|Merged with Los Angeles||1910|
|Elevation||354 ft (108 m)|
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the U.S. film industry and the people associated with it. Many of its studios such as Columbia Pictures, Disney, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros., and Universal Pictures were founded there; Paramount still has its studios there.
Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter a prominent film industry emerged, eventually becoming the most recognizable in the world.
H.J. Whitley, a real estate developer, arranged to buy the 480-acre (1.9 km2) E.C. Hurd ranch. They agreed on a price and shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, and Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area.
Daeida Wilcox, who donated land to help in the development of Hollywood, learned of the name Hollywood from an acquaintance who owned an estate by that name in Illinois. Mrs. Wilcox is quoted as saying, "I chose the name Hollywood simply because it sounds nice and because I'm superstitious and holly brings good luck." She recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887. It wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property.
By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper, hotel, and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles (16 km) east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood.
The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by Whitley, who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue (later Hollywood Boulevard), which, though still a dusty, unpaved road, was regularly graded and graveled. The hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years.
Whitley's company developed and sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area. He paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass. The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue. His 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him.
Incorporation and merger
Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, to banish the sale of liquor within the city, except for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve wine or liquor before or after meals.
In 1910, the city voted for a merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L.A. sewer system.
"With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue was changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers in the new district changed. For example, 100 Prospect Avenue, at Vermont Avenue, became 6400 Hollywood Boulevard; and 100 Cahuenga Boulevard, at Hollywood Boulevard, changed to 1700 Cahuenga Boulevard."
Motion picture industry
By 1908, at least 30 motion-picture companies began to set up production around Jacksonville, Florida attracted by the warmer winter climate, rail access, and cheaper labor than New York, but left due to East Coast climate extremes, and politics. Kalem Studios was the first to arrive, in 1908, then in 1911, Kalem was the first to begin production near or in Los Angeles.
By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production near or in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, and filmmakers were often sued to stop their productions. To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. Also, the weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States. The mountains, plains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios.
Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood. His 17-minute short film In Old California (1910) was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction.
The first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Film Company, was established by the New Jersey-based Centaur Film Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard (the corner of Gower), in October 1911. Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros., RKO, and Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation.[clarification needed] By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became fully vertically integrated, as production, distribution and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year.
A large sign reading HOLLYWOODLAND was erected in the Hollywood Hills in 1923 to advertise real estate developers Woodruff's and Shoults' housing development. In 1949, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce entered a contract with the City of Los Angeles to repair and rebuild the sign. The agreement stipulated that LAND be removed to spell HOLLYWOOD so the sign would now refer to the district, rather than the housing development.
During the early 1950s, the Hollywood Freeway was constructed through the northeast corner of Hollywood.
The Capitol Records Building on Vine Street, just north of Hollywood Boulevard, was built in 1956, and the Hollywood Walk of Fame was created in 1958 as a tribute to artists and other significant contributors to the entertainment industry. The official opening was on February 8, 1960.
The Hollywood Boulevard Commercial and Entertainment District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.
In June 1999, the Hollywood extension of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail Red Line subway opened from Downtown Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley, with stops along Hollywood Boulevard at Western Avenue (Hollywood/Western Metro station), Vine Street (Hollywood/Vine Metro station), and Highland Avenue (Hollywood/Highland Metro station).
After the neighborhood underwent years of serious decline in the 1980s, many landmarks were threatened with demolition. Columbia Square, at the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street, is part of the ongoing rebirth of Hollywood. The Art Deco-style studio complex completed in 1938, which was once the Hollywood headquarters for CBS, became home to a new generation of broadcasters when cable television networks MTV, Comedy Central, BET and Spike TV consolidated their offices here in 2014 as part of a $420-million office, residential and retail complex. Since 2000, Hollywood has been increasingly gentrified due to revitalization by private enterprise and public planners. Over 1,200 hotel rooms have been added in Hollywood area between 2001 and 2016. Four thousand new apartments and over thirty low to mid-rise development projects were approved in 2019.
In 2002, some Hollywood voters began a campaign for the area to secede from Los Angeles and become a separate municipality. In June of that year, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors placed secession referendums for both Hollywood and the San Fernando Valley on the ballot. To pass, they required the approval of a majority of voters in the proposed new municipality as well as a majority of voters in all of Los Angeles. In the November election, both measures failed by wide margins in the citywide vote.
According to the Mapping L.A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Hollywood is flanked by Hollywood Hills to the north, Los Feliz to the northeast, East Hollywood or Virgil Village to the east, Larchmont and Hancock Park to the south, Fairfax to the southwest, West Hollywood to the west and Hollywood Hills West to the northwest.
Street limits of the Hollywood neighborhood are: north, Hollywood Boulevard from La Brea Avenue to the east boundary of Wattles Garden Park and Franklin Avenue between Bonita and Western avenues; east, Western Avenue; south, Melrose Avenue, and west, La Brea Avenue or the West Hollywood city line.
In 1918, H. J. Whitley commissioned architect A. S. Barnes to design Whitley Heights as a Mediterranean-style village on the hills above Hollywood Boulevard, and it became the first celebrity community.
Failed trademarking attempt
In 1994, Hollywood, Alabama, and ten other towns named Hollywood successfully fought an attempt by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce to trademark the name and force same-named communities to pay royalties to it.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Like the rest of Los Angeles, Hollywood has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) or dry-summer subtropical climate. Winters are typically mild and rainy, but there are still plenty of warm, sunny days in the winter, as well. Summers are hot, sunny and dry, with virtually no rain falling between April and October; while summer days can be hot, they are considerably cooler than in the San Fernando Valley. Spring and fall are generally warm, sunny, and pleasant. Santa Ana winds typically occur during the fall and winter months, although they can occur during any month; Santa Ana winds bring heavy winds, higher temperatures and lower humidity levels, which increases the risk of wildfires, especially in dry years. Smog can sometimes occur during the summer months. May and June can be foggy and cloudy in Hollywood, a phenomenon known by southern California residents as "May Gray" or "June Gloom".
The all-time record high temperature in Hollywood is 112 °F (44 °C) on June 26, 1990, and the all-time record low temperature is 24 °F (–4 °C) on both December 8, 1978, and December 23, 1990.
|Climate data for Hollywood, Los Angeles, California|
|Record high °F (°C)||91
|Average high °F (°C)||68
|Average low °F (°C)||47
|Record low °F (°C)||28
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.47
|Source 1: Records: MyForecast, MSN|
|Source 2: Averages: PlantMaps|
The 2000 U.S. census counted 77,818 residents in the 3.51-square-mile (9.1 km2) Hollywood neighborhood—an average of 22,193 people per square mile (8,569 per km2), the seventh-densest neighborhood in all of Los Angeles County. In 2008 the city estimated that the population had increased to 85,489. The median age for residents was 31, about the city's average.
Hollywood was said to be "highly diverse" when compared to the city at large. The ethnic breakdown in 2000 was 42.2% Latino or Hispanic, 41% Non-Hispanic White, 7.1% Asian, 5.2% black, and 4.5% other. Mexico (21.3%) and Guatemala (13%) were the most common places of birth for the 53.8% of the residents who were born abroad, a figure that was considered high for the city as a whole.
The median household income in 2008 dollars was $33,694, considered low for Los Angeles. The average household size of 2.1 people was also lower than the city norm. Renters occupied 92.4% of the housing units, and home- or apartment owners the rest.
The percentages of never-married men (55.1%), never-married women (39.8%) and widows (9.6%) were among the county's highest. There were 2,640 families headed by single parents, about average for Los Angeles.
In 2000, there were 2,828 military veterans, or 4.5%, a low rate for the city as a whole. These were the ten neighborhoods or cities in Los Angeles County with the highest population densities, according to the 2000 census, with the population per square mile:
- Koreatown, Los Angeles, 42,611
- Westlake, Los Angeles, 38,214
- East Hollywood, Los Angeles, 31,095
- Pico-Union, Los Angeles, 25,352
- Maywood, California, 23,638
- Harvard Heights, Los Angeles, 23,473
- Hollywood, Los Angeles, 22,193
- Walnut Park, California, 22,028
- Palms, Los Angeles, 21,870
- Adams-Normandie, Los Angeles, 21,848
Radio and television
On January 22, 1947, the first commercial television station west of the Mississippi River, KTLA, began operating in Hollywood. In December of that year, The Public Prosecutor became the first network television series to be filmed in Hollywood. Television stations KTLA and KCET, both on Sunset Boulevard, are the last broadcasters (television or radio) with Hollywood addresses, but KCET has since sold its studios to the Church of Scientology on Sunset, and plans to move to another location. KNBC moved in 1962 from the former NBC Radio City Studios at the northeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and Vine Street to NBC Studios in Burbank. KTTV moved in 1996 from its former home at Metromedia Square on Sunset Boulevard to West Los Angeles, and KCOP left its home on La Brea Avenue to join KTTV on the Fox lot. KCBS-TV and KCAL-TV moved from their longtime home at CBS Columbia Square on Sunset Boulevard to a new facility at CBS Studio Center in Studio City.
As a neighborhood within the Los Angeles city limits, Hollywood does not have its own municipal government. A person was appointed by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce to serve as an honorary "Mayor of Hollywood" for ceremonial purposes. Johnny Grant held this position from 1980 until his death on January 9, 2008.
Hollywood is included within the Hollywood United Neighborhood Council (HUNC), Hollywood Hills West Neighborhood Council, and the Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council. Neighborhood Councils cast advisory votes on such issues as zoning, planning, and other community issues. The council members are voted in by stakeholders, generally defined as anyone living, working, owning property, or belonging to an organization within the boundaries of the council.
Hollywood residents aged 25 and older holding a four-year degree amounted to 28% of the population in 2000, about the same as in the county at large.
The Will and Ariel Durant Branch, John C. Fremont Branch, and the Frances Howard Goldwyn – Hollywood Regional Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library are in Hollywood.
Public schools are operated by the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD).
Schools in Hollywood include:
- Temple Israel of Hollywood Day School, private, 7300 Hollywood Boulevard
- Gardner Street Elementary School, LAUSD, 7450 Hawthorne Avenue
- Selma Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 6611 Selma Avenue
- Grant Elementary School, 1530 North Wilton Place
- Young Hollywood, private elementary, 1547 North McCadden Place
- Hollywood High School, LAUSD, 1521 North Highland Avenue
- Hollywood Community Adult School, LAUSD, 1521 North Highland Avenue
- Blessed Sacrament School, private elementary, 6641 Sunset Boulevard
- Helen Bernstein High School, LAUSD, 1309 North Wilton Place
- Richard A. Alonzo Community Day School, LAUSD, 5755 Fountain Avenue
- Beverly Hills RC School, private elementary, 6550 Fountain Avenue
- Hollywood Schoolhouse, private elementary, 1233 North McCadden Place
- Joseph LeConte Middle School, LAUSD, 1316 North Bronson Avenue
- Hollywood Primary Center, LAUSD elementary, 1115 Tamarind Avenue
- Santa Monica Boulevard Community Charter School, 1022 North Van Ness Avenue
- Vine Street Elementary School, LAUSD, 955 North Vine Street
- Hubert Howe Bancroft Middle School, LAUSD, 929 North Las Palmas Avenue
- Larchmont Charter School, elementary, 815 North El Centro Avenue
- Cheder Menachem, private elementary, 1606 South La Cienega Boulevard
- Los Angeles Film School, 6363 Sunset Boulevard
- Emerson College, 5960 Sunset Boulevard
- Columbia College Hollywood, 6255 Sunset Boulevard
- CBS Columbia Square
- Charlie Chaplin Studios
- Cinerama Dome
- Crossroads of the World
- Dolby Theatre
- Earl Carroll Theatre (currently Nickelodeon on Sunset)
- El Capitan Theatre
- Frederick's of Hollywood
- Gower Gulch
- Grauman's Chinese Theatre
- Grauman's Egyptian Theatre
- Hollywood & Western Building
- Hollywood and Highland Center
- Hollywood and Vine
- Hollywood Forever Cemetery
- Hollywood Heritage Museum
- Hollywood Palladium
- Hollywood Masonic Temple
- Hollywood Museum
- Hollywood Walk of Fame
- Hollywood Wax Museum
- Knickerbocker Hotel
- Madame Tussauds Hollywood
- Musso & Frank Grill
- Pantages Theatre
- Roosevelt Hotel
- Sunset Gower Studios
The Academy Awards are held in late February/early March (since 2004) of each year, honoring the preceding year in film. Prior to 2004, they were held in late March/early April. Since 2002, the Oscars have been held at their new home at the Dolby (formerly Kodak) Theater at Hollywood Boulevard and Highland Avenue.
The annual Hollywood Christmas Parade: The 2006 parade on Nov 26 was the 75th edition of the Christmas Parade. The parade goes down Hollywood Boulevard and is broadcast in the Los Angeles area on KTLA, and around the United States on Tribune-owned stations and the WGN superstation.
The Hollywood Half Marathon takes place in April (since 2012) of each year, to raise funds and awareness for local youth homeless shelters. The event includes a Half Marathon, 10K, 5K, and Kids Fun Run along Hollywood Blvd.
- Community newspapers in Hollywood, California
- History of film
- History of the Jews in Los Angeles § Film
- Category:Documentary films about Hollywood
- Category:Films about Hollywood
- List of films set in Los Angeles
- List of Hollywood-inspired nicknames
- List of Hollywood novels
- List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood
- List of television shows set in Los Angeles
- North Hollywood, Los Angeles
- Outline of film
- Studio zone
- "Hollywood". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
- "Los Angeles Herald, Volume XXXI, Number 45". By the California Digital Newspaper Collection (November 15, 1903). Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- "Hollywood Was Once an Alcohol-Free Community". By Rachel Nuwer of smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- Annual Report of the Controller of the City of Los Angeles, California. ByOffice of Controller Los Angeles, CA (1914). 1914. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- Report of the Auditor of the City of Los Angeles California of the Financial Affairs of the Corporation in Its Capacity as a City for the Fiscal Year. By Auditor's Office of Los Angeles, CA (1913). 1913. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- "California Holly: How Hollywood Didn't Get its Name". Los Angeles County Natural History Museum. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
- Cendars, Blaise (1995). Hollywood: Mecca of the Movies. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-520-07807-1.
- McGroarty, John Steven (1921). Los Angeles from the mountains to the sea : with selected biography of actors and witnesses to the period of growth and achievement. 3. Chicago, Illinois: The American Historical Society. pp. 815–816.
- Cahuenga Valley Sentinel (May 7, 1904).
- Hollywood Citizen (Spring Addition March 4, 1914).
- "Hollywood Becomes a Prohibition Town", Los Angeles Times, December 29, 1903, page A-3
- "Hollywood History and Information". AboutHollywood.com. November 16, 2010. Archived from the original on April 18, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
- Kalem Company#Expansion
- Jacobs, Lewis. The Rise of the American Film Harcourt Brace, New York, 1930; p. 85
- "History of Hollywood, California". Retrieved May 27, 2014.
- Mintz, S., and S. McNeil. "Hollywood as History." Digital History. N.p., 2013. Web. May 20, 2014.
- Hayward, Susan. "Hollywood" in Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts (Third Edition). Routledge, 2006. p. 205
- Philip French (February 28, 2010). "How 100 years of Hollywood have charted the history of America". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
- RASMUSSEN, CECILIA (August 1, 1999). "L.A. Then and Now: Film Pioneer Griffith Rode History to Fame". Los Angeles Times. p. 3.
- Dyson, Jonathan (March 4, 2000). "How the West was won Time lapse". The Independent. London (UK). p. 54.
- Friedrich, Otto (1986). City of Nets: A Portrait of Hollywood in the 1940s. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-520-20949-4.
- "One-hundred years of filmmaking in Hollywood". allanellenberger.com. Retrieved August 28, 2021.[unreliable source?]
- Robertson (2001), p. 21. It later became the Centaur Film Company#Hollywood Film LaboratoryHollywood Film Laboratory, now called the Hollywood Digital Laboratory.
- "Tinseltown". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- Slide, Anthony (February 25, 2014). The New Historical Dictionary of the American Film Industry. Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 9781135925543.
- History of WOF Archived 2010-06-12 at the Wayback Machine hollywoodchamber.net; Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- "Kramer First Name Put in Walk of Fame"(abstract). Los Angeles Times, March 29, 1960, p. 15. Full article: LA Times Archives Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Martin, Hugo (February 8, 2010). "Golden milestone for the Hollywood Walk of Fame". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- Leavitt, B. Russell (June 6, 1982). "In California: A Fading Hollywood". Time Magazine. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2014. (subscription may be required for this article)
- Vincent, Roger (November 19, 2014). "Viacom signs 12-year lease at Columbia Square in Hollywood". Los Angeles Times.
- Kotkin, Joel (Summer 2012). "Let L.A. be L.A." 22 (3). New York City: City Journal.
- Lin II, Rong-Gong; Zahniser, David; Xia, Rosanna (April 30, 2015). "Judge halts Millennium Hollywood skyscraper project". Los Angeles Times.
- Vincent, Roger (January 30, 2014). "Vine Street resurgence continues with $285-million mixed-use project". Los Angeles Times.
- Barragan, Blanca (April 17, 2019). "Mapped: Hollywood's booming development landscape". Curbed Los Angeles. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
- Grand, Noah (November 5, 2002). "Valley, Hollywood secession measures fail". Daily Bruin. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
- ""Central L.A.," Mapping L.A., Los Angeles Times". Projects.latimes.com. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ""Hollywood," Mapping L.A., Los Angeles Times". Projects.latimes.com. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- The Thomas Guide, Los Angeles County 2006, page 593
- "About". Whitley Heights. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "Whitley Heights | Office of Historic Resources, City of Los Angeles". Preservation.lacity.org. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "About". Whitley Heights. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "YCC Membership". ycchollywood.org. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 21, 2015. Yucca Corridor Coalition website
- Monte Morin, "A Look Ahead: Activists Are Stepping Up Efforts on Their New Cause and Meeting Strong Business Opposition," Los Angeles Times, August 23, 1999, page 1
- Kazek, Kelly (January 14, 2019). "More than 2 decades ago, the real Hollywood stood up and fought Tinseltown (Odd Travels)". al.com. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
- Walsh, Kathryn (March 13, 2009). "Hollywood Climate & Weather". USA Today. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
- "WEATHER: No room for June gloom in Southern California?". Orange County Register. April 16, 2016. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
- "Hollywood, CA Climate". www.myforecast.com. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
- "Records and Averages for Hollywood, CA". www.msn.com. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- "Zipcode 90078". www.plantmaps.com. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- "Population Density". Los Angeles Times. Mapping L.A. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- Bob Pool, "Hollywood, Radio Finally Part Waves," Los Angeles Times, August 11, 2005
- "Johnny Grant, honorary Hollywood mayor, dies". CNN. January 10, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
- "Hollywood-Wilshire Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- "Post Office Location – HOLLYWOOD Archived 2010-03-30 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- "Post Office Location – HOLLYWOOD PAVILION Archived 2010-02-27 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- "Post Office Location – SUNSET Archived 2010-03-11 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- "Hollywood United Neighborhood Council". Hollywoodunitednc.org. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "WELCOME | Hollywood Hills West". Hhwnc.org. December 10, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "Hollywood Hills West Neighborhood Council Bylaws - Area Boundaries". Hhwnc.org. February 15, 2012. Archived from the original on January 21, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council (January 1, 2014). "Hollywood Studio District Neighborhood Council". Hsdnc.org. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "Los Angeles Department of Neighborhood Enpowerment". Done.lacity.org. January 20, 2012. Archived from the original on November 14, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "HSDNC.org: FAQs". Archived from the original on December 8, 2008.
- "Hollywood High School".
- "75th Diamond Hollywood Christmas Parade". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on July 7, 2009.