フランシス・ベーコン

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子爵セントアルバン

Somer Francis Bacon.jpg
Pourbus the Youngerによる肖像画、1617年
イギリスの大法官
オフィスで
3月1621 - 1617年3月7日 (1617-03-07 – 1621-05-03)
君主ジェームズ1世
前任者トマス・エジャートン卿
成功ジョンウィリアムズ
イングランドおよびウェールズ司法長官
オフィスで
7月1617 - 1613年10月26日 (1613-10-26 – 1617-03-07)
君主ジェームズ1世
前任者ヘンリーホバート卿
成功ヘンリー・イェルバートン卿
個人情報
生まれ
フランシス・ベーコン

(1561-01-22)1561年1月22日イギリス、ロンドン、
ストランド
死亡しました1626年4月9日(1626-04-09)(65歳)
ハイゲート、ミドルセックス、イギリス
休憩所セントオールバンズの聖ミカエル教会
配偶者たち)
M。  1604)
母親レディアン・ベーコン
父親ニコラス・ベーコン卿
教育
注目すべき仕事フランシス・ベーコンの作品
サイン

哲学のキャリア
他の名前ヴェルラム卿
注目すべき仕事
Novum Organum
時代
領域西洋哲学
学校経験論
主な関心事
注目すべきアイデア

フランシス・ベーコン、第1の子爵セントアルバン[] Ktを PC QC/ B K ən / ; [5] 1561年1月22日- 1626年4月9日)、としても知られている主Verulam、英語の哲学者を務めた政治家でした司法長官として、また大法官イングランド。彼の作品は科学的方法を開発していると見なされており科学革命を通じて影響力を維持しています。[6]

ベーコンは経験論の父と呼ばれてきました[7]彼は、帰納的推論自然界の出来事の注意深い観察のみに基づく科学的知識の可能性について論じた。最も重要なことは、科学者が誤解を招くことを避けることを目的とする懐疑的で系統だったアプローチを使用することで科学を達成できると彼は主張した。そのような方法についての彼の最も具体的な提案にもかかわらず、バコニアン法、長期的な影響はありませんでした、懐疑的な方法論の重要性と可能性の一般的な考えは、ベーコンを科学的方法の父にします。この方法は、科学の新しい修辞的および理論的フレームワークであり、その実践的な詳細は、科学と方法論に関する議論の中心となっています。

フランシス・ベーコンは図書館の常連客であり、歴史哲学の3つのカテゴリーで本を目録化するシステムを開発しました。 これは、特定の主題と小見出しにさらに分類できます。ベーコンはケンブリッジのトリニティカレッジで教育を受け、主にラテン語で中世のカリキュラムに厳密に従った。

ベーコンは、1597年にイギリスのエリザベス1世が彼を法律顧問として予約したときに授与された、勅選弁護士の指定最初の受領者でした1603年ジェームズ6世と私が加入した後、ベーコンは騎士になり、1618年にヴェルラム男爵を創設し[4]、1621年にセントアルバン伯爵を創設しました。[3] [b]

彼は何の相続人がなかったので、両方のタイトルは65彼の歳で1626年に彼の死に絶滅したで死亡した肺炎で1つのアカウントで、ジョン・オーブリー肉の保存に凍結の効果を勉強しながら、彼はそれを契約していたことを示します。彼はハートフォードシャーのセントオールバンズにあるセントマイケルズ教会に埋葬されています。[8]

伝記

幼い頃

若いベーコン–彼の頭の周りの碑文は次のように書かれています:Si tabula daretur digna animum mallemラテン語で「彼の心を描くことができれば」–ナショナルポートレートギャラリー、ロンドン

フランシス・ベーコンは、1561年1月22日ロンドンストランド近くのヨーク・ハウス、ニコラス・ベーコン卿国璽尚書)の息子であり、2番目の妻であるアン(クック)ベーコン(有名なルネッサンスのヒューマニスト、アンソニーの)によって生まれました。クック彼の母親の妹は、第1男爵バーリーのウィリアムセシルと結婚し、バーリーベーコンの叔父になりました。[9]

伝記作家は、ベーコンは健康状態が悪いために幼い頃に自宅で教育を受けていたと信じています。彼は、ピューリタニズムに強く傾倒しているオックスフォードの卒業生であるジョン・ウォルソールから授業料を受け取った。彼はに上がったトリニティ・カレッジケンブリッジ大学、12歳で1573年4月5日に[10]一緒に彼の兄と、そこに3年間の生活アンソニー・ベーコンの個人的な指導の下で博士ジョン・ホワイトギフト、将来のカンタベリー大主教。ベーコンの教育は主にラテン語で行われ、中世のカリキュラムに従った。ベーコンが最初に出会ったのケンブリッジでし彼の早熟な知性に感銘を受け、彼を「若い国璽尚書」と呼ぶことに慣れていたエリザベス女王[11]

彼の研究は、当時実践されていた科学の方法と結果は誤りであるという信念を彼にもたらしました。アリストテレスに対する彼の畏敬の念は、アリストテレス哲学の彼の拒絶と矛盾しました

イタリア風のニューヨーク水の門-ヨークハウスへのエントリー、1626年については建てられ、ベーコンの死の年

1576年6月27日、彼とアンソニーはグレイ法曹社会の魔術師に入った。数ヶ月後、フランシスはパリの英国大使であるアミアス・ポーレット卿と一緒に海外に行き、アンソニーは自宅で勉強を続けました。ヘンリー3世の下でのフランスの政府と社会の状態は、彼に貴重な政治的指導を与えました。[12]次の3年間、彼はブロワポワチエトゥール、イタリア、スペインを訪れた。[13]がポアティエ大学で学んだという証拠はありません[14]ベーコンは旅行中に、日常的な外交業務を行いながら、言語、国家技術、および大陸法を学びました。少なくとも1回、彼はウォルシンガム、バーグレー、レスター、そして女王のためにイギリスに外交書簡を届けました。[13]

1579年2月に父親が突然亡くなったため、ベーコンはイギリスに戻ることになりました。ニコラス卿は彼の末っ子のために不動産を購入するためにかなりの金額を用意していましたが、彼はそうする前に亡くなり、フランシスはそのお金の5分の1しか残されていませんでした。[12]お金を借りた後、ベーコンは借金をした。彼は自分自身を支えるために、1579年にグレイ法曹院に法定住居を構えた[12]。彼の収入は、エセックスのロンフォード近くマークスの邸宅の母親レディアンからの助成金によって補われ、46ポンドの家賃を生み出した。[15]

国会議員

グレイ法曹院、サウススクエア、ロンドンベーコンの像

ベーコンは、真実を明らかにすること、国に奉仕すること、そして教会に奉仕することの3つの目標を持っていると述べました。彼は一流のポストを探すことによってこれらの目的を促進しようとしました。 1580年、叔父のバーグレー卿を通じて、彼は法廷で学業を続けることができるかもしれないポストを申請しましたが、彼の申請は失敗しました。彼は1582年に法廷弁護士として認められるまで、2年間グレイ法曹院で静かに働いた。[16]

彼が選出されたとき、彼の議会のキャリアが始まったMPをためBossiney、コーンウォールでは、バイ選挙1584年1581に彼は彼の座席を取った議会のためMelcombeドーセットに、そして1586年のためトーントン。この時、彼は教会の政党の状況と、失われた道での哲学的改革のトピックについて書き始めました。TemporisPartusMaximus。それでも、彼は成功につながると彼が考えた地位を獲得することができませんでした。[12]彼はピューリタン主義に同情の兆しを見せ、グレイ法曹院のピューリタン牧師の説教に出席し、母親をテンプル教会連れて行って聞いた。ウォルタートラヴァースこれは彼の最も初期の生き残った道の出版につながりました、そしてそれは英国国教会のピューリタン聖職者の抑圧を批判しました。1586年の議会で、彼はスコットランドの女王であるカトリックメアリーの処刑を公然と促した

この頃、彼は再び彼の強力な叔父に助けを求めました。この動きに続いて、バーでの彼の急速な進歩がありました。彼は1586年に法曹院評議員なり、1587年に読者選出され、翌年、四旬節で最初の一連の講義を行いました。1589年に、彼は1608年まで正式に就任しませんでしたが星室の書記官へ復帰の貴重な任命を受けました投稿は年間1,600ポンドの価値がありました。[12] [3]

1588年に彼はリバプールのMPになり、1593年ミドルセックスのMPになりました。その後、イプスウィッチ1597、1601、1604)に3回ケンブリッジ大学(1614)に1回座っていました[17]

彼はリベラル志向の改革者として知られるようになり、法律を改正して簡素化することを熱望しました。王冠の友人であるにもかかわらず、彼は封建的特権と独裁権に反対しました。彼は宗教的迫害に反対した。彼は貴族院で金銭法案を乱用した。彼はイギリスとスコットランドの連合を提唱し、それが彼をイギリスの統合に向けて大きな影響力を与えた。そして彼は後にアイルランドの連合への統合を提唱した。憲法上の緊密な関係は、これらの国々により大きな平和と力をもたらすと彼は信じていた。[18] [19]

女王の治世の最後の年

ベーコンはすぐに、エリザベス女王のお気に入りある第2代エセックス伯爵と知り合いになりました[20] 1591年までに、彼は伯爵の秘密顧問を務めた。[12] [20]

1592年に彼はに応じて管を書くよう依頼されたイエズス会の ロバート・パーソン彼はというタイトルの反政府論争、名誉毀損時に作られた特定の観測民主主義の理想とイングランドを識別し、アテネスペインの好戦に対してを。[21]

ベーコンは、1593年2月にエリザベスが彼女に対するローマカトリックの陰謀を調査するために議会を召喚したとき、ミドルセックスのために彼の3番目の議会の議席を取りました。通常の半分の時間で3倍の補助金を徴収する法案に対するベーコンの反対は、女王を怒らせた。反対派は彼を人気を求めていると非難し、しばらくの間、裁判所は彼を支持から除外した。[22]

ケンブリッジトリニティカレッジのチャペルにあるベーコンの記念碑

1594年司法長官の事務所が空席になったとき、エセックス卿の影響力はベーコンの地位を確保するのに十分ではなく、エドワード・コーク卿に与えられました。同様に、ベーコンは1595年に事務弁護士の下位事務所を確保できず、女王は代わりにトマス・フレミング卿を任命することで彼をひったくりました[3]これらの失望を慰めるために、エセックスはトゥイッケナムにある不動産を彼に提示し、ベーコンはその後1,800ポンドで売却した。[23]

1597年、エリザベス女王が彼を法律顧問として予約したとき、ベーコンは最初の女王顧問弁護士に指名されました。[24] 1597年、彼は特許も取得し、バーで優先権を与えられた。[25]彼の指定にもかかわらず、彼は他人の地位と悪評を得ることができなかった。彼の立場を復活させる計画で、彼は裕福な若い未亡人のエリザベス・ハットン夫人に不成功に訴えました[26]エドワード・コーク卿との結婚を受け入れた際に彼女が彼らの関係を断ち切った後、彼の求愛は失敗しました。[27]1598年にベーコンは借金で逮捕されました。しかしその後、女王の目での彼の立場は改善しました。徐々に、ベーコンは学んだカウンセルの一人の地位を獲得しました。[28]女王との関係は、彼がエセックスとの関係を断ち切ったときにさらに改善された。エセックスは1601年に反逆罪で処刑されたため、賢明な動きだった。[29]

他の人たちと一緒に、ベーコンはエセックスに対する告発を調査するために任命されました。多くのエセックスの信者は、エセックスが女王に対する反乱を計画したと告白しました。[30]ベーコンはその後、エセックスの反逆裁判で司法長官のエドワード・コーク卿が率いる法務チームの一員となった[30]処刑後、女王はベーコンに裁判の公式政府報告書を書くように命じた。これは後にロバート・レイト・アール・オブ・エセックスとその共犯者が彼女のマジェスティと彼女の王国...ベーコンの最初の草案が女王と彼女の大臣によって大幅に編集された後。[31] [32]

彼の個人秘書兼牧師によると、ウィリアム・ローリーは裁判官として、「厳しさの目で例を見て、しかし哀れみと思いやりの目で人を見て」、常に優しい心を持っていました。そしてまた、「彼は悪意から解放された」、「怪我の復讐者はいない」、そして「どんな人の名誉毀損者もいない」ということです。[33]

ジェームズ1世が王位に就く

ジェームズ1世の後継者は、ベーコンをより好意的にしました。彼は1603年騎士になりました。別の巧妙な動きで、エセックスが王位を継承するためにジェームズを支持したので、ベーコンはエセックスの場合の彼の手続きを擁護するために彼の謝罪書きました。

翌年、問題のない最初の議会会期の間に、ベーコンはアリス・バーナムと結婚しました[34]で1607年6月には、彼は弁護士の一般のオフィスで報わ最後にあった[3]と1608年に彼はのクラークシップとして働き始めた星室庁寛大な収入にもかかわらず、古い借金はまだ支払うことができませんでした。彼はジェームズ王と彼の恣意的な政策を支持することによってさらなる昇進と富を求めました。

Portrait of Sir Francis Bacon
フランシス・ベーコン卿、c。1618年

1610年にジェームズの最初の議会の第4回会期が開かれました。ベーコンの彼へのアドバイスにもかかわらず、ジェームズとコモンズは国王大権と王の恥ずかしい贅沢をめぐって対立していることに気づきました。ハウスは1611年2月にようやく解散しました。この期間中、ベーコンはコモンズの信頼を維持しながら、王に有利なままでいることができました。

1613年にベーコンは最終的に任命された検事総長の司法予定をシャッフルする王に助言した後、。司法長官として、ベーコンは、反逆罪でエドマンド・ピーチャムの有罪判決を得るための拷問を含む彼の熱心な努力によって、憲法上非常に重要な法的な論争を引き起こした。[35]そして1616年に殺人罪でサマセットの第1伯爵であるロバート・カーと彼の妻であるフランシス・ハワードを首尾よく起訴した。1614年4月のいわゆる王子議会はベーコンがケンブリッジの議席にいることに反対した。そしてベーコンが支持した様々な王室の計画に。彼は滞在を許可されたが、議会は司法長官が議会に座ることを禁じる法律を可決した。王に対する彼の影響力は、明らかに彼の仲間の多くに恨みや不安を引き起こしました。しかし、ベーコンは引き続き国王の支持を受け、1617年3月に一時的なイングランドの摂政として(1か月間)、1618年に大法官に任命されました。 1618年7月12日に王はベーコン作成男爵Verulamの、Verulamで、イングランド貴族。その後、彼はフランシス、ヴェルラム卿として知られるようになりました。[3]

ベーコンは王との影響力を利用して王位と議会の間を仲介し続け、この立場で、1621年1月27日にセントアルバン伯爵と同じピアレージでさらに昇格しました

大法官と公の恥辱

ベーコンと彼の政治的崩壊の日の議員

ベーコンの公的経歴は1621年に不名誉に終わった。彼が借金を負った後、法の管理に関する議会委員会は彼に23の別々の汚職の罪で起訴した。これらの告発を扇動した彼の生涯の敵であるエドワード・コーク[36]は、首相に対する告発を準備するために任命された者の1人でした。[37]自白が本当に彼のものであるかどうかを尋ねるために委員会を送った領主に、彼は答えた、「私の領主、それは私の行為、私の手、そして私の心です。私はあなたの領主に壊れた葦に慈悲を与えるように頼みます。 。」彼は40,000ポンドの罰金を言い渡され、王の喜びでロンドン塔に献身しました。投獄はほんの数日続き、罰金は国王によって送金されました。[38]さらに深刻なことに、議会はベーコンが将来の職に就くことも議会に座ることもできないと宣言した。は、彼の貴族の称号を剥奪したであろう劣化を受けてかろうじて逃げました。その後、恥ずべき子爵は勉強と執筆に専念しました。

ベーコンが訴訟当事者からの贈り物を受け取ったことに疑いの余地はほとんどないようですが、これは当時の受け入れられた習慣であり、必ずしもひどく腐敗した行動の証拠ではありませんでした。[39]彼の行動は怠惰であったことを認めながら、彼は贈り物が彼の判断に影響を与えることを決して許さなかったと反論し、実際、彼は彼に支払った人々に対して時折評決を下した。彼はジェームズ王とのインタビューでさえ、次のことを保証しました。

自然の法則は私に自分の弁護で話すことを教えています:この賄賂の罪に関して、私は聖イノセントの日に生まれた他の人と同じくらい無実です。裁きや命令を宣告するとき、私は自分の目や考えに賄賂や報酬を持っていませんでした...私は王に自分自身のオブレーションをする準備ができています

—  1621年4月17日[40]

彼はまたバッキンガムに次のように書いた:

私の心は穏やかです、なぜなら私の幸運は私の幸福ではないからです。私はきれいな手ときれいな心を持っていることを知っています、そして私は友人や使用人のためのきれいな家を望んでいます。しかし、ヨブ自身、または最も正義の裁判官であった者は、私に対して使用されたような彼に対する問題を探すことによって、特に偉大さが目印であり、告発がゲームであるとき、しばらくの間は汚いように見えるかもしれません。[41]

彼が罪悪感を認めた本当の理由は議論の対象ですが、彼の病気、または彼の名声と彼のオフィスの偉大さを通して彼は厳しい罰を免れるだろうという見解によってそれが促されたのではないかと推測する著者もいます。彼は、ソドミー彼を告白するという脅迫で脅迫されたかもしれません[39] [42]

英国の法学者バジル・モンタギューは、ベーコンの弁護の中で、彼の公の恥辱のエピソードについて次のように書いています。

ベーコンは、しなやかさ、非難、さまざまな基本的な動機、そして基本的な行動の不潔な群れで非難されてきましたが、すべて彼の高い誕生に値せず、彼の偉大な知恵と相容れないものであり、彼が年代。確かに彼自身の時代には男性がいましたし、いつの時代も男性であり、その輝かしい輝きを喜ぶよりも、太陽の下でスポットを数えることを喜んでいます。そのような男性は、デュースやウェルドンのように、彼の虚偽が発声されるとすぐに検出された、または特定の儀式的な褒め言葉や献身、彼のしなやかさのサンプルとして、彼の高貴な手紙を女王、国璽尚書に対する彼の高尚な軽蔑、ロバート・セシル卿、そして彼が何もないときに強力だった他の人々との彼のオープンな取引、法廷に直面した人々の権利の擁護と、エリザベスと彼女の後継者の両方に非常に困難な時期に常に彼によって与えられた真実で正直な助言を忘れて、彼の最初の運命を永遠に荒廃させたかもしれません。ハーバート、テニスン、ローリーなどの信心深さ、ホッブズ、ベンジョンソン、セルデンなどの高貴な精神に愛され、尊敬された「ベースサイコファント」だったとき、または墓に続いて、その先に、トマス・ミューティス卿のそれ。テニスンとローリーは、ホッブズ、ベンジョンソン、セルデンなどの高貴な精神によって、または墓に続いて、そしてそれを超えて、トマスミューティス卿のような献身的な愛情を持っています。テニスンとローリーは、ホッブズ、ベンジョンソン、セルデンなどの高貴な精神によって、または墓に続いて、そしてそれを超えて、トマスミューティス卿のような献身的な愛情を持っています。[43]

個人的な生活

宗教的信念

ベーコンは敬虔な英国国教会でした。彼は哲学と自然界は帰納的に研究されなければならないと信じていましたが、私たちは神の存在についての議論しか研究できないと主張しました。彼の属性(性質、行動、目的など)に関する情報は、特別な啓示からのみ得ることができます。ベーコンはまた、知識は累積的であり、その研究は過去の単なる保存以上のものを含んでいたと主張した。 「知識は創造主の栄光と人間の財産の救済のための豊かな貯蔵庫です」と彼は書いています。彼のエッセイの中で、彼は「小さな哲学は無神論に人間の心を傾けるが、哲学の深さは男性の心を宗教に近づける」と断言している。[44]

Bacon's idea of idols of the mind may have self-consciously represented an attempt to Christianize science at the same time as developing a new, reliable scientific method; Bacon gave worship of Neptune as an example of the idola tribus fallacy, hinting at the religious dimensions of his critique of the idols.[45]

Marriage to Alice Barnham

When he was 36, Bacon courted Elizabeth Hatton, a young widow of 20. Reportedly, she broke off their relationship upon accepting marriage to a wealthier man, Bacon's rival, Sir Edward Coke. Years later, Bacon still wrote of his regret that the marriage to Hatton had not taken place.[46]

At the age of 45, Bacon married Alice Barnham, the almost 14-year-old daughter of a well-connected London alderman and MP. Bacon wrote two sonnets proclaiming his love for Alice. The first was written during his courtship and the second on his wedding day, 10 May 1606. When Bacon was appointed lord chancellor, "by special Warrant of the King", Lady Bacon was given precedence over all other Court ladies. Bacon's personal secretary and chaplain, William Rawley, wrote in his biography of Bacon that his marriage was one of "much conjugal love and respect", mentioning a robe of honour that he gave to Alice and which "she wore unto her dying day, being twenty years and more after his death".[33]

Engraving of Alice Barnham

However, an increasing number of reports circulated about friction in the marriage, with speculation that this may have been due to Alice's making do with less money than she had once been accustomed to. It was said that she was strongly interested in fame and fortune, and when household finances dwindled, she complained bitterly. Bunten wrote in her Life of Alice Barnham [47] that, upon their descent into debt, she went on trips to ask for financial favours and assistance from their circle of friends. Bacon disinherited her upon discovering her secret romantic relationship with Sir John Underhill. He subsequently rewrote his will, which had previously been very generous—leaving her lands, goods, and income—and instead revoked it all.

Sexuality

Several authors believe that, despite his marriage, Bacon was primarily attracted to men.[48][49] Forker,[50] for example, has explored the "historically documentable sexual preferences" of both Francis Bacon and King James I and concluded they were both oriented to "masculine love", a contemporary term that "seems to have been used exclusively to refer to the sexual preference of men for members of their own gender."[51]

The well-connected antiquary John Aubrey noted in his Brief Lives concerning Bacon, "He was a Pederast. His Ganimeds and Favourites tooke Bribes".[52] ("Pederast" in Renaissance diction meant generally "homosexual" rather than specifically a lover of minors; "ganimed" derives from the mythical prince abducted by Zeus to be his cup-bearer and bed warmer.) 

The Jacobean antiquarian, Sir Simonds D'Ewes (Bacon's fellow Member of Parliament) implied there had been a question of bringing him to trial for buggery,[53] which his brother Anthony Bacon had also been charged with.[54]

In his Autobiography and Correspondence, in the diary entry for 3 May 1621, the date of Bacon's censure by Parliament, D'Ewes describes Bacon's love for his Welsh serving-men, in particular Godrick, a "very effeminate-faced youth" whom he calls "his catamite and bedfellow".[55]

This conclusion has been disputed by others, who point to lack of consistent evidence, and consider the sources to be more open to interpretation.[30][56][57][58][59] Publicly, at least, Bacon distanced himself from the idea of homosexuality. In his New Atlantis, he described his utopian island as being "the chastest nation under heaven", and "as for masculine love, they have no touch of it".[60]

Death

Monument to Bacon at his burial place, St Michael's Church in St Albans

On 9 April 1626, Francis Bacon died of pneumonia while at Arundel mansion at Highgate outside London.[61] An influential account of the circumstances of his death was given by John Aubrey's Brief Lives.[61] Aubrey's vivid account, which portrays Bacon as a martyr to experimental scientific method, had him journeying to High-gate through the snow with the King's physician when he is suddenly inspired by the possibility of using the snow to preserve meat:

They were resolved they would try the experiment presently. They alighted out of the coach and went into a poor woman's house at the bottom of Highgate hill, and bought a fowl, and made the woman exenterate it.

After stuffing the fowl with snow, Bacon contracted a fatal case of pneumonia. Some people, including Aubrey, consider these two contiguous, possibly coincidental events as related and causative of his death:

The Snow so chilled him that he immediately fell so extremely ill, that he could not return to his Lodging … but went to the Earle of Arundel's house at Highgate, where they put him into … a damp bed that had not been layn-in … which gave him such a cold that in 2 or 3 days as I remember Mr Hobbes told me, he died of Suffocation.[62]

Aubrey has been criticized for his evident credulousness in this and other works; on the other hand, he knew Thomas Hobbes, Bacon's fellow-philosopher and friend. Being unwittingly on his deathbed, the philosopher dictated his last letter to his absent host and friend Lord Arundel:

My very good Lord,—I was likely to have had the fortune of Caius Plinius the elder, who lost his life by trying an experiment about the burning of Mount Vesuvius; for I was also desirous to try an experiment or two touching the conservation and in-duration of bodies. As for the experiment itself, it succeeded excellently well; but in the journey between London and High-gate, I was taken with such a fit of casting as I know not whether it were the Stone, or some surfeit or cold, or indeed a touch of them all three. But when I came to your Lordship's House, I was not able to go back, and therefore was forced to take up my lodging here, where your housekeeper is very careful and diligent about me, which I assure myself your Lordship will not only pardon towards him, but think the better of him for it. For indeed your Lordship's House was happy to me, and I kiss your noble hands for the welcome which I am sure you give me to it. I know how unfit it is for me to write with any other hand than mine own, but by my troth my fingers are so disjointed with sickness that I cannot steadily hold a pen.[citation needed]

Another account appears in a biography by William Rawley, Bacon's personal secretary and chaplain:

He died on the ninth day of April in the year 1626, in the early morning of the day then celebrated for our Savior's resurrection, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, at the Earl of Arundel's house in Highgate, near London, to which place he casually repaired about a week before; God so ordaining that he should die there of a gentle fever, accidentally accompanied with a great cold, whereby the defluxion of rheum fell so plentifully upon his breast, that he died by suffocation.[63]

He was buried in St Michael's church in St Albans. At the news of his death, over 30 great minds collected together their eulogies of him, which were then later published in Latin.[64] He left personal assets of about £7,000 and lands that realised £6,000 when sold.[65] His debts amounted to more than £23,000, equivalent to more than £3m at current value.[65][66]

Philosophy and works

Bacon, Sylva sylvarum

Francis Bacon's philosophy is displayed in the vast and varied writings he left, which might be divided into three great branches:

  • Scientific works – in which his ideas for a universal reform of knowledge into scientific methodology and the improvement of mankind's state using the Scientific method are presented.
  • Religious and literary works – in which he presents his moral philosophy and theological meditations.
  • Juridical works – in which his reforms in English Law are proposed.

Influence and Legacy

Frontispiece to 'The History of Royal-Society of London', picturing Bacon (to the right) among the founding influences of the Society – National Portrait Gallery, London

Science

Bacon's seminal work Novum Organum was influential in the 1630s and 1650s among scholars, in particular Sir Thomas Browne, who in his encyclopedia Pseudodoxia Epidemica (1646–72) frequently adheres to a Baconian approach to his scientific enquiries. This book entails the basis of the Scientific Method as a means of observation and induction.

According to Francis Bacon, learning and knowledge all derive from the basis of inductive reasoning. Through his belief of experimental encounters, he theorized that all the knowledge that was necessary to fully understand a concept could be attained using induction. In order to get to the point of an inductive conclusion, one must consider the importance of observing the particulars (specific parts of nature). "Once these particulars have been gathered together, the interpretation of Nature proceeds by sorting them into a formal arrangement so that they may be presented to the understanding."[67] Experimentation is essential to discovering the truths of Nature. When an experiment happens, parts of the tested hypothesis are started to be pieced together, forming a result and conclusion. Through this conclusion of particulars, an understanding of Nature can be formed. Now that an understanding of Nature has been arrived at, an inductive conclusion can be drawn. "For no one successfully investigates the nature of a thing in the thing itself; the inquiry must be enlarged to things that have more in common with it."[68]

Francis Bacon explains how we come to this understanding and knowledge because of this process in comprehending the complexities of nature. "Bacon sees nature as an extremely subtle complexity, which affords all the energy of the natural philosopher to disclose her secrets."[69] Bacon described the evidence and proof revealed through taking a specific example from nature and expanding that example into a general, substantial claim of nature. Once we understand the particulars in nature, we can learn more about it and become surer of things occurring in nature, gaining knowledge and obtaining new information all the while. "It is nothing less than a revival of Bacon’s supremely confident belief that inductive methods can provide us with ultimate and infallible answers concerning the laws and nature of the universe."[70] Bacon states that when we come to understand parts of nature, we can eventually understand nature better as a whole because of induction. Because of this, Bacon concludes that all learning and knowledge must be drawn from inductive reasoning.

During the Restoration, Bacon was commonly invoked as a guiding spirit of the Royal Society founded under Charles II in 1660.[71][72] During the 18th-century French Enlightenment, Bacon's non-metaphysical approach to science became more influential than the dualism of his French contemporary Descartes, and was associated with criticism of the Ancien Régime. In 1733 Voltaire introduced him to a French audience as the "father" of the scientific method, an understanding which had become widespread by the 1750s.[73] In the 19th century his emphasis on induction was revived and developed by William Whewell, among others. He has been reputed as the "Father of Experimental Philosophy".[74]

He also wrote a long treatise on Medicine, History of Life and Death,[75] with natural and experimental observations for the prolongation of life.

One of his biographers, the historian William Hepworth Dixon, states: "Bacon's influence in the modern world is so great that every man who rides in a train, sends a telegram, follows a steam plough, sits in an easy chair, crosses the channel or the Atlantic, eats a good dinner, enjoys a beautiful garden, or undergoes a painless surgical operation, owes him something."[76]

In 1902 Hugo von Hofmannsthal published a fictional letter, known as The Lord Chandos Letter, addressed to Bacon and dated 1603, about a writer who is experiencing a crisis of language.

Although Bacon’s works are extremely instrumental, his argument falls short because observation and the scientific method are not completely necessary for everything. Bacon takes the inductive method too far, as seen through one of his aphorisms which says, "Man, being the servant and interpreter of Nature, can do and understand so much only as he has observed in fact or in thought of the course of nature: Beyond this he neither knows anything nor can do anything."[77] As humans, we are capable of more than pure observation and can use deduction to form theories. In fact, we must use deduction because Bacon’s pure inductive method is incomplete. Thus, it is not Bacon’s ideas alone that form the scientific method we use today. If that were the case, we would not be able to fully understand the observations we make and deduce new theories. Author Ernst Mayr states, "Inductivism had a great vogue in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, but it is now clear that a purely inductive approach is quite sterile."[78] Mayr points out that an inductive approach on its own just doesn’t work. One could observe an experiment multiple times, but still be unable to make generalizations and correctly understand the knowledge. Bacon’s inductive method is beneficial, but incomplete and leaves gaps.

However, when combined with the ideas of Descartes, the gaps are filled in Bacon’s inductive method. The "anticipation of nature" as Bacon puts it, connects the information gained from observation, enabling hypotheses and theories to become more effective. Bacon’s inductive ideas now have more value. Jurgen Klein, who researched Bacon and analyzed his works, says, "The inductive method helps the human mind to find a way to ascertain truthful knowledge."[79] Klein shows the value that Bacon’s method truly brings. It is not a value that stands on its own, for it has holes, but it is a value that supports and strengthens. The inductive method can be seen as a tool used alongside other ideas, such as deduction, which now creates a method which is most effective and used today: the scientific method. The inductive method is more prominent in the scientific method than other ideas, which leads to misconception, but the takeaway is that it has supporting ideas. Francis Bacon’s scientific method is extremely influential, but has been developed for its own good, as all great ideas are.

North America

A Newfoundland stamp, which reads "Lord Bacon – the guiding spirit in colonization scheme"

Bacon played a leading role in establishing the British colonies in North America, especially in Virginia, the Carolinas and Newfoundland in northeastern Canada. His government report on "The Virginia Colony" was submitted in 1609. In 1610 Bacon and his associates received a charter from the king to form the Tresurer and the Companye of Adventurers and planter of the Cittye of London and Bristoll for the Collonye or plantacon in Newfoundland, and sent John Guy to found a colony there.[80] Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, wrote: "Bacon, Locke and Newton. I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences".[81]

In 1910 Newfoundland issued a postage stamp to commemorate Bacon's role in establishing the colony. The stamp describes Bacon as "the guiding spirit in Colonization Schemes in 1610".[46] Moreover, some scholars believe he was largely responsible for the drafting, in 1609 and 1612, of two charters of government for the Virginia Colony.[82] William Hepworth Dixon considered that Bacon's name could be included in the list of Founders of the United States.[83]

Law

Although few of his proposals for law reform were adopted during his lifetime, Bacon's legal legacy was considered by the magazine New Scientist in 1961 as having influenced the drafting of the Napoleonic Code as well as the law reforms introduced by 19th-century British Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel.[84] The historian William Hepworth Dixon referred to the Napoleonic Code as "the sole embodiment of Bacon's thought", saying that Bacon's legal work "has had more success abroad than it has found at home", and that in France "it has blossomed and come into fruit".[85]

Harvey Wheeler attributed to Bacon, in Francis Bacon's Verulamium—the Common Law Template of The Modern in English Science and Culture, the creation of these distinguishing features of the modern common law system:

  • using cases as repositories of evidence about the "unwritten law";
  • determining the relevance of precedents by exclusionary principles of evidence and logic;
  • treating opposing legal briefs as adversarial hypotheses about the application of the "unwritten law" to a new set of facts.
Statue of Bacon in the Library of Congress, Washington, DC

As late as the 18th century some juries still declared the law rather than the facts, but already before the end of the 17th century Sir Matthew Hale explained modern common law adjudication procedure and acknowledged Bacon as the inventor of the process of discovering unwritten laws from the evidences of their applications. The method combined empiricism and inductivism in a new way that was to imprint its signature on many of the distinctive features of modern English society.[86] Paul H. Kocher writes that Bacon is considered by some jurists to be the father of modern Jurisprudence.[87]

Bacon is commemorated with a statue in Gray's Inn, South Square in London where he received his legal training, and where he was elected Treasurer of the Inn in 1608.[88]

More recent scholarship on Bacon's jurisprudence has focused on his advocating torture as a legal recourse for the crown.[89] Bacon himself was not a stranger to the torture chamber; in his various legal capacities in both Elizabeth I's and James I's reigns, Bacon was listed as a commissioner on five torture warrants. In 1613(?), in a letter addressed to King James I on the question of torture's place within English law, Bacon identifies the scope of torture as a means to further the investigation of threats to the state: "In the cases of treasons, torture is used for discovery, and not for evidence."[90] For Bacon, torture was not a punitive measure, an intended form of state repression, but instead offered a modus operandi for the government agent tasked with uncovering acts of treason.

Organization of knowledge

Francis Bacon developed the idea that a classification of knowledge must be universal while handling all possible resources. In his progressive view, humanity would be better if the access to educational resources were provided to the public, hence the need to organise it. His approach to learning reshaped the Western view of knowledge theory from an individual to a social interest.

The original classification proposed by Bacon organised all types of knowledge in three general groups: history, poetry, and philosophy. He did that based on his understanding of how information is processed: memory, imagination, and reason, respectively. His methodical approach to the categorization of knowledge goes hand-in-hand with his principles of scientific methods. Bacon’s writings were the starting point for William Torrey Harris's classification system for libraries in the United States by the second half of the 1800s.

The phrase "scientia potentia est" (or "scientia est potentia"), meaning "knowledge is power", is commonly attributed to Bacon: the expression "ipsa scientia potestas est" ("knowledge itself is power") occurs in his Meditationes Sacrae (1597).

Historical debates

Bacon and Shakespeare

The Baconian hypothesis of Shakespearean authorship, first proposed in the mid-19th century, contends that Francis Bacon wrote some or even all of the plays conventionally attributed to William Shakespeare.[91]

Occult theories

Francis Bacon often gathered with the men at Gray's Inn to discuss politics and philosophy, and to try out various theatrical scenes that he admitted writing.[92] Bacon's alleged connection to the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons has been widely discussed by authors and scholars in many books.[57] However, others, including Daphne du Maurier in her biography of Bacon, have argued that there is no substantive evidence to support claims of involvement with the Rosicrucians.[93] Frances Yates[94] does not make the claim that Bacon was a Rosicrucian, but presents evidence that he was nevertheless involved in some of the more closed intellectual movements of his day. She argues that Bacon's movement for the advancement of learning was closely connected with the German Rosicrucian movement, while Bacon's New Atlantis portrays a land ruled by Rosicrucians. He apparently saw his own movement for the advancement of learning to be in conformity with Rosicrucian ideals.[95]

An old volume of Bacon and a rose

The link between Bacon's work and the Rosicrucians' ideals which Yates allegedly found was the conformity of the purposes expressed by the Rosicrucian Manifestos and Bacon's plan of a "Great Instauration",[95] for the two were calling for a reformation of both "divine and human understanding",[c][96] as well as both had in view the purpose of mankind's return to the "state before the Fall".[d][e]

Another major link is said to be the resemblance between Bacon's New Atlantis and the German Rosicrucian Johann Valentin Andreae's Description of the Republic of Christianopolis (1619).[97] Andreae describes a utopic island in which Christian theosophy and applied science ruled, and in which the spiritual fulfilment and intellectual activity constituted the primary goals of each individual, the scientific pursuits being the highest intellectual calling—linked to the achievement of spiritual perfection. Andreae's island also depicts a great advancement in technology, with many industries separated in different zones which supplied the population's needs—which shows great resemblance to Bacon's scientific methods and purposes.[98][99]

While rejecting occult conspiracy theories surrounding Bacon and the claim Bacon personally identified as a Rosicrucian, intellectual historian Paolo Rossi has argued for an occult influence on Bacon's scientific and religious writing. He argues that Bacon was familiar with early modern alchemical texts and that Bacon's ideas about the application of science had roots in Renaissance magical ideas about science and magic facilitating humanity's domination of nature.[100] Rossi further interprets Bacon's search for hidden meanings in myth and fables in such texts as The Wisdom of the Ancients as succeeding earlier occultist and Neoplatonic attempts to locate hidden wisdom in pre-Christian myths.[101] As indicated by the title of his study, however, Rossi claims Bacon ultimately rejected the philosophical foundations of occultism as he came to develop a form of modern science.[100]

Rossi's analysis and claims have been extended by Jason Josephson-Storm in his study, The Myth of Disenchantment. Josephson-Storm also rejects conspiracy theories surrounding Bacon and does not make the claim that Bacon was an active Rosicrucian. However, he argues that Bacon's "rejection" of magic actually constituted an attempt to purify magic of Catholic, demonic, and esoteric influences and to establish magic as a field of study and application paralleling Bacon's vision of science. Furthermore, Josephson-Storm argues that Bacon drew on magical ideas when developing his experimental method.[102] Josephson-Storm finds evidence that Bacon considered nature a living entity, populated by spirits, and argues Bacon's views on the human domination and application of nature actually depend on his spiritualism and personification of nature.[103]

The Rosicrucian organization AMORC claims that Bacon was the "Imperator" (leader) of the Rosicrucian Order in both England and the European continent, and would have directed it during his lifetime.[104]

Bacon's influence can also be seen on a variety of religious and spiritual authors, and on groups that have utilized his writings in their own belief systems.[105][106][107][108][109]

Bibliography

Some of the more notable works by Bacon are:

  • Essays
    • 1st edition with 10 essays (1597)
    • 2nd edition with 38 essays (1612)
    • 3rd/final edition with 58 essays (1625)
  • The Advancement and Proficience of Learning Divine and Human (1605)
  • Instauratio magna (The Great Instauration) (1620) – a multi-part work including Distributio operis (Plan of the Work); Novum Organum (New Engine); Parasceve ad historiam naturalem (Preparatory for Natural History) and Catalogus historiarum particularium (Catalogue of Particular Histories)[110]
  • De augmentis scientiarum (1623) – an enlargement of The Advancement of Learning translated into Latin
  • New Atlantis (1626)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There is confusion over the spelling of "Viscount St. Alban". Some sources, such as the Dictionary of National Biography (1885) and the 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, spell the title "St. Albans";[1][2] others, such as the 2007 Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, spell it "St. Alban".[3][4]
  2. ^ Contemporary spelling, used by Bacon himself in his letter of thanks to the king for his elevation.Birch, Thomas (1763). Letters, Speeches, Charges, Advices, &c of Lord Chancellor Bacon. 6. London: Andrew Millar. pp. 271–272. OCLC 228676038.
  3. ^ "Howbeit we know after a time there wil now be a general reformation, both of divine and humane things, according to our desire, and the expectation of others: for it's fitting, that before the rising of the Sun, there should appear and break forth Aurora, or some clearness, or divine light in the sky" – Fama Fraternitatis (sacred-texts.com)
  4. ^ "Like good and faithful guardians, we may yield up their fortune to mankind upon the emancipation and majority of their understanding, from which must necessarily follow an improvement of their estate [...]. For man, by the fall, fell at the same time from his state of innocency and from his dominion over creation. Both of these losses however can even in this life be in some part repaired; the former by religion and faith, the latter by arts and sciences. – Francis Bacon, Novum Organum
  5. ^ "We ought therefore here to observe well, and make it known unto everyone, that God hath certainly and most assuredly concluded to send and grant to the whole world before her end ... such a truth, light, life, and glory, as the first man Adam had, which he lost in Paradise, after which his successors were put and driven, with him, to misery. Wherefore there shall cease all servitude, falsehood, lies, and darkness, which by little and little, with the great world's revolution, was crept into all arts, works, and governments of men, and have darkened most part of them". – Confessio Fraternitatis

References

  1. ^ Fowler 1885, p. 346.
  2. ^ Adamson & Mitchell 1911, p. 135.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Peltonen 2007.
  4. ^ a b Adamson 1878, p. 200.
  5. ^ "Bacon" entry in Collins English Dictionary.
  6. ^ Klein, Jürgen (2012), "Francis Bacon", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2016 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 17 January 2020
  7. ^ "Empiricism: The influence of Francis Bacon, John Locke, and David Hume". Sweet Briar College. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  8. ^ Scott Wilson, Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3rd ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 2105–2106). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  9. ^ Pollard 1911, p. 816.
  10. ^ "Bacon, Francis (BCN573F)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  11. ^ Collins, Arthur (1741). The English Baronetage: Containing a Genealogical and Historical Account of All the English Baronets, Now Existing: Their Descents, Marriages, and Issues; Memorable Actions, Both in War, and Peace; Religious and Charitable Donations; Deaths, Places of Burial and Monumental Inscriptions. Printed for Tho. Wotton at the Three Daggers and Queen's Head. p. 5.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Adamson & Mitchell 1911, p. 136.
  13. ^ a b Stephen Gaukroger (2001). Francis Bacon and the Transformation of Early-Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press, p. 46.
  14. ^ Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning, Clarendon Press, 1876, p. ix.
  15. ^ Spall, JEH (1971). "Francis Bacon's connections with Marks Manor House". Romford Record. Romford: Romford and District Historical Society. No. 4: 32–37.
  16. ^ Ellis, Robert. P. (27 April 2015). Francis Bacon: The Double-Edged Life of the Philosopher and Statesman. McFarland. p. 28.
  17. ^ "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  18. ^ Spedding, James (1861). "The letters and life of Francis Bacon". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ "Sir Francis Bacon's Letters, Tracts and Speech relating to Ireland". Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  20. ^ a b Paul E. J. Hammer (1999). "The Polarisation of Elizabethan Politics: The Political Career of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, 1585–1597". p. 141. Cambridge University Press
  21. ^ Gustav Ungerer (1974). "A Spaniard in Elizabethan England: The Correspondence of Antonio Pérez's Exile, Volume 1". p. 207. Tamesis Books
  22. ^ Weir, Alison Elizabeth the Queen Pimlico 1999 p. 414
  23. ^ Bunten, Alice Chambers. Twickenham Park and Old Richmond Palace and Francis Bacon: Lord Verulam's Connection with The, 1580–1608. R. Banks. p. 19.
  24. ^ Holdsworth, W. S. (1938). History of English Law. pp. vi 473–474.
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