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ドバイ

دبي
DubaiCollage.jpg
Coat of arms of Dubai
紋章
Dubai is located in United Arab Emirates
Dubai
ドバイ
アラブ首長国連邦内の場所
Dubai is located in Persian Gulf
Dubai
ドバイ
ペルシャ湾内の場所
Dubai is located in Asia
Dubai
ドバイ
ドバイ(アジア)
座標:25°15′47″ N 55°17′50″ E / 25.26306°N 55.29722°E / 25.26306; 55.29722座標25°15′47″ N 55°17′50″ E  / 25.26306°N 55.29722°E / 25.26306; 55.29722
 アラブ首長国連邦
エミレーツドバイ
によって設立されましたUbaid binSaeedとMaktumbin Butti Al Maktoum
細分化
町と村
政府
 • タイプ絶対君主制
 •ドバイ市の局長Dawoud Al Hajri
領域
 • メトロポリス35 km 2(14平方マイル)
人口
 (2019年第3四半期)[3]
 • メトロポリス3,331,420
 • メトロ
〜4,000,000
住民の呼称ドバイアン
タイムゾーンUTC + 04:00UAE標準時
名目GDP2016年の見積もり
合計1,080億米ドル[4]
Webサイト公式ウェブサイト

ドバイ/ D U B / doo- BY ;アラビア語دبيローマ字:  Dubayyを [dʊˈbajj]アラビア語湾岸方言:  [dəˈbaj])は、アラブ首長国連邦(UAE)最も人口の多い 都市でありドバイ首長国の首都です[5] [6] [7]小さな漁村として18世紀に設立されたこの都市は、21世紀初頭に急速に成長し、観光とホスピタリティを中心とした国際的な大都市になりました。ドバイは世界で最も人気のある観光地の1つであり[8]、世界で2番目に多い5つ星ホテル[9]であり、世界最も高いビルであるブルジュハリファ[10]

東部に位置し、アラビア半島の海岸にペルシャ湾、ドバイのビジネスハブとなることを目指して西アジア[11]また、乗客と貨物の主要な世界的な輸送ハブでもあります。[12]石油収入は、すでに主要な商業の中心地であった都市の発展を加速するのに役立ちました。 20世紀初頭以来、地域および国際貿易の中心地であるドバイの経済は、貿易、観光、航空、不動産、および金融サービスからの収益に依存しています。[13] [14] [15] [16]石油生産は、2018年の首長国のGDPの1パーセント未満しか貢献しなかった。[17]政府のデータによると、ドバイの人口は2020年9月8日時点で約3,400,800人と推定されています。[18] [19]

語源

「ドバイ」という言葉の由来については、多くの理論が提案されています。ある理論は、Basouqであった単語を示唆しています。[20]アラビア語のことわざには、「ダバドバイ」(アラビア語دبادبيと書かれており、「彼らはたくさんのお金を持って来た」という意味です。[21]アラブ首長国連邦の歴史と文化の学者であるFedelHandhalによると、ドバイという言葉は、dabaアラビア語دبا)(yadubアラビア語يدب)の過去形の派生という言葉から来ている可能性があります。クリープする」)、ドバイクリーク内陸のゆっくりとした流れを指します。詩人と学者アフマド・モハマド・オベイドはそれを同じ言葉にたどりますが、定住前の地域にイナゴが豊富にいるため、「赤ちゃんイナゴ」(アラビア語جراد)の別の意味に由来します。[22]

歴史

青銅と鉄の合金の短剣、サルクアルハディッド考古学遺跡(紀元前1100年)

The history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, and points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but also as far afield as the Levant.[23] Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai, particularly at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al Hadid[24] show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Agesアラブ首長国連邦で。この地域はシュメール人にマガンとして知られており、金属製品、特に銅や青銅の産地でした。[25]

約5000年前、海岸が内陸に後退し、現在の海岸線の一部となったため、この地域は砂で覆われていました。[26]イスラム以前の陶器は、3世紀から4世紀にかけて発見されました。[27]この地域にイスラム教が導入される前は、この地域の人々はバジル(またはバジャール)を崇拝していた[27]地域のイスラム教の普及した後、ウマイヤ朝 カリフ東部のイスラム世界のは南東侵略アラビアをして追い出したSassaniansをアルジュメイラジュメイラ)地域のドバイ博物館による発掘調査)ウマイヤ朝時代の遺物がいくつか見つかりました。[28]

ドバイについての初期の言及は、1095年にアンダルシアによる地理学-アラブの地理学者アブ・アブドゥラ・アル・バクリによるものです。[要出典]ベネチア真珠商人ガスパロ・バルビは、 1580年に地域を訪問し、ドバイ(言及Dibeiをそのために)真珠業界。[28]

近代ドバイの設立

1950年代のアルファヒディ砦

Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century[29] and was, by 1822, a town of some 700–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.[30]

In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty.[29]

ドバイは、署名された1820年の一般的な海事条約を英国政府、他のと一緒にTrucial州、以下、1819年のイギリスのキャンペーンに対するラスアルハイマこれは1853年の永久海事停戦につながりましたドバイもまた、休戦オマーンの隣国と同様に、1892年に英国が首長国の安全保障責任を負う独占協定を締結しました

1787年に建てられたアルファヒディフォートには、ドバイ博物館があります。

1841年、バードバイ地方天然痘の流行が発生し、住民は東にデイラに移住することを余儀なくされました[31] 1896年、ドバイで火災が発生しました。これは、多くの家族の家がまだバラスティ(ヤシの葉)で建設されていた町で悲惨な出来事でしたデイラ地区が完全に破壊されたと言われている間、大火はバールドバイの家の半分を消費しました。翌年、さらに多くの火災が発生しました。女性の奴隷は、そのような炎を1つ開始する行為に巻き込まれ、その後死刑に処されました。[32]

バールドバイの望楼、c。19世紀

1901年、マクトゥームビンハッシャーアルマクトゥームは、輸出入に課税されない自由港としてドバイを設立し、商人に土地の区画と保護と寛容の保証を与えました。これらの政策は、リンゲから直接[33]だけでなく、ラスアルハイマとシャルジャ(アルカシミを通じてリンゲと歴史的なつながりを持っていた)に定住した商人のドバイへの移動を見た。ドバイ港の重要性が高まっていることを示す指標は、1899年から1901年まで毎年5回ドバイを訪れたボンベイアンドペルシャスチームナビゲーションカンパニーの汽船の動きから得ることができます。 1902年に同社の船はドバイを21回訪問し、1904年以降は[34]汽船は隔週で呼ばれ、1906年に7万トンの貨物を取引しました。[35]これらの船舶の頻度は、新興港および優先貿易ハブとしてのドバイの役割を加速するのに役立っただけでした。ロリマーは、レンゲからの移籍は「完全かつ恒久的になるために公正に入札すると述べており[33]、また町は1906年までにリンゲを休戦オマーンの集散地に取って代わったと述べている。[36]

1908年の「大嵐」は、その年の真珠光沢の季節の終わりに向かってドバイと沿岸首長国の真珠色の船を襲い、12隻の船と100人以上の男性を失いました。災害はドバイにとって大きな後退であり、多くの家族が稼ぎ手を失い、商人は経済的破滅に直面しました。これらの損失は、内部の部族も貧困を経験していたときに起こりました。1911年マスカットのスルタンに宛てた手紙の中で、ブッティは嘆き悲しんでいる。[37]

1910年、ヒヤシンス事件で町はHMSヒヤシンスに砲撃され、37人が死亡した。

プレオイルドバイ

ドバイはイランに地理的に近いため、重要な貿易の場所となっています。ドバイの町は、主にイランからの外国人商人の重要な寄港地であり、その多くは最終的に町に定住しました。20世紀の初めまでに、それは重要な港でした。[38]当時、ドバイはドバイの町と近くのジュメイラの村で構成されていたこれは約45のアリーシュ(ヤシの葉)小屋のコレクションであった[36]ドバイは、1930年代まで真珠の輸出で知られていました真珠貿易は、1929年の大恐慌養殖真珠の革新によって取り返しのつかないほどの打撃受けました。真珠産業の崩壊に伴い、ドバイは深刻な不況に陥り、多くの住民が貧困の中で生活したり、ペルシャ湾の他の地域に移住したりしました。[26]

創業以来の初期の頃、ドバイはアブダビと常に対立していました1947年、ドバイとアブダビの相互国境の北部での国境紛争は戦争に発展しました。[39]イギリス政府による仲裁は、敵対行為の停止をもたらした。[40]

アルラス中地区デイラ半ばの1960年代とドバイクリーク

石油が不足しているにもかかわらず、1958年からのドバイの支配者であるシェイクラシッドビンサイードアルマクトゥームは、貿易活動からの収入をインフラストラクチャの構築に使用しました。電気、電話サービス、港湾および空港運営者の両方を含むインフラストラクチャを構築および運用するために、民間企業が設立されました。[41]ある種の空港(ソルトフラット上に建設された滑走路)が1950年代にドバイに設立され、1959年に首長国の最初のホテルであるエアラインズホテルが建設された。これに続いて、1968年にアンバサダーホテルとカールトンホテルが設立されました。[42]

シェイクラシッドは、英国の建築事務所であるハルクロウのジョンハリスに、1959年に市の最初のマスタープランを作成するよう依頼しました。ハリスは、大規模な道路システム、組織化されたゾーン、町を備えた、ドバイクリークの歴史的中心部から立ち上がるドバイを想像しました。センターは、当時限られた財源で実現可能に建設することができました。[43]

1959年には、ドバイで最初の電話会社が設立され、51%がIAL(International Aeradio Ltd)によって所有され、49%がSheikh Rashidと地元のビジネスマンによって所有され、1961年に電力会社と電話会社の両方が運用ネットワークを展開しました。[44]水道会社(Sheikh Rashidが会長兼過半数株主)は、Awirの井戸と一連の貯蔵タンクからパイプラインを建設し、1968年までにドバイは確実にパイプラインを供給できるようになりました。[44]

1961年4月7日、ドバイを拠点とするMV Daraは、バスラ(イラク)、クウェートボンベイ(インド)の間のルートを航行した5000トンの英国籍船で、ドバイ沖の異常な強風に巻き込まれました。翌朝早く、ウンム・アル・カイワイン沖の荒海で、爆発が二等船のキャビンを引き裂き、発火しました。船長は船の放棄を命じたが、転覆した救命ボート2隻と2回目の爆発が発生した。ドバイ、シャルジャ、アジュマーン、ウンムアルカイワインからの小型ボートの艦隊が生存者を迎えましたが、乗船していた819人のうち238人が災害で亡くなりました。[45]

The construction of Dubai's first airport was started on the Northern edge of the town in 1959 and the terminal building opened for business in September 1960. The airport was initially serviced by Gulf Aviation (flying Dakotas, Herons and Viscounts) but Iran Air commenced services to Shiraz in 1961.[44]

In 1962 the British Political Agent noted that "Many new houses and blocks of offices and flats are being built... the Ruler is determined, against advice [from the British authorities] to press on with the construction of a jet airport... More and more European and Arab firms are opening up and the future looks bright."[42]

1962年、インフラプロジェクトへの支出がすでにある程度無分別なレベルに近づいていたため、シェイクラシッドは、ドバイの小川を渡る最初の橋を建設するための融資を求めて、義理の兄弟であるカタールの支配者に働きかけました。この交差点は1963年5月に終了し、小川のドバイ側からデイラ側への交差点に課せられた通行料によって支払われました。[41]

BOAC was originally reluctant to start regular flights between Bombay and Dubai, fearing a lack of demand for seats. However, by the time the asphalt runway of Dubai Airport was constructed in 1965, opening Dubai to both regional and long haul traffic, a number of foreign airlines were competing for landing rights.[41] In 1970 a new airport terminal building was constructed which included Dubai's first duty-free shops.[46]

Throughout the 1960s Dubai was the centre of a lively gold trade, with 1968 imports of gold at some £56 million. This gold was, in the vast majority, re-exported - mainly to customers who took delivery in international waters off India. The import of gold to India had been banned and so the trade was characterised as smuggling, although Dubai's merchants were quick to point out that they were making legal deliveries of gold and that it was up to the customer where they took it.[47]

In 1966, more gold was shipped from London to Dubai than almost anywhere else in the world (only France and Switzerland took more), at 4 million ounces. Dubai also took delivery of over $15 million-worth of watches and over 5 million ounces of silver. The 1967 price of gold was $35 an ounce but its market price in India was $68 an ounce – a healthy markup. Estimates at the time put the volume of gold imports from Dubai to India at around 75% of the total market.[48]

Oil era

View of Business Bay

After years of exploration following large finds in neighbouring Abu Dhabi, oil was eventually discovered in territorial waters off Dubai in 1966, albeit in far smaller quantities. The first field was named 'Fateh' or 'good fortune'. This led to an acceleration of Sheikh Rashid's infrastructure development plans and a construction boom that brought a massive influx of foreign workers, mainly Asians and Middle easterners. Between 1968 and 1975 the city's population grew by over 300%.[49]

As part of the infrastructure for pumping and transporting oil from the Fateh field, located offshore of the Jebel Ali area of Dubai, two 500,000 gallon storage tanks were built, known locally as 'Kazzans',[50] by welding them together on the beach and then digging them out and floating them to drop onto the seabed at the Fateh field. These were constructed by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, which gave the beach its local name (Chicago Beach), which was transferred to the Chicago Beach Hotel, which was demolished and replaced by the Jumeirah Beach Hotel1990年代後半に。Kazzansは革新的な石油貯蔵ソリューションでした。つまり、悪天候でもスーパータンカーが沖合に係留でき、海から約60マイル離れたFatehから陸上に石油をパイプで送る必要がなくなりました。[51]

ドバイはすでにインフラの開発と拡大の時期に着手していました。1969年以降の石油収入は、首長国の限られた埋蔵量が枯渇する前に、シェイク・ラシードがインフラストラクチャーの構築と多様な貿易経済の政策に着手することで成長期を支えました。石油は1990年にはGDPの24%を占めていましたが、2004年までにGDPの7%に減少しました。[12]

Critically, one of the first major projects Sheikh Rashid embarked upon when oil revenue started to flow was the construction of Port Rashid, a deep water free port constructed by British company Halcrow. Originally intended to be a four-berth port, it was extended to sixteen berths as construction was ongoing. The project was an outstanding success, with shipping queuing to access the new facilities. The port was inaugurated on 5 October 1972, although its berths were each pressed into use as soon as they had been built. Port Rashid was to be further expanded in 1975 to add a further 35 berths before the larger port of Jebel Ali was constructed.[12]

Port Rashid was the first of a swath of projects designed to create a modern trading infrastructure, including roads, bridges, schools and hospitals.[52]

Reaching the UAE's Act of Union

Adi Bitar in a meeting with Sheiks Rashid Al Maktoum, Mohammad Al Maktoum and Maktoum Al Maktoum in Dubai, 1968

ドバイと他の「休戦オマーン」は長い間英国の保護領であり、英国政府が外交政策と防衛を担当し、東湾の支配者間の仲裁を行っていました。これは、1892年に署名された「排他的」という条約の結果です。合意'。これは、1968年1月16日のハロルドウィルソン首相の発表により、すべてのイギリス軍が「アデンの東」から撤退することになったという変更でした。決定は、カタールバーレーンと共に沿岸首長国を、英国の撤退が残すであろう政治的空白を埋めるために熱狂的な交渉に売り込むことでした。[53]

連合の原則は、1968年2月18日にアブダビの支配者であるシェイクザイードビンスルタンアルナヒャンとドバイのシェイクラシッドの間で最初に合意されました。エミレーツ。[54] 2人は、カタールとバーレーンを含む他の首長国を連合に持ち込むことに向けて取り組むことに合意した。次の2年間、組合の一形態が打ちのめされたため、統治者の交渉と会合が続いた-しばしば嵐のように-。 9州の組合は、1969年10月の会議から回復することは決してなかった。そこでは、英国の手厚い介入がカタールとラスアルハイマによるウォークアウトをもたらした[42]バーレーンとカタールは交渉から脱落し、1971年7月18日に7つの「真の」首長国のうち6つが連合に合意したままにした。[55]

1971年12月2日、ドバイはアブダビ、シャルジャアジュマーンウンムアルカイワインフジャイラとともにアラブ首長国連邦を結成するために連合法に参加しました7番目の首長国であるラスアルハイマは、イランがRAKの主張するタンブス島を併合した後、1972年2月10日にUAEに加わりました[56]

In 1973, Dubai joined the other emirates to adopt a uniform currency: the UAE dirham.[38] In that same year, the prior monetary union with Qatar was dissolved and the UAE Dirham was introduced throughout the Emirates.[57]

Modern Dubai

Dubai Palm Jumeirah and Marina in 2011

During the 1970s, Dubai continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an influx of immigrants fleeing the Lebanese civil war.[58] Border disputes between the emirates continued even after the formation of the UAE; it was only in 1979 that a formal compromise was reached that ended disagreements.[59] The Jebel Ali port, a deep-water port that allowed larger ships to dock, was established in 1979. The port was not initially a success, so Sheikh Mohammed established the JAFZA (Jebel Ali Free Zone) around the port in 1985 to provide foreign companies unrestricted import of labour and export capital.[60] Dubai airport and the aviation industry also continued to grow.

The Gulf War in early 1991 had a negative financial effect on the city, as depositors withdrew their money and traders withdrew their trade, but subsequently, the city recovered in a changing political climate and thrived. Later in the 1990s, many foreign trading communities—first from Kuwait, during the Gulf War, and later from Bahrain, during the Shia unrest—moved their businesses to Dubai.[61] Dubai provided refuelling bases to allied forces at the Jebel Ali Free Zone during the Gulf War, and again during the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. Large increases in oil prices after the Gulf War encouraged Dubai to continue to focus on free trade and tourism.[62]

Geography

This time-lapse video shows the rate of Dubai's growth at one frame per year from 2000 through 2011. In the false-colour satellite images making up the video, bare desert is tan, plant-covered land is red, water is black and urban areas are silver.
Dune bashing in one of the deserts of Dubai

ドバイはアラブ首長国連邦ペルシャ湾岸に位置し、おおよそ海面(16 mまたは52フィート上)にあります。ドバイ首長国連邦は、南部のアブダビ、北東部のシャルジャ、南東部のオマーン国と国境を接しています。首長国のマイナーな飛び地であるハッタは、三方をオマーンと、アジュマーン(西)とラスアルハイマ(北)の首長国に囲まれています。ペルシャ湾は首長国の西海岸に接しています。ドバイは北緯25.2697度東経55.3095度に位置し、面積は1,588平方マイル(4,110 km 2)で、当初の1,500平方マイル(3,900 km 2)を大幅に超えています。25°16′11″N 55°18′34″E /  / 25.2697; 55.3095) designation due to land reclamation from the sea.[citation needed]

Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert. However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from that of the southern portion of the UAE in that much of Dubai's landscape is highlighted by sandy desert patterns, while gravel deserts dominate much of the southern region of the country.[63] The sand consists mostly of crushed shell and coral and is fine, clean and white. East of the city, the salt-crusted coastal plains, known as sabkha, give way to a north-south running line of dunes. Farther east, the dunes grow larger and are tinged red with iron oxide.[49]

The flat sandy desert gives way to the Western Hajar Mountains, which run alongside Dubai's border with Oman at Hatta. The Western Hajar chain has an arid, jagged and shattered landscape, whose mountains rise to about 1,300 metres (4,265 feet) in some places. Dubai has no natural river bodies or oases; however, Dubai does have a natural inlet, Dubai Creek, which has been dredged to make it deep enough for large vessels to pass through. Dubai also has multiple gorges and waterholes, which dot the base of the Western Al Hajar mountains. A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai and eventually leads into the desert known as The Empty Quarter. Seismically、ドバイは非常に安定したゾーンにあります。最も近い地震断層線であるザグロス断層は、UAEから200 km(124マイル)離れており、ドバイに地震の影響を与える可能性はほとんどありません。[64]専門家はまた、ペルシャ湾の水が津波を引き起こすのに十分な深さではないため、この地域での津波の可能性は最小限であると予測している[64]

港からドバイクリークの眺め

The sandy desert surrounding the city supports wild grasses and occasional date palms. Desert hyacinths grow in the sabkha plains east of the city, while acacia and ghaf trees grow in the flat plains within the proximity of the Western Al Hajar mountains. Several indigenous trees such as the date palm and neem as well as imported trees such as the eucalyptus grow in Dubai's natural parks. The houbara bustard, striped hyena, caracal, desert fox, falcon and Arabian oryxドバイの砂漠では一般的です。ドバイはヨーロッパ、アジア、アフリカの間の渡りの道を進んでおり、春と秋には320種以上の渡り鳥が首長国を通過します。ドバイの海域には、ハマーを含む300種以上の魚が生息しています。ドバイ沖の典型的な海洋生物には、熱帯魚、クラゲ、サンゴ、ジュゴン、イルカ、クジラ、サメが含まれます。カメの様々なタイプも含む領域に見出すことができるタイマイ緑カメ絶滅危惧種として記載されています。[65] [66]

ドバイクリークは、街を北東から南西に走っています。市の東部はデイラの産地を形成し、東シャルジャ首長国連邦、南はアルアウィアの町に隣接しています。ドバイ国際空港は一方で、デイラの南に位置しているパームデイラがでデイラの北側に位置してペルシャ湾。ドバイの不動産ブームの多くは、ドバイクリークの西、ジュメイラ沿岸地帯に集中しています。Port RashidJebel AliBurj Al ArabPalm Jumeirah、テーマベースのフリーゾーンクラスターなどBusiness Bay are all located in this section.[67] Dubai is notable for sculpted artificial island complexes including the Palm Islands and The World archipelago.

Climate

ドバイは暑い砂漠気候ですケッペンBWh)。ドバイの夏は非常に暑く、長く、風が強く、湿度が高く、8月の最も暑い月の平均最高気温は約40°C(104°F)、夜間の最低気温は約30°C(86°F)です。ほとんどの日は一年中晴れています。冬は比較的涼しいですが、穏やかから暖かいです。最も涼しい月である1月の平均最高気温は24°C(75°F)、夜間の最低気温は14°C(57°F)です。しかし、降水量は過去数十年で増加しており、累積雨量は年間110.7 mm(4.36インチ)に達しています。[68]ドバイの夏は湿度が非常に高いことでも知られており、夏の露点が非常に高い多くの人にとっては非常に不快なものになる可能性があります。暑さ指数 values can reach over 60 °C (140 °F) at the height of summer.[69] The highest recorded temperature in Dubai is 48.8 °C (119.8 °F).

Climate data for Dubai (1977–2015 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.8
(89.2)
37.5
(99.5)
41.3
(106.3)
43.5
(110.3)
47.0
(116.6)
47.9
(118.2)
48.5
(119.3)
48.8
(119.8)
45.1
(113.2)
42.4
(108.3)
38.0
(100.4)
33.2
(91.8)
48.8
(119.8)
Average high °C (°F) 23.9
(75.0)
25.4
(77.7)
28.9
(84.0)
33.3
(91.9)
37.7
(99.9)
39.8
(103.6)
40.9
(105.6)
41.3
(106.3)
38.9
(102.0)
35.4
(95.7)
30.6
(87.1)
26.2
(79.2)
33.5
(92.3)
日平均°C(°F) 19.1
(66.4)
20.5
(68.9)
23.6
(74.5)
27.5
(81.5)
31.4
(88.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.5
(95.9)
35.9
(96.6)
33.3
(91.9)
29.8
(85.6)
25.4
(77.7)
21.2
(70.2)
28.1
(82.5)
平均最低°C(°F) 14.3
(57.7)
15.5
(59.9)
18.3
(64.9)
21.7
(71.1)
25.1
(77.2)
27.3
(81.1)
30.0
(86.0)
30.4
(86.7)
27.7
(81.9)
24.1
(75.4)
20.1
(68.2)
16.3
(61.3)
22.6
(72.6)
記録的な低°C(°F) 7.7
(45.9)
7.4
(45.3)
11.0
(51.8)
13.7
(56.7)
15.7
(60.3)
21.3
(70.3)
24.1
(75.4)
24.0
(75.2)
22.0
(71.6)
15.0
(59.0)
10.8
(51.4)
8.2
(46.8)
7.4
(45.3)
平均降水量mm(インチ) 18.8
(0.74)
25.0
(0.98)
22.1
(0.87)
7.2
(0.28)
0.4
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
0.8
(0.03)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.1
(0.04)
2.7
(0.11)
16.2
(0.64)
94.3
(3.71)
平均降水日数 5.5 4.7 5.8 2.62.6 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.2 1.3 3.8 25.3
月間平均日照時間 251 241 270 306 350 345 332 326 309 307 279 254 3,570
毎日の平均日照時間 8.1 8.6 8.7 10.2 11.3 11.5 10.7 10.5 10.3 9.9 9.3 8.2 9.8
出典1:ドバイ気象庁[70]
出典2:UAE国立気象センター[71]

政府

Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates and the Ruler of Dubai.

ドバイは1833年以来アルマクトゥームによって統治されてきました。首長国は立憲君主制です。ドバイ市民は選挙人団に参加して、UAEの連邦国民評議会代表者を投票します。統治者であるシェイク・モハメッド・ビン・ラシッド・アル・マクトゥーム高等弁務官は、アラブ首長国連邦の副大統領兼首相であり、欧州連合最高評議会(SCU)のメンバーでもあります。ドバイは、最高の連邦立法機関であるUAE連邦国民評議会(FNC)に2期で8人のメンバーを任命します。[72]

The Dubai Municipality (DM) was established by the then ruler of Dubai, Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, in 1954 for purposes of city planning, citizen services and upkeep of local facilities.[73] DM is chaired by Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum, deputy ruler of Dubai, and comprises several departments such as the Roads Department, Planning and Survey Department, Environment and Public Health Department and Financial Affairs Department. In 2001, Dubai Municipality embarked on an e-GovernmentWebポータル[dubai.ae]を通じて40の都市サービスを提供することを目的としたプロジェクト。2001年10月までに13のサービスが開始されましたが、他のいくつかのサービスは将来的に運用可能になると予想されていました。[74]ドバイ市は、市の衛生および下水道インフラも担当しています。[75] [と定義されている場合?]

アラブ首長国連邦には、モハメッド・ビン・ラシッド・アル・マクトゥームによって任命された幸福大臣がいます。アラブ首長国連邦はまた、多様な信仰と民族に満ちた国であるUAEの基本的価値として寛容を促進するために寛容大臣を任命し[76]、また青年大臣も任命しました。[77]

法執行機関

ドバイ警察の地域で1956年に設立され、Naifのは、首長国以上の法執行管轄権を有します。この部隊は、モハメッド・ビン・ラシッド・アル・マクトゥームの直接の指揮下にあります。[78]

ドバイ警察はエキゾチックな車の艦隊を運営しています

ドバイとラスアルハイマは、アラブ首長国連邦の連邦司法制度に準拠していない唯一の首長国です。[79]首長国の司法裁判所は、第一審裁判所、控訴裁判所、および破毀院で構成されている。第一審裁判所は、すべての民事訴訟を審理する民事裁判所で構成されています。警察の苦情に起因する主張を審理する刑事裁判所。そしてシャリア法廷イスラム教徒の間で問題に責任があります、。非イスラム教徒はシャリーア裁判所に出廷しません。破毀院は首長国の最高裁判所であり、法律の問題についてのみ紛争を審理します。[80]

アルコール法

アルコールの販売と消費は合法ですが、厳しく規制されています。成人の非イスラム教徒は、認可された場所、通常はホテル内、または酒類販売免許を所持している自宅でアルコールを消費することが許可されています。ホテル、クラブ、特別に指定された場所以外の場所では、通常、アルコールの販売は許可されていません。[81]世界の他の部分と同様に、飲酒運転は21があることで、違法である法定飲酒年齢ドバイ首長国[82]

人権

ドバイの支配者の娘であるラティファは2018年2月にドバイを脱出したが、インド洋で捕らえられた[83]。

Companies in Dubai have in the past been criticised for human rights violations against labourers.[84][85][86] Some of the 250,000 foreign labourers in the city have been alleged to live in conditions described by Human Rights Watch as "less than humane".[87][88][89][90] The mistreatment of foreign workers was a subject of the difficult-to-make documentary, Slaves in Dubai (2009).[91] The Dubai government has denied labour injustices and stated that the watchdog's (Human Rights Watch) accusations were "misguided". The filmmaker explained in interviews how it was necessary to go undercover to avoid discovery by the authorities, who impose high fines on reporters attempting to document human rights abuses, including the conditions of construction workers.

2006年3月末に向けて、政府は建設労働組合を許可するための措置を発表した。アラブ首長国連邦の労働大臣アリ・アル・カービは、「労働者は組合を結成することが許されるだろう」と述べた。[92] 2020年の時点で、連邦検察は、「少なくとも3人の公務員が不法な目的を達成するために集合的に仕事または職務の1つを離れるのは犯罪である。各従業員は6か月以上の懲役に処せられる」と明言している。懲役は、人々の健康や安全に影響を与える、または公益の他の公共サービスに影響を与える仕事や職務を辞めるためのものであるため、刑務所で1年以内に収監されます。」従業員に不和を広める行為は懲役刑に処せられ、すべての場合において外国人は国外追放されます。[93]

同性愛行為はUAE法の下で違法です。[94] ドバイでの言論の自由は限られており、居住者と市民の両方が、王室や地元の法律や文化に反対して発言したことで政府から厳しい制裁に直面している。[95]低賃金労働者のほとんどは人身売買または強制労働の犠牲者であり、一部の女性は人身売買と売春の中心であるドバイで拡大している性的取引に人身売買されている。[96]

ソーシャルメディアでの名誉毀損は、ドバイでの罰則の対象となる犯罪であり、最高50万ディルハムの罰金と、最高2年間の懲役が科せられます。2020年1月、スリランカの3人の元駐在員は、名誉毀損のFacebook投稿を投稿したことでそれぞれ500,000ディルハムの罰金を科されました。[97]

2020年9月3日、ガーディアン紙は、石油価格の暴落とCOVID-19により、数十万人の移民労働者が職を失い、ドバイで立ち往生したと報告しました多くの人々は、給料やその他の財源のない混雑した労働収容所で絶望的な状況に陥っていました。それらの移民労働者は、仕事を待って給料をもらっている間、食糧の寄付に頼らなければならず、慈善団体の助けなしに空腹のままでした。[98]

犯罪

Dubai has one of the world's lowest crime rates,[99] and in 2019 was ranked the seventh-safest city in the world.[100][101][102] The Security Industry Regulatory Agency classified the crimes into six categories.[103] These crimes include theft, forced robbery, domestic burglary, fraud, sexual assault and abuse, and criminal damages.[103]

As per Gulf News, Dubai Police stated that the crime in Dubai is reduced by fifteen per cent during 2017. However, the cases of drugs operation increased by eight per cent. Major-General Abdullah Khalifa Al Merri, Commander-in-Chief of Dubai Police, hailed the force which solved 86 per cent of criminal cases.[104]

統計によると、殺人犯罪は人口10万人ごとに2016年の0.5から2017年には0.3に減少し、過去5年間の暴力的で攻撃的な犯罪は10万人あたり2.2犯罪から、2017年末までに1.2に減少したとAlは指摘しました。マンスーリ。[99]一般犯罪は2013年以降減少し、2017年末までに約0.2を記録した。強盗は2013年の3.8から昨年末までに2.1になり、誘拐事件も2013年の0.2から2017年には0.1に減少した。

2013年の車両盗難は人口10万人あたり3.8人でしたが、2017年には1.7人に減少しました。米国外交保安局によると、軽微な盗難、スリ、詐欺、セクハラは、通常は暴力的ではなく、武器も関与していませんが、依然として発生しています。[105]

人口統計

歴史的な人口
ポップ。±%
1822 [106]1,200—    
1900 [107] 10,000+ 733.3%
1930 [108] 20,000+ 100.0%
1940 [106] 38,000+ 90.0%
1960 [109] 40,000+ 5.3%
1968 [110] 58,971+ 47.4%
1975 [111] 183,000+ 210.3%
1985 [112] 370,800+ 102.6%
1995 [112] 674,000+ 81.8%
2005年 1,204,000+ 78.6%
2010 [113]1,905,476+ 58.3%
2015 [114] 2,446,675+ 28.4%
2019 [115]3,355,900+ 37.2%
c-国勢調査; e-見積もり

民族と言語

As of September 2019, the population is 3,331,420 – an annual increase of 177,020 people which represents a growth rate of 5.64%.[3] The region covers 1,287.5 square kilometres (497.1 sq mi). The population density is 408.18/km2 – more than eight times that of the entire country. Dubai is the second most expensive city in the region and 20th most expensive city in the world.[116]

As of 2013, only about 15% of the population of the emirate was made up of UAE nationals,[117] with the rest comprising expatriates, many of whom either have been in the country for generations or were born in the UAE.[118][119] Approximately 85% of the expatriate population (and 71% of the emirate's total population) was Asian, chiefly Indian (51%) and Pakistani (16%); other significant Asian groups include Bangladeshis (9%) and Filipinos (3%).[120] A quarter of the population (local and foreign) reportedly traces their origins to Iran.[121] In addition, 16% of the population (or 288,000 persons) living in collective labour accommodation were not identified by ethnicity or nationality, but were thought to be primarily Asian.[122] 461,000 Westerners live in the United Arab Emirates, making up 5.1% of its total population.[123][124] There are over 100,000 British expatriates in Dubai, by far the largest group of Western expatriates in the city.[125] The median age in the emirate was about 27 years. In 2014, there were estimated to be 15.54 births and 1.99 deaths per 1,000 people.[126] There are other Arab nationals, including GCC nationals.[citation needed]

アラビア語はアラブ首長国連邦の公用語です。アラビア語湾岸方言は、エミラティの人々によってネイティブに話されています。[127] 英語は第二言語として使用されます。移民にドバイで話さ他の主要な言語は、マラヤーラム語ヒンディー語-ウルドゥー語(またはヒンドゥスターニー)、グジャラート語ペルシア語シンド語タミル語パンジャブ語パシュトー語ベンガル語BalochiTulu[128] カンナダSinhala, Marathi, Telugu, Tagalog and Chinese, in addition to many other languages.[129]

Religion

UAEの暫定憲法の第7条は、イスラム教をUAEの公式の国教と宣言しています。政府はモスクのほぼ95%に助成金を支給し、すべてのイマームを雇用してます。モスクの約5%は完全に私有であり、いくつかの大きなモスクには大きな私的寄付があります。[130]ドバイのすべてのモスクは、ドバイ政府の下で「Awqaf」としても知られるイスラム問題および慈善活動部門によって管理されており、すべてのイマームは政府によって任命されています。[131]アラブ首長国連邦の憲法は、信教の自由を規定している。外国人駐在員は、宗教的憎悪を説教したり、宣伝したりしましたreligious extremism are usually jailed and deported.[132]

Dubai has large Christian, Hindu, Sikh, Baháʼí, Buddhist and other religious communities residing in the city, as well as a small but growing Jewish community.[133]

Non-Muslim groups can own their own houses of worship, where they can practice their religion freely, by requesting a land grant and permission to build a compound. Groups that do not have their own buildings are allowed to use the facilities of other religious organisations or worship in private homes.[134] Non-Muslim religious groups are also permitted to advertise group functions openly and distribute various religious literature. Catholics are served pastorally by the Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Arabia. British preacher Reverend Andrew Thompson claimed that the United Arab Emirates is one of the most tolerant places in the world towards Christians and that it is easier to be a Christian in the UAE than in the UK.[135] 2020年4月5日、末日聖徒イエス・キリスト教会は、ドバイに寺院の1つを建設することを発表しました。発表の一環として、ラッセルM.ネルソン教会の大管長は、「ドバイの神殿の計画は、彼らの親切な招待に応えて行われたものであり、感謝の意を表します」と述べました。

経済

One of the world's fastest growing economies,[136] Dubai's gross domestic product is projected at US$107.1 billion, with a growth rate of 6.1% in 2014.[137] Although a number of core elements of Dubai's trading infrastructure were built on the back of the oil industry,[138] revenues from oil and natural gas account for less than 5% of the emirate's revenues.[13] It is estimated that Dubai produces 50,000 to 70,000 barrels (7,900 to 11,100 m3) of oil a day[139] and substantial quantities of gas from offshore fields. The emirate's share in the UAE's total gas revenues is about 2%. Dubai's oil reserves have diminished significantly and are expected to be exhausted in 20 years.[140] Real estate and construction (22.6%),[15] trade (16%), entrepôt (15%) and financial services (11%) are the largest contributors to Dubai's economy.[141]

Dubai's non-oil foreign trade stood at $362 billion in 2014. Of the overall trade volumes, imports had the biggest share with a value of $230 billion while exports and re-exports to the emirate stood at $31 billion and $101 billion respectively.[142]

2014年までに、中国はドバイの最大の国際貿易相手国として浮上し、貿易フローは合計477億ドルで、2013年から29%増加しました。インドはドバイの主要貿易相手国の中で297億ドルの貿易で二番目であり、米国は226.2億ドル。サウジアラビア王国は、ドバイの世界で4番目の貿易相手国であり、GCCとアラブ世界で最初の貿易額であり、総貿易額は142億ドルでした。2014年のドイツとの貿易額は合計12.3ドル、スイスと日本は両方とも117.2億ドル、英国の貿易額は合計109億ドルでした。[142]

Historically, Dubai and its twin across Dubai Creek, Deira (independent of Dubai City at that time), were important ports of call for Western manufacturers. Most of the new city's banking and financial centres were headquartered in the port area. Dubai maintained its importance as a trade route through the 1970s and 1980s. Dubai has a free trade in gold and, until the 1990s, was the hub of a "brisk smuggling trade"[38] of gold ingots to India, where gold import was restricted. Dubai's Jebel Ali port, constructed in the 1970s, has the largest man-made harbour in the world and was ranked seventh globally for the volume of container traffic it supports.[143] Dubai is also a hub for service industries such as information technology and finance, with industry-specific free zones throughout the city.[144] Dubai Internet City, combined with Dubai Media City as part of TECOM (Dubai Technology, Electronic Commerce and Media Free Zone Authority), is one such enclave, whose members include IT firms such as Hewlett Packard Enterprise, HP Inc., Google, EMC Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Microsoft, Dell and IBM, and media organisations such as MBC, CNN, BBC, Reuters, Sky News and AP.[145] Various programmes, resources and value-added services support the growth of startups in Dubai and help them connect to new business opportunities.[146]

Dubai Creek, which separates Deira from Bur Dubai, played a vital role in the economic development of the city

The government's decision to diversify from a trade-based, oil-reliant economy to one that is service- and tourism-oriented made property more valuable, resulting in the property appreciation from 2004 to 2006. A longer-term assessment of Dubai's property market, however, showed depreciation; some properties lost as much as 64% of their value from 2001 to November 2008.[147] The large-scale real estate development projects have led to the construction of some of the tallest skyscrapers and largest projects in the world such as the Emirates Towers, the Burj Khalifa, the Palm Islands and the most expensive hotel, the Burj Al Arab.[148]ドバイの不動産市場は、経済情勢の鈍化の結果として、2008年[149]および2009年に大幅な落ち込みを経験しました[85] 2009年初頭までに、大不況が資産価値、建設、雇用に大きな打撃を与え、状況は悪化した[150]これはこの地域の不動産投資家に大きな影響を与えており、その一部は不動産開発への投資から資金を解放することができなかった。[151] 2009年2月の時点で、ドバイの対外債務は約800億ドルと推定されていますが、これは世界のソブリン債務のごく一部です。[152]

ドバイ金融市場(DFM)は、売買目的有価証券及び債券流通市場として、2000年3月に地元と外国の両方に設立されました。2006年第4四半期の時点で、その取引量は約4,000億株で、合計で950億ドルに相当します。 DFMの時価総額は約870億ドルでした。[122]他のドバイを拠点とする証券取引所は、中東の国際証券取引所であるNASDAQドバイです。これにより、UAEや地域の中小企業を含むさまざまな企業が、地域および国際的な投資家の両方がアクセスできる、国際的なブランド名の取引所で取引することができます。[153]

DMCC (Dubai Multi Commodities Centre) was established in 2002. It's the world's fastest-growing free zone and been nominated as "Global Free Zone of the Year 2016" by The Financial Times Magazine.

Dubai is also known as the City of Gold because a major part of the economy is based on gold trades, with Dubai's total gold trading volumes in H1 2011 reaching 580 tonnes, with an average price of US$1,455 per troy ounce.[154]

A市長調査は、2007年には世界最高の金融都市間ドバイの第44位にランク[155]によって、別のレポートながら市長は、ドバイは2012年に世界で27番目で最も裕福な都市にあることが示されたという点で、購買力平価(PPP)。[156]ドバイは国際金融センター(IFC)でもあり、MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index(2007)の調査によると、世界の金融都市トップ50の中で37位にランクされています[157]。中東で1位。 2004年9月のオープン以来、ドバイIFCは地域ハブとして主要な国際企業を引き付け、株式、デリバティブ、仕組商品、イスラム債(スクーク)およびその他の債券をリストするNASDAQドバイを設立しました。ドバイIFCモデルは、英国のコモンローに準拠した立法制度を備えた独立したリスクベースの規制当局です。[158]

In 2012, the Global City Competitiveness Index by the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Dubai at No. 40 with a total score of 55.9. According to its 2013 research report on the future competitiveness of cities, in 2025, Dubai will have moved up to 23rd place overall in the Index.[159] Indians, followed by Britons and Pakistanis are the top foreign investors in Dubai realty.[160]

Dubai has launched several major projects to support its economy and develop different sectors. These include Dubai Fashion 2020,[161] and Dubai Design District, expected to become a home to leading local and international designers. The AED 4 billion first phase of the project was completed in 2015.[162]

2019年9月、ドバイの統治者シェイク・モハメッド・ビン・ラシッド・アル・マクトゥームは、需要と供給のバランスをとるために、将来の不動産建設プロジェクトを研究および評価するための不動産計画高等委員会の設立を命じました[163]。不動産価格の下落に続く建設プロジェクトのペースを抑制する動き。[164]

Since the economy of Dubai relies majorly on real estate, transportation and tourism, it was highly exposed to the impact of the coronavirus pandemic. In April 2020, the American business and financial services company, Moody's Corporation reported that the coronavirus outbreak is likely to pose acute “negative growth and fiscal implications” in Dubai.[165] It was reported that in order to bolster its finances and overcome the impact of coronavirus on its economy, Dubai was in talks to raise billions of dollars of debt privately, where it was seeking loans of 1 billion dirhams ($272 million) to 2 billion dirhams from each lender.[166] On 6 May, Dubai's businessman from the hospitality sector, Khalaf Al Habtoor stated that the coronavirus pandemic left the economy and his companies “bleeding”. The owner of seven hotels in the country, including the Waldorf Astoria on the man-made island Palm Jumeirah, Habtoor stated that Dubai's economy cannot afford to wait for the vaccine, before resuming the major activities.[167] In June 2020, the Moody's Investors Service cut down its ratings for eight of the biggest banks based in the UAE from stable to negative.[168] In effect, the benchmark stock index of Dubai dropped the most among all the Gulf nations, where the DFM General Index lost as much as 1.3 per cent.[169]

In July 2020, a report released by an NGO, Swissaid, denounced the gold trade between Dubai and Switzerland. The documents revealed that Dubai firms, including Kaloti Jewellery International Group and Trust One Financial Services (T1FS), have been obtaining gold from poor African countries like Sudan. Between 2012 and 2018, 95 per cent of gold from Sudan ended up in the UAE. The gold imported from Sudan by Kaloti was from the mines controlled by militias responsible for war crimes and human rights violations in the country. World's largest refinery in Switzerland, Valcambi, was denounced by Swissaid for importing extensive gold from these Dubai firms. In 2018 and 2019, Valcambi received 83 tonnes of gold from the two companies.[170][171]

Tourism and retail

Dubai Marina beach in the Jumeirah Beach Residence (JBR)

Tourism is an important part of the Dubai government's strategy to maintain the flow of foreign cash into the emirate. Dubai's lure for tourists is based mainly on shopping,[172][173] but also on its possession of other ancient and modern attractions.[174] As of 2018, Dubai is the fourth most-visited city in the world based on the number of international visitors and the fastest growing, increasing by a 10.7% rate.[175] The city hosted 14.9 million overnight visitors in 2016, and is expected to reach 20 million tourists by 2020.[176]

The Dubai Fountain in Burj Khalifa lake, Downtown Dubai

Dubai has been called the "shopping capital of the Middle East".[177] Dubai alone has more than 70 shopping centres, including the world's largest shopping centre, Dubai Mall. Dubai is also known for the historical souk districts located on either side of its creek. Traditionally, dhows from East Asia, China, Sri Lanka, and India would discharge their cargo and the goods would be bargained over in the souks adjacent to the docks. Dubai Creek played a vital role in sustaining the life of the community in the city and was the resource which originally drove the economic boom in Dubai.[178] As of September 2013, Dubai creek has been proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[179]市内には多くのブティックや宝石店もあります。ドバイは「ゴールドの街」とも呼ばれ、デイラゴールドスークには約250のゴールド小売店があります。[180]

パームジュメイラとブルジュアルアラブの眺め

ドバイクリークのドバイクリークパークは、イルカ水族館、ケーブルカー、キャメルライド、馬車、エキゾチックバードショーなど、ドバイで最も有名な観光スポットのいくつかを紹介しているため、ドバイの観光でも重要な役割を果たしています。[181]

ドバイには、サファ公園、ムシュリフ公園、ハムリヤ公園など、さまざまな公園があります。それぞれの公園は、他の公園とは異なります。ムシュリフ公園には、世界中のさまざまな家が展示されています。訪問者は、各家の内部だけでなく、外部の建築的特徴をチェックすることができます。

Some of the most popular beaches in Dubai are Umm Suqeim Beach, Al Mamzar Beach Park, JBR Open Beach, Kite Beach, Black Palace Beach and Royal Island Beach Club.

Mastercard's Global Destination Cities Index 2019 found that tourists spend more in Dubai than in any other country. In 2018, the country topped the list for the fourth year in a row with a total spend of $30.82 billion. The average spend per day was found to be $553.[182]

In October 2019, Dubai loosened its liquor laws for the first time, under which it allowed tourists to purchase alcohol from state-controlled stores. Previously, alcohol was accessible only for locals with special licences. The crucial policy shift came as the United Arab Emirates witnessed a severe economic crisis that led to a drop in alcohol sales by volume.[183]

In 2020, a Customs investigation highlighted that an Indian native and a major hawala dealer, Rabins Hameed, financed smuggling of gold through diplomatic channels and other smuggling networks from Dubai. He was also involved in the 2015 Nedumbassery gold smuggling case, where 1,500 kg of gold was smuggled in two years. A Non-Bailable Warrant (NBW) was issued against Rabins and one of his partners, Faisal. Besides, INTERPOL was also being approached for extradition of the two accused, who were operating from the UAE.[184]

Expo 2020

On 2 November 2011, four cities had their bids for Expo 2020 already lodged, with Dubai making a last-minute entry. The delegation from the Bureau International des Expositions, which visited Dubai in February 2013 to examine the Emirate's readiness for the largest exposition, was impressed by the infrastructure and the level of national support. In May 2013, Dubai Expo 2020 Master Plan was revealed.[185] Dubai then won the right to host Expo 2020 on 27 November 2013.[186]

The main site of Dubai Expo 2020 was planned to be a 438-hectare area (1,083 acres), part of the new Dubai Trade Centre Jebel Ali urban development, located midway between Dubai and Abu Dhabi.[187] Moreover, the Expo 2020 also created various social enlistment projects and monetary boons to the city targeting the year 2020, such as initiating the world's largest solar power project.[188]

The Dubai Expo 2020 was scheduled to take place from 20 October 2020 until 10 April 2021 for 173 days where there would be 192 country pavilions featuring narratives from every part of the globe, have different thematic districts that would promote learning the wildlife in the forest exhibit too many other experiences.[189]

Due to the impact of COVID-19 the organisers of Expo 2020 postponed the Expo by one year to begin in 2021 (the new dates are 1 October 2021 – 31 March 2022).[190][191]

Dubai has targets to build an inclusive, barrier-free and disabled-friendly city. The city has already brought in changes by introducing wheelchair friendly taxis, pavements with slopes and tactile indicators on the floor for the visually impaired at all the metro stations.[192]

Architecture

Skyline of Downtown Dubai from a helicopter in 2015.
Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest man-made structure
ドバイメトロ駅のインテリア

ドバイには、さまざまな建築様式の建物や構造物の豊富なコレクションがありますアラブ世界全般、特にドバイでの建設と建築革新のブームによりイスラム建築の多くの現代的な解釈がここにあります。これは、アラブのトップ企業やアルハシェミなどの国際的な建築およびエンジニアリングデザイン会社だけでなくサポートされています。Aedasだけでなく、ニューヨークとシカゴのトップ企業によるものです。[193]このブームの結果として、現代のイスラム建築、そして世界建築は、文字通り超高層ビルの設計と技術において新しいレベルに引き上げられました。ドバイは、今以上の高層ビル高い完成または突破アウトしました2 / 3 キロメートル(2200フィート)、1 / 3 キロ(1100フィート)、又は1 / 4 キロメートル(820フィート)の任意の他の都市に比べ。 2010年には、ブルジュハリファ(ハリファタワー)が完成し、最高潮に達しました。ブルジュハリファは、現在、世界で最も高い829.8 m(2,722フィート)の建物です。ブルジュハリファのデザインは、イスラム建築で具現化されたパターン化システムから派生しており、ドバイ地域に自生する砂漠の花ヒメノカリスの抽象化バージョンに基づいた建物のトリプルローブフットプリントを備えています。[194]

The completion of the Khalifa Tower, following the construction boom that began in the 1980s, accelerated in the 1990s, and took on a rapid pace of construction during the decade of the 2000s, leaves Dubai with the world's tallest skyline as of 4 January 2010.[195][196] At the top, Burj Khalifa, the world's second highest observatory deck after the Shanghai Tower with an outdoor terrace is one of Dubai's most popular tourist attractions, with over 1.87 million visitors in 2013.[197]

Burj Al Arab

高級ホテルのブルジュアルアラブ(アラビア語:برجالعرب、Tower of the Arabs)は、「世界で唯一の7つ星とよく言われますが、経営陣はその主張をしたことはありませんが、「5つ星」と主張しています。スターデラックスプロパティ。」「7つ星ホテル」という用語は、英国のジャーナリストがホテルの最初の経験を表すために造ったものです。[198]ジュメイラ・グループのスポークスマンは、「それを止めるためにできることはたくさんない。私たちはこの用語の使用を奨励していない。私たちの広告でそれを使用したことは一度もない」と述べていると伝えられている。[198]ホテルは1999年12月にオープンした。

ブルジュ・ハリファ

Dubai Police Agusta A-109K-2 in flight near Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa, known as the Burj Dubai before its inauguration, is a 828 metres (2,717 ft) high[199] skyscraper in Dubai, and the tallest building in the world. The tower was inspired by the structure of the desert flower Hymenocallis. It was constructed by more than 30 contracting companies around the world with workers of a hundred nationalities. It is an architectural icon. The building opened on 4 January 2010.[200]

Palm Jumeirah

The Palm Jumeirah is an artificial archipelago, created using land reclamation by Nakheel, a company owned by the Dubai government, and designed and developed by Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Architects, Inc. It is one of three planned islands called the Palm Islands which extend into the Persian Gulf. The Palm Jumeirah is the smallest and the original of three Palm Islands, and it is located on the Jumeirah coastal area of Dubai. It was built between 2001 and 2006.[201]

The World Islands

The World Islands is an archipelago of small artificial islands constructed in the shape of a world map, located in the waters of the Persian Gulf, 4.0 kilometres (2.5 mi) off the coast of Dubai, United Arab Emirates.[202] The World islands are composed mainly of sand dredged from Dubai's shallow coastal waters, and are one of several artificial island developments in Dubai.

Dubai Miracle Garden

2013年2月14日、72,000メートル(236,000フィート)のフラワーガーデンであるドバイミラクルガーデンがドバイランドにオープンしました世界最大のフラワーガーデンです。庭には5000万本以上の花が咲き、70種以上の顕花植物が見られます。[203]庭は市の自治体からの回収された廃水を使用し、植物に水をまくために点滴灌漑法を利用しています。5月下旬から9月までの夏季は、平均最高気温が約40°C(104°F)と非常に暑くなることがありますが、庭は閉鎖されたままです。[204] [205]

ドバイマリーナ

Dubai Marina (Arabic: مرسى دبي‎) is a district in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It is an artificial canal city, built along a 3-kilometre (2 mi) stretch of Persian Gulf shoreline. As of 2018, it has a population of 55,052.[206]

Address Beach Resort and Address Beach Residences

The structure is a set of two towers connected at the bottom and with a sky bridge at the top which connects the 63rd through to the 77th levels. The sky bridge houses luxury apartments on the world's highest occupiable sky bridge floor, at 294.36 metres. Known as Jumeirah Gate, it opened in December 2020 and is situated along the beach. The towers have the world's highest infinity pool in a building, on the roof, at a height of 293.906 metres.[207]

Transportation

Dubai Metro
Dubai Metro is the first kind of rail transportation in the UAE, and is the Arabian Peninsula's first urban train network[208]
Dubai – International Airport
Dubai International Airport is the busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic.[209]
Dubai Tram
Dubai Tram is one of the first completely Ground-level power supply-based tram networks in the world[210]
Abra on Dubai Creek
Abras and dhows are traditional modes of waterway transport
Dubai Bus
Dubai Bus in Dubai Marina

Transport in Dubai is controlled by the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA), an agency of the government of Dubai, formed by royal decree in 2005.[211] The public transport network has in the past faced congestion and reliability issues which a large investment programme has addressed, including over AED 70 billion of improvements planned for completion by 2020, when the population of the city is projected to exceed 3.5 million.[212] In 2009, according to Dubai Municipality statistics, there were an estimated 1,021,880 cars in Dubai.[213] In January 2010, the number of Dubai residents who use public transport stood at 6%.[214]

Road

Five main routes – E 11 (Sheikh Zayed Road), E 311 (Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Road), E 44 (Dubai-Hatta Highway), E 77 (Dubai-Al Habab Road) and E 66 (Oud Metha Road, Dubai-Al Ain Road, or Tahnoun Bin Mohammad Al Nahyan Road)[215] – run through Dubai, connecting the city to other towns and emirates. Additionally, several important intra-city routes, such as D 89 (Al Maktoum Road/Airport Road), D 85 (Baniyas Road), D 75 (Sheikh Rashid Road), D 73 (Al Dhiyafa Road now named as 2 December street), D 94 (Jumeirah Road) and D 92 (Al Khaleej/Al Wasl Road) connect the various localities in the city. The eastern and western sections of the city are connected by Al Maktoum Bridge, Al Garhoud Bridge, Al Shindagha Tunnel, Business Bay Crossing and Floating Bridge.[216]

ドバイの公共バス輸送システムはRTAによって運営されています。バスシステムは、2008年に140の路線を運行し、1億900万人以上を輸送しました。2010年末までに、市内全域で2,100台のバスが運行される予定です。[217] 2006年、運輸当局は500台のエアコン付き(A / C)旅客バス待合所の建設を発表し、公共バスの使用を促進するために首長国全体でさらに1,000台を計画した。[218]

すべてのタクシーサービスはRTAによって認可されています。ドバイで認可されたタクシーは、クリーム色のボディワークの色とオペレーターを識別するさまざまな屋根の色で簡単に識別できます。RTAの一部門であるドバイタクシーコーポレーションは最大のオペレーターであり、赤い屋根のタクシーを持っています。5つの民間事業者があります:メトロタクシー(オレンジ色の屋根)。ネットワークタクシー(黄色い屋根); 車のタクシー(青い屋根); アラビアタクシー(屋上緑化); とシティタクシー(紫色の屋根)。さらに、女性と子供専用の女性ドライバーによる女性と家族のタクシーサービス(ピンクの屋根)があります。首長国内には3000を超えるタクシーが運行しており、毎日平均192,000回の移動があり、約385,000人が乗車しています。2009年には、タクシーの旅は7000万回を超え、約1億4,045万人の乗客にサービスを提供しました。[219] [220][221]

Air

Dubai International Airport (IATA: DXB), the hub for Emirates, serves the city of Dubai and other emirates in the country. The airport is the third-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic and the world's busiest airport by international passenger traffic.[222] In addition to being an important passenger traffic hub, the airport is the sixth-busiest cargo airport in world, handling 2.37 million tons of cargo in 2014.[223] Emirates is the national airline of Dubai. As of 2018, it operated internationally serving over 150 destinations in over 70 countries across six continents.[224]

The development of Al Maktoum International Airport (IATA: DWC) was announced in 2004. The first phase of the airport, featuring one A380 capable runway, 64 remote stands, one cargo terminal with an annual capacity for 250,000 tonnes of cargo and a passenger terminal building designed to accommodate five million passengers per year, has been opened.[225] When completed, Dubai World Central-Al Maktoum International will be the largest airport in the world with five runways, four terminal buildings and capacity for 160 million passengers and 12 million tons of cargo.[226]

Metro rail

Dubai Metro consists of two lines (Red line and Green line) which run through the financial and residential areas of the city. It was opened in September 2009.[227] UK-based international service company Serco is responsible for operating the metro.

The Red Line, which has 29 stations (4 underground, 24 elevated and 1 at ground level) running from Rashidiya Station to UAE Xchange Station in Jebel Ali, is the major backbone line. The Green Line, running from the Etisalat Station to the Creek Station, has 20 stations (8 underground, 12 elevated). An extension to the Red Line connecting the EXPO 2020 site is due to open in April 2020. A Blue and a Purple Line have also been planned. The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula.[208] The trains are fully automated and driverless.[citation needed]

Palm Jumeirah Monorail

モノレール本土へパームジュメイラを結ぶ線は、2009年4月30日開かれた[228]それは中東で最初のモノレールです。[229]に接続する延長レッドラインドバイメトロが計画されています。[230]

トラム

アルスフーにある路面電車は、ドバイマリーナからブルジュアルアラブとエミレーツモールまでアルスフーロードに沿って14.5 km(9.0マイル)走り、ドバイメトロのレッドラインとの2つのインターチェンジがあります。最初のセクションは、11の駅にサービスを提供する10.6 km(6.6マイル)の長さのトラム路線で、2014年に開通しました。[231]

High speed rail

Dubai has announced it will complete a link of the UAE high-speed rail system which will eventually hook up with the whole GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council, also known as Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf) and then possibly Europe. The High-Speed Rail will serve passengers and cargo.[232]

Waterways

There are two major commercial ports in Dubai, Port Rashid and Port Jebel Ali. Port Jebel Ali is the world's largest man-made harbour, the biggest port in the Middle East,[233] and the 7th-busiest port in the world.[143] One of the more traditional methods of getting across Bur Dubai to Deira is by abras, small boats that ferry passengers across the Dubai Creek, between abra stations in Bastakiya and Baniyas Road.[234]海運庁はドバイ水上バスシステムも導入しています。水上バスは、小川の向こう側の選択された目的地を横断する完全に空調されたボートサービスです。ドバイの観光用水上バス施設を利用することもできます。水上輸送システムに最近追加されたのは水上タクシーです。[235]

Dubai is increasingly activating its logistics and ports in order to participate in trade between Europe and China or Africa in addition to oil transport. For this purpose, ports such as Port of Jebel Ali or Mina Rashid are rapidly expanded and investments are made in their technology. The country is historically and currently, part of the Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the south via the southern tip of India to Mombasa, from there through the Red Sea via the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, there to the Upper Adriatic region to the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its rail connections to Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the North Sea[236] [237] [238]

文化

オールドドバイ、デイラのドバイスパイススークでの伝統的な中東のスパイス

The UAE culture mainly revolves around traditional Arab culture. The influence of Arab and Islamic culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine, and lifestyle is very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques that are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday and Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday and Sunday.[239] Prior to 2006, the weekend was Thursday-Friday.

Because of the touristic approach of many Dubaites in the entrepreneurial sector and the high standard of living, Dubai's culture has gradually evolved towards one of luxury, opulence, and lavishness with a high regard for leisure-related extravagance.[240][241][242] Annual entertainment events such as the Dubai Shopping Festival[243] (DSF) and Dubai Summer Surprises (DSS) attract over 4 million visitors from across the region and generate revenues in excess of $2.7 billion.[244][245]

Meydan Beach Club, Jumeirah

Dubai is known for its nightlife. Clubs and bars are found mostly in hotels because of liquor laws. The New York Times described Dubai as "the kind of city where you might run into Michael Jordan at the Buddha Bar or stumble across Naomi Campbell celebrating her birthday with a multiday bash".[246]

The city's cultural imprint as a small, ethnically homogeneous pearling community was changed with the arrival of other ethnic groups and nationals—first by the Iranians in the early 1900s, and later by Indians and Pakistanis in the 1960s. In 2005, 84% of the population of metropolitan Dubai was foreign-born, about half of them from India.[120]

ドバイの主要な休日には、イードアルフィトルのマーク終わりラマダン、そしてナショナルデー(12月2日)、アラブ首長国連邦のマーク形成を。[247]

The International Festivals and Events Association (IFEA), the world's leading events trade association, has crowned Dubai as IFEA World Festival and Event City, 2012 in the cities category with a population of more than one million.[248][249] Large shopping malls in the city, such as Deira City Centre, Mirdiff City Centre, BurJuman, Mall of the Emirates, Dubai Mall (the world's largest) and Ibn Battuta Mall as well as traditional Dubai Gold Souk and other souks attract shoppers from the region.[250]

Cuisine

Arabic cuisine is very popular and is available everywhere in the city, from the small shawarma diners in Deira and Al Karama to the restaurants in Dubai's hotels. Fast food, South Asian, and Chinese cuisines are also very popular and are widely available. The sale and consumption of pork is regulated and is sold only to non-Muslims, in designated areas of supermarkets and airports.[251] Similarly, the sale of alcoholic beverages is regulated. A liquor permit is required to purchase alcohol; however, alcohol is available in bars and restaurants within hotels.[252] Shisha and qahwa boutiques are also popular in Dubai. Biryaniドバイ全体で人気のある料理でもあり、ドバイにいるインド人とパキスタン人の間で最も人気があります。[253]

初開催のドバイフードフェスティバルは2014年2月21日から3月15日まで開催されました。[254]ビジョン誌によると、このイベントは地域の美食の首都としてのドバイの地位を高め、祝うことを目的としていました。このフェスティバルは、ドバイで提供されているさまざまな味と料理を紹介するように設計されており、フェスティバルでは200を超える国籍の料理が紹介されています。[255]次のフードフェスティバルは2017年2月23日から2017年3月11日まで開催された。[256]

エンターテインメント

Dubai Opera opened its door on 31 August 2016 in Downtown Dubai with a performance by Plácido Domingo. The venue is a 2000-seat, multifunctional performing arts centre able to host not only theatrical shows, concerts and operas, but also weddings, gala dinners, banquets and conferences.

Arabic movies are popular in Dubai and the UAE. Since 2004, the city has hosted the annual Dubai International Film Festival which serves as a showcase for Arab and Middle Eastern film making talent.[257] The Dubai Desert Rock Festival was also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists but is no longer held in Dubai.

One of the lesser-known sides of Dubai is the importance of its young contemporary art gallery scene. Since 2008, the leading contemporary art galleries such as Carbon 12 Dubai,[258] Green Art, gallery Isabelle van den Eynde, and The Third Line have brought the city onto the international art map. Art Dubai, the growing and reputable art fair of the region is as well a major contributor of the contemporary art scene's development.[259]

Media

Many international news agencies such as Reuters, APTN, Bloomberg L.P. and Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC) operate in Dubai Media City and Dubai Internet City. Additionally, several local network television channels such as Dubai One (formerly Channel 33), and Dubai TV (EDTV) provide programming in English and Arabic respectively. Dubai is also the headquarters for several print media outlets. Dar Al Khaleej, Al Bayan and Al Ittihad are the city's largest circulating Arabic language newspapers,[260] while Gulf News, Khaleej Times, Khaleej Mag and 7days are the largest circulating English newspapers.[261]

Etisalat, the government-owned telecommunications provider, held a virtual monopoly over telecommunication services in Dubai prior to the establishment of other, smaller telecommunications companies such as Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company (EITC—better known as Du) in 2006. Internet was introduced into the UAE (and therefore Dubai) in 1995. The network has an Internet bandwidth of 7.5 Gbit/s with capacity of 49 STM1 links.[262] Dubai houses two of four Domain Name System (DNS) data centres in the country (DXBNIC1, DXBNIC2).[263] Censorship is common in Dubai and used by the government to control content that it believes violates the cultural and political sensitivities of Emirates.[264] Homosexuality, drugs, and the theory of evolution are generally considered taboo.[252][265]

Internet content is regulated in Dubai. Etisalat uses a proxy server to filter Internet content that the government deems to be inconsistent with the values of the country, such as sites that provide information on how to bypass the proxy; sites pertaining to dating, gay and lesbian networks, and pornography; and previously, sites originating from Israel.[266] Emirates Media and Internet (a division of Etisalat) notes that as of 2002, 76% of Internet users are male. About 60% of Internet users were Asian, while 25% of users were Arab. Dubai enacted an Electronic Transactions and Commerce Law in 2002 which deals with digital signatures and electronic registers. It prohibits Internet Service Providers (ISPs) from disclosing information gathered in providing services.[267]刑法には、ポルノへのデジタルアクセスを禁止する公式規定が含まれています。ただし、サイバー犯罪やデータ保護には対応していません。[268]

スポーツ

Football and cricket are the most popular sports in Dubai. Three football teams (Al Wasl FC, Shabab Al-Ahli Dubai FC and Al Nasr SC) represent Dubai in UAE Pro-League.[252] Al-Wasl have the second-most championships in the UAE League, after Al Ain. Dubai also hosts both the annual Dubai Tennis Championships and The Legends Rock Dubai tennis tournaments, as well as the Dubai Desert Classic golf tournament and the DP World Tour Championship, all of which attract sports stars from around the world. The Dubai World Cupサラブレッド競馬は、で毎年開催されるメイダン競馬場。ドバイはまた、ラグビー7ドバイ2015セブンズワールドシリーズイベントの写真の一部である伝統的なラグビーユニオントーナメントドバイセブンズを主催しています。2009年、ドバイは2009年ラグビーワールドカップセブンズを主催しました。オートレースもドバイの大きなスポーツであり、ドバイオートドロームは年間を通じて多くのオートレースイベントの本拠地です。また、レース愛好家やレクリエーションライダーに人気の、最先端の屋内および屋外のカートドロームも備えています。インドプレミアリーグのクリケット大会は、COVID-19のパンデミックにより、2020年にUAEで開催されました。

ドレスコード

エミラティの服装は、アラビア半島のいくつかの国の典型です。女性は通常ヒジャーブ(首と頭の一部を覆うヘッドスカーフ-髪と耳のすべて)が付いた長い黒いローブであるアバヤ」を着用します。一部の女性は、口と鼻を覆い、目を露出させたままにするニカーブ追加する場合があります。男性は、「ディッシュダシャ」または「トーブ」(長い白いローブ)とも呼ばれる「カンドゥラ」とスカーフ(ゴトラ)を着用します。アラブ首長国連邦の伝統的なクーフィーヤは白で、黒い紐に似たエガルと呼ばれるアクセサリーで固定されています。若いエミラティスは、赤と白のクーフィーヤを着て、ターバンのように頭に巻くことを好みます。[citation needed]

The above dress code is never compulsory and many people wear western or other eastern clothing without any problems, but prohibitions on wearing "indecent clothing" or revealing too much skin are aspects of the UAE to which Dubai's visitors are expected to conform, and are encoded in Dubai's criminal law.[269] The UAE has enforced decency regulations in most public places, aside from waterparks, beaches, clubs, and bars.[270]

Education

The school system in Dubai follows that of the United Arab Emirates. As of 2009, there are 79 public schools run by the Ministry of Education that serve Emiratis and expatriate Arab people as well as 207 private schools.[271] The medium of instruction in public schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, while most of the private schools use English as their medium of instruction. Currently only the Swiss International Scientific School in Dubai claims to offer parallel streams in different languages - bi-lingual English/French or English/ German.[272] Most private schools cater to one or more expatriate communities.[273]

Some 36 schools offer an international education using the one or more of the four International Baccalaureate Programmes for students aged 3–19.[274] Currently, 15 schools[275] have introduced the IB Career-related Programme that can be combined with a vocational qualification such as a BTEC.[276]

While there are more UK curriculum based schools in Dubai than any other, more students attend an Indian curriculum school, which tend to be considerably larger, and lower cost. There are 34 Indian curriculum schools in the emirate,[277] most of which offer the CBSE, and just a handful the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education Indian syllabus. Examples of Indian curriculum schools include IHS, DPS, DMHS. There are a small number of Pakistani schools offering FBISE curriculum for expatriate children in Dubai.[citation needed]

A total of 18 schools offer British primary education up to the age of eleven.[278] There are 64 schools that offer a variation of a UK curriculum style secondary education,[279] either a pure GCSE and A-Level offering, or increasingly I/GCSE up to 16, and then the IB Diploma post-16. Currently, no school in the UAE offers the choice of IB or A-Level at 16, but several schools have said they will do in the future. British style eleven-to-eighteen secondary schools offering General Certificate of Secondary Education and A-Levels include Dubai Gem Private School, Dubai British School, English Language School Pvt. Some schools, such as The American School of Dubai, also offer the curriculum of the United States.[280]

Dubai has a very active education regulator, the KHDA, which is best known for its school ratings, but actually has a wide mandate[281] when it comes to school improvement in the emirate. Its inspections truly matter, and there is no doubt that school quality has improved as a result of its implementation. A total of 17 schools are currently rated Outstanding (2020), and a further 40 rated Very Good. Parents in general rate schools highly.[282]

The most well-known universities in Dubai are American University in Dubai, Hult International Business School, Al Ghurair University, The American College of Dubai, University of Wollongong in Dubai, British University in Dubai, Murdoch University Dubai offering courses in Business Administration, Engineering, Architecture and Interior Design. American University in Dubai is one of the six UAE universities featured in QS World University Rankings 2014/2015.[283] In 2013 Synergy University Dubai Campus[284] opened its campus in Jumeirah Lakes Towers being a first University in Dubai to be located outside of Educational Zones (Knowledge Village or Academic City).[285]

Healthcare

Healthcare in Dubai can be divided into two different sectors: public and private. Each Emirate is able to dictate healthcare standards according to their internal laws, although the standards and regulations rarely have extreme differences. Public hospitals in Dubai were first built in the late 1950s and continued to grow with public health initiatives. There are now 28 hospitals in Dubai, 6 public and 22 private, with 3 more major hospitals scheduled to be built by 2025.[286]

By the end of 2012, there were also a total of 1,348 medical clinics, 97% of which are operated privately.[287] In 2015, Dubai phased in mandatory health insurance for all inhabitants, thereby leading to increased demand for medical services.[288]

Twin towns – sister cities

Dubai is twinned with:[289]

See also

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Further reading

  • Syed Ali. Dubai: Gilded Cage (Yale University Press; 2010) 240 pages. Focuses on the Arab emirate's treatment of foreign workers.
  • Heiko Schmid: Economy of Fascination: Dubai and Chicago as Themed Urban Landscapes, Berlin, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-443-37014-5.
  • John M. Smith: Dubai The Maktoum Story, Norderstedt 2007, ISBN 3-8334-4660-9.

External links