DR-DOS

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DR-DOS
DeviceLogics DR-DOS 8.0 720x400.png
DeviceLogics DR-DOS 8.0
デベロッパー
OSファミリーDOS
動作状態製造中止
ソースモデル混合; 主にクローズドソース、一部のバージョンはオープンソース
初回リリース1988年5月28日; 33年前 (1988-05-28)
最新のリリース7.01.08 / 2011年7月21日; 10年前 (2011-07-21)
で利用可能英語、ドイツ語、フランス語、イタリア語、スペイン語、日本語の古いバージョン
プラットフォームx86
カーネルタイプモノリシックカーネル
デフォルトの
ユーザーインターフェイス
コマンドラインインターフェイスCOMMAND.COM
ライセンス専有
公式サイトdrdos .com(2018年以降廃止

DR-DOSは、(のように書かDR DOSまでのバージョンでは、ハイフンなし、および6.0を含む)であるオペレーティングシステムDOSのために書かれた家族、IBM PC -互換 パソコンこれは、もともとによって開発されたゲイリーA. Kildallデジタルリサーチと由来並行PC DOSの高度な後継者だっ6.0、CP / M-86所有権が変更されるように、種々の以降のバージョンを含めた名前を用いて製造したノベルDOSおよびカルデラOpenDOS

歴史

CP / Mの起源

デジタルリサーチのオリジナルCP / M 8ビット用のIntel 8080 -とZ-80ベースのシステムが生み出した数々のスピンオフ版、最も注目すべきはCP / M-86のIntel 8086 / 8088プロセッサの家族。 CP / Mは市場を支配し、非独占的なアーキテクチャのパーソナルコンピュータの大部分とともに出荷されましたが、1981年IBM PCは、最終的には大規模な変化となるものの始まりをもたらしました。

IBMは当初、CP / Mのx86バージョンを求めてDigitalResearchにアプローチしました。しかし、契約に関して意見の相違があり、IBMは撤回しました。代わりに、シアトルコンピュータプロダクツ(SCP)から別のオペレーティングシステム86-DOSを購入したマイクロソフトとの契約が成立しました。これがMicrosoftMS -DOSIBMPCDOSになりました。 86-DOSのコマンド構造とアプリケーションプログラミングインターフェイスは、CP / Mのそれを模倣しました。 Digital Researchは、PC DOS / MS-DOSがCP / Mに類似しすぎていると主張して、法的措置をとると脅迫しました。 IBMは、DigitalResearchのx86バージョンのCP / M、CP / M-86をPCDOSと一緒に販売することに同意することで解決しました。ただし、PCDOSはUS $で販売されましたCP / M-86が240ドルの値札を持っていた間40。CP / M-86を購入するために6倍の費用をかける準備をしているPC購入者の割合は非常に少なく、互換性のあるアプリケーションソフトウェアの入手可能性は、最初は決定的にDigitalResearchに有利でしたが一時的なものでした。[2]

Digital Researchは、CP / M-86とそのマルチタスクマルチユーザー後継機であるMP / M-86コンカレントCP / M-86を宣伝するために長い間敗北した戦いを戦い、最終的にはMicrosoft-IBMのリードを打ち負かすことはできないと判断しました。アプリケーションソフトウェアが利用できるようになったため、コンカレントCP / M-86を変更して、MS-DOSおよびPCDOSと同じアプリケーションを実行できるようにしました。

これは1983年12月に公開され[3]、1984年3月にコンカレントDOS 3.1(別名CDOSとBDOS 3.1)としてハードウェアベンダーに出荷されました[4]コンカレントDOSは何年にもわたってさまざまなフレーバーで進化し続け、最終的にマルチユーザーDOSおよびREAL / 32になりましたが、デスクトップ市場向けに特別に調整されておらず、シングルユーザーアプリケーションには高すぎました。したがって、時間の経過とともに、製品を脇に置くための2つの試みが行われました。

1985年に、デジタル研究開発DOSプラス1.02.1、剥離ダウンとのシングルユーザー誘導体変性同時DOS 4.15.0両方のプラットフォームのためのアプリケーションを実行し、そしていくつかのタスク間の許容切り替え[5] [6]と同じようオリジナルのCP / M-86。そのDOS互換性は制限されており、Digital Researchは別の試みを行いましたが、今回はネイティブDOSシステムです。[6]この新しいディスクオペレーティングシステムは、1988年にDRDOSとして発売されました。

DRIはパシフィックグローブに拠点を置き、後に米国カリフォルニア州モントレーに拠点を置きましたが、DOS Plusの作業は英国のバークシャー州ニューベリー始まり、そこでDigital ResearchEuropeは1983年からOEMサポートグループを置いていました。[nb1] 1986年から、コンカレントDOS 386およびXMマルチユーザーDOS、DR DOS、およびPalmDOSでのオペレーティングシステムの動作のほとんどは、バークシャー州ハンガーフォードにあるDigitalResearchのEuropeanDevelopment Center(EDC)で行われました[nb 1]その後、ドイツのミュンヘンにあるDigital ResearchGmbHによっていくつかの作業が行われました。

最初のDRDOSバージョン

いくつかの要求通りのOEM、デジタルリサーチは、1987年にMS-DOSで左の欠点に対処する新しいDOSオペレーティングシステムを開発する計画を開始した[7]特に重要なので数百万ドルの契約だっ和彦「ケイ」西ASCII社は、以前はマイクロソフトの日本のOEM市場の開拓に尽力していた。[6]最初のDRDOSバージョンは1988年5月28日にリリースされました。[7]バージョン番号はMS-DOSに関連する機能を反映するように選択されました。一般に公開された最初のバージョンはDRDOS 3.31 [7]、大容量ディスクをサポートするCompaq MS-DOS 3.31FAT16B)に匹敵する機能を提供していました。別名「BIGDOS」)。 DR DOS3.31はそれ自体を「IBMPCDOS 3.31」として報告し、内部BDOS(ベーシックディスクオペレーティングシステム)カーネルバージョンは6.0、シングルユーザーの性質として報告されました。これは、マルチタスクおよびマルチユーザー機能を備えたコンカレントDOS6.0の派生物としての起源を反映しています。また、CP / M APIサポートが削除され、XIOSがIBM互換のDOS-BIOSに置き換えられました。システムファイルの名前はDRBIOS.SYS(DOS-BIOSの場合)およびDRBDOS.SYS(BDOSカーネルの場合)で、使用されたディスクOEMラベルは「DIGITAL␠」でした。

DR DOSは、コマンドラインヘルプ、詳細なエラーメッセージ、高度なコマンドライン履歴と編集(HISTORYディレクティブ)を備えた拡張コマンドラインツールをいくつか提供し、カーネルに直接組み込まれたファイルとディレクトリのパスワードをサポートしました。[8]ライセンスもMS-DOSよりも安価で、最初からROM化可能でした。 DR DOSのROMバージョンは、ROS(ROMオペレーティングシステム)とも呼ばれていました。[9] DRIは、サードパーティのDOSに関心のある多くのPCメーカーからアプローチされ、システムのいくつかの更新を促しました。

現時点では、MS-DOSはハードウェアにバンドルされているOEMのみが利用できました。その結果、DR DOSは、バージョン3.4x以降の通常の小売チャネルを通じて消費者が購入できるようになったときに、すぐに成功を収めました

既知のバージョンは、DR DOS 3.31(BDOS 6.0、1988年6月、OEMのみ)、3.32(BDOS 6.0、1988年8月17日、OEMのみ)、3.33(BDOS 6.0、1988年9月1日、OEMのみ)、3.34(BDOS 6.0、OEMのみ)です。 )、3.35(BDOS 6.0、1988年10月21日、OEMのみ)、3.40(BDOS 6.0、1989年1月25日)、3.41(BDOS 6.3、1989年6月、OEMおよび小売)。MS-DOSと同様に、それらのほとんどは、さまざまなハードウェア用にいくつかのバリエーションで作成されました。ほとんどのOEMはDRDOSの名前指定を維持しましたが、1つのOEM [どれですか?]バージョンはEZ-DOS3.41と呼ばれていることが知られています。

DR DOS 5.0

DR DOSバージョン5.0(コードネーム「Leopard」)は1990年5月にリリースされ、[7]互換性のために「PCDOS 3.31」として報告されていますが、内部的にはシングルユーザーのBDOS6.4カーネルを示しています。 (バージョン4は、比較的人気のないMS-DOS 4.0に関連付けられないようにスキップされました。)これにより、GEMベースのGUIファイル管理シェルであるViewMAXが導入されました[10] [11] ViewMAXの起動画面には、「デジタルリサーチ-コンピュータを機能させる」というスローガンが表示されます。[12] [13] [14] DR DOS5.0も特許取得済みのBatteryMAXを導入しました電源管理システム、バンドルされたディスクキャッシングソフトウェア(DRCACHE)、リモートファイル転送ツール(FILELINK)、カーソル形状構成ユーティリティ(CURSOR)、および大幅に改善されたメモリ管理システム(MemoryMAX)を提供しました。[10] [11]互換性の目的で、DR DOS 5.0システムファイルの名前はIBMBIO.COM(DOS-BIOSの場合)およびIBMDOS.COM(BDOSカーネルの場合)になりました。ブートセクターの高度なローダーにより、ディスク上のどこにでも物理的に保存できます。[11]ブートセクターのOEMラベルが「IBM␠␠3.3」に変更されました。

キャリーIブックサイズのディスクレスワークステーションの正面図と背面図。DRDOS5.0にバンドルされており、Intel 80286プロセッサに基づいており、台湾のFlytechTechnologyによって製造されています。1991

DR DOS 5.0は、高負荷機能を備えた最初のDOSでした。カーネルとディスクバッファなどのデータ構造は、リアルモードでアクセス可能な拡張メモリの最初の64 KBであるハイメモリエリア(HMA)に再配置できますこれにより、PCのRAMの最初の640 KB(すべてのDOSアプリケーションが実行される領域)である、同等の重要な「ベース」メモリまたはコンベンショナルメモリが解放されました[11]

さらに、Intel 80386マシンでは、DR DOSのEMSメモリマネージャにより、オペレーティングシステムがDOSデバイスドライバを上位メモリブロックにロードできるようになり、ベースメモリがさらに解放されました。

DR DOS 5.0は、このような機能をベースOSに統合した最初のDOSでした(QEMMなどのサードパーティソフトウェアを使用して、デバイスドライバを上位メモリブロックロードすることはすでに可能でした)。)。これにより、サポートされているチップセットを備えた286システムおよび386システムで、他のどのDOSよりも大幅に多くの空きコンベンショナルメモリを提供できるようになりました。マウス、マルチメディアハードウェア、およびネットワークスタックのドライバがロードされると、MS-DOS / PC DOSマシンには通常300〜400 KBの空きコンベンショナルメモリしかなく、1980年代後半のソフトウェアを実行するには少なすぎます。これとは対照的に、DR DOS 5.0は、手動で少し調整するだけで、これらすべてをロードし、コンベンショナルメモリをすべて空けておくことができます。640KBのうち620KBもの必要なDOSデータ構造が可能になります。 MEMMAX + Vを使用すると、コンベンショナルメモリ領域をグラフィックアダプタカードの未使用部分に拡張することもでき、通常はさらに64〜96KBの空きDOSメモリが提供されます。

DR DOSは多くのコンベンショナルメモリを利用できるままにしていたため、特定のアドレスラッピング技術を利用する一部の古いプログラムは、最初の64 KBセグメント内のメモリが予期せず(またはMS-DOSでは「不可能に」)ロードされたため、正しく実行できませんでした。 (「ローメモリとして知られています)。したがって、DR DOS5.0の新しいMEMMAX-Lコマンドは、プログラムがこの障壁を超えてロードされるように、メモリマップの開始時にメモリのチャンク事前に割り当てることでこれを回避しました(ただし、使用可能なコンベンショナルメモリは少なくなります)。デフォルトでは、MEMMAXは+ L用に構成されているため、アプリケーションは追加のメモリーを利用できます。

DR DOS 6.0 / Microsoftとの競争

Digital Research DR DOS6.0起動ディスク
Novell DR DOS6.0マニュアル

DOSの分野での激しい競争に直面して、マイクロソフトは1990年5月にまだリリースされていないMS-DOS 5.0の発表で応えました。[7]これは1991年6月にリリースされ[7]、それらと同様の高度な機能が含まれますDRDOSの。[15]メモリ管理におけるDRの機能強化の一致が含まれていました。[15]

ほぼ即座に1991年9月、DigitalResearchはコードネーム「Buxton」のDRDOS 6.0 [7]で応答しました。 DR DOS 6.0は、内部ではすでにBDOSレベル6.7ですが、互換性の目的で、通常のDOSアプリケーションに「IBMPCDOS3.31」として報告します。これはSuperStorのオンザフライディスク圧縮にバンドルされおり、利用可能なハードディスク容量を最大化し、Roger A.Grossによるファイル削除の追跡および削除解除機能を提供します。

DR DOS 6.0には、TASKMAX [16]という名前のタスクスイッチャーも含まれており、複数のアプリケーションを同時に実行するための業界標準のタスク切り替えAPI [17]サポートしています。先制的にマルチタスクされた仮想DOSマシンでDOSアプリケーションを実行するDigitalResearchのマルチユーザーDOS(マルチユーザー製品ラインのコンカレントDOSの後継)とは対照的に、DR DOS6.0タスクスイッチャーはバックグラウンドアプリケーションをフリーズします。前景。 x86マシンで実行されていましたが、286台以上のマシンでXMSメモリにスワップできました。[16] TASKMAXは、アプリケーション間のコピー&ペースト機能をサポートしていました[16] タスクスイッチャーAPIを介して、ViewMAXなどのグラフィカルユーザーインターフェイス[16]またはPC / GEOSは、タスクマネージャーメニューとして登録し、それによってTASKMAXテキストモードメニューを置き換えることができるため、ユーザーはGUI内からタスクを切り替えることができます。

MicrosoftはMS-DOS6.0で応答しましたが、これもDR DOS6.0のいくつかの機能と一致していました。

1991年12月、プレリリースバージョンのWindows 3.1は、Microsoft以外のDOSを検出した場合、致命的ではないエラーメッセージを返すことが判明しました。[7]このチェックはAARDコードとして知られるようになりました[18] [19] Digital ResearchがDRDOS 6.0にパッチを適用して、Windows 3.1ベータ版のAARDコード「信頼性チェック」を回避するのは簡単なことでした。メモリ内の2つの内部テーブルの順序を変更しました(機能は変更しません)。 、および「ビジネスアップデート」という名前のパッチが適用されたバージョンは、Windows3.1のリリースから6週間以内に公開されました。[20] [21] [22] [23]検出コードを無効にすると、WindowsはDRDOSおよびその後継のNovellDOSで完全に動作しました。コードは存在していましたが、リリースされたバージョンのWindows3.1では無効になっています。[24]

1992年7月、Digital Research Japanは、DR DOS6.0の日本語DOS / V互換バージョンであるDRDOS 6.0 / Vをリリースしました[25] [26]韓国語版も利用可能だったようです。

PalmDOS

1992年にDigitalResearchは、まだ古い名前であるが、1991年7月にNovellによってすでに購入されており、[27] [28]は、コードネーム「Merlin」のスピンオフ製品にも着手し、後にNetWare PalmDOS1としてリリースされました。その名前が示すように、新興のPalmtop / PDA市場を対象とした非常にリソースの少ないDRDOS6.0派生物でした。[29]

PalmDOSは、エミュレーションの代わりにネイティブDOS互換の内部データ構造を備えた新しいBDOS7.0カーネルを搭載したファミリで最初のオペレーティングシステムでした。 CP / Mカーネル上のDOSエミュレーションを真のDOS互換カーネルに置き換えることは、DOSの内部データ構造の一部を使用する一部のアプリケーションとの互換性を向上させるのに大いに役立ち、カーネルコードの常駐サイズを削減するための鍵でもありました。さらに、PDA市場の特定の要件。一方、本物のCurrent Directory StructureCDS)を導入すると作業ディレクトリの深さに制限が課せられました。(MS-DOS / PC DOSのように)66文字までですが、DR DOSの以前の問題では、絶対パスではなく親ディレクトリへの相対リンクとしてディレクトリが内部編成されているため、そのような制限はありませんでした。 PalmDOSは、カーネルを小さく保ち、Windowsとの互換性の問題が発生しないようにするために、アプリケーションに「PC DOS3.31」として報告しました。Windowsとの互換性の問題は、5.0以降のすべてのDOSバージョンにDOSMGRAPIが実装されることを期待してます。

PalmDOSは、ROM実行カーネルに加えて、PCMCIA PCカードDPMSサポート付き)、電源管理(BatteryMAX、およびGrossによる特許取得済みの動的アイドル検出[30]を備え$ IDLE $デバイスドライバーなどの機能をパームトップタイプでサポートしていました。およびJohnP。Constant)、XIPExecute-In-Place)などを介してROMから保存および実行されるPIM(Personal Information Modules)アプリケーションのMINIMAXタスクスイッチャーサポート

PalmDOS用のPCMCIAスタックは、Ian HSCullimoreによって部分的に作成されました

Novell DOS 7 / Novellによる寄稿

A screenshot of Novell DOS 7
Novell DOS7の一般的なコマンドライン

ノベルDOSはしたノベル1991年にデジタルリサーチの買収後、NovellはDR DOSを販売期間中にDR DOS用コーポレーションの名前[31] [32] [28] [27] [33]それは一般的だった、機能と性能についてMS-DOSよりも少なくとも1つ前のリリース[34] 1993年に、PC DOS 6.1MS-DOS 6.2PC DOS 6.3は、 Novellのにより捏造されたDOS 7[35]

NovellCEOのRobertJ。Frankenbergの戦略には、「メジャートリミング」、トランザクションデータベースBtrieveなどの製品の売却NovellDOSWordPerfectのマルチメディアメインストリートの子供向けタイトルなどの他の製品の殺害が含まれていました。[36] NovellDOSおよびそのネットワークオペレーティングシステムであるNetWareで使用するためのStacElectronicsからのNovellライセンス技術[37] [38] Novellは、OpenLinuxディストリビューションにバンドルするDOSオペレーティングシステムを探してNovellにアプローチした後、1996年7月23日に製品ラインをCaldera売却しました[7]

マーク・パーケルは、1991年2月にノベルにデジタルリサーチを購入し、彼が「NovOS」として思い描いていたものを開発するよう促したと主張しました。[39] ノベルは、マイクロソフトの独占を打破するための包括的な戦略の手段としてDRの製品ラインを使用することを目的として、1991年7月にデジタルリサーチを実際に購入しました。 (これは、Novellにとって大規模で、最終的には悲惨な支出の一部でした。彼らは、ほぼ同時にWordPerfect Corporation、Borlandの製品の一部を購入し、Unixに多額の投資をしました。また、内部的に「Panther」と名付けられた、Microsoftの問題を抱えたMS-DOS 6.0を打ち負かすことを目的とした、計画された「DR DOS 7.0」は、Novellがオプションでロード可能なUnixのようなマルチユーザーセキュリティ拡張機能(ロードされた場合は、のようなファイルコマンドBACKUPDELPURGEMOVETOUCHTREEUNDELETEXATTRIBXCOPYXDELXDIRそうでない場合は無効/ Uサポート:nameコマンドラインオプションは、特定のユーザーまたはグループを選択して[40]マルチユーザーとの互換性DOS)と2つの新しいグラフィカルユーザーインターフェイス(ViewMAX 3、GEMの誘導体と、「スター・トレック」、Appleの真のポートシステム7.1は、「Vladivar」)という名前の新しいDR DOSのマルチタスクの下で実行します。

DR DOSが最終的に1993年12月に到着し(ローカライズされたバージョンが1994年3月にリリースされた)、Novell DOS 7(別名「NWDOS」)に名前が変更されたとき、これら3つのコンポーネントがなければ、一部の人にとってはがっかりしました。それはより大きく、いくつかの仕上げが欠けていました。[41]

ドイツでは、Novell DOS 7は、「Trau keinem DOS unter 7」(7未満のDOSは信用しないでください)というスローガンを掲げ、コンピュータ雑誌で無料のデモフロッピーを使って積極的に販売されました[42] [43]このキャンペーンはDOS市場の20%を対象としており、1994年2月までに約150万部が販売され、3000を超えるディーラーがこの製品の持ち運びに関心を示しました。[42] [43] Novell DOS 7は、さまざまなOEM、専用の通信販売店、および認定ディーラーを通じて入手できました。[42]

主な機能追加は、ピアツーピアネットワークシステムであるPersonal NetWare(PNW)でのNovellの2回目の試みでした[NB 2]これは、より良い、その前身、よりだったのNetWareライト(NWL)が、それは今ではサポートして人気の高まり、Microsoftのネットワーキングシステムとの互換性がありませんでしたWindows for WorkgroupsはOS / 2、およびWindows NTの。両方を同じPC上で共存させるには、かなりの量の手動構成が必要であり、PersonalNetWareはあまり成功しませんでした。

Since Novell DOS 7 implemented the DOSMGR API and internal data structures had been updated, its BDOS 7.2 kernel could report with a DOS version of 6.0 and OEM ID "IBM" without risking compatibility problems with Windows. Most tools would report this as "PC DOS 6.1", because IBM PC DOS 6.1 also reported as DOS 6.0 to applications.

Novell DOS 7 introduced much advanced memory management including new support for DPMI (DOS Protected Mode Interface) and DPMS (DOS Protected Mode Services) as well as more flexible loadhigh options. It also introduced support for "true" pre-emptive multitasking of multiple DOS applications in virtual DOS machines (VDM), a component originally named MultiMAX. This was similar to Multiuser DOS, but now on the basis of a natively DOS compatible environment, similar to Windows 386 Enhanced Mode, but without a GUI. By default, the bundled TASKMGR would behave similar to the former DR DOS 6.0 TASKMAX. However, if EMM386 was loaded with the option /MULTI, EMM386 would load a natively 32-bit 386 Protected Mode operating system core providing API support for pre-emptive multitasking, multi-threading, hardware virtualization and domain management of virtual DOS machines. This API could be used by DR DOS-aware applications. If TASKMGR was run later on, it would use this API to instance the current 16-bit DOS system environment, create virtual DOS machines and run applications in them instead of using its own Real Mode task-switcher support. The multitasker was compatible with Windows, so that tasks started before launching Windows could be seen as tasks under Windows as well.

Novell DOS 7 and Personal NetWare 1.0 also shipped with NetWars, a network-enabled 3D arcade game.

Novell DOS 7 and Personal NetWare required several bug-fix releases (D70xyy with x=language, yy=number) and were not completely stable when the next development occurred. With beta versions of Microsoft's "Chicago" (what would later become Windows 95) in sight, Novell wound down further development on Novell DOS 7 in September 1994[7] and stopped maintenance in January 1996 after more than 15 updates.

After Novell

When Caldera approached Novell looking for a DOS operating system to bundle with their OpenLinux distribution,[44] Novell sold the product line off to Caldera on 23 July 1996,[7] by which time it was of little commercial value to them.

Between the Caldera-owned DR-DOS and competition from IBM's PC DOS 6.3, Microsoft moved to make it impossible to use or buy the subsequent Windows version, Windows 95, with any DOS product other than their own. Claimed by them to be a purely technical change, this was later to be the subject of a major lawsuit brought in Salt Lake City by Caldera with the help of the Canopy Group.[7][45] Microsoft lawyers tried repeatedly to have the case dismissed but without success. Immediately after the completion of the pre-trial deposition stage (where the parties list the evidence they intend to present), there was an out-of-court settlement on 7 January 2000 for an undisclosed sum.[46][47] This was revealed in November 2009 to be $280 million.[48][49][50][47]

In August 1996, the US-based Caldera, Inc. was approached by Roger A. Gross, one of the original DR-DOS engineers, with a proposal to restart DR-DOS development and to make Windows 95 run on DR-DOS which would help the court case. Following a meeting in September 1996 in Lindon, Utah, USA, between Gross, Ransom H. Love, Bryan Wayne Sparks and Raymond John Noorda, Gross was hired and tasked to set up a new subsidiary in the UK.[nb 1] On 10 September 1996, Caldera announced the coming release of OpenDOS (COD) and their intent to also release the source code to the system,[44] and Caldera UK Ltd. was incorporated on 20 September 1996.[51][nb 1] Gross hired some of the original developers of the operating system from the Novell EDC as well as some new talents to continue work on the operating system in a converted barn at the periphery of Andover, Hampshire, UK,[nb 1] nearby the former Digital Research and Novell EDC.[nb 1] Besides other improvements and enhancements all over the system, a string of new key features were added subsequently over the course of the next two years, including a TCP/IP stack (derived from LAN WorkPlace for DOS / NetWare Mobile), a graphical 32-bit DOS Protected Mode HTML 3.2 web-browser DR-WebSpyder (originally based on source code from the Arachne web browser by Michal Polák) with LAN and modem dialup, a POSIX Pthreads extension to the multi-tasker by Andy T. Wightman, long filename (LONGNAME) support by Edward N. Hill, Jr., as well as LBA and FAT32 support (DRFAT32) by Matthias R. Paul. Gross also hired Andrew Schulman (who had been, with Geoff Chappell, instrumental in identifying the AARD code in 1992) to work as a consultant and, in Andover, assist Paul in his work on "WinGlue", a secret project to create a version of DR-DOS compatible with Windows 95, 98 and 98 SE and replace its MS-DOS 7.xx component.[52][53] This was demonstrated at CeBIT in March 1998,[52][53] and later, in a small team, developed into "WinBolt", both versions of DR-DOS, which remained unreleased as of 2018, but played an important role in the court case.[45][54][55][56][57]

Caldera UK officially released Caldera OpenDOS 7.01 on 3 February 1997, but this version was just Novell DOS 7 update 10 (as of December 1994) compiled only with the necessary adaptations to incorporate the new name in display messages as well as in environment variable and file names. It was missing a year's worth of patches which had been developed for the Novell DOS updates 11 (January 1995) to 15.2 (January 1996).[40] This was due to parts of the Novell DOS sources having been lost at Novell meanwhile.[58] Consequently, this version still reported an internal BDOS version of 7.2, identical to Novell DOS 7. The new suite also lacked the SETFIFO command, which had been added with one of the Novell DOS updates, as well as Fifth Generation's Search&Destroy virus scanner and FastBack Plus 2.0 utility, which previously came bundled with Novell DOS. Instead it came bundled with a newer version of PNUNPACK and brought a much advanced version of NetWars.[40]

Parts of OpenDOS 7.01 were released as open source[44] in form of the M.R.S. kit (for Machine Readable Sources) in May 1997, but with license terms mostly incompatible with existing open-source licenses. The source was then closed again as Gross felt this would undermine the commercial aspirations of the system.

After beta releases in September and November 1997, the next official release came in December 1997, with the name changed to Caldera DR-OpenDOS 7.02, soon followed by a further release in March 1998, when the DR-DOS name returned as Caldera DR-DOS 7.02,[59] now for the first time written with a hyphen. Version 7.02 (now reporting itself as BDOS 7.3) incorporated improved BIOS and BDOS issues, developed by Paul,[58][60] adding many new boot and configuration options, integrating many compatibility enhancements, bug-fixes and optimizations for size and speed, and re-implementing all fixes of the missing Novell DOS updates.[58][60] The BIOS improved the coexistence of DR-DOS with Windows 9x and its support for third-party disk compression drivers such as Microsoft's DriveSpace.[58][61][62] It introduced a diagnostics mode (activated by Scroll Lock),[58][61] integrated debugger support (with DEBUG=ON and a debugger loaded before or from within CONFIG.SYS)[58] and more flexible CONFIG.SYS tracing capabilities via the F5/F6/F7/F8 hotkeys and the TRACE and TIMEOUT commands,[58][63][61] thereby also improving the integration of alternative command line shells such as 4DOS.[58][61][64] Together with LOADER, SYS /DR:ext and the CHAIN directive, it brought enhanced multi-configuration support for DR/D/CONFIG.ext files[61][65] and came with enhancements to the BASIC-like CONFIG.SYS language for more powerful boot menus, convenient user interaction[61] and programmatical acting upon conditions (CPU386), return codes and error levels (ERROR, ONERROR).[58] It also allowed to change the SCROLLOCK, CAPSLOCK, INSERT and VERIFY settings as well as the SWITCHAR, YESCHAR, NOCHAR and RESUMECHAR characters.[58][61] Various behavioural details could be controlled with new parameters /Q (Quiet), /L (Lowercase), /Y (Yes) and /S (Switch) for SWITCHES.[58] Further, it provided optional support for a LPT4: device and allowed to configure the built-in COMx: and LPTx: devices as well as to change the PRN: and AUX: defaults.[58] The handling of environment variables in CONFIG.SYS was improved and new load-high facilities included such as the HIFILES/FILESHIGH and HIFCBS/FCBSHIGH options to relocate file handles and FCB structures into UMBs, which typically gave between 1 and 4 KB (and up to 15 KB) more free conventional memory compared to previous versions, or the HISHELL/SHELLHIGH SIZE directive to control the pre-allocation of HMA memory for COMMAND.COM, which helped to avoid memory fragmentation and thereby typically gave between 5 and 8 KB more continuous HMA memory for HMA-capable third-party drivers to work with in conjunction with third-party command line shells, which could not load into the HMA as COMMAND.COM with its /MH option.[58][63] At a reduced memory footprint version 7.02 also brought an enhanced NLS 4.xx sub-system by Paul to allow multiple, distributed and possibly user-configured COUNTRY.SYS files to be used by the system at the same time in a hierarchical model.[58][66][63][67] This also gave dynamic parser support for MS-DOS/PC DOS COUNTRY.SYS file formats in addition to DR-DOS' own COUNTRY.SYS formats,[58][66][63][67][68][69][70] and it introduced support for the ISO 8601 international date format[67][63] (including automatic detection) and the then-new Euro currency.[67][63] Some DR-DOS files such as IBMBIO.COM, IBMDOS.COM and COUNTRY.SYS carried misleading file extensions for compatibility reasons; with DR-DOS 7.02 they were enhanced to incorporate a fat binary-style safety feature devised by Paul so that they would exit gracefully when called inappropriately.[58][40][70][67] DR-DOS 7.02 was fully Year 2000 compliant and provided special support to work with buggy system BIOSes. It also came with an updated FDISK, which could partition and format FAT32 volumes (but not yet work with LBA). The sources of the Novell patches for the external tools and drivers had meanwhile been found in Germany and could thus be retro-fitted into the system as well, so that DR-DOS 7.02 finally not only caught up with Novell DOS 7, but was a true step forward. The release was followed by various updates in June, August and September 1998.

The updated internal BDOS version number introduced a new problem: some legacy third-party applications with special support for Novell DOS, which were no longer being updated, stopped working. SETVER already allowed Novell DOS to disguise itself as DOS versions by file name and globally and, specifying a magic sub-version of 255, it would even disable its own internal BDOS version check in order to cope with programs specifically probing for "DR-DOS".[40] The modified kernel and SETVER driver by Paul would, in an hierarchical model, also support load paths in order to distinguish between multiple executables of the same file name, and it introduced an extended mode, in which SETVER could not only fake DOS versions, but also BDOS kernel versions.[70] Sub-versions of 128 to 255 would be reported as DOS sub-versions 0 to 127 to applications, but with the BDOS version check disabled, while sub-versions 100 to 127 could be used to fake different BDOS versions,[70] whereas the DOS revision number (typically set to 0 in a static, pre-boot patchable data structure) would be taken as the reported sub-version instead, so that SETVER /G /X 6.114 would allow versions of DR-DOS since 7.02 to still report themselves as a "DOS 6.0" and with a faked BDOS version 7.2 (114 decimal = 72 hexadecimal), thereby masquerading as Novell DOS 7 / OpenDOS 7.01.[70]

While otherwise beneficial, the new HIFILES triggered a compatibility problem in the DOS-UP feature of the third-party memory manager QEMM 8, which was hard-wired to expect a chunk of five handle structures in conventional memory under DR-DOS (as with previous versions up to 7.01), whereas version 7.02 by design left eight handles in low memory when loading high files in order to maintain full compatibility with older versions of Windows 3.xx.[63][21] Compatibility with Windows for Workgroups 3.11 had not been affected by this. A maintenance fix was devised to patch a single byte in IBMBIO.COM in order to switch the behaviour and optionally re-invoke the old chunking. This freed some 150 bytes of conventional memory and enabled full compatibility with DOS-UP, but at the same time broke compatibility with older versions of Windows 3.xx when using the HIFILES feature, and vice versa. The patch named IBMBIO85.SCR continued to work with newer versions of DR-DOS.[58][71][72][73]

In August 1998[74] the US-based Caldera, Inc. created two new subsidiaries, Caldera Systems, Inc. for the Linux business, and Caldera Thin Clients, Inc. for the embedded and thin-client market.[75]

Another version, DR-DOS 7.03 (still with BDOS 7.3 and reporting itself to applications as "PC DOS 6.0" for compatibility purposes), was pre-released at Christmas 1998 and then officially released on 6 January 1999 by Caldera UK. It came with significantly improved memory managers (in particular enhanced DPMI support in conjunction with the multitasker) and other enhancements, such as added DEVLOAD and DRMOUSE utilities, but a changed OEM label in the boot sector of volumes formatted under DR-DOS could also cause problems under other operating systems (which can be circumvented by NOVOLTRK).[76][77] DR-DOS 7.03 would become the last version of DR-DOS also tailored for desktop use.

Caldera, Inc. wanted to relocate the DR-DOS business into the US and closed the highly successful UK operation[78][79] in February 1999[80] after Gross resigned and set up iCentrix to develop the MarioNet split web browser. Development was then moved into the US (which never worked out due to a total lack of expertise in this field at Caldera US),[80] and the DR-DOS line fell to its branch company, Caldera Thin Clients, which was renamed Lineo, Inc. on 20 July 1999.[81][78] DR-WebSpyder was renamed Embrowser and was said to be ported to Linux.[81] Lineo re-released DR-DOS 7.03 in June and September 1999, still branded as "Caldera DR-DOS"[82] and without any changes, but otherwise focussed on Linux for embedded systems, based on a stripped-down version of OpenLinux named Embedix.[81][78]

Among the latest and independently developed versions of DR-DOS were OEM DR-DOS 7.04 (as of 19 August 1999)[72] and 7.05 (as of 30 November 1999), still branded as "Caldera DR-DOS".[83][84] These were variants of the system consisting only of the kernel and command shell. With a specialized native implementation of FAT32 and large hard disk support they could be found bundled with Ontrack's Easy Recovery 5 in 2000, replacing the dynamically-loadable DRFAT32 redirector driver, which still came with Easy Recovery 4.[85][86] They were also used for Seagate Technology's SeaTools[87] and the CD imaging software Nero Burning ROM. While still reporting a BDOS 7.3 internally, these were the first versions to report themselves as "PC DOS 7.10" to applications in order to indicate integrated FAT32 support. Designed to be mostly backwards-compatible, the DR-DOS 7.04/7.05 IBMBIO.COM could be combined with the DR-DOS 7.03 IBMDOS.COM in order to give the desktop-approved DR-DOS 7.03 kernel LBA capabilities and work with drives larger than 8 GB. For specific OEM requirements, DR-DOS 7.06 (as of 14 December 1999)[73] by Wightman combined the kernel files into a single binary executable, so that, similar to IO.SYS of Windows 98, it could be booted by MS-DOS 7.10 boot sectors (but no longer by DR-DOS boot sectors). DR-DOS 7.07 (with BDOS 7.4/7.7) by Paul introduced new bootstrap loaders and updated disk tools in order to combine support for CHS and LBA disk access, the FAT12, FAT16 and FAT32 file systems, and the differing bootstrapping conventions of DR-DOS, PC DOS, MS-DOS, Windows, REAL/32 and LOADER into a single NEWLDR MBR and boot sector, so that the code would continue to load any version of DR-DOS down to 3.31 (and since DR-DOS 7.04 also with FAT32 support), but could also be used to launch the PC DOS or MS-DOS system files, including those of Windows 9x and PC DOS 7.10. At the same time the kernel could not only be booted by the new sectors, but also by any previously DR-DOS formatted disks, as well as off disks with existing PC DOS or MS-DOS boot sectors and a variety of other boot-loaders, thereby easing the coexistence and setup of multi-boot scenarios in conjunction with other operating systems.

Recent versions

In 2002, Lineo was bought out, and some of Lineo's former managers purchased the name and formed a new company, DRDOS, Inc. dba DeviceLogics L.L.C. They have continued to sell DR-DOS for use in embedded systems. DR-DOS 8.0 was released on 30 March 2004 featuring FAT32 and large disk support, the ability to boot from ROM or Flash, multitasking and a DPMI memory manager. This version was based on the kernel from version 7.03.[88]

The company later released DR-DOS 8.1 (with better FAT32 support) in autumn 2005. This version was instead based on OpenDOS 7.01.xx. DR-DOS 8.1 was withdrawn for GPL violations (see Controversies).

Aside from selling copies of the operating system, the DRDOS, Inc. website lists a buyout option for DR-DOS; the asking price is US$25000.[89]

The OpenDOS 7.01 source code was a base for The DR-DOS/OpenDOS Enhancement Project, set up in July 2002 in an attempt to bring the functionality of DR-DOS up to parity with modern PC non-Windows operating systems. The project's added native support for large disks (LBA) and the FAT32 file system, and several other enhancements, including improved memory management and support for the new FAT32+ file system extension which allows files of up to 256 GB in size on normal FAT partitions. DR-DOS 7.01.08 was released on 21 July 2011.[90]

Controversies

In October 2005, it was discovered that DR-DOS 8.1 included several utilities from FreeDOS as well as other sources, and that the kernel was an outdated version of the Enhanced DR-DOS kernel. DR DOS, Inc. failed to comply with the GNU General Public License (GPL) by not crediting the FreeDOS utilities to their authors and including the source code.[88] After complaints from FreeDOS developers (including the suggestion to provide the source code, and hence comply with the GPL), DR DOS, Inc. instead withdrew version 8.1, and also the unaffected 8.0, from its website.

Commands

APPEND, ASSIGN, BATCH, DBG, DELQ, ERA, ERAQ, MORE and SUBST have been among the internal commands supported since DR DOS 3.31. DR DOS 5.0 removed BATCH and added HILOAD.[91][64] GOSUB, IDLE, RETURN and SWITCH were added as internal commands with DR DOS 6.0.[64] ASSIGN and SUBST were changed to become external commands with DR DOS 6.0.[64] ECHOERR and PAUSEERR existed as internal commands in DR DOS 6.0 (and in Multiuser DOS), but were not normally enabled.[91] MORE remained an internal command up to including PalmDOS, but was changed to an external command with Novell DOS 7. DBG was removed with Novell DOS 7, LOADHIGH, LH and TRUENAME were added as internal commands. APPEND[citation needed] was still an internal command in DR DOS 6.0, but was changed to an external command with Novell DOS 7.

Internal commands

The following list of internal commands is supported by DR DOS 6.0:[92][91]

Batch processing subcommands

Batch processing subcommands of DR DOS 6.0 include:[92][91]

External commands

DR DOS 6.0 supports the following external commands:[92]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Digital Research Europe's OEM Support Group was opened in Newbury, Berkshire, UK (51°24′22″N 1°19′35″W / 51.40612°N 1.326374°W / 51.40612; -1.326374 (Digital Research (UK) Ltd., Oxford House, 12-20 Oxford Street, Newbury, Berkshire, UK)) in 1983. Relocated to Hungerford, Berkshire, UK, in 1986, this facility became Digital Research's newly created European Development Centre (EDC), originally at Station Road (51°24′52″N 1°30′47″W / 51.414478°N 1.512946°W / 51.414478; -1.512946 (Digital Research (UK) Ltd., Station Road, Hungerford, Berkshire, UK)), but later moved to Charnham Park (51°25′13″N 1°30′55″W / 51.420339°N 1.515223°W / 51.420339; -1.515223 (Digital Research (UK) Ltd., Charnham Park, Hungerford, Berkshire, UK)). It became Novell's Digital Research Systems Group between 1991 and 1992 and was later merged into Novell's Desktop Systems Group (DSG). The facility was closed between 1994 and 1996. Caldera's new Digital Research Systems Group opened Caldera UK Ltd. in Andover, Hampshire, UK, in 1996. This was originally located at Winchester Street (51°12′19″N 1°28′44″W / 51.20531°N 1.478786°W / 51.20531; -1.478786 (Caldera UK Ltd., Aldwych House, Winchester Street, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 2EA, UK)), but soon moved into a converted barn in Upper Clatford at the periphery of Andover (51°11′18″N 1°29′15″W / 51.188306°N 1.487498°W / 51.188306; -1.487498 (Caldera UK Ltd., Norman Court Barns, Norman Court Lane, Upper Clatford, Andover, Hampshire, UK)). It closed in 1998.
  2. ^ a b c In order to improve performance of file transfers, the internal COPY command in some versions of COMMAND.COM since Novell DOS 7 has built-in NCOPY capabilities, that is, it automatically detects if a file is to be copied locally on a remote NetWare or Personal NetWare file server and then will initiate a remote file transfer eliminating the need to send the file contents over the network.

References

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Further reading

External links