ギリシャ人

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ギリシャ人
ヘレネス
Έλληνες
総人口
NS。 14 -17000000 [1] [2]
Greek people around the world.svg
人口が多い地域
 ギリシャ  9,903,268 [3] [4]
(2011年国勢調査)キプロス  721,000 [5] [6] [7](2011年推定)
 
 アメリカ1,279,000〜3,000,000 b (2016年の推定)[8] [9]
 ドイツ443,000 g (2016年推定)[10]
 オーストラリア422,234 (2011年国勢調査)[11]
 イギリス345,000〜400,000 (2011年の見積もり)[12]
 カナダ271,405 c (2016年国勢調査)[13]
 アルバニア215,000〜300,000 [14]
 ニュージーランド推定2,478〜10,000、場合によっては最大50,000 [15]
 南アフリカ138,000 (2011年の見積もり)[16]
 イタリア110,000〜200,000 d (2013年の推定)[17] [18] [19]
 エジプト110,000 [20] [21]
 チリ100,000 [22]
 ウクライナ91,000 (2011年の見積もり)[23]
 ロシア85,640 (2010年国勢調査)[24]
 ブラジル50,000 e [25]
 フランス35,000 (2013年の見積もり)[26]
 ベルギー35,000 (2011年の見積もり)[27]
 アルゼンチン30,000〜50,000 (2013年の見積もり)[28]
 ブルガリア1,356 (2011年国勢調査)[29]最大28,500 (推定)[30]
 オランダ25,709 [31]
 ウルグアイ25,000〜28,000 (2011年国勢調査)[32]
 スウェーデン24,736 (2012年国勢調査)[33]
 ジョージア15,000 (2011年の見積もり)[34]
 チェコ共和国12,000 [35]
 カザフスタン8,846 (2011年の見積もり)[36]
  スイス11,000 (2015年の見積もり)[37]
 ルーマニア10,000 (2013年の見積もり)[38]
 ウズベキスタン9,500 (2000年の見積もり)[39]
 オーストリア5,261 [40]
 ハンガリー4,454 (2016年国勢調査)[41]
 七面鳥4,000〜49,143 f [42] [43]
言語
ギリシャ語
宗教
主にギリシャ正教会

ギリシャ、キプロス共和国の市民。ギリシャ政府は、国勢調査での民族自決に関する情報を収集していません。
b祖先の子孫のものを含みます。
c記載されている民族的起源に、とりわけ「ギリシャ語」が含まれているもの。民族的起源が「ギリシャ語」のみであると述べられている人の数は145,250人です。宣言されていない民族の追加の3,395人のキプロス人がカナダに住んでいます。
d約60,000人のグリコ人と30,000人の第二次世界大戦後の移民。
e「子孫を含む」。
fギリシャのイスラム教徒を含む
g「文化的ルーツ」を持つ人々を含みます。

ギリシアまたはHellenes/ H ɛ L I n個のZ / ;ギリシャ語ΈλληνεςÉllines [ˈelines])は東地中海黒海地域、すなわちギリシャキプロスアルバニアイタリアトルコエジプト、そして程度は少ないが地中海を取り巻く他の国々に自生する民族グループです。それらはまた、世界中にギリシャのコミュニティが設立され、重要なディアスポラを形成しています。 [44]

ギリシャの植民地と地域社会は歴史的の海岸に確立されている地中海黒海が、ギリシャの人々は常にを中心としてきたエーゲ海イオニア海、ギリシャ語の言語があるため話されました青銅器時代[45] [46] 20世紀初頭まで、ギリシャ人はギリシャ半島小アジアの西海岸、黒海沿岸、アナトリア中央部のカッパドキアエジプトバルカン半島、キプロス、コンスタンチノープルに分布していた[46]これらの地域の多くは、11世紀後半のビザンチン帝国と古代ギリシャ植民地の東地中海地域の国境と大部分一致していた [47]ギリシャ人の文化の中心地には、さまざまな時期にアテネテッサロニキアレクサンドリアスマーナコンスタンティノープルが含まれていました。

最近では、ほとんどのギリシャ人は現代ギリシャの州とキプロスの国境内に住んでいます。ギリシャの大量虐殺ギリシャとトルコ間の人口交換はほぼ小アジアで3千年古いギリシャの存在を終えました。他の長年のギリシャの人口は、南イタリアからコーカサス、南ロシアウクライナ、そして他の多くの国のギリシャのディアスポラコミュニティで見つけることができます。今日、ほとんどのギリシャ人はギリシャ正教会の会員として正式に登録されています。[48]

歴史を通して、ギリシャ人は文化、視覚芸術、探検、劇場、文学哲学政治建築音楽数学[49]医学、科学、技術、商業、料理、スポーツに大きな影響を与え、貢献してきました

歴史

ウラジミールI.ゲオルギエフによる紀元前3千年紀の「プロトギリシャ地域」の再建[50]
アガメムノンの仮面」として知られるミケーネ文明の葬儀用マスク、16世紀。紀元前

ギリシャ語はギリシャ語を話します。ギリシャ語は、インド・ヨーロッパ語族ギリシャ語族の中で独自の支部を形成しています[46]彼らは古典的な民族のグループの一部であり、アンソニーD.スミスによって「典型的なディアスポラの人々」と表現されています。[51] [52]

起源

ギリシア祖語は、紀元前3千年紀の終わりに、バルカン半島の南端にある現在ギリシャと呼ばれている地域に到着したと考えられます。[53] [54] [a]紀元前2千年紀のギリシャ本土への移住の順序は、古代ギリシャの方言に基づいて再構築する必要があります。何世紀も後に現れたため、いくつかの不確実性があります。少なくとも2回の移住があり、1回目はイオニア人アカイア人で紀元前16世紀までミケーネ文明をもたらしました[58] [59]。2回目はドーリア人の侵略でした。、紀元前11世紀頃、ミケーネ時代から派生したアルカドキプロス方言取って代わりました。どちらの移動も鋭い時期に起こり、青銅器時代後期への移行期のミケーネ文明と青銅器時代後期のドーリア式が崩壊します。

対立仮説は、言語学者ウラジミール・ゲオルギエフによって提唱されました。彼は、ギリシャ北西部のヘラディック初期(紀元前3千年紀)までに、つまりヨーロッパの新石器時代の終わりに向けて、ギリシャ祖語の話者を配置しました[60]スワデシュリストの計算方法を使用した2003年の論文で、言語学者のラッセルグレイとクエンティンアトキンソンは、紀元前5000年頃のギリシャ語とアルメニア語の分裂、および紀元前4000年頃の別個の言語系統としてのギリシャ語の出現というやや早い推定に到達しました[61]

ミケーネ文明

では、C。 1600 BCから借りたミケーネギリシャミノア文明の音節ライティングシステム(リニアA)と開発し、独自の音節スクリプトとして知られているリニアB[62]の第一および最古の書かれた証拠を提供ギリシャを[62] [63]ミケーネ文明はすぐにエーゲ海に侵入し、紀元前15世紀までにロードスクレタキプロス、および小アジアの海岸に到達した[46] [64]

紀元前1200年頃、別のギリシャ語を話す人々であるドーリア人エピルスから続いた[65]伝統的に、歴史家はドーリア人の侵略ミケーネ文明の崩壊を引き起こしたと信じていたが、主な攻撃は紀元前1180年頃に東地中海に航海した船乗りの襲撃者(海の民によって行われた可能性が高い[66]ドリアン侵略が続いたことにより、不完全適切に呼び出され、移行の期間を証明ギリシャの暗黒時代が、800 BCでの風景アルカイック古典ギリシャは識別できました。[67]

古典古代のギリシャ人は、ミケーネの祖先とミケーネ時代を、英雄の栄光の時代、神々の近さ、物質的な富として理想化しました。[68]ホメロスの叙事詩(すなわちイリアスオデッセイは)特に、一般的にギリシャの過去の一部として受け入れ、それは時までありませんでしたエウヘメリズム学者が質問ホメロスの史実に始めたこと。[67]生き残ったミケーネ文明の遺産の一部として、ミケーネ文明の神々と女神の名前(ゼウスポセイドンハデスなど)は、後の古代のオリンポスのパンテオンの主要人物になりました[69]

クラシック

古典派の3人の偉大な哲学者:ソクラテスプラトンアリストテレス

ギリシャ国民民族起源は、紀元前8世紀の汎ヘレニズムの発展と関連しています。[70]一部の学者によると、基本的なイベントは紀元前776年のオリンピックであり、ギリシャの部族に共通のヘレニズムの考えが最初に共有文化体験に翻訳され、ヘレニズムは主に共通文化の問題でした。[44]の作品ホメロス(すなわちイリアスオデッセイ)とヘシオドス(すなわち神統記は)国家の宗教、精神、歴史と神話の基礎になって、紀元前8世紀に書かれていました。[71]デルファイのアポロのオラクルはこの時期に設立されました。[72]

古典期ギリシア文明のは、早期に紀元前5世紀から及ぶ時間カバーアレキサンダー大王の死いくつかの著者はの終わりから、「クラシック」には、この期間を分割することを好む(323 BCで、ペルシア戦争へのペロポネソス戦争の終わり、そして「4世紀」、アレキサンダーの死まで)。それはギリシャ文明が後の時代に判断される基準を設定したので、そのように名付けられました。[73]古典派はギリシャ文明の「黄金時代」とも呼ばれ、その芸術、哲学、建築、文学は西洋文化の形成と発展に役立つでしょう。

古典時代のギリシャ人が共通のギリシャに属しているために自分自身を理解しながらgenos[74]彼らの最初の忠誠心は、自分たちの街にいた、彼らは他のギリシャ語で、しばしば残酷に、戦争についてのちぐはぐな何も見なかった都市国家を[75]ペロポネソス戦争、二つの最も強力なギリシャの都市は国家間の大規模な内戦アテネスパルタその 同盟国は、両方が大幅に弱体化残しました。[76]

アレキサンダー大王、その征服はヘレニズム時代につながった

一部の学者の意見では、ギリシャの都市国家のほとんどは、フィリップアレクサンダー大王の汎ギリシャの理想の旗の下で力ずくで結ばれていましたが、他の人は一般的に「マケドニアの征服のための征服」または少なくとも富、栄光、権力のための征服」と見なし、「理想」を都市国家に向けられた有用な宣伝と見なします。[77]

いずれにせよ、アレキサンダーの転倒のアケメネス朝の戦いで彼の勝利の後GranicusIssusGaugamela、そして現代限り、彼の事前パキスタンタジキスタン[78]はギリシャ文化のための重要なコンセントを介して提供しました途中で植民地と交易路を作る。[79]アレクサンドリア帝国はその作者の死を無傷で生き延びなかったが、ギリシャ語が共通語になるにつれて中東アジアの多くにヘレニズムが広まったことの文化的影響は長生きしたことが証明された。ローマ時代にも保持されていた位置[80]多くのギリシャ人は、アレクサンドリアアンティオキアセレウキアなどのヘレニズム都市に定住した[81] 2000年後、ギリシャの入植者の子孫であると主張するカラシュ人のように、パキスタンアフガニスタンにはまだコミュニティがあります[82]

ヘレニズム

ヘレニズムの領域c。ディアドコイで割った紀元前300年Μacedonian王国カッサンドロス(緑)、プトレマイオス王国(ダークブルー)、セレウコス朝(イエロー)、により制御領域リュシマコス(オレンジ)とイピロス(赤)
クレオパトラ7世の胸像アルテス博物館ベルリン)、ヘレニズム王国の最後の支配者(インド・グリーク朝を除く

ヘレニズム文明は、ギリシャ文明の次の期間だった、の始まりは、通常、アレキサンダーの死に配置されています。[83]このヘレニズム時代はギリシャの文化と政府を何世紀にもわたって維持してきたインドとバクトリアにまで及ぶ、多くの非ギリシャ文化の部分的なヘレニズム化見たために呼ばれました[84]最後には、多くの場合の征服の周りに配置されたエジプトを、30紀元前にローマで[83]インド・ギリシャ王国が数十年以上続いたものの。

この時代には、ギリシャ人はより大きな都市に向かって移動し、都市国家の重要性が低下しました。これらの大都市は、ディアドコイのさらに大きな王国の一部でした[85] [86]しかしながら、ギリシャ人は、主にホメロスと古典作家の作品の研究を通して、彼らの過去を認識し続けた。[87]ギリシャのアイデンティティを維持する上で重要な要素は、多民族のヘレニズム王国の新しい国際的な環境で深まった野蛮人(非ギリシャ人)の人々との接触でした。[87]これは、ギリシャ人の間でギリシャのペイデイアの次世代への伝達を組織したいという強い願望につながった[87]ギリシャの科学、技術、数学は、一般的にヘレニズム時代にピークに達したと考えられています。[88]

ではインド・ギリシア語ギリシア・バクトリア王国、グレコ仏教が広がっていたとギリシャの宣教師はそれを伝播する上で重要な役割を果たします中国[89]さらに東のギリシャ人アレキサンドリアEschateはに知られるようになった中国人として大園[90]

ローマ帝国

紀元前168年から紀元前30年の間に、ギリシャの世界全体がローマに征服され、世界のギリシャ語話者のほとんどすべてがローマ帝国の市民または主題として暮らしました。彼らの軍事的優位性にもかかわらず、ローマ人はギリシャ文化の成果を賞賛し、大きな影響を受けました。したがって、ホラティウスの有名な声明:Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit(「ギリシャは捕らえられましたが、野生の征服者を捕らえました」)。[91]ギリシア世界のローマ征服次世紀には、ギリシャやローマの文化は、単一にマージグレコローマン文化。

宗教の分野では、これは大きな変化の時期でした。起こった精神革命は、紀元前3世紀に始まったその衰退が東からの新しい宗教運動の導入とともに続いた、古いギリシャの宗教の衰退を見ました。[44]イシスミスラのような神々のカルトはギリシャの世界に導入されました。[86] [92]ヘレニズム化された東部のギリシャ語を話すコミュニティは、2世紀と3世紀の初期キリスト教の普及に貢献し[93]、キリスト教の初期の指導者と作家(特に聖パウロ)は一般的にギリシャ語を話していた[93] 。 94]ギリシャ出身の人はいませんでしたが。しかし、ギリシャ自体は異教に固執する傾向があったし、初代教会の影響力の中心地の一つではなかった:実際には、いくつかの古代ギリシャの宗教的慣行は、4世紀の終わりまで流行に残った[95]などの一部の地域などでペロポネソス南東部は、西暦10世紀半ばまでビザンチン半ばまで異教徒のままでした。[96]ツァコニア地方は、9世紀まで異教のままであり、そのため、その住民は、主流のビザンチン社会のキリスト教化されたギリシャの兄弟たちによって異教であるという意味でヘレネスと呼ばれていました。[97]

ローマ帝国にはまだ民族の区別がありましたが、それらは宗教的配慮の二次的なものとなり、新たな帝国はキリスト教をその結束を支え、強固なローマの国民的アイデンティティを促進するためのツールとして使用しました。[98]の初期の世紀から紀元、ギリシャ自己識別ローマ人として(ギリシャ語Ῥωμαῖοι Rhōmaîoi)。[99]その時までに、ヘレネスという名前は異教徒を表していたが、11世紀に民族名として復活した。[100]

中世

コンスタンティノープルの結婚と家族生活のシーン
皇帝バシレイオス2世(11世紀)を復活させると信じているビザンチン帝国を
ビザンチン時代後期の最も有名な哲学者の一人であるゲオルギオス・プレトーは、西ヨーロッパにおけるギリシャの学問の復活の主要な先駆者です。

中世のほとんどの間、ビザンチンギリシャ人はRhōmaîoiῬωμαῖοι、「ローマ人」、ローマ帝国の市民意味する)として自己識別しました。これはギリシャ語でクリスチャンギリシャ人の代名詞となった用語です。[101] [102]ラテン語のGraikoí(Γραικοί、「ギリシャ」)も使用されたが[103]、その使用はあまり一般的ではなく、1204年の第4回十字軍以前の公式のビザンチン政治通信には存在しなかった。[104]東ローマ帝国従来の名前(今日ビザンチン帝国、独自の時間の間に使用されていない名前[105] がますます皇帝時に7世紀後にギリシャ文化の影響を受けになったヘラクレイオス R。  610から641 AD)はギリシャ帝国の公用語にすることを決めました。 [106] [107]カトリック教会は数世紀の間、ローマ帝国の遺産に対する東ローマ帝国の主張を認めていたが、教皇レオ3世フランクシャルルマーニュを800年12月25日にローマ皇帝として戴冠させた、この行為は最終的に神聖ローマ帝国の形成につながり、ラテン西部はフランク王を支持し始め、東ローマ帝国を主にギリシャ帝国Imperium Graecorum)。[108] [109]古代ヘレネスのこのラテン語は中立的に使用することができたが、古代ローマの遺産に対するビザンチンの主張に異議を唱えるために9世紀以降の西洋人によって使用されたため、ほとんど使用しなかったビザンチンの卑劣代名詞となった。 、主にフィレンツェ公会議に関連するテキストなど、西洋に関連する文脈で、西洋の視点を提示します。[110] [111]

現代のビザンチンの学問におけるこのビザンチンのローマのアイデンティティに関する3つの考え方があります:最初は「ローマニティ」を少なくとも12世紀までの多民族帝国の主題の自己識別のモードと見なします。ローマ人として;ローマニティを継続的に存在するギリシャ国家の中世の表現と見なす永遠のアプローチ。一方、3番目のビューでは、東ローマのアイデンティティを前近代の国民アイデンティティと見なしています。[112]ビザンチンギリシャ人の本質的な価値観は、キリスト教と古代ギリシャのホメリックの伝統の両方から引き出された。[113] [114]

明確なギリシャのアイデンティティ教養円で11世紀に再登場との十字軍にコンスタンティノープルの陥落後に、より強力になった第4回十字軍1204での[115]ニカイア帝国、使用エリートの小さな円自己識別の用語としての用語「ギリシャ語」。[116]ビザンチンはコンスタンを奪還した後、しかし、1261年に、Rhomaioiは自己記述のための用語として再び優勢になったとのいくつかの痕跡があるHelleneかかるの文章のように(Έλληνας)、ジョージGemistos Plethon[117]キリスト教を放棄し、その著作で古典的な過去への関心の世俗的な傾向を頂点にした人。[115]しかし、帝国の黄昏時のギリシャ人の彼ら自身の概念を形作ったのは正教会のキリスト教と特にギリシャのアイデンティティの組み合わせでした[115]ビザンチン帝国の黄昏時、著名なビザンチン人格はビザンツ皇帝を「ギリシャの皇帝」と呼ぶことを提案した。[118] [119]ギリシャのアイデンティティのこれらの主に修辞的な表現は、知識人のサークル内に限定されていたがイタリアのルネサンスに参加したビザンチンの知識人によって続けられた[120]

古典ギリシャの遺産への関心は、中世後期およびオスマン帝国のギリシャ人とロシア帝国の仲間の正教会のキリスト教徒とのつながりで強化されたギリシャ正教のアイデンティティの新たな強調によって補完されました。これらは、1461年のトレビゾンド帝国の崩壊、1828年から29年の露土戦争まで、数十万人のポントスギリシャ人ポントスアルプスアルメニア高原からロシア南部とロシアの南コーカサスは(も参照のロシアのギリシャ人アルメニアギリシャ人ジョージアのギリシャ人、および白人のギリシャ人)。[121]

これらのビザンチンギリシャ人は、古典時代の文学の保存に大きな責任がありました。[114] [122] [123] ビザンチンの文法学者は、15世紀に古代ギリシャの文法および文芸学を西洋に持ち込み、イタリアのルネサンスを大きく後押しした主な責任者でした[124] [125]アリストテレスの哲学の伝統がするまで、ほぼ2000年のためのギリシャの世界ではほぼ切れ目のないだったコンスタンティノープルの陥落1453での[126]

スラヴ世界、ビザンチンギリシャ人は識字とキリスト教の普及によって貢献しました。後者の最も注目すべき例は、テッサロニキテーマの首都であるテッサロニキの港湾都市の僧侶である聖キリル文字とメトディウス文字の2人のビザンチンギリシャ人兄弟の作品でした。彼らは今日、最初のスラブ文字を形式化したとされています[127]

オスマン帝国

ビザンチン学者とカーディナルBasiliosベッサリオン(/ 1403年から1472年1395年)は、ルネサンスに貢献し、西ヨーロッパへの古典的な知識を伝達するのに重要な役割を果たしました

1453年5月29日のコンスタンティノープル陥落、多くのギリシャ人は西側、特にイタリア中央ヨーロッパドイツロシアに向けて出発することにより、より良い雇用と教育の機会を求めまし[124]ギリシャ人は、後にルネサンスと呼ばれるヨーロッパの文化大革命で大いに称賛されています。ギリシャ人が住んで領土自体では、ギリシャ人はで主導的な役割果たしに来たオスマン帝国による帝国の中央ハブ、政治的、文化的、社会的、に基づいていたという事実に部分的には、西トラキアギリシャのマケドニア、両方中北部ギリシャ、そしてもちろん、主にギリシャ人が住む、かつてのビザンチンの首都、コンスタンティノープルが中心でした。この状況の直接の結果として、ギリシャ語を話す人々は、オスマン帝国の貿易と外交の確立、そして教会において非常に重要な役割を果たすようになりました。これに加えて、オスマン帝国時代の前半には、ギリシャ出身の男性がオスマン帝国軍、海軍、および州の官僚機構のかなりの割合を占め、青年として(特にアルバニア人セルブ人とともにオスマン帝国軍に徴収されました。devshirme。したがって、ギリシャ(またはアルバニアまたはセルビア)出身の多くのオスマン帝国は、オスマン帝国エジプトから占領下のオスマン帝国まで、州を統治したオスマン帝国軍内で発見されました。イエメンアルジェリア、しばしば州知事として。

For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire's millet system, religion was the defining characteristic of national groups (milletler), so the exonym "Greeks" (Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi) was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church, regardless of their language or ethnic origin.[128] The Greek speakers were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves Romioi,[129] (as opposed to being so named by others) and, at least those educated, considered their ethnicity (genos) to be Hellenic.[130] There were, however, many Greeks who escaped the second-class status of Christians inherent in the Ottoman millet system, according to which Muslims were explicitly awarded senior status and preferential treatment. These Greeks either emigrated, particularly to their fellow Orthodox Christian protector, the Russian Empire, or simply converted to Islam, often only very superficially and whilst remaining crypto-Christian. The most notable examples of large-scale conversion to Turkish Islam among those today defined as Greek Muslims—excluding those who had to convert as a matter of course on being recruited through the devshirme—were to be found in Crete (Cretan Turks), Greek Macedonia (for example among the Vallahades of western Macedonia), and among Pontic Greeks in the Pontic Alps and Armenian Highlands. Several Ottoman sultans and princes were also of part Greek origin, with mothers who were either Greek concubines or princesses from Byzantine noble families, one famous example being sultan Selim the Grim (r 1517–1520), whose mother Gülbahar Hatun was a Pontic Greek.

The roots of Greek success in the Ottoman Empire can be traced to the Greek tradition of education and commerce exemplified in the Phanariotes.[131] It was the wealth of the extensive merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was the prominent feature of Greek life in the half century and more leading to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821.[132] Not coincidentally, on the eve of 1821, the three most important centres of Greek learning were situated in Chios, Smyrna and Aivali, all three major centres of Greek commerce.[132] Greek success was also favoured by Greek domination in the leadership of the Eastern Orthodox church.

Modern

The movement of the Greek enlightenment, the Greek expression of the Age of Enlightenment, contributed not only in the promotion of education, culture and printing among the Greeks, but also in the case of independence from the Ottomans, and the restoration of the term "Hellene". Adamantios Korais, probably the most important intellectual of the movement, advocated the use of the term "Hellene" (Έλληνας) or "Graikos" (Γραικός) in the place of Romiós, that was seen negatively by him.

The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the modern Greek nation-state in 1830. According to the second article of the first Greek constitution of 1822, a Greek was defined as any native Christian resident of the Kingdom of Greece, a clause removed by 1840.[133] A century later, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed between Greece and Turkey in 1923, the two countries agreed to use religion as the determinant for ethnic identity for the purposes of population exchange, although most of the Greeks displaced (over a million of the total 1.5 million) had already been driven out by the time the agreement was signed.[b][134] The Greek genocide, in particular the harsh removal of Pontian Greeks from the southern shore area of the Black Sea, contemporaneous with and following the failed Greek Asia Minor Campaign, was part of this process of Turkification of the Ottoman Empire and the placement of its economy and trade, then largely in Greek hands under ethnic Turkish control.[135]

Identity

The cover of Hermes o Logios, a Greek literary publication of the late 18th and early 19th century in Vienna with major contribution to the Modern Greek Enlightenment.

The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history but were never limited or completely identified with membership to a Greek state.[136] Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek (Hellenic) ethnic identity in his day, enumerating

  1. shared descent (ὅμαιμον – homaimon, "of the same blood"),[137]
  2. shared language (ὁμόγλωσσον – homoglōsson, "speaking the same language")[138]
  3. shared sanctuaries and sacrifices (θεῶν ἱδρύματά τε κοινὰ καὶ θυσίαι – theōn hidrumata te koina kai thusiai)[139]
  4. shared customs (ἤθεα ὁμότροπα – ēthea homotropa, "customs of like fashion").[140][141][142]

By Western standards, the term Greeks has traditionally referred to any native speakers of the Greek language, whether Mycenaean, Byzantine or modern Greek.[128][143] Byzantine Greeks self-identified as Romaioi ("Romans"), Graikoi ("Greeks") and Christianoi ("Christians") since they were the political heirs of imperial Rome, the descendants of their classical Greek forebears and followers of the Apostles;[144] during the mid-to-late Byzantine period (11th–13th century), a growing number of Byzantine Greek intellectuals deemed themselves Hellenes although for most Greek-speakers, "Hellene" still meant pagan.[100][145] On the eve of the Fall of Constantinople the Last Emperor urged his soldiers to remember that they were the descendants of Greeks and Romans.[146]

Before the establishment of the modern Greek nation-state, the link between ancient and modern Greeks was emphasized by the scholars of Greek Enlightenment especially by Rigas Feraios. In his "Political Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of the Greeks".[147] The modern Greek state was created in 1829, when the Greeks liberated a part of their historic homelands, Peloponnese, from the Ottoman Empire.[148] The large Greek diaspora and merchant class were instrumental in transmitting the ideas of western romantic nationalism and philhellenism,[132] which together with the conception of Hellenism, formulated during the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire, formed the basis of the Diafotismos and the current conception of Hellenism.[115][128][149]

The Greeks today are a nation in the meaning of an ethnos, defined by possessing Greek culture and having a Greek mother tongue, not by citizenship, race, and religion or by being subjects of any particular state.[150] In ancient and medieval times and to a lesser extent today the Greek term was genos, which also indicates a common ancestry.[151][152]

Names

Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece, and adjacent "barbarian" lands.

Greeks and Greek-speakers have used different names to refer to themselves collectively. The term Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί) is one of the collective names for the Greeks in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey (the Homeric "long-haired Achaeans" would have been a part of the Mycenaean civilization that dominated Greece from c. 1600 BC until 1100 BC). The other common names are Danaans (Δαναοί) and Argives (Ἀργεῖοι) while Panhellenes (Πανέλληνες) and Hellenes (Ἕλληνες) both appear only once in the Iliad;[153] all of these terms were used, synonymously, to denote a common Greek identity.[154][155] In the historical period, Herodotus identified the Achaeans of the northern Peloponnese as descendants of the earlier, Homeric Achaeans.[156]

Homer refers to the "Hellenes" (/ˈhɛlnz/) as a relatively small tribe settled in Thessalic Phthia, with its warriors under the command of Achilleus.[157] The Parian Chronicle says that Phthia was the homeland of the Hellenes and that this name was given to those previously called Greeks (Γραικοί).[158] In Greek mythology, Hellen, the patriarch of the Hellenes who ruled around Phthia, was the son of Pyrrha and Deucalion, the only survivors after the Great Deluge.[159] The Greek philosopher Aristotle names ancient Hellas as an area in Epirus between Dodona and the Achelous river, the location of the Great Deluge of Deucalion, a land occupied by the Selloi and the "Greeks" who later came to be known as "Hellenes".[160] In the Homeric tradition, the Selloi were the priests of Dodonian Zeus.[161]

In the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, Graecus is presented as the son of Zeus and Pandora II, sister of Hellen the patriarch of the Hellenes.[162] According to the Parian Chronicle, when Deucalion became king of Phthia, the Graikoi (Γραικοί) were named Hellenes.[158] Aristotle notes in his Meteorologica that the Hellenes were related to the Graikoi.[160]

Continuity

Alexander the Great in Byzantine Emperor's clothes, by a manuscript depicting scenes from his life (between 1204 and 1453)

The most obvious link between modern and ancient Greeks is their language, which has a documented tradition from at least the 14th century BC to the present day, albeit with a break during the Greek Dark Ages from which written records are absent (11th- 8th cent. BC, though the Cypriot syllabary was in use during this period).[163] Scholars compare its continuity of tradition to Chinese alone.[163][164] Since its inception, Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture and the national continuity of the Greek world is a lot more certain than its demographic.[44][165] Yet, Hellenism also embodied an ancestral dimension through aspects of Athenian literature that developed and influenced ideas of descent based on autochthony.[166] During the later years of the Eastern Roman Empire, areas such as Ionia and Constantinople experienced a Hellenic revival in language, philosophy, and literature and on classical models of thought and scholarship.[165] This revival provided a powerful impetus to the sense of cultural affinity with ancient Greece and its classical heritage.[165] Throughout their history, the Greeks have retained their language and alphabet, certain values and cultural traditions, customs, a sense of religious and cultural difference and exclusion (the word barbarian was used by 12th-century historian Anna Komnene to describe non-Greek speakers),[167] a sense of Greek identity and common sense of ethnicity despite the undeniable socio-political changes of the past two millennia.[165] In recent anthropological studies, both ancient and modern Greek osteological samples were analyzed demonstrating a bio-genetic affinity and continuity shared between both groups.[168][169] There is also a direct genetic link between ancient Greeks and modern Greeks.[170][171]

Demographics

Today, Greeks are the majority ethnic group in the Hellenic Republic,[172] where they constitute 93% of the country's population,[173] and the Republic of Cyprus where they make up 78% of the island's population (excluding Turkish settlers in the occupied part of the country).[174] Greek populations have not traditionally exhibited high rates of growth; a large percentage of Greek population growth since Greece's foundation in 1832 was attributed to annexation of new territories, as well as the influx of 1.5 million Greek refugees after the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[175] About 80% of the population of Greece is urban, with 28% concentrated in the city of Athens.[176]

Greeks from Cyprus have a similar history of emigration, usually to the English-speaking world because of the island's colonization by the British Empire. Waves of emigration followed the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, while the population decreased between mid-1974 and 1977 as a result of emigration, war losses, and a temporary decline in fertility.[177] After the ethnic cleansing of a third of the Greek population of the island in 1974,[178][179] there was also an increase in the number of Greek Cypriots leaving, especially for the Middle East, which contributed to a decrease in population that tapered off in the 1990s.[177] Today more than two-thirds of the Greek population in Cyprus is urban.[177]

There is a sizeable Greek minority of approximately 200,000 people in Albania.[14] The Greek minority of Turkey, which numbered upwards of 200,000 people after the 1923 exchange, has now dwindled to a few thousand, after the 1955 Constantinople Pogrom and other state sponsored violence and discrimination.[180] This effectively ended, though not entirely, the three-thousand-year-old presence of Hellenism in Asia Minor.[181][182] There are smaller Greek minorities in the rest of the Balkan countries, the Levant and the Black Sea states, remnants of the Old Greek Diaspora (pre-19th century).[183]

Diaspora

Greek diaspora (20th century).

The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available, they show around 3 million Greeks outside Greece and Cyprus. Estimates provided by the SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad put the figure at around 7 million worldwide.[184] According to George Prevelakis of Sorbonne University, the number is closer to just below 5 million.[183] Integration, intermarriage, and loss of the Greek language influence the self-identification of the Omogeneia. Important centres of the New Greek Diaspora today are London, New York, Melbourne and Toronto.[183] In 2010, the Hellenic Parliament introduced a law that enables Diaspora Greeks in Greece to vote in the elections of the Greek state.[185] This law was later repealed in early 2014.[186]

Ancient

Greek colonization in antiquity.

In ancient times, the trading and colonizing activities of the Greek tribes and city states spread the Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, especially in Sicily and southern Italy (also known as Magna Grecia), Spain, the south of France and the Black sea coasts.[187] Under Alexander the Great's empire and successor states, Greek and Hellenizing ruling classes were established in the Middle East, India and in Egypt.[187] The Hellenistic period is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization that established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa.[188] Under the Roman Empire, easier movement of people spread Greeks across the Empire and in the eastern territories, Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin.[106] The modern-day Griko community of southern Italy, numbering about 60,000,[18][19] may represent a living remnant of the ancient Greek populations of Italy.

Modern

Distribution of ethnic groups in 1918, National Geographic

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad.[189] Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno in Italy, Alexandria in Egypt), Russia (Odessa and Saint Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain.[190] Businesses frequently comprised the extended family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox Church.[190]

As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers.[191] With economic success, the Diaspora expanded further across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.[191][192]

In the 20th century, many Greeks left their traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada, Germany, and South Africa, especially after the Second World War (1939–1945), the Greek Civil War (1946–1949), and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[193]

While official figures remain scarce, polls and anecdotal evidence point to renewed Greek emigration as a result of the Greek financial crisis.[194] According to data published by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany in 2011, 23,800 Greeks emigrated to Germany, a significant increase over the previous year. By comparison, about 9,000 Greeks emigrated to Germany in 2009 and 12,000 in 2010.[195][196]

Culture

Greek culture has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginning in the Mycenaean civilization, continuing through the classical era, the Hellenistic period, the Roman and Byzantine periods and was profoundly affected by Christianity, which it in turn influenced and shaped.[197] Ottoman Greeks had to endure through several centuries of adversity that culminated in genocide in the 20th century.[198][199] The Diafotismos is credited with revitalizing Greek culture and giving birth to the synthesis of ancient and medieval elements that characterize it today.[115][128]

Language

Early Greek alphabet, c. 8th century BC
A Greek speaker

Most Greeks speak the Greek language, an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, with its closest relations possibly being Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian) or the Indo-Iranian languages (see Graeco-Aryan).[163] It has the longest documented history of any living language and Greek literature has a continuous history of over 2,500 years.[200] The oldest inscriptions in Greek are in the Linear B script, dated as far back as 1450 BC.[201] Following the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent, the Greek alphabet appears in the 9th–8th century BC. The Greek alphabet derived from the Phoenician alphabet, and in turn became the parent alphabet of the Latin, Cyrillic, and several other alphabets. The earliest Greek literary works are the Homeric epics, variously dated from the 8th to the 6th century BC. Notable scientific and mathematical works include Euclid's Elements, Ptolemy's Almagest, and others. The New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek.

Greek demonstrates several linguistic features that are shared with other Balkan languages, such as Albanian, Bulgarian and Eastern Romance languages (see Balkan sprachbund), and has absorbed many foreign words, primarily of Western European and Turkish origin.[202] Because of the movements of Philhellenism and the Diafotismos in the 19th century, which emphasized the modern Greeks' ancient heritage, these foreign influences were excluded from official use via the creation of Katharevousa, a somewhat artificial form of Greek purged of all foreign influence and words, as the official language of the Greek state. In 1976, however, the Hellenic Parliament voted to make the spoken Dimotiki the official language, making Katharevousa obsolete.[203]

Modern Greek has, in addition to Standard Modern Greek or Dimotiki, a wide variety of dialects of varying levels of mutual intelligibility, including Cypriot, Pontic, Cappadocian, Griko and Tsakonian (the only surviving representative of ancient Doric Greek).[204] Yevanic is the language of the Romaniotes, and survives in small communities in Greece, New York and Israel. In addition to Greek, many Greek citizens in Greece and the diaspora are bilingual in other languages such as English, Arvanitika/Albanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, Macedonian Slavic, Russian and Turkish.[163][205]

Religion

Most Greeks are Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church.[206] During the first centuries after Jesus Christ, the New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek, which remains the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox Church, and most of the early Christians and Church Fathers were Greek-speaking.[197] There are small groups of ethnic Greeks adhering to other Christian denominations like Greek Catholics, Greek Evangelicals, Pentecostals, and groups adhering to other religions including Romaniot and Sephardic Jews and Greek Muslims. About 2,000 Greeks are members of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism congregations.[207][208][209]

Greek-speaking Muslims live mainly outside Greece in the contemporary era. There are both Christian and Muslim Greek-speaking communities in Lebanon and Syria, while in the Pontus region of Turkey there is a large community of indeterminate size who were spared from the population exchange because of their religious affiliation.[210]

Arts

Renowned Greek soprano Maria Callas

Greek art has a long and varied history. Greeks have contributed to the visual, literary and performing arts.[211] In the West, classical Greek art was influential in shaping the Roman and later the modern Western artistic heritage. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists.[211] Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece played an important role in the art of the Western world.[212] In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Indo-Greek and Greco-Buddhist art, whose influence reached as far as Japan.[213]

Byzantine Greek art, which grew from the Hellenistic classical art and adapted the pagan motifs in the service of Christianity, provided a stimulus to the art of many nations.[214] Its influences can be traced from Venice in the West to Kazakhstan in the East.[214][215] In turn, Greek art was influenced by eastern civilizations (i.e. Egypt, Persia, etc.) during various periods of its history.[216]

Notable modern Greek artists include the major Renaissance painter Dominikos Theotokopoulos (El Greco), Nikolaos Gyzis, Nikiphoros Lytras, Konstantinos Volanakis, Theodoros Vryzakis, Georgios Jakobides, Thalia Flora-Karavia, Yannis Tsarouchis, Nikos Engonopoulos, Périclès Pantazis, Theophilos, Kostas Andreou, Jannis Kounellis, sculptors such as Leonidas Drosis, Georgios Bonanos, Yannoulis Chalepas, Athanasios Apartis, Konstantinos Dimitriadis and Joannis Avramidis, conductor Dimitri Mitropoulos, soprano Maria Callas, composers such as Mikis Theodorakis, Nikos Skalkottas, Nikolaos Mantzaros, Spyridon Samaras, Manolis Kalomiris, Iannis Xenakis, Manos Hatzidakis, Manos Loïzos, Yanni and Vangelis, the masters of rebetiko Markos Vamvakaris and Vassilis Tsitsanis, and singers such as Giorgos Dalaras, Haris Alexiou, Sotiria Bellou, Nana Mouskouri, Vicky Leandros and Demis Roussos. Poets such as Andreas Kalvos, Athanasios Christopoulos, Kostis Palamas, the writer of Hymn to Liberty Dionysios Solomos, Angelos Sikelianos, Kostas Karyotakis, Maria Polydouri, Yannis Ritsos, Kostas Varnalis, Nikos Kavvadias, Andreas Embirikos and Kiki Dimoula. Constantine P. Cavafy and Nobel laureates Giorgos Seferis and Odysseas Elytis are among the most important poets of the 20th century. Novel is also represented by Alexandros Papadiamantis, Emmanuel Rhoides, Ion Dragoumis, Nikos Kazantzakis, Penelope Delta, Stratis Myrivilis, Vassilis Vassilikos and Petros Markaris, while notable playwrights include the Cretan Renaissance poets Georgios Chortatzis and Vincenzos Cornaros, such as Gregorios Xenopoulos and Iakovos Kambanellis.

Notable cinema or theatre actors include Marika Kotopouli, Melina Mercouri, Ellie Lambeti, Academy Award winner Katina Paxinou, Alexis Minotis, Dimitris Horn, Thanasis Veggos, Manos Katrakis and Irene Papas. Alekos Sakellarios, Karolos Koun, Vasilis Georgiadis, Kostas Gavras, Michael Cacoyannis, Giannis Dalianidis, Nikos Koundouros and Theo Angelopoulos are among the most important directors.

Among the most significant modern-era architects are Stamatios Kleanthis, Lysandros Kaftanzoglou, Anastasios Metaxas, Panagis Kalkos, Anastasios Orlandos, the naturalized Greek Ernst Ziller, Dimitris Pikionis and urban planners Stamatis Voulgaris and George Candilis.

Science

Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric system, in the 3rd century BC

The Greeks of the Classical and Hellenistic eras made seminal contributions to science and philosophy, laying the foundations of several western scientific traditions, such as astronomy, geography, historiography, mathematics, medicine, philosophy and political science. The scholarly tradition of the Greek academies was maintained during Roman times with several academic institutions in Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria and other centers of Greek learning, while Byzantine science was essentially a continuation of classical science.[217] Greeks have a long tradition of valuing and investing in paideia (education).[87] Paideia was one of the highest societal values in the Greek and Hellenistic world while the first European institution described as a university was founded in 5th century Constantinople and operated in various incarnations until the city's fall to the Ottomans in 1453.[218] The University of Constantinople was Christian Europe's first secular institution of higher learning since no theological subjects were taught,[219] and considering the original meaning of the world university as a corporation of students, the world's first university as well.[218]

As of 2007, Greece had the eighth highest percentage of tertiary enrollment in the world (with the percentages for female students being higher than for male) while Greeks of the Diaspora are equally active in the field of education.[176] Hundreds of thousands of Greek students attend western universities every year while the faculty lists of leading Western universities contain a striking number of Greek names.[220] Notable Greek scientists of modern times include: physician Georgios Papanicolaou (pioneer in cytopathology, inventor of the Pap test); mathematician Constantin Carathéodory (acclaimed contributor to real and complex analysis and the calculus of variations); archaeologists Manolis Andronikos (unearthed the tomb of Philip II), Valerios Stais (recognised the Antikythera mechanism), Spyridon Marinatos (specialised in Mycenaean sites) and Ioannis Svoronos; chemists Leonidas Zervas (of Bergmann-Zervas synthesis and Z-group discovery fame), K. C. Nicolaou (first total synthesis of taxol) and Panayotis Katsoyannis (first chemical synthesis of insulin); computer scientists Michael Dertouzos and Nicholas Negroponte (known for their early work with the World Wide Web), John Argyris (co-creator of the FEM), Joseph Sifakis (2007 Turing Award), Christos Papadimitriou (2002 Knuth Prize) and Mihalis Yannakakis (2005 Knuth Prize); physicist-mathematician Demetrios Christodoulou (renowned for work on Minkowski spacetime) and physicists Achilles Papapetrou (known for solutions of general relativity), Dimitri Nanopoulos (extensive work on particle physics and cosmology), and John Iliopoulos (2007 Dirac Prize for work on the charm quark); astronomer Eugenios Antoniadis; biologist Fotis Kafatos (contributor to cDNA cloning technology); botanist Theodoros Orphanides; economist Xenophon Zolotas (held various senior posts in international organisations such as the IMF); Indologist Dimitrios Galanos; linguist Yiannis Psycharis (promoter of Demotic Greek); historians Constantine Paparrigopoulos (founder of modern Greek historiography) and Helene Glykatzi Ahrweiler (excelled in Byzantine studies); and political scientists Nicos Poulantzas (a leading Structural Marxist) and Cornelius Castoriadis (philosopher of history and ontologist, social critic, economist, psychoanalyst).

Significant engineers and automobile designers include Nikolas Tombazis, Alec Issigonis and Andreas Zapatinas.

Symbols

The national flag of Greece is commonly used as a symbol for Greeks worldwide
The flag of the Greek Orthodox Church is based on the coat of arms of the Palaiologoi, the last dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.

The most widely used symbol is the flag of Greece, which features nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white representing the nine syllables of the Greek national motto Eleftheria i Thanatos (Freedom or Death), which was the motto of the Greek War of Independence.[221] The blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bears a white cross, which represents Greek Orthodoxy. The Greek flag is widely used by the Greek Cypriots, although Cyprus has officially adopted a neutral flag to ease ethnic tensions with the Turkish Cypriot minority (see flag of Cyprus).[222]

The pre-1978 (and first) flag of Greece, which features a Greek cross (crux immissa quadrata) on a blue background, is widely used as an alternative to the official flag, and they are often flown together. The national emblem of Greece features a blue escutcheon with a white cross surrounded by two laurel branches. A common design involves the current flag of Greece and the pre-1978 flag of Greece with crossed flagpoles and the national emblem placed in front.[223]

Another highly recognizable and popular Greek symbol is the double-headed eagle, the imperial emblem of the last dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire and a common symbol in Asia Minor and, later, Eastern Europe.[224] It is not part of the modern Greek flag or coat-of-arms, although it is officially the insignia of the Greek Army and the flag of the Church of Greece. It had been incorporated in the Greek coat of arms between 1925 and 1926.[225]

Politics

Classical Athens is considered the birthplace of Democracy. The term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy (ἀριστοκρατία, aristokratía), meaning "rule by an excellent elite", and to oligarchy. While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically.[226] Led by Cleisthenes, Athenians established what is generally held as the first democracy in 508–507 BC,[227] which took gradually the form of a direct democracy. The democratic form of government declined during the Hellenistic and Roman eras, only to be revived as an interest in Western Europe during the early modern period.

The European enlightenment and the democratic, liberal and nationalistic ideas of the French Revolution was a crucial factor to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence and the establishment of the modern Greek state.[228][229]

Notable modern Greek politicians include Ioannis Kapodistrias, founder of the First Hellenic Republic, reformist Charilaos Trikoupis, Eleftherios Venizelos, who marked the shape of modern Greece, social democrats Georgios Papandreou and Alexandros Papanastasiou, Konstantinos Karamanlis, founder of the Third Hellenic Republic, and socialist Andreas Papandreou.

Surnames and personal names

Greek surnames began to appear in the 9th and 10th century, at first among ruling families, eventually supplanting the ancient tradition of using the father's name as disambiguator.[230][231] Nevertheless, Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics,[230] such those ending in the suffix -opoulos or -ides, while others derive from trade professions, physical characteristics, or a location such as a town, village, or monastery.[231] Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case. Occasionally (especially in Cyprus), some surnames end in -ou, indicating the genitive case of a patronymic name.[232] Many surnames end in suffixes that are associated with a particular region, such as -akis (Crete), -eas or -akos (Mani Peninsula), -atos (island of Cephalonia), -ellis (island of Lesbos) and so forth.[231] In addition to a Greek origin, some surnames have Turkish or Latin/Italian origin, especially among Greeks from Asia Minor and the Ionian Islands, respectively.[233] Female surnames end in a vowel and are usually the genitive form of the corresponding males surname, although this usage is not followed in the diaspora, where the male version of the surname is generally used.

With respect to personal names, the two main influences are Christianity and classical Hellenism; ancient Greek nomenclatures were never forgotten but have become more widely bestowed from the 18th century onwards.[231] As in antiquity, children are customarily named after their grandparents, with the first born male child named after the paternal grandfather, the second male child after the maternal grandfather, and similarly for female children.[234] Personal names are often familiarized by a diminutive suffix, such as -akis for male names and -itsa or -oula for female names.[231] Greeks generally do not use middle names, instead using the genitive of the father's first name as a middle name. This usage has been passed on to the Russians and other East Slavs (otchestvo).

Sea: exploring and commerce

Aristotle Onassis, the best known Greek shipping magnate worldwide.

The traditional Greek homelands have been the Greek peninsula and the Aegean Sea, Southern Italy (Magna Graecia), the Black Sea, the Ionian coasts of Asia Minor and the islands of Cyprus and Sicily. In Plato's Phaidon, Socrates remarks, "we (Greeks) live around a sea like frogs around a pond" when describing to his friends the Greek cities of the Aegean.[235][236] This image is attested by the map of the Old Greek Diaspora, which corresponded to the Greek world until the creation of the Greek state in 1832. The sea and trade were natural outlets for Greeks since the Greek peninsula is mostly rocky and does not offer good prospects for agriculture.[44]

Notable Greek seafarers include people such as Pytheas of Massalia who sailed to Great Britain, Euthymenes who sailed to Africa, Scylax of Caryanda who sailed to India, the navarch of Alexander the Great Nearchus, Megasthenes, explorer of India, later the 6th century merchant and monk Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas who sailed to India), and the explorer of the Northwestern Passage Ioannis Fokas also known as Juan de Fuca.[237] In later times, the Byzantine Greeks plied the sea-lanes of the Mediterranean and controlled trade until an embargo imposed by the Byzantine emperor on trade with the Caliphate opened the door for the later Italian pre-eminence in trade.[238] Panayotis Potagos was another explorer of modern times who was the first to reach Mbomu and Uele River from the north.

The Greek shipping tradition recovered during the late Ottoman rule (especially after the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca and during the Napoleonic Wars), when a substantial merchant middle class developed, which played an important part in the Greek War of Independence.[115] Today, Greek shipping continues to prosper to the extent that Greece has one of the largest merchant fleets in the world, while many more ships under Greek ownership fly flags of convenience.[176] The most notable shipping magnate of the 20th century was Aristotle Onassis, others being Yiannis Latsis, Stavros G. Livanos, and Stavros Niarchos.[239][240]

Genetics

Admixture analysis of autosomal SNPs of the Balkan region in a global context on the resolution level of 7 assumed ancestral populations: African (brown), South/West European (light blue), Asian (yellow), Middle Eastern (green), North/East European (dark blue) and Caucasian/Anatolian component (beige).
Factor Correspondence Analysis Comparing Different Individuals from European Ancestry Groups.

Genetic studies using multiple autosomal gene markers, Y chromosomal DNA haplogroup analysis and mitochondrial gene markers (mtDNA) show that Greeks share similar backgrounds as the rest of the Europeans and especially Southern Europeans (Italians and southern Balkan populations such as Albanians, Slavic Macedonians and Romanians). According to the studies using multiple autosomal gene markers, Greeks are some of the earliest contributors of genetic material to the rest of the Europeans as they are one of the oldest populations in Europe.[241] A study in 2008 showed that Greeks are genetically closest to Italians and Romanians[242] and another 2008 study showed that they are close to Italians, Albanians, Romanians and southern Balkan Slavs.[243] A 2003 study showed that Greeks cluster with other South European (mainly Italians) and North-European populations and are close to the Basques,[244] and FST distances showed that they group with other European and Mediterranean populations,[241][245] especially with Italians (−0.0001) and Tuscans (0.0005).[246]

Y DNA studies show that Greeks cluster with other Europeans[c] and that they carry some of the oldest Y haplogroups in Europe, in particular the J2 haplogroup (and other J subhaplogroups) and E haplogroups, which are genetic markers denoting early farmers.[247][251][252][253] The Y-chromosome lineage E-V13 appears to have originated in Greece or the southern Balkans and is high in Greeks as well as in Albanians, southern Italians and southern Slavs. E-V13 is also found in Corsicans and Provencals, where an admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization, and is also found at low frequencies on the Anatolian mainland. These results suggest that E-V13 may trace the demographic and socio-cultural impact of Greek colonization in Mediterranean Europe, a contribution that appears to be considerably larger than that of a Neolithic pioneer colonization.[254][255][256] A study in 2008 showed that Greek regional samples from the mainland cluster with those from the Balkans, principally Albanians while Cretan Greeks cluster with the central Mediterranean and Eastern Mediterranean samples.[248] Greek signature DNA influence can be seen in Southern Italy and Sicily, where the genetic contribution of Greek chromosomes to the Sicilian gene pool is estimated to be about 37%, and the Southern Balkans, primarily Albania.[251][252] Di Gaetano et al. also note that the genetic links analysed in their findings "shows that Sicily and southeastern Europe, especially Greece and Albania, share a common background."[257]

Studies using mitochondrial DNA gene markers (mtDNA) showed that Greeks group with other Mediterranean European populations[258][259][260] and principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the low genetic distance between Greeks and Italians[261] and also revealed a cline of genes with highest frequencies in the Balkans and Southern Italy, spreading to lowest levels in Britain and the Basque country, which Cavalli-Sforza associates it with "the Greek expansion, which reached its peak in historical times around 1000 and 500 BC but which certainly began earlier".[262]

A 2017 study on the genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans showed that modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the early neolithic ancestry. The results of the study support the idea of genetic continuity between these civilizations and modern Greeks but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations.[263][264][265] In an interview, the study's author, Harvard University geneticist Iosif Lazaridis, precised "that all three Bronze Age groups (Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Bronze Age southwestern Anatolians) trace most of their ancestry from the earlier Neolithic populations that were very similar in Greece and western Anatolia. But, they also had some ancestry from the 'east', related to populations of the Caucasus and Iran" as well as "some ancestry from the "north", related to hunter-gatherers of eastern Europe and Siberia and also to the Bronze Age people of the steppe. We could also compare the Mycenaeans—again, the first speakers of the Greek language—to modern people from Greece who are very similar to them, but with lower early Neolithic ancestry", and argues that "some had theorized that the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were influenced both culturally and genetically by the old civilizations of the Levant and Egypt, but there is no quantifiable genetic influence".[266]

A 2021 study on the genomic history of the Aegean palatial civilizations showed that modern Greeks are genetically similar to 2,000 BCE Aegeans from northern Greece.[267]

Physical appearance

A study from 2013 for prediction of hair and eye colour from DNA of the Greek people showed that the self-reported phenotype frequencies according to hair and eye colour categories was as follows: 119 individuals – hair colour, 11 blond, 45 dark blond/light brown, 49 dark brown, 3 brown red/auburn and 11 had black hair; eye colour, 13 with blue, 15 with intermediate (green, heterochromia) and 91 had brown eye colour.[268]

Another study from 2012 included 150 dental school students from the University of Athens, and the results of the study showed that light hair colour (blonde/light ash brown) was predominant in 10.7% of the students. 36% had medium hair colour (light brown/medium darkest brown), 32% had darkest brown and 21% black (15.3 off black, 6% midnight black). In conclusion, the hair colour of young Greeks are mostly brown, ranging from light to dark brown with significant minorities having black and blonde hair. The same study also showed that the eye colour of the students was 14.6% blue/green, 28% medium (light brown) and 57.4% dark brown.[269]

Timeline

The history of the Greek people is closely associated with the history of Greece, Cyprus, Constantinople, Asia Minor and the Black Sea. During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a number of Greek enclaves around the Mediterranean were cut off from the core, notably in Southern Italy, the Caucasus, Syria and Egypt. By the early 20th century, over half of the overall Greek-speaking population was settled in Asia Minor (now Turkey), while later that century a huge wave of migration to the United States, Australia, Canada and elsewhere created the modern Greek diaspora.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There is a range of interpretations: Carl Blegen dates the arrival of the Greeks around 1900 BC, John Caskey believes that there were two waves of immigrants and Robert Drews places the event as late as 1600 BC.[55][56] Numerous other theories have also been supported,[57] but there is a general consensus that the Greek tribes arrived around 2100 BC.
  2. ^ While Greek authorities signed the agreement legalizing the population exchange this was done on the insistence of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and after a million Greeks had already been expelled from Asia Minor (Gilbar 1997, p. 8).
  3. ^ See:[247][248][249][250][251]

Citations

  1. ^ Maratou-Alipranti 2013, p. 196: "The Greek diaspora remains large, consisting of up to 4 million people globally."
  2. ^ Clogg 2013, p. 228: "Greeks of the diaspora, settled in some 141 countries, were held to number 7 million although it is not clear how this figure was arrived at or what criteria were used to define Greek ethnicity, while the population of the homeland, according to the 1991 census, amounted to some 10.25 million."
  3. ^ "2011 Population and Housing Census". Hellenic Statistical Authority. 12 September 2014. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. The Resident Population of Greece is 10.816.286, of which 5.303.223 male (49,0%) and 5.513.063 female (51,0%) ... The total number of permanent residents of Greece with foreign citizenship during the Census was 912.000. [See Graph 6: Resident Population by Citizenship]
  4. ^ "Statistical Data on Immigrants in Greece: An Analytic Study of Available Data and Recommendations for Conformity with European Union Standards" (PDF). Archive of European Integration (AEI). University of Pittsburgh. 15 November 2004. Retrieved 18 May 2016. [p. 5] The Census recorded 762.191 persons normally resident in Greece and without Greek citizenship, constituting around 7% of total population. Of these, 48.560 are EU or EFTA nationals; there are also 17.426 Cypriots with privileged status.
  5. ^ Statistical Service (2003–2016). "Preliminary Results of the Census of Population, 2011". Republic of Cyprus, Ministry of Finance, Statistical Service.
  6. ^ Cole 2011, Yiannis Papadakis, "Cypriots, Greek", pp. 92–95
  7. ^ "Where are the Greek communities of the world?". themanews.com. Protothemanews.com. 2013. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  8. ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011–2013 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". American FactFinder. U.S. Department of Commerce: United States Census Bureau. 2013. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  9. ^ "U.S. Relations with Greece". United States Department of State. 10 March 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016. Today, an estimated three million Americans resident in the United States claim Greek descent. This large, well-organized community cultivates close political and cultural ties with Greece.
  10. ^ "Statistical Yearbook Germany Extract Chapter 2: Population, Families and Living Arrangements in Germany". Statistisches Bundesamt. 14 March 2013. p. 21.
  11. ^ "2071.0 – Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  12. ^ "United Kingdom: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. There are between 40 and 45 thousand Greeks residing permanently in the UK, and the Greek Orthodox Church has a strong presence in the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain ... There is a significant Greek presence of Greek students in tertiary education in the UK. A large Cypriot community – numbering 250–300 thousand – rallies round the National Federation of Cypriots in Great Britain and the Association of Greek Orthodox Communities of Great Britain.
  13. ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". statcan.gc.ca.
  14. ^ a b Jeffries 2002, p. 69: "It is difficult to know how many ethnic Greeks there are in Albania. The Greek government, it is typically claimed, says there are around 300,000 ethnic Greeks in Albania, but most Western estimates are around the 200,000 mark ..."
  15. ^ "Greeks Around the Globe". AusGreekNet. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006.
  16. ^ "South Africa: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006.
  17. ^ "Italy: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. The Greek Italian community numbers some 30,000 and is concentrated mainly in central Italy. The age-old presence in Italy of Italians of Greek descent – dating back to Byzantine and Classical times – is attested to by the Griko dialect, which is still spoken in the Magna Graecia region. This historically Greek-speaking villages are Condofuri, Galliciano, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Bova and Bova Marina, which are in the Calabria region (the capital of which is Reggio). The Grecanic region, including Reggio, has a population of some 200,000, while speakers of the Griko dialect number fewer that 1,000 persons.
  18. ^ a b "Grecia Salentina" (in Italian). Unione dei Comuni della Grecìa Salentina. 2016. La popolazione complessiva dell'Unione è di 54278 residenti così distribuiti (Dati Istat al 31° dicembre 2005. Comune Popolazione Calimera 7351 Carpignano Salentino 3868 Castrignano dei Greci 4164 Corigliano d'Otranto 5762 Cutrofiano 9250 Martano 9588 Martignano 1784 Melpignano 2234 Soleto 5551 Sternatia 2583 Zollino 2143 Totale 54278).
  19. ^ a b Bellinello 1998, p. 53: "Le attuali colonie Greche calabresi; La Grecìa calabrese si inscrive nel massiccio aspromontano e si concentra nell'ampia e frastagliata valle dell'Amendolea e nelle balze più a oriente, dove sorgono le fiumare dette di S. Pasquale, di Palizzi e Sidèroni e che costituiscono la Bovesia vera e propria. Compresa nei territori di cinque comuni (Bova Superiore, Bova Marina, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Condofuri), la Grecia si estende per circa 233 km (145 mi)q. La popolazione anagrafica complessiva è di circa 14.000 unità."
  20. ^ "English version of Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports a few thousand and Greek version 3.800". MFA.gr.
  21. ^ Rippin, Andrew (2008). World Islam: Critical Concepts in Islamic Studies. Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 978-0415456531.
  22. ^ Parvex R. (2014). Le Chili et les mouvements migratoires, Hommes & migrations, Nº 1305, 2014. doi: 10.4000/hommesmigrations.2720.
  23. ^ "Ukraine: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. There is a significant Greek presence in southern and eastern Ukraine, which can be traced back to ancient Greek and Byzantine settlers. Ukrainian citizens of Greek descent amount to 91,000 people, although their number is estimated to be much higher by the Federation of Greek communities of Mariupol.
  24. ^ "Итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года в отношении демографических и социально-экономических характеристик отдельных национальностей".
  25. ^ "The Greek Community". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007.
  26. ^ "France: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. Some 15,000 Greeks reside in the wider region of Paris, Lille and Lyon. In the region of Southern France, the Greek community numbers some 20,000.
  27. ^ "Belgium: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 28 January 2011. Some 35,000 Greeks reside in Belgium. Official Belgian data numbers Greeks in the country at 17,000, but does not take into account Greeks who have taken Belgian citizenship or work for international organizations and enterprises.
  28. ^ "Argentina: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 July 2013. It is estimated that some 20,000 to 30,000 persons of Greek origin currently reside in Argentina, and there are Greek communities in the wider region of Buenos Aires.
  29. ^ "Население по местоживеене, възраст и етническа група". censusresults.nsi.bg. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  30. ^ "Bulgaria: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 28 January 2011. There are some 28,500 persons of Greek origin and citizenship residing in Bulgaria. This number includes approximately 15,000 Sarakatsani, 2,500 former political refugees, 8,000 "old Greeks", 2,000 university students and 1,000 professionals and their families.
  31. ^ "CBS Statline".
  32. ^ "Immigration to Uruguay" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  33. ^ "Sweden: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 February 2011. The Greek community in Sweden consists of approximately 24,000 Greeks who are permanent inhabitants, included in Swedish society and active in various sectors: science, arts, literature, culture, media, education, business, and politics.
  34. ^ "Georgia: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 31 January 2011. The Greek community of Georgia is currently estimated at 15,000 people, mostly elderly people living in the Tsalkas area.
  35. ^ "Migranti z Řecka v Česku" [Migrants from Greece in the Czech Republic] (PDF). Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Czech). 9 March 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  36. ^ "Kazakhstan: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 3 February 2011. There are between 10,000 and 12,000 ethnic Greeks living in Kazakhstan, organized in several communities.
  37. ^ "Switzerland: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 December 2015. The Greek community in Switzerland is estimated to number some 11,000 persons (of a total of 1.5 million foreigners residing in the country.
  38. ^ "Romania: Cultural Relations and Greek Community". Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 6 December 2013. The Greek Romanian community numbers some 10,000, and there are many Greeks working in established Greek enterprises in Romania.
  39. ^ "Greeks in Uzbekistan". Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst. The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute. 21 June 2000. Currently there are about 9,500 Greeks living in Uzbekistan, with 6,500 living in Tashkent.
  40. ^ Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland
  41. ^ Vukovich, Gabriella (2018). Mikrocenzus 2016 – 12. Nemzetiségi adatok [2016 microcensus – 12. Ethnic data] (PDF). Hungarian Central Statistical Office (in Hungarian). Budapest. ISBN 978-963-235-542-9. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  42. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Turkey: Rum Orthodox Christians". Minority Rights Group (MRG). 2005. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  43. ^ "Pontic". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  44. ^ a b c d e Roberts 2007, pp. 171–172, 222.
  45. ^ Latacz 2004, pp. 159, 165–166.
  46. ^ a b c d Sutton 1996.
  47. ^ Beaton 1996, pp. 1–25.
  48. ^ CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%.
  49. ^ Thomas Heath (1981). A History of Greek Mathematics. Courier Dover Publications. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-486-24073-2. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  50. ^ Georgiev 1981, p. 156: "The Proto-Greek region included Epirus, approximately up to Αυλών in the north including Paravaia, Tymphaia, Athamania, Dolopia, Amphilochia, and Acarnania), west and north Thessaly (Hestiaiotis, Perrhaibia, Tripolis, and Pieria), i.e. more or less the territory of contemporary northwestern Greece)."
  51. ^ Guibernau & Hutchinson 2004, p. 23: "Indeed, Smith emphasizes that the myth of divine election sustains the continuity of cultural identity, and, in that regard, has enabled certain pre-modern communities such as the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks to survive and persist over centuries and millennia (Smith 1993: 15–20)."
  52. ^ Smith 1999, p. 21: "It emphasizes the role of myths, memories and symbols of ethnic chosenness, trauma, and the 'golden age' of saints, sages, and heroes in the rise of modern nationalism among the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks—the archetypal diaspora peoples."
  53. ^ Bryce 2006, p. 91
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