継承政治に影響を与え、次の2002年の選挙でウフルケニヤッタを選出させようとしました。[87]

キバキ大統領と新憲法への道

モイのウフル・ケニヤッタ交代の計画は失敗し、野党連立「国民虹の連合」(NARC)に立候補したムワイ・キバキが大統領に選出された。David Anderson(2003)は、選挙は国内および国際的なオブザーバーによって自由かつ公正であると判断され、ケニアの民主的進化のターニングポイントを示しているように思われたと報告しています。[86]

2005年、ケニア人は1963年の独立憲法を新しい憲法に置き換える計画を拒否しました。[88]その結果、2007年の選挙は旧憲法で定められた手続きに従って行われた。キバキは、政治的および民族的暴力によって傷つけられた非常に争われた選挙で再選されました。主な野党党首であるライラ・オディンガは、選挙結果は不正であり、彼は正当に選出された大統領であると主張した。その後の暴力では、1,500人が殺害され、さらに60万人が国内避難民となり、ケニアで最悪の選挙後の暴力となった。人々の死と追放を阻止するために、キバキとオディンガは協力することに合意し、後者は首相の地位に就いた。[89]これにより、オディンガはケニアの2番目の首相になりました

2010年7月、ケニアは他の東アフリカ諸国と提携して、東アフリカ共同体内に新しい東アフリカ共通市場を形成しました[90] 2010年8月、ケニア人は国民投票を行い、大統領権限を制限し、中央政府を委譲する新憲法を可決し[84]

政府の権限委譲と権力分立

新憲法の通過後、ケニアとなった大統領の 代表的な民主主義せる共和国、ケニアの大統領が両方ある国家元首および政府の長、およびの複数政党制を新憲法はまた、行政権は、国会外から選ばれた人々で構成される内閣の議長を務める大統領が率いる行政機関によって行使されると述べている立法権議会に独占的に付与されます。司法は幹部と議会とは無関係です。

2010年憲法の下での政府と政治

キバキ大統領時代

ムワイ・キバキがこの新憲法の下で奉仕する最初の大統領になり、ウフル・ケニヤッタがこの憲法の下で選出された最初の大統領になりました。

2011年、ケニアはテログループのアルシャバブと戦うためにソマリアに軍隊派遣始めました[91]

In mid-2011, two consecutive missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa seen in 60 years. The northwestern Turkana region was especially affected,[92] with local schools shut down as a result.[93] The crisis was reportedly over by early 2012 because of coordinated relief efforts. Aid agencies subsequently shifted their emphasis to recovery initiatives, including digging irrigation canals and distributing plant seeds.[94]

The 3rd President of Kenya Mwai Kibaki ruled from 2002 until 2013.

Uhuru Kenyatta in 2014

President Kenyatta first term

After Kibaki's tenure ended in 2013, Kenya held its first general elections after the new constitution had been passed. Uhuru Kenyatta won in a disputed election result, leading to a petition by the opposition leader, Raila Odinga. The supreme court upheld the election results and President Kenyatta began his term with William Ruto as the deputy president. Despite the outcome of this ruling, the Supreme Court and the head of the Supreme Court were seen as powerful institutions that could carry out their role of checking the powers of the president.[95]

President Kenyatta second term

In 2017, Uhuru Kenyatta won a second term in office in another disputed election. Following the defeat, Raila Odinga again petitioned the results in the Supreme Court, accusing the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission of mismanagement of the elections and Uhuru Kenyatta and his party of rigging. The Supreme Court overturned the election results in what became a landmark ruling in Africa and one of the very few in the world in which the results of a presidential elections were annulled.[96] This ruling solidified the position of the Supreme Court as an independent body.[97]

Consequently, Kenya had a second round of elections for the presidential position, in which Uhuru emerged the winner after Raila refused to participate, citing irregularities.[98][99]

After 2018 Kenya handshake

The historical handshake in March 2018, between president Uhuru Kenyatta and his long-time opponent Raila Odinga, meant reconciliation followed by economic growth and increased stability.[100] [101]

BBI Initiative

Between 2019 and 2021, President Kenyatta and Raila Odinga combined efforts to promote major changes to the Kenyan constitution, labelled as the "Building Bridges Initiative" (BBI), saying that their efforts were to improve inclusion and overcome the country's winner-take-all election system that often resulted in post-election violence.[102][103]

The BBI proposal called for broad expansion of the legislative and executive branches, including the creation of a prime minister with two deputies and an official leader of the opposition, reverting to selecting cabinet ministers from among the elected Members of Parliament, establishment of up to 70 new constituencies, and addition of up to 300 un-elected members of Parliament (under an "affirmative action" plan).[102][103]

However, critics saw it as unnecessary, and an attempt to reward political dynasties -- and blunt the efforts of Deputy President Willian Ruto (Odinga's rival for the next presidency) -- and bloating the government at an exceptional cost to the debt-laded country.[102][103]

Ultimately, in May 2021, the Kenyan High Court ruled that the BBI constitutional reform effort was unconstitutional, because it was not truly a popular initiative, but rather an effort of the government.[102][103]

The court sharply criticized Kenyatta for the attempt, laying out out grounds for his being sued, personally, or even impeached (though the Parliament, which had passed the BBI, was unlikely to do that). The ruling was seen as a major defeat for both Kenyatta (soon to leave office), and Odinga (expected to seek the presidency), but a boon to Odinga's future presidential-election rival, Ruto.[102][103] On 20 August 2021, Kenya's Court of Appeal again upheld the High Court Judgment of May 2021 which was appealed by the BBI Secretariat.[104]

Geography

A map of Kenya.

At 580,367 km2 (224,081 sq mi),[11] Kenya is the world's forty-seventh largest country (after Madagascar). It lies between latitudes 5°N and 5°S, and longitudes 34° and 42°E. From the coast on the Indian Ocean, the low plains rise to central highlands. The highlands are bisected by the Great Rift Valley, with a fertile plateau lying to the east.[citation needed]

The Kenyan Highlands are one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa.[105] The highlands are the site of the highest point in Kenya and the second highest peak on the continent: Mount Kenya, which reaches a height of 5,199 m (17,057 ft) and is the site of glaciers. Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895 m or 19,341 ft) can be seen from Kenya to the south of the Tanzanian border.

Climate

Kenya's climate varies from tropical along the coast to temperate inland to arid in the north and northeast parts of the country. The area receives a great deal of sunshine every month. It is usually cool at night and early in the morning inland at higher elevations.

The "long rains" season occurs from March/April to May/June. The "short rains" season occurs from October to November/December. The rainfall is sometimes heavy and often falls in the afternoons and evenings. Climate change is altering the natural pattern of the rainfall period, causing an extension of the short rains, which has begat floods,[106] and reducing the drought cycle from every ten years to annual events, producing strong droughts such as the 2008-09 Kenya Drought.[107]

The temperature remains high throughout these months of tropical rain. The hottest period is February and March, leading into the season of the long rains, and the coldest is in July, until mid-August.[108]

Climate change in Kenya is increasingly impacting the lives of Kenya's citizens and the environment.[109] Climate change has led to more frequent extreme weather events like droughts which last longer than usual, irregular and unpredictable rainfall, flooding and increasing temperatures. The effects of these climatic changes have made already existing challenges with water security, food security and economic growth even more difficult. Harvests and agricultural production which account for about 33%[110] of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP)[111] are also at risk. The increased temperatures, rainfall variability in arid and semi-arid areas, and strong winds associated with tropical cyclones have combined to create favorable conditions for the breeding and migration of pests.[112] An increase in temperature of up to 2.5°C by 2050 is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme events such as floods and droughts.[109]

Hot and dry conditions in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) make droughts or flooding brought on by extreme weather changes even more dangerous. Coastal communities are already experiencing sea level rise and associated challenges such as saltwater intrusion.[109] All these factors impact at-risk populations like marginalized communities, women and the youth.[111]

Wildlife

Kenya has considerable land area devoted to wildlife habitats, including the Masai Mara, where blue wildebeest and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. More than 1 million wildebeest and 200,000 zebras participate in the migration across the Mara River.[113]

The "Big Five" game animals of Africa, that is the lion, leopard, buffalo, rhinoceros, and elephant, can be found in Kenya and in the Masai Mara in particular. A significant population of other wild animals, reptiles, and birds can be found in the national parks and game reserves in the country. The annual animal migration occurs between June and September, with millions of animals taking part, attracting valuable foreign tourism. Two million wildebeest migrate a distance of 2,900 kilometres (1,802 mi) from the Serengeti in neighbouring Tanzania to the Masai Mara[114] in Kenya, in a constant clockwise fashion, searching for food and water supplies. This Serengeti Migration of the wildebeest is listed among the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa.[115]

Kenya had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.2/10, ranking it 133rd globally out of 172 countries.[116]

Government and politics

Kenya's third president, Mwai Kibaki

Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. The president is both the head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly and the Senate. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. There has been growing concern, especially during former president Daniel arap Moi's tenure, that the executive was increasingly meddling with the affairs of the judiciary.[117]

Kenya has high levels of corruption according to Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), a metric which attempts to gauge the prevalence of public-sector corruption in various countries. In 2019, the nation placed 137th out of 180 countries in the index, with a score of 28 out of 100.[118] However, there are several rather significant developments with regards to curbing corruption from the Kenyan government, for instance, the establishment of a new and independent Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (EACC).[119]

Following general elections held in 1997, the Constitution of Kenya Review Act, designed to pave the way for more comprehensive amendments to the Kenyan constitution, was passed by the national parliament.[120]

In December 2002, Kenya held democratic and open elections, which were judged free and fair by most international observers.[121] The 2002 elections marked an important turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution in that power was transferred peacefully from the Kenya African National Union (KANU), which had ruled the country since independence, to the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), a coalition of political parties.

Under the presidency of Mwai Kibaki, the new ruling coalition promised to focus its efforts on generating economic growth, combating corruption, improving education, and rewriting its constitution. A few of these promises have been met. There is free primary education.[122] In 2007, the government issued a statement declaring that from 2008, secondary education would be heavily subsidised, with the government footing all tuition fees.[123]

2013 elections and new government

Under the new constitution and with President Kibaki prohibited by term limits from running for a third term, Deputy Prime Minister Uhuru Kenyatta ran for office. He won with 50.51% of the vote in March 2013.

In December 2014, President Uhuru Kenyatta signed a Security Laws Amendment Bill, which supporters of the law suggested was necessary to guard against armed groups. Opposition politicians, human rights groups, and nine Western countries criticised the security bill, arguing that it infringed on democratic freedoms. The governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France also collectively issued a press statement cautioning about the law's potential impact. Through the Jubilee Coalition, the Bill was later passed on 19 December in the National Assembly under acrimonious circumstances.[124]

Foreign relations

President Barack Obama in Nairobi, July 2015

Kenya has close ties with its fellow Swahili-speaking neighbours in the African Great Lakes region. Relations with Uganda and Tanzania are generally strong, as the three nations work toward economic and social integration through common membership in the East African Community.

Relations with Somalia have historically been tense, although there has been some military co-ordination against Islamist insurgents. Kenya has good relations with the United Kingdom.[125] Kenya is one of the most pro-American nations in Africa, and the wider world.[126]

With International Criminal Court trial dates scheduled in 2013 for both President Kenyatta and Deputy President William Ruto related to the 2007 election aftermath, US president Barack Obama chose not to visit the country during his mid-2013 African trip.[127] Later in the summer, Kenyatta visited China at the invitation of President Xi Jinping after a stop in Russia and not having visited the United States as president.[128] In July 2015, Obama visited Kenya, the first American president to visit the country while in office.[129]

The British Army Training Unit Kenya (BATUK) is used for the training of British infantry battalions in the arid and rugged terrain of the Great Rift Valley.[130][131]

Armed forces

Emblem of the Kenya Defence Forces
Emblem of the Kenya Defence Forces

The Kenya Defence Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of Kenya. The Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, and Kenya Air Force compose the National Defence Forces. The current Kenya Defence Forces were established, and its composition laid out, in Article 241 of the 2010 Constitution of Kenya; the KDF is governed by the Kenya Defence Forces Act of 2012.[132] The President of Kenya is the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces.

The armed forces are regularly deployed in peacekeeping missions around the world. Further, in the aftermath of the national elections of December 2007 and the violence that subsequently engulfed the country, a commission of inquiry, the Waki Commission, commended its readiness and adjudged it to "have performed its duty well."[133] Nevertheless, there have been serious allegations of human rights violations, most recently while conducting counter-insurgency operations in the Mt Elgon area[134] and also in the district of Mandera central.[135]

Kenya's armed forces, like many government institutions in the country, have been tainted by corruption allegations. Because the operations of the armed forces have been traditionally cloaked by the ubiquitous blanket of "state security", the corruption has been hidden from public view, and thus less subject to public scrutiny and notoriety. This has changed recently. In what are by Kenyan standards unprecedented revelations, in 2010, credible claims of corruption were made with regard to recruitment[136] and procurement of armoured personnel carriers.[137] Further, the wisdom and prudence of certain decisions of procurement have been publicly questioned.[138]

Administrative divisions

Kenya's 47 counties.

Kenya is divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties that are headed by governors. These 47 counties form the first-order divisions of Kenya.

The smallest administrative units in Kenya are called locations. Locations often coincide with electoral wards. Locations are usually named after their central villages/towns. Many larger towns consist of several locations. Each location has a chief, appointed by the state.

Constituencies are an electoral subdivision, with each county comprising a whole number of constituencies. An interim boundaries commission was formed in 2010 to review the constituencies and in its report, it recommended the creation of an additional 80 constituencies. Previous to the 2013 elections, there were 210 constituencies in Kenya.[139]

Human rights

Homosexual acts are illegal in Kenya and punishable by up to 14 years in prison, though the state often turns a blind eye to prosecuting gay people.[140][141] According to a 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 90% of Kenyans believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.[142] While addressing a joint press conference together with President Barack Obama in 2015, President Kenyatta declined to assure Kenya's commitment to gay rights, saying that "the issue of gay rights is really a non-issue... But there are some things that we must admit we don't share. Our culture, our societies don't accept."[143]

In November 2008, WikiLeaks brought wide international attention[144] to The Cry of Blood report, which documents the extrajudicial killing of gangsters by the Kenyan police. In the report, the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR) reported these in their key finding "e)", stating that the forced disappearances and extrajudicial killings appeared to be official policy sanctioned by the political leadership and the police.[145][146]

Economy

A proportional representation of Kenya exports, 2019

Kenya's macroeconomic outlook has steadily posted robust growth over the past few decades mostly from road, rail and water transport infrastructure projects. However, much of this growth has come from cash flows diverted from ordinary Kenyan pockets at the microeconomic level through targeted monetary and fiscal measures coupled with poor management, corruption, massive theft of public funds, overlegislation and an ineffective judiciary resulting in diminished incomes in ordinary households and small businesses, unemployment, underemployment and general discontent across multiple sectors. Kenya ranks poorly on the Fragile States Index at number 25 out of 178 countries, ranked in 2019, and is placed in the ALERT category. In 2014, the country's macroeconomic indicators were re-based, causing the GDP to shift upwards to low-middle-income country status.

Kenya has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.555 (medium), ranked 145 out of 186 in the world. As of 2005, 17.7% of Kenyans lived on less than $1.25 a day. [147] In 2017, Kenya ranked 92nd in the World Bank ease of doing business rating from 113rd in 2016 (of 190 countries).[148] The important agricultural sector is one of the least developed and largely inefficient, employing 75% of the workforce compared to less than 3% in the food secure developed countries. Kenya is usually classified as a frontier market or occasionally an emerging market, but it is not one of the least developed countries.

The economy has seen much expansion, seen by strong performance in tourism, higher education, and telecommunications, and decent post-drought results in agriculture, especially the vital tea sector.[149] Kenya's economy grew by more than 7% in 2007, and its foreign debt was greatly reduced.[149] This changed immediately after the disputed presidential election of December 2007, following the chaos which engulfed the country.

Telecommunications and financial activity over the last decade now comprise 62% of GDP. 22% of GDP still comes from the unreliable agricultural sector which employs 75% of the labour force (a consistent characteristic of under-developed economies that have not attained food security—an important catalyst of economic growth). A small portion of the population relies on food aid.[150] Industry and manufacturing is the smallest sector, accounting for 16% of GDP. The service, industry and manufacturing sectors only employ 25% of the labour force but contribute 75% of GDP.[149] Kenya also exports textiles worth over $400 million under AGOA.

Privatisation of state corporations like the defunct Kenya Post and Telecommunications Company, which resulted in East Africa's most profitable company—Safaricom, has led to their revival because of massive private investment.

As of May 2011, economic prospects are positive with 4–5% GDP growth expected, largely because of expansions in tourism, telecommunications, transport, construction, and a recovery in agriculture. The World Bank estimated growth of 4.3% in 2012.[151]

Kenya, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970–2010.

In March 1996, the presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda re-established the East African Community (EAC). The EAC's objectives include harmonising tariffs and customs regimes, free movement of people, and improving regional infrastructures. In March 2004, the three East African countries signed a Customs Union Agreement.

Kenya has a more developed financial services sector than its neighbours. The Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) is ranked 4th in Africa in terms of market capitalisation. The Kenyan banking system is supervised by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). As of late July 2004, the system consisted of 43 commercial banks (down from 48 in 2001) and several non-bank financial institutions including mortgage companies, four savings and loan associations, and several core foreign-exchange bureaus.[149]

Tourism

Tourism in Kenya is the second-largest source of foreign exchange revenue following agriculture.[152] The Kenya Tourism Board is responsible for maintaining information pertaining to tourism in Kenya.[153][154] The main tourist attractions are photo safaris through the 60 national parks and game reserves. Other attractions include the wildebeest migration at the Masaai Mara, which is considered to be the 7th wonder of the world; historical mosques, and colonial-era forts at Mombasa, Malindi, and Lamu; renowned scenery such as the white-capped Mount Kenya and the Great Rift Valley; tea plantations at Kericho; coffee plantations at Thika; a splendid view of Mount Kilimanjaro across the border into Tanzania;[155] and the beaches along the Swahili Coast, in the Indian Ocean. Tourists, the largest number being from Germany and the United Kingdom, are attracted mainly to the coastal beaches and the game reserves, notably, the expansive East and Tsavo West National Park, 20,808 square kilometres (8,034 sq mi) to the southeast.

Agriculture

Tea farm near Kericho, Kericho County.

Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product (GDP) after the service sector. In 2005, agriculture, including forestry and fishing, accounted for 24% of GDP, as well as for 18% of wage employment and 50% of revenue from exports. The principal cash crops are tea, horticultural produce, and coffee. Horticultural produce and tea are the main growth sectors and the two most valuable of all of Kenya's exports. The production of major food staples such as corn is subject to sharp weather-related fluctuations. Production downturns periodically necessitate food aid—for example in 2004, due to one of Kenya's intermittent droughts.[156]

A consortium led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has had some success in helping farmers grow new pigeon pea varieties instead of maize, in particularly dry areas. Pigeon peas are very drought-resistant, so can be grown in areas with less than 650 mm annual rainfall. Successive projects encouraged the commercialisation of legumes by stimulating the growth of local seed production and agro-dealer networks for distribution and marketing. This work, which included linking producers to wholesalers, helped to increase local producer prices by 20–25% in Nairobi and Mombasa. The commercialisation of the pigeon pea is now enabling some farmers to buy assets ranging from mobile phones to productive land and livestock, and is opening pathways for them to move out of poverty.[157]

Tea, coffee, sisal, pyrethrum, corn, and wheat are grown in the fertile highlands, one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa.[105] Livestock predominates in the semi-arid savanna to the north and east. Coconuts, pineapples, cashew nuts, cotton, sugarcane, sisal, and corn are grown in the lower-lying areas. Kenya has not attained the level of investment and efficiency in agriculture that can guarantee food security, and coupled with resulting poverty (53% of the population lives below the poverty line), a significant portion of the population regularly starves and is heavily dependent on food aid.[150] Poor roads, an inadequate railway network, under-used water transport, and expensive air transport have isolated mostly arid and semi-arid areas, and farmers in other regions often leave food to rot in the fields because they cannot access markets. This was last seen in August and September 2011, prompting the Kenyans for Kenya initiative by the Red Cross.[158]

Agricultural countryside in Kenya

Kenya's irrigation sector is categorised into three organizational types: smallholder schemes, centrally-managed public schemes, and private/commercial irrigation schemes.

The smallholder schemes are owned, developed, and managed by individuals or groups of farmers operating as water users or self-help groups. Irrigation is carried out on individual or on group farms averaging 0.1–0.4 ha. There are about 3,000 smallholder irrigation schemes covering a total area of 47,000 ha. The country has seven large, centrally managed irrigation schemes, namely Mwea, Bura, Hola, Perkera, West Kano, Bunyala, and Ahero, covering a total area of 18,200 ha and averaging 2,600 ha per scheme. These schemes are managed by the National Irrigation Board and account for 18% of irrigated land area in Kenya. Large-scale private commercial farms cover 45,000 hectares, accounting for 40% of irrigated land. They utilise high technology and produce high-value crops for the export market, especially flowers and vegetables.[159]

Kenya is the world's 3rd largest exporter of cut flowers.[160] Roughly half of Kenya's 127 flower farms are concentrated around Lake Naivasha, 90 kilometres northwest of Nairobi.[160] To speed their export, Nairobi airport has a terminal dedicated to the transport of flowers and vegetables.[160]

Industry and manufacturing

The Kenya Commercial Bank office at KENCOM House (right) in Nairobi.

Although Kenya is a low middle-income country, manufacturing accounts for 14% of the GDP, with industrial activity concentrated around the three largest urban centres of Nairobi, Mombasa, and Kisumu, and is dominated by food-processing industries such as grain milling, beer production, sugarcane crushing, and the fabrication of consumer goods, e.g., vehicles from kits.

Kenya also has a cement production industry.[161] Kenya has an oil refinery that processes imported crude petroleum into petroleum products, mainly for the domestic market. In addition, a substantial and expanding informal sector commonly referred to as jua kali engages in small-scale manufacturing of household goods, auto parts, and farm implements.[162][163]

Kenya's inclusion among the beneficiaries of the US Government's African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) has given a boost to manufacturing in recent years. Since AGOA took effect in 2000, Kenya's clothing sales to the United States increased from US$44 million to US$270 million (2006).[164] Other initiatives to strengthen manufacturing have been the new government's favourable tax measures, including the removal of duty on capital equipment and other raw materials.[165]

Transport

The country has an extensive network of paved and unpaved roads. Kenya's railway system links the nation's ports and major cities, connecting it with neighbouring Uganda. There are 15 airports which have paved runways.

Energy

The largest share of Kenya's electricity supply comes from geothermal energy,[166] followed by hydroelectric stations at dams along the upper Tana River, as well as the Turkwel Gorge Dam in the west. A petroleum-fired plant on the coast, geothermal facilities at Olkaria (near Nairobi), and electricity imported from Uganda make up the rest of the supply. A 2,000 MW powerline from Ethiopia is nearing completion.

Kenya's installed capacity increased from 1,142 megawatts between 2001 and 2003 to 2,341 in 2016.[167] The state-owned Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), established in 1997 under the name of Kenya Power Company, handles the generation of electricity, while Kenya Power handles the electricity transmission and distribution system in the country. Shortfalls of electricity occur periodically, when drought reduces water flow. To become energy sufficient, Kenya has installed wind power and solar power (over 300 MW each), and aims to build a nuclear power plant by 2027.[168][169]

Kenya has proven deposits of oil in Turkana. Tullow Oil estimates the country's oil reserves to be around one billion barrels.[170] Exploration is still continuing to determine if there are more reserves. Kenya currently imports all crude petroleum requirements. The country has no strategic reserves and relies solely on oil marketers' 21-day oil reserves required under industry regulations. Petroleum accounts for 20% to 25% of the national import bill.[171]

Chinese investment and trade

Published comments on Kenya's Capital FM website by Liu Guangyuan, China's ambassador to Kenya, at the time of President Kenyatta's 2013 trip to Beijing, said, "Chinese investment in Kenya ... reached $474 million, representing Kenya's largest source of foreign direct investment, and ... bilateral trade ... reached $2.84 billion" in 2012. Kenyatta was "[a]ccompanied by 60 Kenyan business people [and hoped to] ... gain support from China for a planned $2.5 billion railway from the southern Kenyan port of Mombasa to neighbouring Uganda, as well as a nearly $1.8 billion dam", according to a statement from the president's office, also at the time of the trip.[128]

Base Titanium, a subsidiary of Base resources of Australia, shipped its first major consignment of minerals to China. About 25,000 tonnes of ilmenite was flagged off the Kenyan coastal town of Kilifi. The first shipment was expected to earn Kenya about KSh15–20 billion in earnings.[172] In 2014, the Chinese contracted railway project from Nairobi to Mombasa was suspended due to a dispute over compensation for land acquisition.[173]

Vision 2030

The official logo of Vision 2030.

In 2007, the Kenyan government unveiled Vision 2030, an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the Asian Economic Tigers by the year 2030. In 2013, it launched a National Climate Change Action Plan, having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in Vision 2030 was an oversight failure. The 200-page Action Plan, developed with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network, sets out the Government of Kenya's vision for a 'low-carbon climate resilient development pathway'. At the launch in March 2013, the Secretary of the Ministry of Planning, National Development, and Vision 2030 emphasised that climate would be a central issue in the renewed Medium-Term Plan that would be launched in the coming months. This would create a direct and robust delivery framework for the Action Plan and ensure climate change is treated as an economy-wide issue.[174]

Economic summary
GDP $41.84 billion (2012) at Market Price. $76.07 billion (Purchasing Power Parity, 2012)

There exists an informal economy that is never counted as part of the official GDP figures.

Annual growth rate 5.1% (2012)
Per capita income Per Capita Income (PPP)= $1,800
Agricultural produce   tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
Industry small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminium, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
Trade in 2012
Exports $5.942 billion tea, coffee, horticultural products, petroleum products, cement, fish
Major markets Uganda 9.9%, Tanzania 9.6%, Netherlands 8.4%, UK, 8.1%, US 6.2%, Egypt 4.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.2% (2012)[11]
Imports $14.39 billion machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Major suppliers China 15.3%, India 13.8%, UAE 10.5%, Saudi Arabia 7.3%, South Africa 5.5%, Japan 4.0% (2012)[11]

Oil exploration

Lake Turkana borders Turkana County

Kenya has proven oil deposits in Turkana County. President Mwai Kibaki announced on 26 March 2012 that Tullow Oil, an Anglo-Irish oil exploration firm, had struck oil, but its commercial viability and subsequent production would take about three years to confirm.[175]

Early in 2006, Chinese president Hu Jintao signed an oil exploration contract with Kenya, part of a series of deals designed to keep Africa's natural resources flowing to China's rapidly expanding economy.

Lions Family Portrait Masai Mara

The deal allowed for China's state-controlled offshore oil and gas company, CNOOC, to prospect for oil in Kenya, which is just beginning to drill its first exploratory wells on the borders of Sudan and the disputed area of North Eastern Province, on the border with Somalia and in coastal waters. There are formal estimates of the possible reserves of oil discovered.[176]

Child labour and prostitution

Maasai people. The Maasai live in both Kenya and Tanzania.

Child labour is common in Kenya. Most working children are active in agriculture.[177] In 2006, UNICEF estimated that up to 30% of girls in the coastal areas of Malindi, Mombasa, Kilifi, and Diani were subject to prostitution. Most of the prostitutes in Kenya are aged 9–18.[177] The Ministry of Gender and Child Affairs employed 400 child protection officers in 2009.[177] The causes of child labour include poverty, the lack of access to education, and weak government institutions.[177] Kenya has ratified Convention No. 81 on labour inspection in industries and Convention No. 129 on labour inspection in agriculture.[178]

Child labour in Kenya

Microfinance in Kenya

24 institutions offer business loans on a large scale, specific agriculture loans, education loans, and loans for all other purposes. Additionally, there are:

  • emergency loans, which are more expensive in respect to interest rates, but are quickly available
  • group loans for smaller groups (4–5 members) and larger groups (up to 30 members)
  • women's loans, which are also available to groups of women

Out of approximately 40 million Kenyans, about 14 million are not able to receive financial service through formal loan application services, and an additional 12 million have no access to financial service institutions at all. Further, 1 million Kenyans are reliant on informal groups for receiving financial aid.[179]

Conditions for microfinance products

  • Eligibility criteria: the general criteria might include gender as in the case of special women's loans; being at least 18 years old; owning a valid Kenyan ID; having a business; demonstrating the ability to repay the loan; and being a customer of the institution.
  • Credit scoring: there is no advanced credit scoring system and the majority has not stated any official loan distribution system. However, some institutions require applicants to have an existing business for at least 3 months, own a small amount of cash, provide the institution with a business plan or proposal, have at least one guarantor, or to attend group meetings or training. For group loans, almost half of the institutions require group members to guarantee for each other.
  • Interest rate: mostly calculated on a flat basis and some at a declining balance. More than 90% of the institutions require monthly interest payments. The average interest rate is 30–40% for loans up to KSh500,000. For loans above KSh500,000, interest rates go up to 71%.

Demographics

A Bantu Kikuyu woman in traditional attire
Population[180][181]
Year Million
1950 6.1
2000 31.4
2018 51.4

Kenya had a population of approximately 48 million people in January 2017.[11] The country has a young population, with 73% of residents aged below 30 years because of rapid population growth,[182][183] from 2.9 million to 40 million inhabitants over the last century.[184]

Kenya's capital, Nairobi, is home to Kibera, one of the world's largest slums. The shantytown is believed to house between 170,000[185] and 1 million people.[186] The UNHCR base in Dadaab in the north also currently houses around 500,000 people.[187]

Ethnic groups

Kenya has a diverse population that includes many of the major ethnoracial and linguistic groups found in Africa. Although there is no official list of Kenyan ethnic groups, the number of ethnic categories and sub-categories recorded in the country's census has changed significantly over time, expanding from 42 in 1969, to more than 120 in 2019.[188] The majority of local resident are made up of Bantus (60%) and Nilotes (30%).[189] Cushitic groups also form a small ethnic minority, as do Arabs, Indians, and Europeans.[189][190]

According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), In 2019, Kenya had a total population of 47,564,296 inhabitants. The largest native ethnic groups were the Kikuyu (8,148,668), Luhya (6,823,842), Kalenjin (6,358,113), Luo (5,066,966), Kamba (4,663,910), Somalis (2,780,502), Kisii (2,703,235), Mijikenda (2,488,691), Meru (1,975,869), Maasai (1,189,522), and Turkana (1,016,174). The North Eastern Province of Kenya, formerly known as NFD, is predominantly inhabited by the indigenous ethnic Somalis. Foreign-rooted populations include Somalis (from Somalia), Arabs, Asians, and Europeans.[2]

Languages

Kenya's various ethnic groups typically speak their mother tongues within their own communities. The two official languages, English and Swahili, are used in varying degrees of fluency for communication with other populations. English is widely spoken in commerce, schooling, and government.[191] Peri-urban and rural dwellers are less multilingual, with many in rural areas speaking only their native languages.[192]

British English is primarily used in Kenya. Additionally, a distinct local dialect, Kenyan English, is used by some communities and individuals in the country, and contains features unique to it that were derived from local Bantu languages such as Kiswahili and Kikuyu.[193] It has been developing since colonisation and also contains certain elements of American English. Sheng is a Kiswahili-based cant spoken in some urban areas. Primarily consisting of a mixture of Kiswahili and English, it is an example of linguistic code-switching.[194]

There are a total of 69 languages spoken in Kenya. Most belong to two broad language families: Niger-Congo (Bantu branch) and Nilo-Saharan (Nilotic branch), spoken by the country's Bantu and Nilotic populations respectively. The Cushitic and Arab ethnic minorities speak languages belonging to the separate Afroasiatic family, with the Indian and European residents speaking languages from the Indo-European family.[195]

Urban centres

Religion

Holy Ghost Roman Catholic Cathedral in Mombasa.

The majority of Kenyans are Christian (85.5%), of whom 53.9% are Protestant and 20.6% are Roman Catholic.[2] The Presbyterian Church of East Africa has 3 million followers in Kenya and surrounding countries.[197] There are smaller conservative Reformed churches, the Africa Evangelical Presbyterian Church,[198] the Independent Presbyterian Church in Kenya, and the Reformed Church of East Africa. Orthodox Christianity counts 621,200 adherents.[199] Kenya has by far the highest number of Quakers of any country in the world, with around 146,300 members.[200] The only Jewish synagogue in the country is located in Nairobi.

Islam is the second largest religion, comprising 10.9% of the population. Sixty percent of Kenyan Muslims live in the Coastal Region, comprising 50% of the total population there, while the upper part of Kenya's Eastern Region is home to 10% of the country's Muslims, where they constitute the majority religious group.[201] Indigenous beliefs are practised by 0.7% of the population, although many self-identifying Christians and Muslims maintain some traditional beliefs and customs. Nonreligious Kenyans make up 1.6% of the population.[2]

There are Hindus living in Kenya. The numbers are estimated to be around 60,287 people or 0.13% of the population.[2]

Health

Outpatient Department of AIC Kapsowar Hospital[202] in Kapsowar.

Healthcare is largely funded by private individuals, families and employers through direct payments to health care providers, the National Hospital Insurance Fund and private health insurance firms. Additional funding comes from local, international and some government social safety net schemes. Public hospitals charge patients fees for services and are a major source of revenue for the county and national governments making them highly political enterprises. Minimum and maximum fees that may be charged by healthcare providers are determined and controlled by the government through the regulatory bodies.

Private health facilities are diverse, highly dynamic, and difficult to classify, unlike public health facilities, which are easily grouped in classes that consist of community-based (level I) services, run by community health workers; dispensaries (level II facilities) run by nurses; health centres (level III facilities), run by clinical officers; sub-county hospitals (level IV facilities), which may be run by a clinical officer or a medical officer; county hospitals (level V facilities), which may be run by a medical officer or a medical practitioner; and national referral hospitals (level VI facilities), which are run by fully qualified medical practitioners.

Table showing different grades of clinical officers, medical officers, and medical practitioners in Kenya's public service

Nurses are by far the largest group of front-line health care providers in all sectors, followed by clinical officers, medical officers, and medical practitioners. These are absorbed and deployed into government service in accordance with the Scheme of Service for Nursing Personnel (2014), the Revised Scheme of Service for Clinical Personnel (2020) and the Revised Scheme of Service for Medical Officers and Dental Officers (2016).

Traditional healers (herbalists, witch doctors, and faith healers) are readily available, trusted, and widely consulted as practitioners of first or last choice by both rural and urban dwellers.

Despite major achievements in the health sector, Kenya still faces many challenges. The estimated life expectancy dropped in 2009 to approximately 55 years — five years below the 1990 level.[203] The infant mortality rate was high at approximately 44 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012.[204] The WHO estimated in 2011 that only 42% of births were attended by a skilled health professional.[205]

Diseases of poverty directly correlate with a country's economic performance and wealth distribution: Half of Kenyans live below the poverty level.[citation needed] Preventable diseases like malaria, HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malnutrition are the biggest burden, major child-killers, and responsible for much morbidity; weak policies, corruption, inadequate health workers, weak management, and poor leadership in the public health sector are largely to blame. According to 2009 estimates, HIV/AIDS prevalence is about 6.3% of the adult population.[206] However, the 2011 UNAIDS Report suggests that the HIV epidemic may be improving in Kenya, as HIV prevalence is declining among young people (ages 15–24) and pregnant women.[207] Kenya had an estimated 15 million cases of malaria in 2006.[208]

Women

Kenyan women in Nairobi

The total fertility rate in Kenya was estimated to be 4.49 children per woman in 2012.[209] According to a 2008–09 survey by the Kenyan government, the total fertility rate was 4.6% and the contraception usage rate among married women was 46%.[210] Maternal mortality is high, partly because of female genital mutilation,[149] with about 27% of women having undergone it.[211] This practice is however on the decline as the country becomes more modernised, and in 2011 it was banned in Kenya.[212] Women were economically empowered before colonialisation. By colonial land alienation, women lost access and control of land.[213] They became more economically dependent on men.[213] A colonial order of gender emerged where males dominated females.[213] Median age at first marriage increases with increasing education.[214] Rape, defilement, and battering are not always seen as serious crimes.[215] Reports of sexual assault are not always taken seriously.[215]

Education

School children in a classroom.
An MSc student at Kenyatta University in Nairobi.

Children attend nursery school, or kindergarten in the private sector until they are five years old. This lasts one to three years (KG1, KG2 and KG3) and is financed privately because there has been no government policy on pre-schooling until recently.[216]

Basic formal education starts at age six and lasts 12 years, consisting of eight years in primary school and four in high school or secondary. Primary school is free in public schools and those attending can join a vocational youth/village polytechnic, or make their own arrangements for an apprenticeship program and learn a trade such as tailoring, carpentry, motor vehicle repair, brick-laying and masonry for about two years.[217]

Those who complete high school can join a polytechnic or other technical college and study for three years, or proceed directly to university and study for four years. Graduates from the polytechnics and colleges can then join the workforce and later obtain a specialised higher diploma qualification after a further one to two years of training, or join the university—usually in the second or third year of their respective course. The higher diploma is accepted by many employers in place of a bachelor's degree and direct or accelerated admission to post-graduate studies is possible in some universities.

A Maasai girl at school.

Public universities in Kenya are highly commercialised institutions and only a small fraction of qualified high school graduates are admitted on limited government-sponsorship into programs of their choice. Most are admitted into the social sciences, which are cheap to run, or as self-sponsored students paying the full cost of their studies. Most qualified students who miss out opt for middle-level diploma programs in public or private universities, colleges, and polytechnics.

In 2018, 18.5 percent of the Kenyan adult population was illiterate, which was the highest rate of literacy in East Africa.[218][219] There are very wide regional disparities: for example, Nairobi had the highest level of literacy at 87.1 per cent, compared to North Eastern Province, the lowest, at 8.0 per cent. Preschool, which targets children from age three to five, is an integral component of the education system and is a key requirement for admission to Standard One (First Grade). At the end of primary education, pupils sit the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE), which determines those who proceed to secondary school or vocational training. The result of this examination is needed for placement at secondary school.[217]

Primary school is for students aged 6/7-13/14 years. For those who proceed to the secondary level, there is a national examination at the end of Form Four – the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE), which determines those proceeding to the universities, other professional training, or employment. Students sit examinations in eight subjects of their choosing. However, English, Kiswahili, and mathematics are compulsory subjects.

The Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS), formerly the Joint Admissions Board (JAB), is responsible for selecting students joining the public universities. Other than the public schools, there are many private schools, mainly in urban areas. Similarly, there are a number of international schools catering to various overseas educational systems.

Despite its impressive commercial approach and interests in the country, Kenya's academia and higher education system is notoriously rigid and disconnected from the needs of the local labour market and is widely blamed for the high number of unemployable and "half-baked" university graduates who struggle to fit in the modern workplace.[220]

Culture

Kenyan boys and girls performing a traditional dance
Nation Media House, which hosts the Nation Media Group

The culture of Kenya consists of multiple traditions. Kenya has no single prominent culture that identifies it. It instead consists of the various cultures of the country's different communities.

Notable populations include the Swahili on the coast, several other Bantu communities in the central and western regions, and Nilotic communities in the northwest. The Maasai culture is well known to tourism, despite constituting a relatively small part of Kenya's population. They are renowned for their elaborate upper-body adornment and jewellery.

Additionally, Kenya has an extensive music, television, and theatre scene.

Media

Kenya has a number of media outlets that broadcast domestically and globally. They cover news, business, sports, and entertainment. Popular Kenyan newspapers include:

Television stations based in Kenya include:

All of these terrestrial channels are transmitted via a DVB T2 digital TV signal.

Literature

Kenyan author Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o.

Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o is one of the best known writers in Kenya. His novel, Weep Not, Child, is an illustration of life in Kenya during the British occupation. The story details the effects of the Mau Mau on the lives of Kenyans. Its combination of themes—colonialism, education, and love—helped to make it one of the best-known novels in Africa.

M.G. Vassanji's 2003 novel The In-Between World of Vikram Lall won the Giller Prize in 2003. It is the fictional memoir of a Kenyan of Indian heritage and his family as they adjust to the changing political climates in colonial and post-colonial Kenya.

Since 2003, the literary journal Kwani? has been publishing Kenyan contemporary literature. Additionally, Kenya has also been nurturing emerging versatile authors such as Paul Kipchumba (Kipwendui, Kibiwott) who demonstrate a pan-African outlook (see Africa in China's 21st Century: In Search of a Strategy (2017).[221]

Music

Popular Kenyan musician Jua Cali.

Kenya has a diverse assortment of popular music forms, in addition to multiple types of folk music based on the variety of over 40 regional languages.[222]

Drums are the most dominant instrument in popular Kenyan music. Drum beats are very complex and include both native rhythms and imported ones, especially the Congolese cavacha rhythm. Popular Kenyan music usually involves the interplay of multiple parts, and more recently, showy guitar solos as well. There are also a number of local hip-hop artists, including Jua Cali; Afro-pop bands such as Sauti Sol; and musicians who play local genres like Benga, such as Akothee.

Lyrics are most often in Kiswahili or English. There is also some emerging aspect of Lingala borrowed from Congolese musicians. Lyrics are also written in local languages. Urban radio generally only plays English music, though there also exist a number of vernacular radio stations.

Zilizopendwa is a genre of local urban music that was recorded in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s by musicians such as Daudi Kabaka, Fadhili William, and Sukuma Bin Ongaro, and is particularly enjoyed by older people—having been popularised by the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation's Kiswahili service (formerly called Voice of Kenya or VOK).

The Isukuti is a vigorous dance performed by the Luhya sub-tribes to the beat of a traditional drum called the Isukuti during many occasions such as the birth of a child, marriage, or funeral. Other traditional dances include the Ohangla among the Luo, Nzele among the Mijikenda, Mugithi among the Kikuyu, and Taarab among the Swahili.

Additionally, Kenya has a growing Christian gospel music scene. Prominent local gospel musicians include the Kenyan Boys Choir.

Benga music has been popular since the late 1960s, especially in the area around Lake Victoria. The word benga is occasionally used to refer to any kind of pop music. Bass, guitar, and percussion are the usual instruments.

Sports

Jepkosgei Kipyego and Jepkemoi Cheruiyot at the 2012 London Olympics

Kenya is active in several sports, among them cricket, rallying, football, rugby, field hockey, and boxing. The country is known chiefly for its dominance in middle-distance and long-distance athletics, having consistently produced Olympic and Commonwealth Games champions in various distance events, especially in 800 m, 1,500 m, 3,000 m steeplechase, 5,000 m, 10,000 m, and the marathon. Kenyan athletes (particularly Kalenjin), continue to dominate the world of distance running, although competition from Morocco and Ethiopia has reduced this supremacy. Kenya's best-known athletes include the four-time women's Boston Marathon winner and two-time world champion Catherine Ndereba, 800m world record holder David Rudisha, former marathon world record-holder Paul Tergat, and John Ngugi.

Kenya won several medals during the Beijing Olympics: six gold, four silver, and four bronze, making it Africa's most successful nation in the 2008 Olympics. New athletes gained attention, such as Pamela Jelimo, the women's 800m gold medalist who went on to win the IAAF Golden League jackpot, and Samuel Wanjiru, who won the men's marathon. Retired Olympic and Commonwealth Games champion Kipchoge Keino helped usher in Kenya's ongoing distance dynasty in the 1970s and was followed by Commonwealth Champion Henry Rono's spectacular string of world record performances. Lately, there has been controversy in Kenyan athletics circles, with the defection of a number of Kenyan athletes to represent other countries, chiefly Bahrain and Qatar.[223] The Kenyan Ministry of Sports has tried to stop the defections, but they have continued anyway, with Bernard Lagat being the latest, choosing to represent the United States.[223] Most of these defections occur because of economic or financial factors.[224] Decisions by the Kenyan government to tax athletes' earnings may also be a motivating factor.[225] Some elite Kenyan runners who cannot qualify for their country's strong national team find it easier to qualify by running for other countries.[226]

Kenyan Olympic and world record holder in the 800 meters, David Rudisha.

Kenya has been a dominant force in women's volleyball within Africa, with both the clubs and the national team winning various continental championships in the past decade.[227][228] The women's team has competed at the Olympics and World Championships, though without any notable success. Cricket is another popular sport, also ranking as the most successful team sport. Kenya has competed in the Cricket World Cup since 1996. They upset some of the world's best teams and reached the semi-finals of the 2003 tournament. They won the inaugural World Cricket League Division 1 hosted in Nairobi and participated in the World T20. They also participated in the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. Their current captain is Rakep Patel.[229]

Kenya is represented by Lucas Onyango as a professional rugby league player who plays with the English club Oldham. Besides the former Super League team, he has played for the Widnes Vikings and with the Sale Sharks.[230] Rugby is increasing in popularity, especially with the annual Safari Sevens tournament. The Kenya Sevens team ranked 9th in the IRB Sevens World Series for the 2006 season. In 2016, the team beat Fiji at the Singapore Sevens finals, making Kenya the second African nation after South Africa to win a World Series championship.[231][232][233] Kenya was once also a regional powerhouse in football. However, its dominance has been eroded by wrangles within the now defunct Kenya Football Federation,[234] leading to a suspension by FIFA which was lifted in March 2007.

In the motor rallying arena, Kenya is home to the world-famous Safari Rally, commonly acknowledged as one of the toughest rallies in the world.[235] It was a part of the World Rally Championship for many years until its exclusion after the 2002 event owing to financial difficulties. Some of the best rally drivers in the world have taken part in and won the rally, such as Björn Waldegård, Hannu Mikkola, Tommi Mäkinen, Shekhar Mehta, Carlos Sainz, and Colin McRae. Although the rally still runs annually as part of the Africa rally championship, the organisers are hoping to be allowed to rejoin the World Rally championship in the next couple of years.

Nairobi has hosted several major continental sports events, including the FIBA Africa Championship 1993, where Kenya's national basketball team finished in the top four, its best performance to date.[236]

Cuisine

Ugali and sukuma wiki, staples of Kenyan cuisine

Kenyans generally have three meals in a day—breakfast (kiamsha kinywa), lunch (chakula cha mchana), and supper (chakula cha jioni or simply chajio). In between, they have the 10-o'clock tea (chai ya saa nne) and 4 p.m. tea (chai ya saa kumi). Breakfast is usually tea or porridge with bread, chapati, mahamri, boiled sweet potatoes, or yams. Githeri is a common lunchtime dish in many households, while Ugali with vegetables, sour milk (mursik), meat, fish, or any other stew is generally eaten by much of the population for lunch or supper. Regional variations and dishes also exist.

In western Kenya, among the Luo, fish is a common dish; among the Kalenjin, who dominate much of the Rift Valley Region, mursik—sour milk—is a common drink.

In cities such as Nairobi, there are fast-food restaurants, including Steers, KFC,[237] and Subway.[238] There are also many fish-and-chips shops.[239]

Cheese is becoming more popular in Kenya, with consumption increasing particularly among the middle class.[240][241]

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