ピンイン

ウィキペディアから、無料の百科事典
ナビゲーションにジャンプ 検索にジャンプ

羽生拼音
汉语拼音漢語拼音
スクリプトタイプ ローマ字
作成した1950年代
言語普通話
 この記事には国際音声記号(IPA)の発音表記含まれていますIPA記号の入門ガイドについては、Help:IPAを参照してください[]/ /、および⟨⟩の違いについては、 IPA§括弧と文字起こし区切り文字を参照してください
ピンイン
Table of Hanyu Pinyin Syllables.png
23のイニシャル(上)と24のファイナル(下)を含む羽生拼音音節の表
中国語拼音
中国語の音声記号のスキーム
簡体字中国語汉语拼音方案
繁体字中国語漢語拼音方案

ピンイン簡体字中国語汉语拼音;伝統的な中国漢語拼音;ピンイン hànyǔピンイン)が多いと略称、ピンインは、公式でローマ字化のためのシステムの標準中国語中国本土とである程度台湾シンガポール。通常、漢字を使用して書かれる標準中国語を教えるためによく使用されます。このシステムには、声調を表す4つの発音区別符号が含まれています。声調のない拼音は綴りに使用されますラテンアルファベットで書かれた言語の中国語の名前と単語、および漢字を入力するための特定のコンピューター入力方法

拼音システムは、周有光[1]を含む中国の言語学者のグループによって1950年代に開発され、中国語の初期のローマ字表記に基づいていました1958年に中国政府によって発行され、何度か改訂されました。[2]は、国際標準化機構(ISO)としてピンインを採用国際標準1982年[3]と、続いた国連1986年[1]台湾で拼音を標準化する試みは2002年と2009年に行われましたが、「今日の台湾には標準化されたスペルシステムがない」ため、2019年には「台湾のアルファベットのスペルはシステムの存在よりもシステムの欠如によって特徴づけられます」。[4] [5] [6]さらに、「特に台湾南部の一部の都市、企業、組織は、台湾が中国とより密接に結びついていることを示唆しているため、[拼音を導入する取り組み]を受け入れませんでした」 、したがって、それは使用されているいくつかのライバルのローマ字表記システムの1つのままです。[7]

単語Hànyǔ簡体字中国語汉语;伝統的な中国漢語)手段「話し言葉漢民族」、しばらくピンイン拼音)文字通りの手段「つづら音」。[8]

Yiling宜昌市湖北省、道路標識のテキストを漢字にし、ピンインの両方に表示されます

1セットのコーディング/デコーディングシステムを備えた外国の書記体系が言語を書くために取られるとき、特定の妥協がなされなければならないかもしれません。その結果、一部の外国語で使用されているデコードシステムにより、非ネイティブスピーカーは、他の外国語で使用されているコーディング/デコードシステムよりもターゲット言語に近いサウンドを生成できます。英語のネイティブスピーカーは、ほとんどの英語のネイティブスピーカーによって通常生成されない特定の音声の場合を除いて、拼音のスペルを北京語のかなり近い近似にデコードします:j / /、q /tɕʰ/x / ɕ /、z / ts /、c /tsʰ/zh / ʈʂ /、h / x /およびr / ɻ /最大の不一致を示します。

このシステムでは、ローマ字と音の対応が特異な場合がありますが、他の言語でラテン文字が使用されている方法よりも必ずしもそうであるとは限りません。たとえば、bdgptk願望の区別は、これらの音節の最初の子音英語(ただし、2つのセットも有声によって区別されます)のそれと似ていますが、フランス語のそれとは異なります。文字zcにもその区別があり、[ts][tsʰ]発音されます。(これは、ドイツ語とラテン文字を使用したスラブ語でそれぞれ音素/ ts /を表すために使用されているこれらの文字を彷彿とさせます)。s、z、cから、英語のshchとの類推により有向グラフsh、zh、chが得られます。これは新しい組み合わせzhを導入しますが、2つのシリーズがどのように関連しているかについては内部的に一貫しています。X、J、Qの一連のピンイン使用Xはポルトガル語、ガリシア語、カタロニア語、バスクとマルタとピンインでの使用に類似しているQ アルバニア語でのその価値に似ています。拼音とアルバニア語の発音はどちらも、訓練を受けていない耳のch似ているように聞こえるかもしれません。拼音の母音は、ロマンス諸語の母音と同じように発音されます

中国語の単語の発音と綴りは、通常、文字ごとではなく、言語の分節音素部分を表すイニシャルファイナルの観点から与えられます。決勝はmedialsのすべての可能な組み合わせ(であるがイニシャルは、最初の子音である半母音母音の前に来る)、母音及びコーダ(最終母音または子音)。

歴史

背景:1949年以前の中国語のローマ字表記

1605年には、イエズス会の宣教師マテオ・リッチが発行されXizi Qiji西字奇蹟; XīzìQíjī ;熹-シーズー氣-カイ北京で「西洋文学の奇跡を」;)。[9]これは、中国語を書くためにローマ字を使用した最初の本でした。20年後、中国内の別のイエズス会、ニコラ・トリゴーは、彼の発行XI RUĚrmùZI「西儒耳目資" ;熹チュerhさん-MUシーズーアイズと西洋の耳への援助、文人が杭州で')。[10]どちらの本も、中国人が自分たちの書記体系について考える方法にすぐに影響を与えることはなく、彼らが説明したローマ字表記は、中国人よりも西洋人を対象としていました。[11]

中国に西洋のアルファベットを関連付けるための最も初期の中国の思想家の一つは、早期清王朝に明末だった士大夫牙Yizhi方以智;牙Yǐzhì ;牙I-志; 1611年から1671年)。[12]

中国が綴りのシステムを採用することを提案した最初の清後期の改革者は、宋淑(1862–1910)でした。偉大な学者である兪樟章炳麟の学生である害麟は日本に行ったことがあり、仮名の音節文字とそこでの西洋の学習の驚くべき効果を観察しました[どっち?]これにより、彼はさまざまな面で活動するようになりました。最も重要なものの1つは、脚本の改革です。Song自身は実際にシナ語を綴るシステムを作成しませんでしたが、彼の議論は肥沃であることが証明され、音声スクリプトのスキームの急増につながりました。[11]

ウェード式

ウェード式システムを製造したトーマス・ウェイド1859年に、そしてさらに改善によりハーバート・ジャイルズ中英辞典1892年のそれは人気があったし、1979年までの中国の外側英語の出版物で使用される[13]

シンウェンズ

1930年代初頭、モスクワで訓練を受けた中国共産党の指導者たちは、ソビエトオリエンタルインスティテュートオブレニングラードで開発され、もともとロシア極東の識字率を向上させることを目的としたローマ字を使用した音声アルファベットを導入しました[14] [注1]このSinWenzまたは「NewWriting[15]は、以前のアルファベットよりもはるかに言語的に洗練されていましたが、中国語のトーンを示さなかったという大きな例外がありました。[16]

1940年、数千人の会員が国境地域のシンウェンズ協会の大会に出席しました。毛沢東朱徳、陸軍長は、シンウェンズソサエティの新しいジャーナルのマストヘッドに(文字で)書道を寄稿しました。外でCCP、他の著名な支持者が含ま中山の息子、孫科を蔡元培、国内で最も権威のある教育者。主要な教育改革者である陶行知。と魯迅。 30を超えるジャーナルがすぐにシン・ウェンズで書かれ、さらに多数の翻訳、伝記(リンカーン、フランクリン、エジソン、フォード、チャーリー・チャップリンを含む)が登場しました。)、いくつかの現代中国文学、および教科書のスペクトル。1940年、マオの国境地域政府が、シンウェンズは政府や公文書の繁体字と同じ法的地位を持っていると宣言したとき、運動は頂点に達しました。多くの教育者や政治指導者は、彼らが広く受け入れられ、漢字に完全に取って代わる日を楽しみにしていました。しかし、システムが地域の言語を書くのにあまり適応しておらず、したがって北京語を学ぶ必要があるため、反対が生じましたシンウェンズは、その後の数年間で比較的使用されなくなりました。[17]

エールのローマ字化

1943年、米軍はイェール大学と協力して、中国上空を飛行するパイロットのために中国語のローマ字表記を開発しました結果のシステムは非常に近くにあるピンインが、不慣れな方法で英語の文字を使用しません。例えば、ピンインは、 xはのために[ɕ]のように書かれているSYエール・システムです。内側半母音を用いて書かれているY及びwは(代わりのピンイン I及びU、及び頂端母音()音節の子音を有する)RまたはZアクセント記号は、トーンを示すために使用されます。

羽生拼音の出現と歴史

拼音は、1950年代の中国政府プロジェクトの一環として、経済学者であった周有光含む中国の言語学者のグループによって作成されました[1]周恩来はしばしば「拼音の父」と呼ばれ、[1] [18] [19] [20]は、人民共和国の設立後、中国に戻って国の再建を支援することを決意したとき、ニューヨークで銀行家として働いた。1949年に中国。彼は上海経済学の教授になり、1955年に中国の文部省が中国の書かれた言語の改革のための委員会を設立したとき周恩来首相周有光はプロの言語学者ではなかったにもかかわらず、新しいローマ字表記システムの開発を任されました。[1]

ピンインは:いくつかの既存のシステムに基づいていたGwoyeu Romatzyh 1928の、ラテン化新文字1931年、および発音区別符号マーキングから注音(ボポモフォ)。[21] 「私は拼音の父ではない」と周は数年後に言った。「私は拼音の息子です。それは清王朝の晩年から今日までの長い伝統です。しかし、私たちは問題を再調査し、それを再検討し、より完璧にしました。」[22]

草案は初版2月12日、1956年に出版されたピンインが承認されたとの第5回で採択された第1回全国人民代表大会その後、それを教えるための方法として、小学校に導入された2月11日、1958年に標準中国語を発音し、大人の識字率を向上させるために使用されます。[23]

冷戦の最盛期には、中国国外でエールのローマ字化に対する拼音システムの使用は、政治的声明または共産主義中国政権との同一性と見なされていました。[24] 1980年代初頭から、中国本土を扱った西洋の出版物は、以前のローマ字表記システムの代わりに羽生拼音ローマ字表記システムを使用し始めました。[25]この変更は、1979年の米国と中国の間の外交関係正常化に続くものでした。[26] 2001年、中国政府は、拼音を適用するための法的根拠を提供する国家共通言語法を発行しました[23]正書法規則の現在の仕様は、国家標準GB / T 16159–2012に規定されています。[27]

イニシャルとファイナル

ヨーロッパの言語とは異なり、文字のクラスター—イニシャル(声母;聲母; shēngmǔ)とファイナル(韵母;韻母; yùnmǔ)—は、子音や母音ではなく拼音(および漢語を説明するために使用される他のほとんどの音声システム)の基本要素を形成します。言語)。すべての北京語の音節は、特別な音節erを除いて、または末尾の-rが音節の一部と見なされる場合を除いて、正確に1つのイニシャルとそれに続く1つのファイナルで綴ることができます(以下を参照、およびerhuaを参照)。後者の場合は、一部の方言では一般的な方法ですが、公式の出版物ではめったに使用されません。

ほとんどのイニシャルには子音が含まれていますが、特に複合ファイナル(复韵母;複韻母; fùyùnmǔ)では、ファイナルは必ずしも単純な母音ではありませんつまり、ファイナルの前に「中間」が配置されている場合です。たとえば、内側の[i][u]は、決勝の冒頭で非常に狭い開口部で発音されるため、一部のネイティブ中国語話者(特に歌うとき)は、服、正式に/í/と発音)を/jíと発音します。 /およびWEI;、取り囲むように、公式に顕著/ UEI /)として/ WEI /又は/wuěi/多くの場合、これらの内側は、決勝の一部としてではなく、決勝とは別のものとして扱われます。この慣習は、以下の決勝戦のチャートで守られています。

イニシャル

以下の各セルで、太字は拼音を示し、角かっこは国際音声記号の記号を囲みます。

陰唇 歯茎 そり舌音 歯茎硬口蓋 ヴェラール
破裂音 吸引されていない b [p] d [t] g [k]
有気音 p [pʰ] t [tʰ] k [kʰ]
m [m] n [n]
破擦音 吸引されていない z [ts] zh [ʈʂ] j [tɕ]
有気音 c [tsʰ] ch [ʈʂʰ] q [tɕʰ]
摩擦音 f [f] s [s] sh [ʂ] x [ɕ] h [x]
液体 l [l] r [ɻ] [ʐ]
半母音2 y [j] / [ɥ] 1およびw [w]

1 yuの前に[ɥ]唇口蓋近似音)と発音されます。2文字wyは、公式の拼音システムのイニシャルの表には含まれていません。これらは、イニシャルが存在しない場合の内側i、u、およびüの正投影規則です。とき私は、U、またはUが決勝なし初期である本で、それらが綴られYI、及び湯をそれぞれ。

zhuyinシステム(「ボポモフォ」)から派生した従来の辞書式順序wyを除く)は次のとおりです。

b p m f   d t n l   g k h   j q x   zh ch sh r   z c s

よる中国語音標文字する方式ZHCH、及びSHはと略記することができるz ^C ^、及びs ^ZC回旋)。ただし、速記はコンピューターに入力するのが難しいためほとんど使用されず、主にエスペラントのキーボードレイアウトに限定されます。

決勝

フロント セントラル 戻る
選ぶ
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
 ⟨i⟩  •  Y  ⟨ü⟩
ɨ  ⟨i⟩
U  ⟨u⟩


ɤ  ⟨e⟩  •  O  ⟨o⟩
E ⟨ê⟩
ɚ ⟨er⟩



⟨a⟩
半狭母音
オープンミッド
開ける

以下の各セルで、最初の行はIPAを示し、2番目の行はスタンドアロン(イニシャルなし)フォームの拼音を示し、3番目の行はイニシャルとの組み合わせの拼音を示します。省略されている-r変更された決勝戦を除いて、以下はすべての可能な決勝戦の網羅的な表です。1 [28]

普通話の音節の最後の子音は、-n-ng、および-rのみであり、最後の子音は文法的な接尾辞として付加されます他の子音で終わる中国語の音節は、非マンダリン言語(広東語などの南中国語、または中国の少数言語。おそらく上古中国語の最後の子音を反映している)からのものであるか、非拼音の使用を示します。ローマ字化システム(最後の子音を使用して音色を示すことができます)。

ライム
-e / -o -NS -ei -ai -ou -ao -NS -en -NS -ng -ong -eng -ang er
内側 [ɨ]

-i
[ɤ]
e
-e
[a]
a
-a
[EI]
EI
-ei
[ai̯]
ai
-ai
[ou̯]
ou
-ou
[au̯]
ao
-ao
[ən]
en
-en
[an]
an
-an
[ʊŋ]

-ong
[əŋ]
eng
-eng
[aŋ]
ang
-ang
[aɚ̯]
er 1
y-
-i-
[i]
yi
-i
[je]
ye
-ie
[ja]
ya
-ia
[jou̯]
あなた
-iu
[jau̯]
yao
-iao
[in]
yin
-in
[jɛn]
yan
-ian
[iŋ]
ying
-ing
[jʊŋ]
yong
-iong
[jaŋ]
ヤン
-iang
w-
-u-
[u]
wu
-u
[wo]
wo
-uo 3
[wa]
wa
-ua
[wei̯]
wei
-ui
[wai̯]
wai
-uai
[wən]
wen
-un
[wan]
wan
-uan
[wəŋ]
ウェング
 
[waŋ]
wang
-uang
yu--
ü-
[Y]
湯は
-U 2
【ɥe]

-üe 2
[YN]
ユン
-un 2
【ɥɛn】

-üan 2

1接尾辞-r形成される他の決勝戦では、拼音は特別な正書法を使用しません。途中で発生する可能性のある音の変化に関係なく、追加されるファイナルにr追加するだけです。最終的なr関連する音の変化については、Erhua#Rulesを参照してください
2 Uがのように書かれているUの後にY、J、Q、またはX
3 uob、p、m、f、またはwの後にoと表記されます。

技術的には、次の母音のないi、u、üは最終的なものであり、中間ではないため、声調マークが付けられますが、上記のように簡潔に表示されます。さらに、ê [ɛ];)と音節鼻音m)、n)、ng𠮾)が感動として使用されます

中国語の音声記号のスキームによるとngŋの省略形で省略できますただし、この省略形は、コンピューターに入力するのが難しいため、ほとんど使用されません。

üの

ウムラウトは、文字の上に配置されているUが頭文字の後に発生した場合、L及びnは音[Y]を表現するために必要。これは、lüの前の高い丸い母音(例:;; 'ロバ')とluの後ろの高い丸い母音(例:;; 'オーブン')を区別するために必要です。lǘのように、ウムラウトの上に色調マーカーが追加されます。

ただし、ü、円唇後舌狭音を表すことができる他のコンテキストで使用されません。つまり、文字jqx、およびyの後です。たとえば、/(魚)という単語の音は、拼音ではではなく単にと表記さます。この方法は、常にüを使用するWade–Gilesや、常にyuを使用するTongyongPinyinは対照的です。ウェード式を区別するためにウムラウトを必要とするのに対し、CHU(ピンインチュ)とchu(pinyin zhu)、このあいまいさはpinyinでは発生しないため、jüの代わりに、より便利な形式のjuが使用されます。本物のあいまいさは、nu / lu / のみ発生します。これらは、umlautによって区別されます。

多くのフォントまたは出力方法は、üのウムラウトをサポートしていないか、üの上にトーンマークを配置できません。同様に、入力メソッドでü使用することは、多くのキーボードレイアウトで単純なキーとして存在しないため、困難です。これらの理由により、慣例によりvが代わりに使用されることがあります。たとえば、携帯電話ではüの代わりにvを使用するのが一般的です。さらに、中国の一部の店舗では、名前の音訳にüの代わりにv使用しています。欠点は、文字vにトーンマークがないことです。

これはまた、パスポートで使用するために名前を転記する際に問題を引き起こし、音のまたは構成される名前を持つ人々、特に、特に名前陆と比較して、かなり一般的な名前である名前)を持つ人々に影響を与えます)、LU)とLU)。以前は、パスポート発行局によって慣行が異なり、「LV」と「NV」と表記するものもあれば、「LU」と「NU」を使用するものもありました。 2012年7月10日、公安部パスポートで「LYU」と「NYU」を使用する慣行を標準化しました。[29] [30]

nue書かれたnüelue書かれlüeはあいまいではありませんが、nueまたはlueは規則に従って正しくありません。代わりにnüelüeを使用する必要があります。ただし、一部の中国語入力方式(Microsoft Pinyin IMEなど)は、nve / lveüの場合はv入力)とnue / lueの両方をサポートします

英語の発音からの近似

これらの音のいくつかは英語の音に直接対応していないため、英語の発音に関してここで与えられているほとんどの規則は近似値です。

イニシャルの発音

ピンイン IPA 英語近似[31] 説明
NS [ p ] sのP箱舟 unaspirated P、Sのように、P箱舟
NS [ ] P AY 強く吸引pはのように、Pそれ
NS [ m ] メートルAY 英語のようにmu mm y
NS [ f ] f空気 英語のようにF国連
NS [ t ] s t op s t opの ように、吸引されていないt
NS [ ] トンAKE 強く吸引トンをのように、トンのオペアンプ
NS [ n ] n ay 英語のように、n個それ
l [ l ] l ay 英語のようにLオベ
NS [ k ] S kの病気 s k illの ように、吸引されていないk
k [ ] k ay 強く吸引kはのように、kの病気
NS [ x ][ h ] lo ch 間で変化する時間にスコットランドのLO CH
NS [ ] chur chy ard 歯茎硬口蓋。英語で同等のものはありませんが、すばやく言うと、吸引されていない「-chy-」音に似ています。qと同様ですが、吸引されません。文字Gの英語名に似ていますが、舌の先端を下に曲げて歯の後ろに貼り付けます。
NS [ tɕʰ ] しゃれCH yの私たち自身を 歯茎硬口蓋。英語で同等のものはありません。しゃれのようなCH yの私たち自身、唇は1が言うときのように広げてEEは舌の先を下に丸めて歯の後ろに突き刺し、強く吸引します。
NS [ ɕ ] pu sh y ourself 歯茎硬口蓋。英語で同等のものはありません。同様にy軸-SH、唇で1が言うときのように普及EEと舌の先端には下向きと歯の裏に付着したカール。
zh [ ʈʂ ] ヌールトンのURE 吸引されていないch同様にHAにTCH INGのが、反転音、または傷chがアメリカ英語にする。トーンレスな音節で濁ります。
ch [ ʈʂʰ ] クールch ch inに似ていますが、そり舌音です。
NS [ ʂ ] sh irt shをOEが、反転音、または傷SHをアメリカ英語で。
NS [ ɻʐ ] R AY 間の音に何の英語の等価が、同様の RRのeduceとMEAでUREが、舌と口の上部(すなわち反転音)に対して上向きにカールしていません。
z [ ts ] pi zz a unaspirated C SUの間に何かに似て、DS tonelessの音節でない限り、無声、。
NS [ tsʰ ] haのTS 英語のようなtsはカリフォルニア州では、TS、しかし強くチェコ語、ポーランド語、エスペラント語、およびスロバキアに非常に似て、吸引C
NS [ s ] s ay 同様国連
w [ w ] W AY 以下のようにワットATER。の電子またはそれは時々のようにVのように発音されるのV iolin。*
y [ j ][ ɥ ] y es 同様に、Y ES。uの前に、まるでドイツ語のü。*を発音しているかのように、丸い唇で発音されます。
* ywに関する注意

Ywは、半母音の内側i、uüに相当します(以下を参照)。新しい音節をマークするための最初の子音がない場合、それらのスペルは異なります。fanguanfan- guanでありfangwanfang-wan(および* fang- uanと同等です。この規則で、アポストロフィは、初期マークするために使用する必要がA、E、または西安:O(2つの音節:[ɕi.an] 西安(1つの音節:[ɕi̯ɛn]を)。さらに、ywこれらが最初の子音なしで発生する場合完全に母音のi、u、およびü追加されるため、yi、wu、およびyu記述されます。一部の北京語話者は、そのような単語の先頭で[j]または[w]の音を発音します。つまり、yi [i]または[ji]wu [u]または[wu]yu [y]または[ɥy]、—これは直感的な規則です。子音とw / uまたはy / iの内側の後に省略されるいくつかの決勝戦については、以下を参照してください。wen →C + unwei →C + uiweng →C + ong、およびyou →C + iu

**アポストロフィに関する注意

アポストロフィ( ')(隔音符号;隔音符號; géyīnfúhào ; 『音節分割』マーク)音節が母音(始まる前に使用されるO、またはE音節がない場合に、複数の音節の単語で)音節がハイフンまたは他のダッシュの直後にない限り、単語を開始します。例えば、西安のように書かれている西安又は西安、及び天峨として書き込まれTian'e又はTiān'éが、第二アポストロフィなしで、「DI-ER」と書かれています。[32]このアポストロフィは台北メトロでは使用されていません名前。[33]

中国のパスポートでは、アポストロフィ(およびハイフンとトーンマーク)は省略されています。[34]

決勝の発音

以下は、rで終わるもののほとんどを除いて、普通話の決勝戦のリストです

与えられた決勝戦を見つけるには:

  1. 最初の子音を削除します。Zhchshは最初の子音として数えられます。
  2. 最初のwuに、最初のyiに変更します。以下のためにWENG温家宝あなたの下で、一見オング国連UIIU
  3. 以下のためのuの後にJQX、またはY、下を見ü
ピンイン IPA イニシャルゼロのフォーム 説明
-私 [ ɹ̩Z ]、[ ɻ̩ʐ̩ ] 該当なし -iは、z-c-s-zh-ch-sh-、またはr-に続く子音のブザーの続きです。

(他のすべての場合で、-iは、音有するBのEEを、これは以下に記載されています。)

NS [ a ] NS 英語のようなF THERが、もう少しガラス張り
e [ɤ] 聞くAbout this sound e 背中の丸みのない母音(英語のd uhに似ていますが、開いているほどではありません)。シーケンスとして発音されます[ɰɤ]
ai [ai̯] ai イングリッシュアイのようですが、少し軽いです
ei [ei̯] ei 同様にH EY
ao [au̯] ao ほぼ同様にCのOWAはよりもはるかに聞こえるO
ou [ou̯] ou 北米英語のようにso
NS [NS] NS 以下のようなイギリス英語Bが、複数の中央
en [ən] en 以下のように、TAKエン
ang [NS] ang ドイツのAngstのように

(中母音で始まるF THER中と終了軟口蓋鼻音;のようなSオングアメリカ英語の一部の方言で)

eng [əŋ] eng 以下のような電子エン上記けどでNG追加
ong [ʊŋ] 該当なし 中母音で始まるB OOのKで軟口蓋鼻音とし、両端SI NG間で変化する[ON][国連]スピーカーに応じ。
er [aɚ̯] er 中の音に似てB AR英語インチ 話者によって[ɚ]と発音されることもあります
i-y-)で 始まる決勝戦
[] イー 英語のようなB EE
ia [ja] y A as i + a ; 英語rdのように
NS [je] あなたがたは as i + êここで、eê感動と比較)は短くて軽いと発音されます
iao [jau̯] やお as i + ao
iu [jou̯] あなた as i + ou
ian [jɛn] ヤン as i + an ; 英語円のように間で変化する[ジェン]及び[1月]スピーカーに応じ。
[の] i + nとして
iang [jaŋ] as i + ang
NS [の] ying as i + ng
イオン [jʊŋ] ヨン as i + ong間で変化する[ジョン]および[JUN]スピーカーに応じ。
u-w-)で 始まる決勝戦
u [ u ] wu 英語のooのように
ua [wa] u + aとして
uoo [wo] as u + oここで、ooの感動詞と比較)は短くて軽いと発音されます(bpm、またはfの後にoと綴られます
uai [wai̯] ワイ U + aiを英語のように、なぜ
ui [wei̯] wei u + eiとして
uan [wan] ワン u + anとして
国連 [wən] ウェン as u + en ; 英語のようにワット
[waŋ] u + angとして
該当なし [wəŋ] ウェング u + engとして
ü-yu-)で 始まる決勝戦
uü [y] 聞くAbout this sound ゆう ドイツのように、üのBERまたはフランス語リットルのU NE

唇が丸い英語のee発音されます

ue、üe [ɥe] ユエ ü + e ^(と比較E場合ê間投詞)が短く、軽量顕著です
uan [ɥɛn] ü + 間で変化する[ɥen]及び[ɥan]は、スピーカに応じ。
国連 [yn] ユン ü + nとして
感動詞
ê [ ɛ ] 該当なし 以下のように、BのEトン
o [ ɔ ] 該当なし 約イギリス英語のようにO ffice唇ははるかに丸みを帯びています
io [jɔ] as i + o

Tones

Relative pitch changes of the four tones

The pinyin system also uses diacritics to mark the four tones of Mandarin. The diacritic is placed over the letter that represents the syllable nucleus, unless that letter is missing (see below).

Many books printed in China use a mix of fonts, with vowels and tone marks rendered in a different font from the surrounding text, tending to give such pinyin texts a typographically ungainly appearance. This style, most likely rooted in early technical limitations, has led many to believe that pinyin's rules call for this practice, e.g. the use of a Latin alpha (ɑ) rather than the standard style (a) found in most fonts, or g often written with a single-storey ɡ. The rules of Hanyu Pinyin, however, specify no such practice.[35]: 3.3.4.1:8 

  1. The first tone (flat or high-level tone) is represented by a macron (ˉ) added to the pinyin vowel:
    ā ē ī ō ū ǖ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ǖ
  2. The second tone (rising or high-rising tone) is denoted by an acute accent (ˊ):
    á é í ó ú ǘ Á É Í Ó Ú Ǘ
  3. The third tone (falling-rising or low tone) is marked by a caron/háček (ˇ). It is not the rounded breve (˘), though a breve is sometimes substituted due to ignorance or font limitations.
    ǎ ě ǐ ǒ ǔ ǚ Ǎ Ě Ǐ Ǒ Ǔ Ǚ
  4. The fourth tone (falling or high-falling tone) is represented by a grave accent (ˋ):
    à è ì ò ù ǜ À È Ì Ò Ù Ǜ
  5. The fifth tone (neutral tone) is represented by a normal vowel without any accent mark:
    a e i o u ü A E I O U Ü
In dictionaries, neutral tone may be indicated by a dot preceding the syllable; for example, ·ma. When a neutral tone syllable has an alternative pronunciation in another tone, a combination of tone marks may be used: zhī·dào (知道).[36]

These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables, as exemplified by the following classic example of five characters whose pronunciations differ only in their tones:

The four main tones of Standard Mandarin, pronounced with the syllable ma.

Traditional characters:

() () () () (·ma)

Simplified characters:

() () () () (·ma)

The words are "mother", "hemp", "horse", "scold", and a question particle, respectively.

Numerals in place of tone marks

Before the advent of computers, many typewriter fonts did not contain vowels with macron or caron diacritics. Tones were thus represented by placing a tone number at the end of individual syllables. For example, tóng is written tong². The number used for each tone is as the order listed above, except the neutral tone, which is either not numbered, or given the number 0 or 5, e.g. ma⁵ for , an interrogative marker.

Tone Tone Mark Number added to end of syllable
in place of tone mark
Example using
tone mark
Example using
number
IPA
First macron◌̄ ) 1 ma1 ma˥
Second acute accent◌́ ) 2 ma2 ma˧˥
Third caron◌̌ ) 3 ma3 ma˨˩˦
Fourth grave accent◌̀ ) 4 ma4 ma˥˩
"Neutral" No mark
or middle dot before syllable ( · )
no number
5
0
ma
·ma
ma
ma5
ma0
ma

Rules for placing the tone mark

Briefly, the tone mark should always be placed by the order—a, o, e, i, u, ü, with the only exception being iu, where the tone mark is placed on the u instead. Pinyin tone marks appear primarily above the nucleus of the syllable, for example as in kuài, where k is the initial, u the medial, a the nucleus, and i the coda. The exception is syllabic nasals like /m/, where the nucleus of the syllable is a consonant, the diacritic will be carried by a written dummy vowel.

When the nucleus is /ə/ (written e or o), and there is both a medial and a coda, the nucleus may be dropped from writing. In this case, when the coda is a consonant n or ng, the only vowel left is the medial i, u, or ü, and so this takes the diacritic. However, when the coda is a vowel, it is the coda rather than the medial which takes the diacritic in the absence of a written nucleus. This occurs with syllables ending in -ui (from wei: (wèi-uì) and in -iu (from you: yòu-iù.) That is, in the absence of a written nucleus the finals have priority for receiving the tone marker, as long as they are vowels: if not, the medial takes the diacritic.

An algorithm to find the correct vowel letter (when there is more than one) is as follows:[37]

  1. If there is an a or an e, it will take the tone mark
  2. If there is an ou, then the o takes the tone mark
  3. Otherwise, the second vowel takes the tone mark

Worded differently,

  1. If there is an a, e, or o, it will take the tone mark; in the case of ao, the mark goes on the a
  2. Otherwise, the vowels are -iu or -ui, in which case the second vowel takes the tone mark

If the tone is written over an i, the tittle above the i is omitted, as in .

Phonological intuition

The placement of the tone marker, when more than one of the written letters a, e, i, o, and u appears, can also be inferred from the nature of the vowel sound in the medial and final. The rule is that the tone marker goes on the spelled vowel that is not a (near-)semi-vowel. The exception is that, for triphthongs that are spelled with only two vowel letters, both of which are the semi-vowels, the tone marker goes on the second spelled vowel.

Specifically, if the spelling of a diphthong begins with i (as in ia) or u (as in ua), which serves as a near-semi-vowel, this letter does not take the tone marker. Likewise, if the spelling of a diphthong ends with o or u representing a near-semi-vowel (as in ao or ou), this letter does not receive a tone marker. In a triphthong spelled with three of a, e, i, o, and u (with i or u replaced by y or w at the start of a syllable), the first and third letters coincide with near-semi-vowels and hence do not receive the tone marker (as in iao or uai or iou). But if no letter is written to represent a triphthong's middle (non-semi-vowel) sound (as in ui or iu), then the tone marker goes on the final (second) vowel letter.

Using tone colors

In addition to tone number and mark, tone color has been suggested as a visual aid for learning. Although there are no formal standards, there are a number of different color schemes in use, Dummitt's being one of the first.

Tone color schemes
Scheme Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4 Neutral tone
Dummitt[38] red orange green blue none/black
MDBG red orange green blue black
Unimelb[a] blue green purple red grey
Hanping[39] blue green orange red grey
Pleco red green blue purple grey
Thomas[a] green blue red black grey
  1. ^ a b The colors used here to illustrate Unimelb and Thomas are only approximate. The precise color values used by Dummitt, the MDBG Chinese Online Dictionary, Hanping, and Pleco are taken from Laowai's blog Tone Colors and What Pleco Did with Them.

Third tone exceptions

In spoken Chinese, the third tone is often pronounced as a "half third tone", in which the pitch does not rise. Additionally, when two third tones appear consecutively, such as in 你好 (nǐhǎo, hello), the first syllable is pronounced with the second tone — this is called tone sandhi. In pinyin, words like "hello" are still written with two third tones (nǐhǎo).

Orthographic rules

Letters

The Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet lists the letters of pinyin, along with their pronunciations, as:

List of pinyin letters
Letter Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Pronunciation (pinyin) a bê cê dê e êf gê ha yi jie kê êl êm nê o pê qiu ar ês tê wu vê wa xi ya zê
Bopomofo transcription ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ

Pinyin differs from other romanizations in several aspects, such as the following:

  • Syllables starting with u are written as w in place of u (e.g., *uan is written as wan). Standalone u is written as wu.
  • Syllables starting with i are written as y in place of i (e.g., *ian is written as yan). Standalone i is written as yi.
  • Syllables starting with ü are written as yu in place of ü (e.g., *üe is written as yue). Standalone ü is written as yu.
  • ü is written as u when there is no ambiguity (such as ju, qu, and xu) but as ü when there are corresponding u syllables (such as and ). If there are corresponding u syllables, it is often replaced with v on a computer to make it easier to type on a standard keyboard.
  • After by a consonant, iou, uei, and uen are simplified as iu, ui, and un, which do not represent the actual pronunciation.
  • As in zhuyin, syllables that are actually pronounced as buo, puo, muo, and fuo are given a separate representation: bo, po, mo, and fo.
  • The apostrophe (') is used before a syllable starting with a vowel (a, o, or e) in a syllable other than the first of a word, the syllable being most commonly realized as [ɰ] unless it immediately follows a hyphen or other dash.[32] That is done to remove ambiguity that could arise, as in Xi'an, which consists of the two syllables xi (西) an (), compared to such words as xian (). (The ambiguity does not occur when tone marks are used since both tone marks in "Xīān" unambiguously show that the word has two syllables. However, even with tone marks, the city is usually spelled with an apostrophe as "Xī'ān".)
  • Eh alone is written as ê; elsewhere as e. Schwa is always written as e.
  • Zh, ch, and sh can be abbreviated as , ĉ, and ŝ (z, c, s with a circumflex). However, the shorthands are rarely used because of the difficulty of entering them on computers and are confined mainly to Esperanto keyboard layouts. Early drafts and some published material used diacritic hooks below instead: (ȥ/ʐ), , ʂ ().[40]
  • Ng has the uncommon shorthand of ŋ, which was also used in early drafts.
  • Early drafts also contained the letter ɥ or ч, borrowed from the Cyrillic script, in place of later j.[40]
  • The letter v is unused, except in spelling foreign languages, languages of minority nationalities, and some dialects, despite a conscious effort to distribute letters more evenly than in Western languages. However, the ease of typing into a computer causes the v to be sometimes used to replace ü. (The Scheme table above maps the letter to bopomofo ㄪ, which typically maps to /v/.)

Most of the above are used to avoid ambiguity when words of more than one syllable are written in pinyin. For example, uenian is written as wenyan because it is not clear which syllables make up uenian; uen-ian, uen-i-an, u-en-i-an, u-e-nian, and u-e-ni-an are all possible combinations, but wenyan is unambiguous since we, nya, etc. do not exist in pinyin. See the pinyin table article for a summary of possible pinyin syllables (not including tones).

Words, capitalization, initialisms and punctuation

Many writers are not yet aware of the rules for dividing text into words by spaces, and either put a space after each syllable, or run all words together. The manufacturer of this image's blankets put unnecessary spaces into the city name, 'Bishikaike' (which is the correct pinyin for 比什凯克, 'Bishkek') on the bottom line, but wrote the English text in the arc on top with no spaces at all.

Although Chinese characters represent single syllables, Mandarin Chinese is a polysyllabic language. Spacing in pinyin is usually based on words, and not on single syllables. However, there are often ambiguities in partitioning a word.

The Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography (汉语拼音正词法基本规则; 漢語拼音正詞法基本規則; Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Zhèngcífǎ Jīběn Guīzé) were put into effect in 1988 by the National Educational Commission (国家教育委员会; 國家教育委員會; Guójiā Jiàoyù Wěiyuánhuì) and the National Language Commission (国家语言文字工作委员会; 國家語言文字工作委員會; Guójiā Yǔyán Wénzì Gōngzuò Wěiyuánhuì).[41] These rules became a Guóbiāo recommendation in 1996[41][42] and were updated in 2012.[43]

  1. General
    1. Single meaning: Words with a single meaning, which are usually set up of two characters (sometimes one, seldom three), are written together and not capitalized: rén (, person); péngyou (朋友, friend); qiǎokèlì (巧克力, chocolate)
    2. Combined meaning (2 or 3 characters): Same goes for words combined of two words to one meaning: hǎifēng (海风; 海風, sea breeze); wèndá (问答; 問答, question and answer); quánguó (全国; 全國, nationwide); chángyòngcí (常用词; 常用詞, common words)
    3. Combined meaning (4 or more characters): Words with four or more characters having one meaning are split up with their original meaning if possible: wúfèng gāngguǎn (无缝钢管; 無縫鋼管, seamless steel-tube); huánjìng bǎohù guīhuà (环境保护规划; 環境保護規劃, environmental protection planning); gāoměngsuānjiǎ (高锰酸钾; 高錳酸鉀, potassium permanganate)
  2. Duplicated words
    1. AA: Duplicated characters (AA) are written together: rénrén (人人, everybody), kànkan (看看, to have a look), niánnián (年年, every year)
    2. ABAB: Two characters duplicated (ABAB) are written separated: yánjiū yánjiū (研究研究, to study, to research), xuěbái xuěbái (雪白雪白, white as snow)
    3. AABB: Characters in the AABB schema are written together: láiláiwǎngwǎng (来来往往; 來來往往, come and go), qiānqiānwànwàn (千千万万; 千千萬萬, numerous)
  3. Prefixes (前附成分; qiánfù chéngfèn) and Suffixes (后附成分; 後附成分; hòufù chéngfèn): Words accompanied by prefixes such as (, vice), zǒng (; , chief), fēi (, non-), fǎn (, anti-), chāo (, ultra-), lǎo (, old), ā (, used before names to indicate familiarity), (, -able), (; , -less) and bàn (, semi-) and suffixes such as zi (, noun suffix), r (; , diminutive suffix), tou (; , noun suffix), xìng (, -ness, -ity), zhě (, -er, -ist), yuán (; , person), jiā (, -er, -ist), shǒu (, person skilled in a field), huà (, -ize) and men (; , plural marker) are written together: fùbùzhǎng (副部长; 副部長, vice minister), chéngwùyuán (乘务员; 乘務員, conductor), háizimen (孩子们; 孩子們, children)
  4. Nouns and names (名词; 名詞; míngcí)
    1. Words of position are separated: mén wài (门外; 門外, outdoor), hé li (河里; 河裏, under the river), huǒchē shàngmian (火车上面; 火車上面, on the train), Huáng Hé yǐnán (黄河以南; 黃河以南, south of the Yellow River)
      1. Exceptions are words traditionally connected: tiānshang (天上, in the sky or outerspace), dìxia (地下, on the ground), kōngzhōng (空中, in the air), hǎiwài (海外, overseas)
    2. Surnames are separated from the given names, each capitalized: Lǐ Huá (李华; 李華), Zhāng Sān (张三; 張三). If the surname and/or given name consists of two syllables, it should be written as one: Zhūgě Kǒngmíng (诸葛孔明; 諸葛孔明).
    3. Titles following the name are separated and are not capitalized: Wáng bùzhǎng (王部长; 王部長, Minister Wang), Lǐ xiānsheng (李先生, Mr. Li), Tián zhǔrèn (田主任, Director Tian), Zhào tóngzhì (赵同志; 趙同志, Comrade Zhao).
    4. The forms of addressing people with prefixes such as Lǎo (), Xiǎo (), () and Ā () are capitalized: Xiǎo Liú (小刘; 小劉, [young] Ms./Mr. Liu), Dà Lǐ (大李, [great; elder] Mr. Li), Ā Sān (阿三, Ah San), Lǎo Qián (老钱; 老錢, [senior] Mr. Qian), Lǎo Wú (老吴; 老吳, [senior] Mr. Wu)
      1. Exceptions include Kǒngzǐ (孔子, Confucius), Bāogōng (包公, Judge Bao), Xīshī (西施, Xishi), Mèngchángjūn (孟尝君; 孟嘗君, Lord Mengchang)
    5. Geographical names of China: Běijīng Shì (北京市, city of Beijing), Héběi Shěng (河北省, province of Hebei), Yālù Jiāng (鸭绿江; 鴨綠江, Yalu River), Tài Shān (泰山, Mount Tai), Dòngtíng Hú (洞庭湖, Dongting Lake), Qióngzhōu Hǎixiá (琼州海峡; 瓊州海峽, Qiongzhou Strait)
      1. Monosyllabic prefixes and suffixes are written together with their related part: Dōngsì Shítiáo (东四; 東四, Dongsi 10th Alley)
      2. Common geographical nouns that have become part of proper nouns are written together: Hēilóngjiāng (黑龙江; 黑龍江, Heilongjiang)
    6. Non-Chinese names are written in Hanyu Pinyin: Āpèi Āwàngjìnměi (阿沛·阿旺晋美; 阿沛·阿旺晉美, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme); Dōngjīng (东京; 東京, Tokyo)
  5. Verbs (动词; 動詞; dòngcí): Verbs and their suffixes -zhe (; ), -le () or -guo ((; ) are written as one: kànzhe (看着; 看著, seeing), jìnxíngguo (进行过; 進行過, have been implemented). Le as it appears in the end of a sentence is separated though: Huǒchē dào le. (火车到了; 火車到了, The train [has] arrived).
    1. Verbs and their objects are separated: kàn xìn (看信, read a letter), chī yú (吃鱼; 吃魚, eat fish), kāi wánxiào (开玩笑; 開玩笑, to be kidding).
    2. If verbs and their complements are each monosyllabic, they are written together; if not, they are separated: gǎohuài (搞坏; 搞壞, to make broken), dǎsǐ (打死, hit to death), huàwéi (化为; 化為, to become), zhěnglǐ hǎo (整理好, to sort out), gǎixiě wéi (改写为; 改寫為, to rewrite as)
  6. Adjectives (形容词; 形容詞; xíngróngcí): A monosyllabic adjective and its reduplication are written as one: mēngmēngliàng (矇矇亮, dim), liàngtángtáng (亮堂堂, shining bright)
    1. Complements of size or degree such as xiē (), yīxiē (一些), diǎnr (点儿; 點兒) and yīdiǎnr (一点儿; 一點兒) are written separated: dà xiē (大些), a little bigger), kuài yīdiǎnr (快一点儿; 快一點兒, a bit faster)
  7. Pronouns (代词; 代詞; dàicí)
    1. Personal pronouns and interrogative pronouns are separated from other words: Wǒ ài Zhōngguó. (我爱中国。; 我愛中國。, I love China); Shéi shuō de? (谁说的?; 誰說的?, Who said it?)
    2. The demonstrative pronoun zhè (; , this), (, that) and the question pronoun (, which) are separated: zhè rén (这人; 這人, this person), nà cì huìyì (那次会议; 那次會議, that meeting), nǎ zhāng bàozhǐ (哪张报纸; 哪張報紙, which newspaper)
      1. Exception—If zhè, or are followed by diǎnr (点儿; 點兒), bān (), biān (; ), shí (; ), huìr (会儿; 會兒), (; ), me (; ) or the general classifier ge (; ), they are written together: nàlǐ (那里; 那裏, there), zhèbiān (这边; 這邊, over here), zhège (这个; 這個, this)
  8. Numerals (数词; 數詞; shùcí) and measure words (量词; 量詞; liàngcí)
    1. Numbers and words like (, each), měi (, each), mǒu (, any), běn (, this), gāi (; , that), (, my, our) and (, your) are separated from the measure words following them: liǎng gè rén (两个人; 兩個人, two people), gè guó (各国; 各國, every nation), měi nián (每年, every year), mǒu gōngchǎng (某工厂; 某工廠, a certain factory), wǒ xiào (我校, our school)
    2. Numbers up to 100 are written as single words: sānshísān (三十三, thirty-three). Above that, the hundreds, thousands, etc. are written as separate words: jiǔyì qīwàn èrqiān sānbǎi wǔshíliù (九亿七万二千三百五十六; 九億七萬二千三百五十六, nine hundred million, seventy-two thousand, three hundred fifty-six). Arabic numerals are kept as Arabic numerals: 635 fēnjī (635 分机; 635 分機, extension 635)
    3. According to 汉语拼音正词法基本规则 6.1.5.4, the () used in ordinal numerals is followed by a hyphen: - (第一, first), -356 (第 356, 356th). The hyphen should not be used if the word in which () and the numeral appear does not refer to an ordinal number in the context. For example: Dìwǔ (第五, a Chinese compound surname).[44][45] The chū () in front of numbers one to ten is written together with the number: chūshí (初十, tenth day)
    4. Numbers representing month and day are hyphenated: wǔ-sì (五四, May fourth), yīèr-jiǔ (一二·九, December ninth)
    5. Words of approximations such as duō (), lái (; ) and (; ) are separated from numerals and measure words: yībǎi duō gè (一百多个; 一百多個, around a hundred); shí lái wàn gè (十来万个; 十來萬個, around a hundred thousand); jǐ jiā rén (几家人; 幾家人, a few families)
      1. Shíjǐ (十几; 十幾, more than ten) and jǐshí (几十; 幾十, tens) are written together: shíjǐ gè rén (十几个人; 十幾個人, more than ten people); jǐshí (几十根钢管; 幾十根鋼管, tens of steel pipes)
    6. Approximations with numbers or units that are close together are hyphenated: sān-wǔ tiān (三五天, three to five days), qiān-bǎi cì (千百次, thousands of times)
  9. Other function words (虚词; 虛詞; xūcí) are separated from other words
    1. Adverbs (副词; 副詞; fùcí): hěn hǎo (很好, very good), zuì kuài (最快, fastest), fēicháng dà (非常大, extremely big)
    2. Prepositions (介词; 介詞; jiècí): zài qiánmiàn (在前面, in front)
    3. Conjunctions (连词; 連詞; liáncí): nǐ hé wǒ (你和我, you and I/me), Nǐ lái háishi bù lái? (你来还是不来?; 你來還是不來?, Are you coming or not?)
    4. "Constructive auxiliaries" (结构助词; 結構助詞; jiégòu zhùcí) such as de (的/地/得), zhī () and suǒ (): mànmàn de zou (慢慢地走), go slowly)
      1. A monosyllabic word can also be written together with de (的/地/得): wǒ de shū / wǒde shū (我的书; 我的書, my book)
    5. Modal auxiliaries at the end of a sentence: Nǐ zhīdào ma? (你知道吗?; 你知道嗎?, Do you know?), Kuài qù ba! (快去吧!, Go quickly!)
    6. Exclamations and interjections: À! Zhēn měi! (啊!真美!), Oh, it's so beautiful!)
    7. Onomatopoeia: mó dāo huòhuò (磨刀霍霍, honing a knife), hōnglōng yī shēng (轰隆一声; 轟隆一聲, rumbling)
  10. Capitalization
    1. The first letter of the first word in a sentence is capitalized: Chūntiān lái le. (春天来了。; 春天來了。, Spring has arrived.)
    2. The first letter of each line in a poem is capitalized.
    3. The first letter of a proper noun is capitalized: Běijīng (北京, Beijing), Guójì Shūdiàn (国际书店; 國際書店, International Bookstore), Guójiā Yǔyán Wénzì Gōngzuò Wěiyuánhuì (国家语言文字工作委员会; 國家語言文字工作委員會, National Language Commission)
      1. On some occasions, proper nouns can be written in all caps: BĚIJĪNG, GUÓJÌ SHŪDIÀN, GUÓJIĀ YǓYÁN WÉNZÌ GŌNGZUÒ WĚIYUÁNHUÌ
    4. If a proper noun is written together with a common noun to make a proper noun, it is capitalized. If not, it is not capitalized: Fójiào (佛教, Buddhism), Tángcháo (唐朝, Tang dynasty), jīngjù (京剧; 京劇, Beijing opera), chuānxiōng (川芎, Szechuan lovage)
  11. Initialisms
    1. Single words are abbreviated by taking the first letter of each character of the word: Bjīng (北京, Beijing) → BJ
    2. A group of words are abbreviated by taking the first letter of each word in the group: guójiā biāozhǔn (国家标准; 國家標準, Guóbiāo standard) → GB
    3. Initials can also be indicated using full stops: BeǐjīngB.J., guójiā biāozhǔnG.B.
    4. When abbreviating names, the surname is written fully (first letter capitalized or in all caps), but only the first letter of each character in the given name is taken, with full stops after each initial: Lǐ Huá (李华; 李華) → Lǐ H. or LǏ H., Zhūgě Kǒngmíng (诸葛孔明; 諸葛孔明) → Zhūgě K. M. or ZHŪGĚ K. M.
  12. Line wrapping
    1. Words can only be split by the character:
      guāngmíng (光明, bright) → guāng-
      míng
      , not gu-
      āngmíng
    2. Initials cannot be split:
      Wáng J. G. (王建国; 王建國) → Wáng
      J. G.
      , not Wáng J.-
      G.
    3. Apostrophes are removed in line wrapping:
      Xī'ān (西安, Xi'an) → Xī-
      ān
      , not Xī-
      'ān
    4. When the original word has a hyphen, the hyphen is added at the beginning of the new line:
      chēshuǐ-mǎlóng (车水马龙; 車水馬龍, heavy traffic: "carriage, water, horse, dragon") → chēshuǐ-
      -mǎlóng
  13. Hyphenation: In addition to the situations mentioned above, there are four situations where hyphens are used.
    1. Coordinate and disjunctive compound words, where the two elements are conjoined or opposed, but retain their individual meaning: gōng-jiàn (弓箭, bow and arrow), kuài-màn (快慢, speed: "fast-slow"), shíqī-bā suì (十七八岁; 十七八歲, 17–18 years old), dǎ-mà (打骂; 打罵, beat and scold), Yīng-Hàn (英汉; 英漢, English-Chinese [dictionary]), Jīng-Jīn (京津, Beijing-Tianjin), lù-hǎi-kōngjūn (陆海空军; 陸海空軍, army-navy-airforce).
    2. Abbreviated compounds (略语; 略語; lüèyǔ): gōnggòng guānxì (公共关系; 公共關係, public relations) → gōng-guān (公关; 公關, PR), chángtú diànhuà (长途电话; 長途電話, long-distance calling) → cháng-huà (长话; 長話, LDC).
      Exceptions are made when the abbreviated term has become established as a word in its own right, as in chūzhōng (初中) for chūjí zhōngxué (初级中学; 初級中學, junior high school). Abbreviations of proper-name compounds, however, should always be hyphenated: Běijīng Dàxué (北京大学; 北京大學, Peking University) → Běi-Dà (北大, PKU).
    3. Four-syllable idioms: fēngpíng-làngjìng (风平浪静; 風平浪靜), calm and tranquil: "wind calm, waves down"), huījīn-rútǔ (挥金如土; 揮金如土, spend money like water: "throw gold like dirt"), zhǐ-bǐ-mò-yàn (纸笔墨砚; 紙筆墨硯, paper-brush-ink-inkstone [four coordinate words]).[46]
      1. Other idioms are separated according to the words that make up the idiom: bēi hēiguō (背黑锅; 背黑鍋, to be made a scapegoat: "to carry a black pot"), zhǐ xǔ zhōuguān fànghuǒ, bù xǔ bǎixìng diǎndēng (只许州官放火,不许百姓点灯; 只許州官放火,不許百姓點燈, Gods may do what cattle may not: "only the official is allowed to light the fire; the commoners are not allowed to light a lamp")
  14. Punctuation
    1. The Chinese full stop (。) is changed to a western full stop (.)
    2. The hyphen is a half-width hyphen (-)
    3. Ellipsis can be changed from 6 dots (......) to 3 dots (...)
    4. The enumeration comma (、) is changed to a normal comma (,)
    5. All other punctuation marks are the same as the ones used in normal texts

Comparison with other orthographies

Pinyin is now used by foreign students learning Chinese as a second language, as well as Bopomofo.

Pinyin assigns some Latin letters sound values which are quite different from those of most languages. This has drawn some criticism as it may lead to confusion when uninformed speakers apply either native or English assumed pronunciations to words. However, this problem is not limited only to pinyin, since many languages that use the Latin alphabet natively also assign different values to the same letters. A recent study on Chinese writing and literacy concluded, "By and large, pinyin represents the Chinese sounds better than the Wade–Giles system, and does so with fewer extra marks."[47]

Because Pinyin is purely a representation of the sounds of Mandarin, it completely lacks the semantic cues and contexts inherent in Chinese characters. Pinyin is also unsuitable for transcribing some Chinese spoken languages other than Mandarin, languages which by contrast have traditionally been written with Han characters allowing for written communication which, by its unified semanto-phonetic orthography, could theoretically be readable in any of the various vernaculars of Chinese where a phonetic script would have only localized utility.

Comparison charts

Vowels a, e, o
IPA a ɔ ɛ ɤ ai ei au ou an ən əŋ ʊŋ
Pinyin a o a e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng ong er
Tongyong Pinyin e e
Wade–Giles eh ê/o ên êng ung êrh
Bopomofo ㄨㄥ
example
Vowels i, u, y
IPA i je jou jɛn in jʊŋ u wo wei wən wəŋ y ɥe ɥɛn yn
Pinyin yi ye you yan yin ying yong wu wo/o wei wen weng yu yue yuan yun
Tongyong Pinyin wun wong
Wade–Giles i/yi yeh yu yen yung wên wêng yüeh yüan yün
Bopomofo ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄥ ㄩㄥ ㄨㄛ/ㄛ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄥ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ
example
Non-sibilant consonants
IPA p m fəŋ tjou twei twən tʰɤ ny ly kɤɚ kʰɤ
Pinyin b p m feng diu dui dun te ge ke he
Tongyong Pinyin fong diou duei nyu lyu
Wade–Giles p fêng tiu tui tun tʻê ko kʻo ho
Bopomofo ㄈㄥ ㄉㄧㄡ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄉㄨㄣ ㄊㄜ ㄋㄩ ㄌㄩ ㄍㄜ ㄎㄜ ㄏㄜ
example
Sibilant consonants
IPA tɕjɛn tɕjʊŋ tɕʰin ɕɥɛn ʈʂɤ ʈʂɨ ʈʂʰɤ ʈʂʰɨ ʂɤ ʂɨ ɻɤ ɻɨ tsɤ tswo tsɨ tsʰɤ tsʰɨ
Pinyin jian jiong qin xuan zhe zhi che chi she shi re ri ze zuo zi ce ci se si
Tongyong Pinyin jyong cin syuan jhe jhih chih shih rih zih cih sih
Wade–Giles chien chiung chʻin hsüan chê chih chʻê chʻih shê shih jih tsê tso tzŭ tsʻê tzʻŭ ssŭ
Bopomofo ㄐㄧㄢ ㄐㄩㄥ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄒㄩㄢ ㄓㄜ ㄔㄜ ㄕㄜ ㄖㄜ ㄗㄜ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄘㄜ ㄙㄜ
example
Tones
IPA ma˥˥ ma˧˥ ma˨˩˦ ma˥˩ ma
Pinyin ma
Tongyong Pinyin ma
Wade–Giles ma1 ma2 ma3 ma4 ma
Bopomofo ㄇㄚ ㄇㄚˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄇㄚˋ ˙ㄇㄚ
example (Chinese characters)

Unicode code points

Based on ISO 7098:2015, Information and Documentation: Chinese Romanization (《信息与文献——中文罗马字母拼写法》), tonal marks for pinyin should use the symbols from Combining Diacritical Marks, as opposed by the use of Spacing Modifier Letters in Bopomofo. Lowercase letters with tone marks are included in GB/T 2312 and their uppercase counterparts are included in JIS X 0212; thus Unicode includes all the common accented characters from pinyin.[48]

Due to The Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography, all accented letters are required to have both uppercase and lowercase characters as per their normal counterparts.

Accented pinyin characters[1][2]
Letter First tone Second tone Third tone Fourth tone
Combining Diacritical Marks ̄ (U+0304) ́ (U+0301) ̌ (U+030C) ̀ (U+0300)
Common letters
Uppercase A Ā (U+0100) Á (U+00C1) Ǎ (U+01CD) À (U+00C0)
E Ē (U+0112) É (U+00C9) Ě (U+011A) È (U+00C8)
I Ī (U+012A) Í (U+00CD) Ǐ (U+01CF) Ì (U+00CC)
O Ō (U+014C) Ó (U+00D3) Ǒ (U+01D1) Ò (U+00D2)
U Ū (U+016A) Ú (U+00DA) Ǔ (U+01D3) Ù (U+00D9)
Ü (U+00DC) Ǖ (U+01D5) Ǘ (U+01D7) Ǚ (U+01D9) Ǜ (U+01DB)
Lowercase a ā (U+0101) á (U+00E1) ǎ (U+01CE) à (U+00E0)
e ē (U+0113) é (U+00E9) ě (U+011B) è (U+00E8)
i ī (U+012B) í (U+00ED) ǐ (U+01D0) ì (U+00EC)
o ō (U+014D) ó (U+00F3) ǒ (U+01D2) ò (U+00F2)
u ū (U+016B) ú (U+00FA) ǔ (U+01D4) ù (U+00F9)
ü (U+00FC) ǖ (U+01D6) ǘ (U+01D8) ǚ (U+01DA) ǜ (U+01DC)
Rare letters
Uppercase Ê (U+00CA) Ê̄ (U+00CA U+0304) Ế (U+1EBE) Ê̌ (U+00CA U+030C) Ề (U+1EC0)
M M̄ (U+004D U+0304) Ḿ (U+1E3E) M̌ (U+004D U+030C) M̀ (U+004D U+0300)
N N̄ (U+004E U+0304) Ń (U+0143) Ň (U+0147) Ǹ (U+01F8)
Lowercase ê (U+00EA) ê̄ (U+00EA U+0304) ế (U+1EBF) ê̌ (U+00EA U+030C) ề (U+1EC1)
m m̄ (U+006D U+0304) ḿ (U+1E3F) m̌ (U+006D U+030C) m̀ (U+006D U+0300)
n n̄ (U+006E U+0304) ń (U+0144) ň (U+0148) ǹ (U+01F9)
Notes
1.^ Yellow cells indicate that there are no single Unicode character for that letter; the character shown here uses Combining Diacritical Mark characters to display the letter.[48]
2.^ Grey cells indicate that Xiandai Hanyu Cidian does not include pinyin with that specific letter.[48][49]
Microsoft Pinyin IME
When using pinyin IME, choosing ḿ/ǹ outputs PUA U+E7C7 and U+E7C8.

GBK has mapped two characters ‘ḿ’ and ‘ǹ’ to Private Use Areas in Unicode as U+E7C7 () and U+E7C8 () respectively,[50] thus some Simplified Chinese fonts (e.g. SimSun) that adheres to GBK include both characters in the Private Use Areas, and some input methods (e.g. Sogou Pinyin) also outputs the Private Use Areas code point instead of the original character. As the superset GB 18030 changed the mappings of ‘ḿ’ and ‘ǹ’,[49] this has caused issue where the input methods and font files use different encoding standard, and thus the input and output of both characters are mixed up.[48]

Shorthand pinyin letters[48]
Uppercase Lowercase Note Example[1]
Ĉ (U+0108) ĉ (U+0109) Abbreviation of ch 长/長 can be spelled as ĉáŋ
Ŝ (U+015C) ŝ (U+015D) Abbreviation of sh 伤/傷 can be spelled as ŝāŋ
Ẑ (U+1E90) ẑ (U+1E91) Abbreviation of zh 张/張 can be spelled as Ẑāŋ
Ŋ (U+014A) ŋ (U+014B) Abbreviation of ng 让/讓 can be spelled as ràŋ
Notes
1.^ Example given is the abbreviated/shorthand version according to Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet, it is inadvisable to use them for real life usage.

Other symbols that are used in pinyin is as follow:

Pinyin symbols
Symbol in Chinese Symbol in pinyin Usage Example
。(U+3002) . (U+002E) Marks end of sentence. 你好。 Nǐ hǎo.
,(U+FF0C)/、 (U+3001) , (U+002C) Marks connecting sentence. 你,好吗? Nǐ, hǎo ma?
—— (U+2014 U+2014) — (U+2014) Indicates breaking of meaning mid-sentence. 枢纽部分——中央大厅 shūniǔ bùfèn — zhōngyāng dàtīng
…… (U+2026 U+2026) … (U+2026) Used for omitting a word, phrase, line, paragraph, or more from a quoted passage. 我…… Wǒ…
· (U+00B7) Marks for the neutral tone, can be placed before the neutral-tone syllable. 吗 ·ma
- (U+002D) Hyphenation between abbreviated compounds. 公关 gōng-guān
' (U+0027) Indicates separate syllables. 西安 Xī'ān (compared to 先 xiān)

Other punctuation mark and symbols in Chinese are to use the equivalent symbol in English noted in to GB/T 15834.

Single storey a in four different Kai script fonts. Notice that accented pinyin letters are different in style and width with the regular letter.

In educational usage, to match the handwritten style, some fonts used a different style for the letter a and g to have an appearance of single-storey a and single-storey g. Fonts that follow GB/T 2312 usually make single-storey a in the accented pinyin characters but leaving unaccented double-storey a, causing a discrepancy in the font itself.[48] Unicode did not provide an official way to encode single-storey a and single-storey g, but as IPA require the differentiation of single-storey and double-storey a and g, thus the single-storey character ɑ/ɡ in IPA should be used if the need to separate single-storey a and g arises. For daily usage there is no need to differentiate single-storey and double-storey a/g.

Single-storey alphabet
Alphabet Single-storey representation Notes
a ɑ (U+0251) IPA /ɑ/
α (U+03B1) Greek alpha, not suggested
g ɡ (U+0261) IPA /ɡ/

Usage

A school slogan asking elementary students to speak Standard Chinese is annotated with pinyin, but without tonal marks.

Pinyin superseded older romanization systems such as Wade–Giles (1859; modified 1892) and postal romanization, and replaced zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China. The ISO adopted pinyin as the standard romanization for modern Chinese in 1982 (ISO 7098:1982, superseded by ISO 7098:2015). The United Nations followed suit in 1986.[1][51] It has also been accepted by the government of Singapore, the United States's Library of Congress, the American Library Association, and many other international institutions.[52][failed verification]

The spelling of Chinese geographical or personal names in pinyin has become the most common way to transcribe them in English. Pinyin has also become the dominant method for entering Chinese text into computers in Mainland China, in contrast to Taiwan; where Bopomofo is most commonly used.

Families outside of Taiwan who speak Mandarin as a mother tongue use pinyin to help children associate characters with spoken words which they already know. Chinese families outside of Taiwan who speak some other language as their mother tongue use the system to teach children Mandarin pronunciation when they learn vocabulary in elementary school.[53][54]

Since 1958, pinyin has been actively used in adult education as well, making it easier for formerly illiterate people to continue with self-study after a short period of pinyin literacy instruction.[55]

Pinyin has become a tool for many foreigners to learn Mandarin pronunciation, and is used to explain both the grammar and spoken Mandarin coupled with Chinese characters (汉字; 漢字; Hànzì). Books containing both Chinese characters and pinyin are often used by foreign learners of Chinese. Pinyin's role in teaching pronunciation to foreigners and children is similar in some respects to furigana-based books (with hiragana letters written above or next to kanji, directly analogous to zhuyin) in Japanese or fully vocalised texts in Arabic ("vocalised Arabic").

The tone-marking diacritics are commonly omitted in popular news stories and even in scholarly works. This results in some degree of ambiguity as to which words are being represented.

Computer input systems

Simple computer systems, able to display only 7-bit ASCII text (essentially the 26 Latin letters, 10 digits, and punctuation marks), long provided a convincing argument for using unaccented pinyin instead of Chinese characters. Today, however, most computer systems are able to display characters from Chinese and many other writing systems as well, and have them entered with a Latin keyboard using an input method editor. Alternatively, some PDAs, tablet computers, and digitizing tablets allow users to input characters graphically by writing with a stylus, with concurrent online handwriting recognition.

Pinyin with accents can be entered with the use of special keyboard layouts or various character map utilities. X keyboard extension includes a "Hanyu Pinyin (altgr)" layout for AltGr-triggered dead key input of accented characters.[56]

In Taiwan

Taiwan (Republic of China) adopted Tongyong Pinyin, a modification of Hanyu Pinyin, as the official romanization system on the national level between October 2002 and January 2009, when it decided to promote Hanyu Pinyin. Tongyong Pinyin ("common phonetic"), a romanization system developed in Taiwan, was designed to romanize languages and dialects spoken on the island in addition to Mandarin Chinese. The Kuomintang (KMT) party resisted its adoption, preferring the Hanyu Pinyin system used in mainland China and in general use internationally. Romanization preferences quickly became associated with issues of national identity. Preferences split along party lines: the KMT and its affiliated parties in the pan-blue coalition supported the use of Hanyu Pinyin while the Democratic Progressive Party and its affiliated parties in the pan-green coalition favored the use of Tongyong Pinyin.

Tongyong Pinyin was made the official system in an administrative order that allowed its adoption by local governments to be voluntary. Locales in Kaohsiung, Tainan and other areas use romanizations derived from Tongyong Pinyin for some district and street names. A few localities with governments controlled by the KMT, most notably Taipei, Hsinchu, and Kinmen County, overrode the order and converted to Hanyu Pinyin before the January 1, 2009 national-level decision,[4][5] though with a slightly different capitalization convention than mainland China. Most areas of Taiwan adopted Tongyong Pinyin, consistent with the national policy. Today, many street signs in Taiwan are using Tongyong Pinyin-derived romanizations,[57][58] but some, especially in northern Taiwan, display Hanyu Pinyin-derived romanizations. It is not unusual to see spellings on street signs and buildings derived from the older Wade–Giles, MPS2 and other systems.

Attempts to make pinyin standard in Taiwan have had uneven success, with most place and proper names remaining unaffected, including all major cities. Personal names on Taiwanese passports honor the choices of Taiwanese citizens, who can choose Wade-Giles, Hakka, Hoklo, Tongyong, aboriginal, or pinyin.[59] Official pinyin use is controversial, as when pinyin use for a metro line in 2017 provoked protests, despite government responses that “The romanization used on road signs and at transportation stations is intended for foreigners... Every foreigner learning Mandarin learns Hanyu pinyin, because it is the international standard...The decision has nothing to do with the nation’s self-determination or any ideologies, because the key point is to ensure that foreigners can read signs.”[60]

In Singapore

Singapore implemented Hanyu Pinyin as the official romanization system for Mandarin in the public sector starting in the 1980s, in conjunction with the Speak Mandarin Campaign.[61] Hanyu Pinyin is also used as the romanization system to teach Mandarin Chinese at schools.[62] While the process of Pinyinisation has been mostly successful in government communication, placenames, and businesses established in the 1980s and onward, it continues to be unpopular in some areas, most notably for personal names and vocabulary borrowed from other varieties of Chinese already established in the local vernacular.[61] In these situations, romanization continues to be based on the Chinese language variety it originated from, especially the three largest Chinese varieties traditionally spoken in Singapore (Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese).

For other languages

Pinyin-like systems have been devised for other variants of Chinese. Guangdong Romanization is a set of romanizations devised by the government of Guangdong province for Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka (Moiyen dialect), and Hainanese. All of these are designed to use Latin letters in a similar way to pinyin.

In addition, in accordance to the Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages (少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法; 少數民族語地名漢語拼音字母音譯寫法) promulgated in 1976, place names in non-Han languages like Mongolian, Uyghur, and Tibetan are also officially transcribed using pinyin in a system adopted by the State Administration of Surveying and Mapping and Geographical Names Committee known as SASM/GNC romanization. The pinyin letters (26 Roman letters, plus ü and ê) are used to approximate the non-Han language in question as closely as possible. This results in spellings that are different from both the customary spelling of the place name, and the pinyin spelling of the name in Chinese:

Customary Official (pinyin for local name) Traditional Chinese name Simplified Chinese name Pinyin for Chinese name
Shigatse Xigazê 日喀則 日喀则 Rìkāzé
Urumchi Ürümqi 烏魯木齊 乌鲁木齐 Wūlǔmùqí
Lhasa Lhasa 拉薩 拉萨 Lāsà
Hohhot Hohhot 呼和浩特 呼和浩特 Hūhéhàotè
Golmud Golmud 格爾木 格尔木 Gé'ěrmù
Qiqihar Qiqihar 齊齊哈爾 齐齐哈尔 Qíqíhā'ěr

Tongyong Pinyin was developed in Taiwan for use in rendering not only Mandarin Chinese, but other languages and dialects spoken on the island such as Taiwanese, Hakka, and aboriginal languages.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This was part of the Soviet program of Latinization meant to reform alphabets for languages in that country to use Latin characters.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Margalit Fox (14 January 2017). "Zhou Youguang, Who Made Writing Chinese as Simple as ABC, Dies at 111". The New York Times.
  2. ^ "Pinyin celebrates 50th birthday". Xinhua News Agency. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  3. ^ "ISO 7098:1982 – Documentation – Romanization of Chinese". Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  4. ^ a b Shih Hsiu-Chuan (18 September 2008). "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009". Taipei Times. p. 2.
  5. ^ a b "Government to improve English-friendly environment". The China Post. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008.
  6. ^ Copper, John F. (2014). Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-4307-1. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  7. ^ Copper, John F. (2015). Historical Dictionary of Taiwan (Republic of China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. xv. ISBN 9781442243064. Retrieved 4 December 2017. But some cities, businesses, and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this, as it suggested that Taiwan is more closely tied to the PRC.
  8. ^ The online version of the canonical[clarification needed "According to which group?"] Guoyu Cidian (《國語辭典》) defines this term as: 標語音﹑不標語義的符號系統,足以明確紀錄某一種語言。 'a system of symbols for notation of the sounds of words, rather than for their meanings, that is sufficient to accurately record some language'. See this entry online.[permanent dead link] Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  9. ^ Sin, Kiong Wong (2012). Confucianism, Chinese History and Society. World Scientific. p. 72. ISBN 978-9814374477. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  10. ^ Brockey, Liam Matthew (2009). Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724. Harvard University Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-0674028814. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  11. ^ a b Chan, Wing-tsit; Adler, Joseph (2013). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 303, 304. ISBN 978-0231517997. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  12. ^ Mair, Victor H. (2002). "Sound and Meaning in the History of Characters: Views of China's Earliest Script Reformers". In Erbaugh, Mary S. (ed.). Difficult Characters: Interdisciplinary Studies of Chinese and Japanese Writing. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University National East Asian Language Resource Center.
  13. ^ Ao, Benjamin (1997). "History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization". Chinese Librarianship: An International Electronic Journal. 4.
  14. ^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese, Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 261. ISBN 0521296536. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  15. ^ Jensen, Lionel M.; Weston, Timothy B. (2007). China's Transformations: The Stories Beyond the Headlines. Rowman & Littlefield. p. XX. ISBN 978-0742538634.
  16. ^ Chen, Ping (1999). Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press. p. 186. ISBN 0521645727. Retrieved 13 July 2014. Latinxua Sin Wenz tones.
  17. ^ John DeFrancis, The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984), pp. 246-247.
  18. ^ "Father of pinyin". China Daily. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2009. Reprinted in part as Simon, Alan (21–27 January 2011). "Father of Pinyin". China Daily Asia Weekly. Hong Kong. Xinhua. p. 20.
  19. ^ Dwyer, Colin (14 January 2017). "Obituary: Zhou Youguang, Architect Of A Bridge Between Languages, Dies At 111". NPR. National Public Radio. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  20. ^ Branigan, Tania (21 February 2008). "Sound Principles". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  21. ^ Rohsenow, John S. 1989. Fifty years of script and written language reform in the PRC: the genesis of the language law of 2001. In Zhou Minglang and Sun Hongkai, eds. Language Policy in the People's Republic of China: Theory and Practice Since 1949, p. 23
  22. ^ Branigan, Tania (21 February 2008). "Sound principles". The Guardian. London.
  23. ^ a b "Hanyu Pinyin system turns 50". Straits Times. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  24. ^ Wiedenhof, Jeroen (Leiden University) (2004). "Purpose and effect in the transcription of Mandarin" (PDF). Proceedings of the International Conference on Chinese Studies 2004 (漢學研究國際學術研討會論文集). National Yunlin University of Science and Technology. pp. 387–402. ISBN 9860040117. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2009. In the Cold War era, the use of this system outside China was typically regarded as a political statement, or a deliberate identification with the Chinese communist regime. (p390)
  25. ^ Terry, Edith. How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. 632. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2011. ISBN 0-7656-0356-X, 9780765603562.
  26. ^ Terry, Edith. How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. 633. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2011. ISBN 0-7656-0356-X, 9780765603562.
  27. ^ "GB/T 16159-2012" (PDF). Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  28. ^ You can hear recordings of the Finals here Archived 9 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ Huang, Rong. 公安部最新规定 护照上的"ü"规范成"YU". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  30. ^ Li, Zhiyan. "吕"拼音到怎么写? 公安部称应拼写成"LYU". Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  31. ^ Shea, Marilyn. "Pinyin / Ting - The Chinese Experience". hua.umf.maine.edu. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  32. ^ a b "Apostrophes in Hanyu Pinyin: when and where to use them". Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  33. ^ 怪 北捷景安站 英譯如「金幹站」. Apple Daily (Taiwan). 23 December 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2019. 北市捷運局指出,目前有7大捷運站名英譯沒有隔音符號,常讓外國人問路鬧烏龍,如大安站「Daan」被誤唸為丹站、景安站「Jingan」變成金幹站等,捷運局擬加撇號「’」或橫線「-」,以利分辨音節。
  34. ^ Section 5.1.6 of the current standard GB/T 28039-2011 Chinese phonetic alphabet spelling rules for Chinese names
  35. ^ Tung, Bobby; Chen, Yijun; Liang, Hai; LIU, Eric Q.; Zhang, Aijie; Wu, Xiaoqian; Li, Angel; Ishida, Richard. "Requirements for Chinese Text Layout". W3C. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  36. ^ Section 7.3 of the current standard GB/T 16159-2012.
  37. ^ Swofford, Mark. "Where do the tone marks go?". Pinyin.info. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  38. ^ Dummitt, Nathan (2008). Chinese Through Tone & Color. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0781812047.
  39. ^ "Hanping Chinese Dictionary Pro 3.2.11 released!". 10 January 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  40. ^ a b "Proposal to encode three uppercase Latin letters used in early Pinyin" (PDF). Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  41. ^ a b "Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography". Qingdao Vocational and Technical College of Hotel Management (in Chinese). Department of Educational Administration. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  42. ^ 拼音正词法基本规则. pinyin.info.
  43. ^ "Release of the National Standard Basic Rules of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet Orthography". China Education and Research Network (in Chinese). China Education and Research Network. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  44. ^ 现代汉语词典(第七版). [A Dictionary of Current Chinese (Seventh Edition).]. Beijing: The Commercial Press. 1 September 2016. p. 289. ISBN 978-7-100-12450-8. 【第五】 Dìwǔ 名 姓。
  45. ^ 现代汉语规范词典(第3版). [A Standard Dictionary of Current Chinese (Third Edition).]. Beijing: 外语教学与研究出版社 [Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press]. May 2014. p. 294. ISBN 978-7-513-54562-4. 【第五】 dìwǔ 名 复姓。
  46. ^ "Use of the Hyphen; Abbreviations and Short Forms". Pinyin.info. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  47. ^ Taylor, Insup and Maurice M. Taylor (1995), Writing and literacy in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese, Volume 3 of Studies in written language and literacy, John Benjamins, p. 124.
  48. ^ a b c d e f Eric Q. LIU. "The Type — Wǒ ài pīnyīn!". The Type. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  49. ^ a b 奈白不弍. "关于带声调汉语拼音字母的输入". 知乎专栏 (in Chinese). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  50. ^ 林卯. "自制像素字体7年后总算升了0.5版本:Ozla 5.5"Mendelev"(钔捷列夫)". bangumi.tv.
  51. ^ Lin Mei-chun (8 October 2000). "Official challenges romanization". Taipei Times.
  52. ^ Ao, Benjamin (1 December 1997). "History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization". Chinese Librarianship: An International Electronic Journal. Internet Chinese Librarians Club (4). ISSN 1089-4667. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  53. ^ Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles (2005). The science of reading: a handbook. Blackwell handbooks of developmental psychology). 17. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 320–22. ISBN 1-4051-1488-6.
  54. ^ R.F. Price (2005). Education in Modern China. Volume 23 of "China : history, philosophy, economics" (2, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 123. ISBN 0-415-36167-2.
  55. ^ Price (2005), pp. 206–208
  56. ^ "symbols/cn in xkeyboard-config". Freedesktop.org Cgit. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  57. ^ 劉婉君 (15 October 2018). 路牌改通用拼音? 南市府:已採用多年. Liberty Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 28 July 2019. 基進黨台南市東區市議員參選人李宗霖今天指出,台南市路名牌拼音未統一、音譯錯誤等,建議統一採用通用拼音。對此,台南市政府交通局回應,南市已實施通用拼音多年,將全面檢視路名牌,依現行音譯方式進行校對改善。
  58. ^ Eryk Smith (27 November 2017). "OPINION: Hanyu Pinyin Should Not Be Political, Kaohsiung". Retrieved 13 July 2019. why does Kaohsiung City insist on making visitors guess what 'Shihcyuan' is supposed to represent? Especially when a few blocks away, the same road has somehow morphed into 'Shiquan' (十全路) Road? Move away from Kaohsiung's city center and streets, neighborhoods or townships can have several romanized names ... sometimes on the same signage.{...}The refusal to adopt Hanyu in Kaohsiung seems based on nothing more than groundless fear of loss of identity or diminished regional autonomy. Listen, Kaohsiung: we won't lose our identity or our freedom by changing the romanized spelling of Singjhong Road (興中)to Xingzhong.
  59. ^ Everington, Keoni. "Taiwan passport can now include names in Hoklo, Hakka, indigenous languages". Taiwan News. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  60. ^ Lin, Sean (11 January 2017). "Groups protest use of Hanyu pinyin for new MRT line - Taipei Times". www.taipeitimes.com. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  61. ^ a b Wendy Bockhorst-Heng; Lionel Lee (November 2007), "Language Planning in Singapore: On Pragmatism, Communitarianism and Personal Names", Current Issues in Language Planning, p. 3
  62. ^ p.485, Chan, Sin-Wai. The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language, Routledge, 2016.

Further reading

External links

Preceded by
Official romanization adopted
by the People's Republic of China

1958–
Current
Preceded by
de facto used romanization
by the People's Republic of China

1978–
Preceded by
Romanization used by the United Nations
1986–
Preceded by
Official romanization adopted
by the Republic of China (Taiwan)

2009–