イラクのイスラム状態とバント（ISIL ; / 、 /）としても知られているイラクとシリアのイスラム状態（ISIS ; / /）、正式にはイスラム国（IS）として知られており、アラビア語の頭字語Daesh（アラビア語：داعش、Dāʿish）でも知られています、IPA： [ˈdaːʕɪʃ]）、は過激派グループであり、サラフィージハード主義の教義に従ったかつての認識されていない 原始国家です。
ISILは1999年に発足し、アルカイダへの忠誠を誓い、2003年の西側軍によるイラク侵攻後のイラクの反乱に参加しました。 2014年6月では、グループは、自分自身を宣言し、世界中のカリフ 及び（イスラム状態としてそれ自体を参照始めالدولةالإسلامية AD-DawlahアルIslāmiyah ; IS）。カリフ制として、それは世界中のすべてのイスラム教徒に対する宗教的、政治的、および軍事的権威を主張した。イスラム国という名前の採用 そして、カリフ制の考えは批判されており、国連、さまざまな政府、そして主流のイスラム教徒グループがその国家としての地位を拒否している。
シリアでは、グループは、両方の接地攻撃行なっ政府軍と反対の派閥を、そして2015年12月で、それは推定800万12人を含む、東部のシリアへの西部のイラクから延びるエリアを開催し、  シリア法の解釈を強制したところ。 ISILは、アフガニスタンとパキスタンを含む18か国で運用されていると考えられています。 2015年、ISILは、年間以上の予算持つと推定された1 US $ 億ドルと30,000人以上の戦闘機を。
2014年半ば、米国主導の国際連合がシリアとイラクでISILに対抗し、イラク治安部隊とシリア民主軍でISILの敵にアドバイザー、武器、訓練、物資を提供することに加えて、空爆キャンペーンを行いました。このキャンペーンは、後者の2つの軍隊を再活性化し、ISILに損害を与え、数万人の軍隊を殺害し、財政的および軍事的インフラストラクチャーを削減しました。これに続いて小規模なロシアの介入が行われたISILが空爆、巡航ミサイル攻撃、およびその他のロシアの軍事活動によりさらに数千人の戦闘機を失い、その財政基盤がさらに悪化したシリアでのみ。 2017年7月、グループは最大の都市であるモスルの支配権をイラク軍に失い、続いて事実上の政治首都であるラッカをシリア民主軍に失った。 2017年12月までに、イスラム国はその最大領土のわずか2％を支配した（2015年5月）。 2017年12月、グループがイラクの領土の約3分の1を占領してから3年後、イラク軍はイスラム国の最後の残党を地下に追いやった。2019年3月までに、ISILはDeir ez-Zorキャンペーンで中東の最後の重要な領土の1つを失い、Baghuz Fawqaniの戦いの後、Al-BaghuzFawqaniの「テントシティー」とポケットをシリア民主軍に引き渡しました。
2013年4月に、シリアに拡大した、グループを採用名AD-DawlahアルIslāmiyah「は、L-'IrāqWA-SH-SHAMをFI（الدولةالإسلاميةفيالعراقوالشام）。アル・シャムはしばしばに比べ領域でバント又は大シリア、グループの名前は様々 「イラクのイスラム国家として翻訳されたアル・シャム」、「イラクとシリアのイスラム状態」 （両方ともISISと略される）、または「イラクのイスラム国とレバント」（ISILと略される）。
しながら、一方または他方のいずれかを使用する頭字語は、議論の対象となっている  2との関連性がないので、大きな考えられていたの区別。より関連性の高い名前はDaeshです。これは、ISILのアラビア語の名前al-Dawlahal-Islamīyahfīl-ʻIrāqwa-sh-Shāmの 頭字語です。Dāʿish（داعش）、またはDaesh。この名前は、広く、ISILのアラビア語圏の中傷によって使用されてきた たとえば、グループ間で話しているときにグループを参照する場合、—およびのためにある程度は—アラビア語のDaes（「足元で何かを押しつぶす、または踏みにじる人」）に似ているため、蔑称と見なされます。 ）とDāhis（大まかに翻訳：「不和をまく者」）。 その制御下の領域内では、ISILはむち打ちによって名称Daeshの処罰の使用を考慮し 、または舌を切り出します。
2014年6月下旬に、グループは自分自身をad-Dawlahal-Islāmiyah（点灯。 「イスラム国」またはIS）に改名し、世界的なカリフ制を宣言しました。「イスラム国」という名前とカリフ制であるというグループの主張は広く拒否されており、国連、さまざまな政府、および主流のイスラム教徒グループは新しい名前の使用を拒否しています。 2014年6月の新しいカリフ制のグループの宣言と「イスラム国家」という名前の採用は、それが支配する領域の内外の両方でイスラム教徒の学者とライバルのイスラム教徒によって批判され、嘲笑された。 
2014年9月における演説で、米国大統領のバラク・オバマは、何の政府はその中で（ISILは（何の宗教が罪の殺害を黙認しないということに基づいて）「イスラム」もなかったでもそれは「状態」であると述べた認識していないAとしてグループを州）、一方で、多くの人が「イスラム国」という名前を使用することに反対しているが、その名前が意味する権威に対する広範囲にわたる宗教的および政治的主張のためである。国連安全保障理事会、米国、カナダ、トルコ、オーストラリア、ロシア、[要出典]イギリスおよび他の国は一般にグループを「ISIL」と呼びますが、アラブ世界の多くはアラビア語の頭字語「Dāʻish」（または「Daesh」）を使用しています。フランスのローラン・ファビウス外相は、「これはテロリスト集団であり、国家ではない。イスラム、イスラム教徒、イスラム教徒の間の境界線を曖昧にするため、イスラム国家という用語を使用することはお勧めしない。アラブ人はそれを「Daesh」と呼び、私はそれらを「Daeshcutthroats」と呼んでいます。」 連合を調整するために任命された米国の使節である、引退した将軍ジョン・アレン。米陸軍中将ジェームズ・テリー、グループに対する作戦責任者。そして国務長官 ジョン・ケリー2014年12月までにDaeshという用語の使用に移行しましたが、それでも2021年には蔑称のままでした。
ISILは神権政治、原始国家、そしてサラフィー・ジハードグループです。  ISILの思想は、ハイブリッドであるとして説明したSalafism、サラフィーのjihadism     、ワッハーブ派とスンニイスラム原理。   ISILの特許請求の範囲は、に付着するがサラフィー神学のイブン・タイミーヤ、それは伝統的なサラフィーの解釈と4つのスンニ派の法学部に反抗し、サラフィーの大部分を異端者として麻酔します。 ISILのイデオログは、参照用にイスラムの奨学金や法律のマニュアルを順守することはめったになく、主にコーランとイスラム教の伝統の自己解釈に基づいて判決を導き出すことを好みます。ロバート・マンネによれば、イスラム国のイデオロギーは「主に過激なエジプトのムスリム同胞団の理論家サイイド・クトゥブの著作に基づいている」という「一般的なコンセンサス」があります。ムスリム同胞団は、20世紀に政治的イスラム主義の傾向を開始し、別のカリフ制の漸進主義的確立を求めた。これは、シャリーアによる包括的なイスラムシステムの支配となるでしょう。サイイド・クトゥブの教義を通してジャーヒリーヤ（事前イスラム無知）、hakimiyya（神の主権）とTakfir社会全体の、ムスリム同胞団の政治的イスラムプロジェクトのラジカルビジョンはのコア形成することになるQutbism（骨格サラフィー-Jihadismを）。クトゥブは、アブドゥッラー・アッザムからザワヒリ、そしてデーシュに至るまで、すべてのジハード主義思想の先駆者でした。シリアの学者ムハンマド・アル・ヤコウビによれば、ISILのイデオロギーの主要な要素とその過激派の慣行はジハード主義者に由来しているエジプトの学者サイイドクトゥブの作品とムスリム同胞団運動の強硬派の翼のマニュアル。 Sayyid Qutbと並んで、Ibn Taymiyya、Abdullah Azzam、およびAbu Bakr Najiは、ISISの最も呼び出されたイデオロギーの人物の1人です。
アブ・バクル・アル・バグダディ自身は、若い頃に元ムスリム同胞団のメンバーとして過激化した。 Motaz Al-Khateebは、ムスリム同胞団とDaeshは「同じイスラム法学を利用している」が、戦略と行動は「正反対」であるため、宗教文書とイスラム法学はDaeshの「出現を説明できない」と述べている。は、もともとその最初の指導者によって解放信念の公式声明を通じて、アブー・ウマル・アル=バグダーディー2014年6月以来、2007年には、その後、更新、ISILは独自の定義された信条を「過激派との間に中間の方法としてKharijitesと緩いMurji'ites」 。：38ISILのイデオロギーは、スンニ派イスラム教の厳格で純粋な形態である過激なジハード-サラフィーイスラム教を表しています。アメリカのイスラムネットワークグループ（ING）のようなイスラム教組織は、このイスラムの解釈に反対している。 ISILは促進宗教的暴力を、そしてそのような解釈に同意しないイスラム教徒に関しては不信心者や背教者を。 Hayder al Khoeiによると、ISILの哲学は、それが採用したムハンマドの伝説的な戦闘旗の黒旗の変種の象徴によって表されています。旗は白い円の中にムハンマドの印章があり、その上に「アッラー以外に神はいない」というフレーズがあります。そのような象徴性は、それが初期のイスラムのカリフ制の回復を表し、これが意味するすべての政治的、宗教的および終末論的影響を伴うというISILの信念を示していると言われています。
終わりの時への言及はイスラム国の宣伝を満たします。それは、黙示録の最後の戦いが行われる土地に旅行したい外国の戦闘機にとって大きなセールスポイントです。今日これらの国々で激しさを増している内戦[イラクとシリア]は予言に信頼を与えています。イスラム国は終末論的な火を煽った。 [...]ビンラーディンの世代にとって、黙示録は素晴らしい採用ピッチではありませんでした。 20年前の中東の政府はより安定しており、宗派主義はより抑制されていました。反キリストに反対するよりも、腐敗と専制政治に反対するために武装することによって募集するほうがよい。しかし、今日では、終末論的な採用ピッチは以前よりも理にかなっています。— ウィリアム・マキャンツ、ISIS黙示録：イスラム国家の歴史、戦略、そして終末のビジョン
遅くとも2004年以来、このグループの重要な目標はスンニ派 イスラム国家の創設でした。具体的には、ISILは、預言者ムハンマドの後継者であると信じられている最高指導者であるカリフの下で、宗教当局のグループが率いるイスラム国であるカリフとしての地位を確立しようと努めてきた。 2014年6月、ISILは、リーダーのアルバグダディの血統をムハンマドまでさかのぼったと主張する文書を公開し、6月29日に新しいカリフを宣言すると、グループはアルバグダディを任命しました。そのカリフとして。カリフとして、彼は世界中のすべての敬虔なイスラム教徒の忠誠を要求します、イスラム法学（fiqh）によると。
セキュリティとインテリジェンスの専門家であるマーティン・リアドンは、ISILの目的は、敵の間に「完全な憎悪と復讐」を生み出しながら、「恐怖と脅迫を通じて絶対的な忠誠を確実にするために」、その支配下にある人々を心理的に「破壊」することであると説明しています。 サラフィージハード主義について書いているジャーナリストのジェイソンバークは、ISILの目標は「テロ、動員[そして]分極化」であると書いている。テロへの取り組みは、民間人を威嚇し、標的となる敵の政府に「他の方法では選択しないような急いで決定を下す」ことを意図している。それは、例えば、彼らを動機付けることによって、支持者を動員することを目的としています。西部の領土の奥深くにある壮大な致命的な攻撃（2015年11月のパリ同時多発テロ）、特に西側のイスラム教徒の人口を政府から遠ざけることで二極化し、ISILの自称カリフ制の魅力を高め、「吸収または排除を通じて中立政党を排除する」。 ジャーナリストラックミーニ・マリア・カリマチーはまた、偏光またはそれが黒（非ムスリム）及び白（ISIL）との間の「グレーゾーン」と呼ぶもの排除におけるISILの関心を強調しています。 「灰色は、西洋に住んでいて、幸せで、ここの社会に従事していると感じている穏健ムスリムです。」
2004年にオンラインで公開された「野蛮人の管理」（Idarat at Tawahoush）というタイトルの作品は、ISIL に影響力があるといくつかのメディアによって説明され、新しいイスラムカリフ制を作成する戦略を提供することを目的としており、は戦略を推奨しました戦闘機が「イスラム世界のあらゆる場所で、そして可能であればそれの外でさえ、敵の同盟の努力を分散させるために、十字軍-シオニストの敵に対する嫌悪感の攻撃を多様化し、拡大するであろうその領域外の攻撃のしたがって、可能な限りそれを排出します。」
グループを研究しているイラク人、シリア人、アナリストによると、ISILの指導者のほとんどすべて（軍事委員会と安全保障委員会のメンバー、大多数の首長と王子を含む）は、元イラク軍と諜報員、特にサダム・フセインの元メンバーです。その政権が打倒された後、脱バース化プロセスで職と年金を失ったのバース政権。 米国国務省のテロ対策コーディネーターの元チーフストラテジスト、デビッドキルカレンは、「私たちがイラクに侵攻していなければ、間違いなくイシスは存在しなかっただろう」と述べた。 グループが持続可能であるためにはシリアとイラクの両方で地元のスンニ派の人々の忠誠心を必要とするため、イラク人とシリア人はISIL内の他の国籍よりも優先されていると報告されています。しかしながら、他の報告は、シリア人が外国人会員に不利であると示しており、一部のネイティブシリア人戦闘機は、賃金と宿泊施設よりも外国人に対して「好意」を示していると主張している。
2019年10月27日、米国はシリア北西部、イドリブのバリシャでアルバグダディの化合物を標的とした特殊作戦を実施しました。攻撃はアルバグダディの死をもたらしました;驚きに襲われて逃げることができなかったアル・バグダディは、自殺ベストを爆発させ、襲撃前に敷地内に住んでいた自分自身と2人の子供を故意に殺しました。ドナルド・トランプ米大統領はテレビで放映された発表の中で、バグダディは実際に作戦中に死亡し、米軍はロシアとトルコが支配する空域を通じてヘリコプター、ジェット機、ドローンからの支援を利用したと述べた。 彼は、「ロシアは偉大な私たちを扱わ...イラクは優秀だった。私たちは本当に素晴らしい協力関係を持っていた」と述べ、トルコは、彼らが行っていた知っていた。彼は彼らのサポートのためにトルコ、ロシア、シリア、イラクとシリアのクルド人勢力に感謝しました。トルコ国防省はまた、日曜日に、トルコと米国の軍事当局がシリアのイドリブでの攻撃に先立って情報を交換し、調整したことを確認した。 トルコ大統領タイイブ・エルドアンの上級補佐官であるファレティン・アルトゥンはまた、とりわけ、「トルコは、米国、私たちのNATO同盟国が悪名高いテロリストを裁判にかけるのを助けたことを誇りに思っている」と述べた。あらゆる形態と症状のテロと戦うために、米国や他の人々と緊密に協力し続けるだろう」と語った。クレムリンのスポークスマン、ドミトリー・ペスコフは、米国が事前にロシアに襲撃について話したかどうかについては述べなかったが、その結果が確認されれば、テロと戦うための米国による重大な貢献を表したと述べた。 ロシアは以前、バグダディが空爆により2019年5月に殺害されたと主張していた。 
2019年9月、ISILのプロパガンダ部門であるアマーク通信に起因する声明は、アブドラ・カルダシュがアル・バグダディの後継者として指名されたと主張しました。アナリストが製作としてこの文を却下し、親戚がQardashは2017年に死亡したと言うように報告された リタ・カッツ、テロのアナリストとの共同創設者SITE Intelligenceは、疑惑の文が別のフォントを使用したことを指摘他のステートメントと比較した場合、AmaqまたはISILチャネルで配布されることはありませんでした。
2019年10月29日、トランプはソーシャルメディアで、アルバグダディの「ナンバーワンの交代要員」が名前を挙げずにアメリカ軍によって殺害されたと述べました。 A米国の当局者は、後にトランプがISILの広報担当者とシニアリーダーに言及していることが確認できアブル・ハサン・アル・Muhajir、 2日前にシリアでは、米国の空爆で殺害されました。 10月31日、ISILはアブイブラヒムアルハシェミアルクレイシをバグダディの後継者として指名した。
Estimates of the size of ISIL's military have varied widely, from tens of thousands up to 200,000. In early 2015, journalist Mary Anne Weaver estimated that half of ISIL fighters were foreigners. A UN report estimated a total of 15,000 fighters from over 80 countries were in ISIL's ranks in November 2014. US intelligence estimated an increase to around 20,000 foreign fighters in February 2015, including 3,400 from the Western world. In September 2015, the CIA estimated that 30,000 foreign fighters had joined ISIL.
According to Abu Hajjar, a former senior leader of ISIL, foreign fighters receive food, petrol and housing, but unlike native Iraqi or Syrian fighters, they do not receive payment in wages. Since 2012, more than 3000 people from the central Asian countries have gone to Syria, Iraq or Afghanistan to join the Islamic State or Jabhat al Nusra.
ISIL relies mostly on captured weapons with major sources including Saddam Hussein's Iraqi stockpiles from the 2003–11 Iraq insurgency and weapons from government and opposition forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War and during the post-US withdrawal Iraqi insurgency. The captured weapons, including armour, guns, surface-to-air missiles, and even some aircraft, enabled rapid territorial growth and facilitated the capture of additional equipment. For example, ISIL captured US-made TOW anti-tank missiles supplied by the United States and Saudi Arabia to the Free Syrian Army in Syria. Ninety percent of the group's weapons ultimately originated in China, Russia or Eastern Europe according to Conflict Armament Research.
The group uses truck and car bombs, suicide bombers and IEDs, and has used chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria. ISIL captured nuclear materials from Mosul University in July 2014, but is unlikely to be able to convert them into weapons. In September 2015 a US official stated that ISIL was manufacturing and using mustard agent in Syria and Iraq, and had an active chemical weapons research team. ISIL has also used water as a weapon of war. The group closed the gates of the smaller Nuaimiyah dam in Fallujah in April 2014, flooding the surrounding regions, while cutting the water supply to the Shia-dominated south. Around 12,000 families lost their homes and 200 square kilometres (77 sq mi) of villages and fields were either flooded or dried up. The economy of the region also suffered with destruction of cropland and electricity shortages.
During the Battle of Mosul, commercially available quadcopters and drones were being used by ISIL as surveillance and weapons delivery platforms using improvised cradles to drop grenades and other explosives. One ISIL drone base was struck and destroyed by two Royal Air Force Tornado using two Paveway IV guided bombs.
Although ISIL attracts followers from different parts of the world by promoting the image of holy war, not all of its recruits end up in combatant roles. There have been several cases of new recruits expecting to be mujahideen who have returned from Syria disappointed by the everyday jobs that were assigned to them.
ISIL publishes material directed at women, with media groups encouraging them to play supportive roles within ISIL, such as providing first aid, cooking, nursing and sewing skills, in order to become "good wives of jihad". In 2015, it was estimated that western women made up over 550, or 10%, of ISIL's western foreign fighters.
Until 2016, women were generally confined to a "women's house" upon arrival which they were forbidden to leave. These houses were often small, dirty and infested with vermin and food supply was scarce. There they remained until they either had found a husband, or the husband they arrived with had completed his training. After being allowed to leave the confinement, women still generally spent most of their days indoors where their lives are devoted to caring for their husbands and the vast majority of women in the conflict area have children. Mothers play an important role passing on ISIL ideology to their children. Widows are encouraged to remarry.
In a document entitled Women in the Islamic State: Manifesto and Case Study released by the media wing of ISIL's all-female Al-Khanssaa Brigade, emphasis is given to the paramount importance of marriage and motherhood (as early as nine years old). Women should live a life of "sedentariness", fulfilling her "divine duty of motherhood" at home, with a few exceptions like teachers and doctors. Equality for women is opposed, as is education on non-religious subjects, the "worthless worldly sciences".
ISIL is known for its extensive and effective use of propaganda. It uses a version of the Muslim Black Standard flag and developed an emblem which has clear symbolic meaning in the Muslim world.
Videos by ISIL are commonly accompanied by nasheeds (chants), notable examples being the chant Dawlat al-Islam Qamat, which came to be viewed as an unofficial anthem of ISIL, and Salil al-sawarim.
ISIL, in a mid-March 2020 Al-Naba article, described the fearful reaction to COVID-19 as a divinely wrought "painful torment" against Western "crusader nations". An early February article praised God for the same against Iran's Shiites and China.
In November 2006, shortly after the group's rebranding as the "Islamic State of Iraq", it established the Al-Furqan Foundation for Media Production, which produces CDs, DVDs, posters, pamphlets, and web-related propaganda products and official statements. It began to expand its media presence in 2013, with the formation of a second media wing, Al-I'tisam Media Foundation, in March and the Ajnad Foundation for Media Production, established in January 2014, which specialises in acoustics production from a nasheed, quranic recitation. On 4 May 2016 Al-Bitar Foundation launched an application on Android called "Ajnad" that allows its users to listen to the songs of the Ajnad Foundation on their mobile phones. The foundation has many singers, the most famous of whom are Abu Yasir and Abul-Hasan al-Muhajir.)
In mid-2014, ISIL established the Al Hayat Media Center, which targets Western audiences and produces material in English, German, Russian and French. When ISIL announced its expansion to other countries in November 2014 it established media departments for the new branches, and its media apparatus ensured that the new branches follow the same models it uses in Iraq and Syria. Then FBI Director James Comey said that ISIL's "propaganda is unusually slick," noting that, "They are broadcasting... in something like 23 languages".
In July 2014, al-Hayat began publishing a digital magazine called Dabiq, in a number of different languages including English. According to the magazine, its name is taken from the town of Dabiq in northern Syria, which is mentioned in a hadith about Armageddon. Al-Hayat also began publishing other digital magazines, including the Turkish language Konstantiniyye, the Ottoman word for Istanbul, and the French language Dar al-Islam. By late 2016, these magazines had apparently all been discontinued, with Al-Hayat's material being consolidated into a new magazine called Rumiyah (Arabic for Rome).
ISIL's use of social media has been described by one expert as "probably more sophisticated than [that of] most US companies". It regularly uses social media, particularly Twitter, to distribute its messages. The group uses the encrypted instant messaging service Telegram to disseminate images, videos and updates.
The group is known for releasing videos and photographs of executions of prisoners, whether beheadings, shootings, caged prisoners being burnt alive or submerged gradually until drowned. Journalist Abdel Bari Atwan described ISIL's media content as part of a "systematically applied policy". The escalating violence of its killings "guarantees" the attention of the media and public.
Along with images of brutality, ISIL presents itself as "an emotionally attractive place where people 'belong', where everyone is a 'brother' or 'sister'". The "most potent psychological pitch" of ISIL media is the promise of heavenly reward to dead jihadist fighters. Frequently posted in their media are dead jihadists' smiling faces, the ISIL 'salute' of a 'right-hand index finger pointing heavenward', and testimonies of happy widows. ISIL has also attempted to present a more "rational argument" in a series of videos hosted by the kidnapped journalist John Cantlie. In one video, various current and former US officials were quoted, such as the then US President Barack Obama and former CIA Officer Michael Scheuer.
According to a 2015 study by the Financial Action Task Force, ISIL's five primary sources of revenue are as follows (listed in order of significance):
- proceeds from the occupation of territory (including control of banks, petroleum reservoirs, taxation, extortion, and robbery of economic assets)
- kidnapping for ransom
- donations from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and other Gulf states, often disguised as meant for "humanitarian charity"
- material support provided by foreign fighters
- fundraising through modern communication networks
In 2014, the RAND Corporation analysed ISIL's funding sources from documents captured between 2005 and 2010. It found that outside donations amounted to only 5% of the group's operating budgets, and that cells inside Iraq were required to send up to 20% of the income generated from kidnapping, extortion rackets and other activities to the next level of the group's leadership, which would then redistribute the funds to provincial or local cells that were in difficulties or needed money to conduct attacks. In 2016, RAND estimated that ISIL finances from its largest source of income — oil revenues and the taxes it extracts from people under its control — had fallen from about US$1.9 billion in 2014 to US$870 million in 2016.
In mid-2014, the Iraqi National Intelligence Service obtained information that ISIL had assets worth US$2 billion, making it the richest jihadist group in the world. About three-quarters of this sum was said to looted from Mosul's central bank and commercial banks in the city. However, doubt was later cast on whether ISIL was able to retrieve anywhere near that sum from the central bank, and even on whether the looting had actually occurred.
ISIL attempted to create a modern gold dinar by minting gold, silver, and copper coins, based on the coinage used by the Umayyad Caliphate in the 7th century. Despite a propaganda push for the currency, adoption appeared to have been minimal and its internal economy was effectively dollarised, even with regards to its own fines.
The education in ISIL held territory was organised by the Diwan of Education. ISIL introduced its own curriculum which did not include lessons in history, music, geography or art, but included lectures in Islamic Law, Sharia, and Jihad. The Diwan of Education was often in competition with the Diwan of Outreach and Mosques which organised educational centres focused on the sharia.
| History of the
Islamic State of Iraq
and the Levant
Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad (1999–2004)
Al-Qaeda in Iraq (2004–2006)
Mujahideen Shura Council (2006)
Islamic State of Iraq (2006–2013)
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (2013–14)Islamic State (2014–present)
The group was founded in 1999 by Jordanian Salafi jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi under the name Jamāʻat al-Tawḥīd wa-al-Jihād (lit. '"The Organisation of Monotheism and Jihad"'). In a letter published by the Coalition in February 2004, Zarqawi wrote that jihadis should use bombings to start an open sectarian war so that Sunnis from the Islamic world would mobilise against assassinations carried out by Shia, specifically the Badr Brigade, against Ba'athists and Sunnis.
Territorial control and claims
As a self-proclaimed worldwide caliphate, ISIL claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide, and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's [caliphate's] authority and arrival of its troops to their areas".
In Iraq and Syria, ISIL used many of those countries' existing governorate boundaries to subdivide territory it conquered and claimed; it called these divisions wilayah or provinces. By June 2015, ISIL had also established official "provinces" in Libya, Egypt (Sinai Peninsula), Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Algeria, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria and the North Caucasus. ISIL received pledges of allegiance and publish media releases via groups in Somalia, Bangladesh and the Philippines, but it has not announced any further official branches, instead identifying new affiliates as simply "soldiers of the caliphate".
By March 2019, ISIL had lost most of its territory in its former core areas in Syria and Iraq, and was reduced to a desert pocket as well as insurgent cells, which they lost in September 2020.
Through late 2020 and early 2021, ISIL's African affiliates had once again seized territory and settlements in conflicts such as the Boko Haram insurgency, in Nigeria and the Insurgency in Cabo Delgado, in Mozambique. Notable take overs by ISIL include Mocímboa da Praia and the Sambisa Forest.
The group has attracted widespread criticism internationally for its extremism, from governments and international bodies such as the United Nations and Amnesty International. On 24 September 2014, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon stated: "As Muslim leaders around the world have said, groups like ISIL – or Da'ish – have nothing to do with Islam, and they certainly do not represent a state. They should more fittingly be called the 'Un-Islamic Non-State'." ISIL has been classified a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union and its member states, the United States, Russia, India, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and many other countries (see § Classification). Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL (see § Countries and groups at war with ISIL). The group was described as a cult in a Huffington Post column by notable cult authority Steven Hassan.
Twitter has removed many accounts used to spread IS propaganda, and Google developed a "Redirect Method" which identifies individuals searching for IS-related material and redirects them to content which challenges IS narratives.
The group's declaration of a caliphate has been criticised and its legitimacy has been disputed by Middle Eastern governments, by Sunni Muslim theologians and historians as well as other jihadist groups.
Religious leaders and organisations
Around the world, Islamic religious leaders have overwhelmingly condemned ISIL's ideology and actions, arguing that the group has strayed from the path of true Islam and that its actions do not reflect the religion's real teachings or virtues.
Extremism within Islam goes back to the 7th century, to the Khawarijes. From their essentially political position, the Kharijites developed extreme doctrines which set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims. They were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed worthy of death. Other scholars have also described the group not as Sunnis, but as Khawarij. Sunni critics, including Salafi and jihadist muftis such as Adnan al-Aroor and Abu Basir al-Tartusi, say that ISIL and related terrorist groups are not Sunnis, but are instead modern-day Kharijites (Muslims who have stepped outside the mainstream of Islam) serving an imperial anti-Islamic agenda.
ISIS has been excommunicated from Islam by a number of scholars. Sheikh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi enumerated in his book, Refuting ISIS, that their form of Kharijism has removed them from Islam and fighting them is a religious duty, stating: "ISIS' leaders are people of unbelief and misguidance, and Muslims should not be lured by their jihad or deceived by their propaganda, as their actions speak louder than their words." Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, the former Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, also stated that Kharijites are not Muslims, saying: "the majority are of the opinion that they are disobedient and misguided innovators, though they do not deem them unbelievers. However, the correct opinion is that they are unbelievers."
In late August 2014, the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, condemned ISIL and al-Qaeda saying, "Extremist and militant ideas and terrorism which spread decay on Earth, destroying human civilization, are not in any way part of Islam, but are enemy number one of Islam, and Muslims are their first victims". In late September 2014, 126 Sunni imams and Islamic scholars—primarily Sufi—from around the Muslim world signed an open letter to the Islamic State's leader al-Baghdadi, explicitly rejecting and refuting his group's interpretations of Islamic scriptures, the Quran and hadith, which it used in order to justify its actions. "[You] have misinterpreted Islam into a religion of harshness, brutality, torture and murder ... this is a great wrong and an offence to Islam, to Muslims and to the entire world", the letter states. It rebukes the Islamic State for its killing of prisoners, describing the killings as "heinous war crimes" and its persecution of the Yazidis of Iraq as "abominable". Referring to the "self-described 'Islamic State'", the letter censures the group for carrying out killings and acts of brutality under the guise of jihad—holy struggle—saying that its "sacrifice" without legitimate cause, goals and intention "is not jihad at all, but rather, warmongering and criminality". It also accuses the group of instigating fitna—sedition—by instituting slavery under its rule in contravention of the anti-slavery consensus of the Islamic scholarly community.
The current Grand Imam of al-Azhar and former president of al-Azhar University, Ahmed el-Tayeb, has strongly condemned the Islamic State, stating that it is acting "under the guise of this holy religion and have given themselves the name 'Islamic State' in an attempt to export their false Islam". Citing the Quran, he stated: "The punishment for those who wage war against God and his Prophet and who strive to sow corruption on earth is death, crucifixion, the severing of hands and feet on opposite sides or banishment from the land. This is the disgrace for them in this world and in the hereafter, they will receive grievous torment." Although el-Tayeb has been criticised for not expressly stating that the Islamic State is heretical, the Ash'ari school of Islamic theology, to which el-Tayeb belongs, does not allow calling a person who follows the shahada an apostate. El-Tayeb has strongly come out against the practice of takfirism (declaring a Muslim an apostate) which is used by the Islamic State to "judge and accuse anyone who doesn't tow their line with apostasy and outside the realm of the faith" declaring "Jihad on peaceful Muslims" using "flawed interpretations of some Qur'anic texts, the prophet's Sunna, and the Imams' views believing incorrectly, that they are leaders of Muslim armies fighting infidel peoples, in unbelieving lands".
In late December 2015, nearly 70,000 Indian Muslim clerics associated with the Indian Barelvi movement issued a fatwa condemning ISIL and similar organisations, saying they are "not Islamic organisations". Approximately 1.5 million Sunni Muslim followers of this movement have formally decried violent extremists.
Whether Sunni or Shia, Salafi or Sufi, conservative or liberal, Muslims – and Muslim leaders – have almost unanimously condemned and denounced ISIL not merely as un-Islamic but actively anti-Islamic.
Hassan Hassan, an analyst at the Delma Institute, wrote in The Guardian that because the Islamic State "bases its teachings on religious texts that mainstream Muslim clerics do not want to deal with head on, new recruits leave the camp feeling that they have stumbled on the true message of Islam".
Theologian and Qatar-based TV broadcaster Yusuf al-Qaradawi stated: "[The] declaration issued by the Islamic State is void under sharia and has dangerous consequences for the Sunnis in Iraq and for the revolt in Syria", adding that the title of caliph can "only be given by the entire Muslim nation", not by a single group. He also stated on his official website "United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the leaders of Daesh (ISIS/ISIL) terrorist group are from one species and they are two sides of the same coin". In a similar vein, the Syrian Islamic scholar Muhammad al-Yaqoubi says, "[t]he followers of ISIS do not want to adhere to Islamic law but rather they want to twist Islamic law to conform to their fantasies. To this end, they pick and choose the evidences that corroborate their misguidance, despite being weak or abrogated."
Academics Robyn Creswell and Bernard Haykel of The New Yorker have criticised ISIL's execution of Muslims for breach of traditional sharia law while violating it simultaneously themselves (encouraging women to emigrate to its territory, travelling without a Wali—male guardian—and in violation of his wishes). as well as its love of archaic imagery (horsemen and swords) while engaging in bid'ah (religious innovation) in establishing female religious police (known as Al-Khansaa Brigade).
Two days after the beheading of Hervé Gourdel, hundreds of Muslims gathered in the Grand Mosque of Paris to show solidarity against the beheading. The protest was led by the leader of the French Council of the Muslim Faith, Dalil Boubakeur, and was joined by thousands of other Muslims around the country under the slogan "Not in my name". French president François Hollande said Gourdel's beheading was "cowardly" and "cruel", and confirmed that airstrikes would continue against ISIL in Iraq. Hollande also called for three days of national mourning, with flags flown at half-mast throughout the country and said that security would be increased throughout Paris.
Other jihadist groups
According to The New York Times, "All of the most influential jihadist theorists are criticising the Islamic State as deviant, calling its self-proclaimed caliphate null and void" and they have denounced it for its beheadings of journalists and aid workers. ISIL is widely denounced by a broad range of Islamic clerics, including Saudi and al-Qaeda-oriented clerics. Muhammad al-Yaqoubi states, "It is enough of a proof of the extreme ideology of ISIS that the top leaders of Salafi-Jihadism have disclaimed it." Other critics of ISIL's brand of Sunni Islam include Salafists who previously publicly supported jihadist groups such as al-Qaeda: for example, the Saudi government official Saleh Al-Fawzan, known for his extremist views, who claims that ISIL is a creation of "Zionists, Crusaders and Safavids", and the Jordanian-Palestinian writer Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi, the former spiritual mentor to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who was released from prison in Jordan in June 2014 and accused ISIL of driving a wedge between Muslims.
An Islamic Front sharia court judge in Aleppo, Mohamed Najeeb Bannan, stated: "The legal reference is the Islamic Sharia. The cases are different, from robberies to drug use, to moral crimes. It's our duty to look at any crime that comes to us... After the regime has fallen, we believe that the Muslim majority in Syria will ask for an Islamic state. Of course, it's very important to point out that some say the Islamic Sharia will cut off people's hands and heads, but it only applies to criminals. And to start off by killing, crucifying etc. That is not correct at all." In response to being asked what the difference between the Islamic Front's and ISIL's version of sharia would be, he said, "One of their mistakes is before the regime has fallen, and before they've established what in Sharia is called Tamkeen [having a stable state], they started applying Sharia, thinking God gave them permission to control the land and establish a Caliphate. This goes against the beliefs of religious scholars around the world. This is what [IS] did wrong. This is going to cause a lot of trouble. Anyone who opposes [IS] will be considered against Sharia and will be severely punished."
Al-Qaeda and al-Nusra have been trying to take advantage of ISIL's rise, by attempting to present themselves as "moderate" compared to "extremist" ISIL, although they have the same aim of establishing sharia and a caliphate, but doing so in a more gradual manner. Al-Nusra has criticised the way in which ISIL fully and immediately institutes sharia in the areas that fall under its control, since it alienates people too much. It supports the gradual, slower approach favoured by al-Qaeda, preparing society to accept sharia and indoctrinating people through education before implementing the hudud aspects in sharia, which they believe supports punishments such as throwing homosexuals from the top of buildings, chopping limbs off, and public stoning. Al-Nusra and ISIL are both hostile towards the Druze. However, while al-Nusra has typically destroyed Druze shrines and pressured them to convert to Sunni Islam, ISIL regards the entire Druze community as a valid target for violence, as it does the Yazidis.
In February 2014, Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leader of Al-Qaeda, announced that his group Al-Qaeda had cut ties with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and denounced ISIL after being unable to reconcile a conflict between them and the al-Qaeda affiliate al-Nusra Front.
In September 2015, Ayman al-Zawahiri, the leader of al-Qaeda, called for consultation (shura) within the "prophetic method" to be used when establishing the caliphate, criticising al-Baghdadi for not following the required steps. Al-Zawahiri has called upon ISIL members to close ranks and join al-Qaeda in fighting against Assad, the Shia, Russia, Europe, and America and to stop the infighting between jihadist groups. He called upon jihadists to establish Islamic entities in Egypt and the Levant, slowly implementing sharia before establishing a caliphate, and has called for violent assaults against America and the West.
The Jaysh al-Islam group within the Islamic Front criticised ISIL, saying: "They killed the people of Islam and leave the idol worshippers ... They use the verses talking about the disbelievers and implement it on the Muslims". The main criticism of defectors from ISIL has been that the group is fighting and killing other Sunni Muslims, as opposed to just non-Sunnis being brutalised. In one case, a supposed defector from ISIL executed two activists of a Syrian opposition group in Turkey who had sheltered them.
Scholar Ian Almond criticised the media commentators, the lack of balance in reporting, and the "way we are learning to talk about ISIS." While there was talk about 'radical evil' and 'radical Islam', Almond found it striking because "some of the most revered and oft-quoted figures in our Western political tradition have been capable of the most vicious acts of savagery – and yet all we ever hear about is how much the Middle East has to learn from us." Almond goes on to cite how Winston Churchill "wanted to gas women and children", how Ronald Reagan's Central American policies "disembowlled more children than ISIS," how President Barack Obama's "planes and drones have dropped bombs on as many schoolchildren as ISIS," how former secretary of state Madeleine Albright commented on the deaths of Iraqi children killed by sanctions, how Henry Kissinger and Margaret Thatcher "assisted in the torture and disappearance of thousands of Chilean students and labour activists... For anyone familiar with the history of both U.S. and European torture and murder over the past 150 years, it might not be all that hyperbolic to say that in ISIS, what we see more than anything else is a more expansive, explicit version of our own cruelties. In bombing ISIS and its would-be imperialism, we are really bombing a version of ourselves."
A leader article in the New Scientist magazine contextualised ISIL within the nation state construct. Although the group is described as medieval in the pejorative sense, "it is also hyper-modern, interested in few of the trappings of a conventional state apart from its own brutal brand of law enforcement. In fact, it is more of a network than a nation, having made canny use of social media to exert influence far beyond its geographical base."
Designation as a terrorist organisation
|United Nations||18 October 2004 (as al-Qaeda in Iraq)
30 May 2013 (after separation from al‑Qaeda)
|United Nations Security Council|||
|European Union||2004||EU Council (via adoption of UN al-Qaeda Sanctions List)|||
|United Kingdom||March 2001 (as part of al-Qaeda)
20 June 2014 (after separation from al‑Qaeda)
|United States||17 December 2004 (as al-Qaeda in Iraq)||United States Department of State|||
|Australia||2 March 2005 (as al-Qaeda in Iraq)
14 December 2013 (after separation from al‑Qaeda)
|Attorney-General for Australia|||
|Canada||20 August 2012||Parliament of Canada|||
|Iraq||10 October 2006 (as al-Qaeda in Iraq)
30 May 2013 (after separation from al‑Qaeda)
|Ministry of Foregin Affair|||
|Turkey||30 October 2013||Grand National Assembly of Turkey|||
|Saudi Arabia||7 March 2014||Royal decree of the King of Saudi Arabia|||
|Indonesia||1 August 2014||Counter-Terrorism National Agency (BNPT)|||
|United Arab Emirates||20 August 2014||United Arab Emirates Cabinet|||
|Malaysia||24 September 2014||Ministry of Foreign Affairs|||
|Switzerland||8 October 2014||Swiss Federal Council|||
|Egypt||30 November 2014||The Cairo Court for Urgent Matters|||
|India||16 December 2014||Ministry of Home Affairs|||
|Russian Federation||29 December 2014||Supreme Court of Russia|||
|Kyrgyzstan||25 March 2015||Kyrgyz State Committee of National Security|||
|Singapore||23 March 2020||Ministry of Home Affairs|||
|Trinidad and Tobago|||
|Pakistan||29 August 2015||Ministry of Interior|||
|Japan||Public Security Intelligence Agency|||
|Republic of China (Taiwan)||26 November 2015||National Security Bureau|||
|People's Republic of China||Ministry of Public Security|||
|Venezuela||4 September 2019||National Assembly of Venezuela|||
|Philippines||3 July 2020||Via the Anti-Terrorism Act|||
The United Nations Security Council in its Resolution 1267 (1999) described Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda associates as operators of a network of terrorist training camps. The UN's Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee first listed ISIL in its Sanctions List under the name "Al-Qaida in Iraq" on 18 October 2004, as an entity/group associated with al-Qaeda. On 2 June 2014, the group was added to its listing under the name "Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant". The European Union adopted the UN Sanctions List in 2002.
Many world leaders and government spokespeople have called ISIL a terrorist group or banned it, without their countries having formally designated it as such. The following are examples:
The Government of Germany banned ISIL in September 2014. Activities banned include donations to the group, recruiting fighters, holding ISIL meetings and distributing its propaganda, flying ISIL flags, wearing ISIL symbols and all ISIL activities. "The terror organisation Islamic State is a threat to public safety in Germany as well", said German politician Thomas de Maizière. He added, "Today's ban is directed solely against terrorists who abuse religion for their criminal goals." Being a member of ISIL is also illegal in accordance with § 129a and § 129b of the German criminal code.
In October 2014, Switzerland banned ISIL's activities in the country, including propaganda and financial support of the fighters, with prison sentences as potential penalties.
In mid-December 2014, India banned ISIL after the arrest of an operator of a pro-ISIL Twitter account.
Pakistan designated ISIL as a banned organisation in late August 2015, under which all elements expressing sympathy for the group would be blacklisted and sanctioned.
By 2014, ISIL was increasingly being viewed as a militia in addition to a terrorist group and a cult. As major Iraqi cities fell to ISIL in June 2014, Jessica Lewis, a former US Army intelligence officer at the Institute for the Study of War, described ISIL at that time as
not a terrorism problem anymore, [but rather] an army on the move in Iraq and Syria, and they are taking terrain. They have shadow governments in and around Baghdad, and they have an aspirational goal to govern. I don't know whether they want to control Baghdad, or if they want to destroy the functions of the Iraqi state, but either way the outcome will be disastrous for Iraq.
Lewis has called ISIL
an advanced military leadership. They have incredible command and control and they have a sophisticated reporting mechanism from the field that can relay tactics and directives up and down the line. They are well-financed, and they have big sources of manpower, not just the foreign fighters, but also prisoner escapees.
Former US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel saw an "imminent threat to every interest we have", but former top counter-terrorism adviser Daniel Benjamin derided such talk as a "farce" that panics the public.
In actuality, Isis is the canniest of all traders in the flourishing international economy of disaffection: the most resourceful among all those who offer the security of collective identity to isolated and fearful individuals. It promises, along with others who retail racial, national and religious supremacy, to release the anxiety and frustrations of the private life into the violence of the global.
On 28 January 2017, President Donald Trump issued a National Security Presidential Memorandum which called for a comprehensive plan to destroy ISIL to be formulated by the Defense Department within 30 days.
According to a June 2015 Reuters report that cited "jihadist ideologues" as a source, 90% of ISIL's fighters in Iraq were Iraqi, and 70% of its fighters in Syria were Syrian. The article stated that the group had 40,000 fighters and 60,000 supporters across its two primary strongholds in Iraq and Syria. According to scholar Fawaz Gerges writing in ISIS: A History, some "30 percent of the senior figures" in ISIL's military command were former army and police officers from the disbanded Iraqi security forces, turned towards Sunni Islamism and drawn to ISIL by the US de-Ba'athification policy following the US invasion of Iraq.
According to a poll by Pew Research Center, Muslim populations of various countries have overwhelmingly negative views of ISIL with Lebanon having the most unfavorable views. In most of these countries, concerns about Islamic extremism have been growing.
Countries and groups at war with ISIL
ISIL's claims to territory have brought it into armed conflict with many governments, militias and other armed groups. International rejection of ISIL as a terrorist entity and rejection of its claim to even exist have placed it in conflict with countries around the world.
Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
The Global Coalition to Counter the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also referred to as the Counter-ISIL Coalition or Counter-DAESH Coalition, is a US-led group of nations and non-state actors that have committed to "work together under a common, multifaceted, and long-term strategy to degrade and defeat ISIL/Daesh". According to a joint statement issued by 59 national governments and the European Union on 3 December 2014, participants in the Counter-ISIL Coalition are focused on multiple lines of effort:
- Supporting military operations, capacity building, and training;
- Stopping the flow of foreign terrorist fighters;
- Cutting off ISIL/Daesh's access to financing and funding;
- Addressing associated humanitarian relief and crises; and
- Exposing ISIL/Daesh's true nature (ideological delegitimisation).
Operation Inherent Resolve is the operational name given by the US to military operations against ISIL and Syrian al-Qaeda affiliates. Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) is co-ordinating the military portion of the response. The Arab League, European Union, NATO, and GCC are part of the Counter-ISIL Coalition: According to the Pentagon, by December 2017 over 80,000 ISIL fighters had been killed in Iraq and Syria by CJTF-OIR airstrikes. By then the coalition had flown over 170,000 sorties, 75–80% of combat sorties were conducted by the military of the United States, with the other 20–25% by Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Jordan, Belgium, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. According to the UK-based monitoring group Airwars, the air strikes and artillery of US-led coalition killed as many as 6,000 civilians in Iraq and Syria by the end of 2017.
Lebanon, which the U.S. considers part of the Global Coalition, fought off several incursions by ISIL, with the largest engagements taking place from June 2014 to August 2017, when several thousand ISIL fighters invaded from Syria and occupied Lebanese territory. The U.S. and UK-backed Lebanese Army succeeded in repulsing this invasion, killing or capturing over 1,200 ISIL fighters in the process.
On 21 December 2019, over 33 Islamist militants were killed in Mali by French forces using attack helicopters, drones and ground troops, alongside the border with Mauritania where an Al-Qaeda-linked group operates.
Other state opponents not part of the Counter-ISIL Coalition
Russia – arms supplier to Iraqi and Syrian governments. In June 2014, the Iraqi army received Russian Sukhoi Su-25 and Sukhoi Su-30 fighter aircraft to combat the ISIL. Security operations within state borders in 2015. Airstrikes in Syria (see Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War).
Azerbaijan – security operations within state borders
Other non-state opponents
- al-Nusra Front—with localised truces and co-operation at times
- al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
- al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
- Kurdistan Workers' Party—ground troops in Iraqi Kurdistan and in Syrian Kurdistan
- Syrian Democratic Forces
- Nineveh Plain Protection Units – an Assyrian Christian militia in the Nineveh Plains of Iraq and Syria
- Amal Movement
- Syrian Resistance – Suqur al-Furat
- Liwa al-Quds
- Liwa Abu al-Fadhal al-Abbas
- Abu al-Fadl al-Abbas Forces
- Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine
- Syrian National Resistance
- Arab Nationalist Guard
- Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command
- Fatah al-Intifada
- Palestine Liberation Army
- Fajr Libya
- Syrian Revolutionary Command Council
- Mujahideen Shura Council (Syria)
- Unified Military Command of Eastern Ghouta
- Fatah Halab
- Mare' Operations Room
- Golan Regiment
- Mukhtar Army
Al-Nusra Front is a branch of al-Qaeda operating in Syria. Al-Nusra has launched many attacks and bombings, mostly against targets affiliated with or supportive of the Syrian government. There have been media reports that many of al-Nusra's foreign fighters have left to join al-Baghdadi's ISIL.
In February 2014, after continued tensions, al-Qaeda publicly disavowed any relations with ISIL. However, ISIL and al-Nusra Front still cooperate with each other occasionally when they fight against the Syrian government.
The two groups [ISIL and al-Nusra] share a nihilistic worldview, a loathing for modernity, and for the West. They subscribe to the same perverted interpretations of Islam. Other common traits include a penchant for suicide attacks, and sophisticated exploitation of the internet and social media. Like ISIL, several Al Qaeda franchises are interested in taking and holding territory; AQAP has been much less successful at it. The main differences between Al Qaeda and ISIL are largely political—and personal. Over the past decade, Al Qaeda has twice embraced ISIL (and its previous manifestations) as brothers-in-arms.
On 10 September 2015, an audio message was released by al-Qaeda's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri criticising ISIL's self-proclaimed caliphate and accusing it of "sedition". This was described by some media outlets as a "declaration of war". However, although al-Zawahiri denied ISIL's legitimacy, he suggested that there was still room for cooperation against common enemies, and said that if he were in Iraq, he would fight alongside ISIL.
Human rights abuse and war crime findings
In July 2014, the BBC reported the United Nations' chief investigator as stating: "Fighters from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) may be added to a list of war crimes suspects in Syria." By June 2014, according to United Nations reports, ISIL had killed hundreds of prisoners of war and over 1,000 civilians.
In November 2014, the UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria said that ISIL was committing crimes against humanity. A report by Human Rights Watch in November 2014 accused ISIL groups in control of Derna, Libya of war crimes and human rights abuses and of terrorising residents. Human Rights Watch documented three apparent summary executions and at least ten public floggings by the Islamic Youth Shura Council, which joined ISIL in November. It also documented the beheading of three Derna residents and dozens of seemingly politically motivated assassinations of judges, public officials, members of the security forces and others. Sarah Leah Watson, Director of HRW Middle East and North Africa, said: "Commanders should understand that they may face domestic or international prosecution for the grave rights abuses their forces are committing."
Speaking of ISIL's methods, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights has stated that the group "seeks to subjugate civilians under its control and dominate every aspect of their lives through terror, indoctrination, and the provision of services to those who obey".
- Al-Qaeda in Iraq
- Damascus Time
- Islamic Military Alliance
- Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province, (ISIL-KP) an offshoot of ISIL operating primarily in Afghanistan and South-East Asia
- Islamic State of Iraq
- It's On U
- List of armed groups in the Iraqi Civil War
- List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War
- List of wars and battles involving ISIL
- Rape during the Syrian Civil War
- Violent extremism
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Daesh?” he said, referring to Islamic State by its Arabic acronym, which is considered a pejorative by the group
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The final expression of Islamic government found in the Middle East would seem to be the purest, yet actually represents the most dangerous form: theocratic Islam.CS1 maint: location (link)
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It is a theocratic state that considers itself unbound by the Westphalian principle of sovereignty with its corollaries of nonaggression and nonintervention
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