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カリフォルニア
カリフォルニア州
ニックネーム: 
ゴールデンステート[1]
モットー: 
国歌:私はあなたを愛しています、カリフォルニア
Map of the United States with California highlighted
カリフォルニアが強調表示された米国の地図
アメリカ
州になる前メキシコ 割譲地の組織化されていない地域
連合に認められた1850年9月9日(31日)
資本サクラメント[1]
最大の都市ロサンゼルス
最大の大都市圏都市ロサンゼルス大都市圏
政府
 • 知事ギャビン・ニューサムD
 • 副知事エレニ・クーナラキス(D)
立法府州議会
 • 参議院州議会
 • 衆議院州議会
司法カリフォルニア最高裁判所
米国上院議員ダイアン・ファインスタイン(D)
アレックス・パディーラ(D)
米国下院代表団
  • 42人の民主党員
  • 11人の共和党員
リスト
領域
 • 合計163,696平方マイル(423,970 km 2
 • 土地155,959平方マイル(403,932 km 2
 • 水7,737平方マイル(20,047 km 2)4.7%
エリアランク3位
寸法
 • 長さ770マイル(1,240 km)
 • 幅250マイル(400 km)
標高
2,900フィート(880 m)
最高標高14,505フィート(4,421.0 m)
最低標高−279フィート(−85.0 m)
人口
 (2020)
 • 合計39,538,223 [8]
 •ランク1位
 • 密度253.6 /平方マイル(97.9 / km 2
 •密度ランク11日
 • 世帯収入の中央値
71,228ドル(2,018)[9]
 •収入ランク
9日
住民の呼称カリフォルニア人
言語
 • 公用語英語
 • 口頭言語
タイムゾーンUTC-08:00PST
 •夏(DSTUTC-07:00PDT
USPSの略語
CA
ISO3166コードUS-CA
従来の略語カリフォルニア州、カリフォルニア州、カリフォルニア州
緯度北緯32度32分から北緯42度
経度114°8'Wから124°26'W
Webサイトwww .ca .gov
カリフォルニア州のシンボル
Flag of California.svg
Great Seal of California.svg
生きている記章
両生類カリフォルニアの赤い足のカエル
カリフォルニアウズラ
ハナビシソウ
紫の針草
カリフォルニアの犬の顔の蝶
哺乳類
爬虫類サバクゴファーガメ
コーストレッドウッドジャイアントセコイア[11]
無生物の記章
ブルー&ゴールド[12]
ダンスウエストコーストスイング
フォークダンススクエアダンス
化石剣歯虎
ジェムストーンベニトアイト
ミネラル自然金
蛇紋石
サンホアキン
スポーツサーフィン
タータンカリフォルニア州のタータン
州のルートマーカー
California state route marker
州の四半期
California quarter dollar coin
2005年にリリース
アメリカ合衆国の州のシンボルのリスト

カリフォルニア州は、ある状態米国西部北はオレゴン州、東はネバダ州アリゾナ州、南はメキシコのバハカリフォルニア国境を接しています。 総面積約163,696平方マイル(423,970 km 2)に3,950万人以上の居住者がおり、面積で最も人口が多く米国で3番目に大きい州です。また、北米で最も人口の多い地方自治体であり、世界で34番目に人口が多いです。グレーターロサンゼルスエリア、サンフランシスコ・ベイエリアは、それぞれ国内で2番目と5番目に人口の多い都市地域で あり、前者の居住者は1,870万人を超え、後者の居住者は960 万人を超えています。[13] サクラメントながら、国家の首都であるロサンゼルス最も人口の多い都市の状態でと二番目に人口の多い都市(後の国のニューヨーク)。ロサンゼルス郡は、国のある最も人口の多い一方で、サンバーナーディーノ郡があるエリアによって最大の郡国では。サンフランシスコ市と郡の両方、ある二番目に最も人口密度の高い主要都市の国で(後にニューヨーク市)と5番目に人口密度の高い郡、ニューヨーク市の4つの背後にある国では、5つの自治区

カリフォルニア州の経済と、総状態の製品$ 3.2  2019のよう兆は、ある最大のサブ国民経済の世界で。[14]それが国であるならば、それは2020年の時点で37番目に人口の多い国であり、5番目に大きな経済であるでしょう[15]ロサンゼルス大都市圏とサンフランシスコベイエリアは、ニューヨーク大都市圏(1.8ドル)に次ぐ、米国で2番目と3番目に大きい都市経済(2020年時点でそれぞれ1.0 兆ドルと0.5 ドル)です。[16]サンフランシスコのベイエリア広域都市圏 2018年には、主要な統計分野の中で1人当たりの国内総生産が最も高く(106,757ドル)[17]、時価総額で世界の10大企業のうち5社[18]と、世界で最も裕福な10人のうち4人が住んでいます。[19]

ヨーロッパの植民地化以前は、カリフォルニアはコロンビア以前の北アメリカで最も文化的および言語的に多様な地域の1つであり、現在のメキシコの北にあるネイティブアメリカンの人口密度が最も高かった。 16世紀と17世紀のヨーロッパの探検は、スペイン帝国によるカリフォルニアの植民地化につながりました。 1804年に、それはニュースペインの副王室内のアルタカリフォルニアに含まれていまし。この地域は、独立戦争が成功し後、1821年メキシコの一部になりましたが、米墨戦争後の1848年に米国に譲渡されました。。その後、アルタカリフォルニアの西部は、1850年の妥協に続いて、1850年9月9日に組織され、第31州として認められましたカリフォルニアのゴールドラッシュは1848年に開始し、大規模なカリフォルニアへの移民、世界的な経済ブーム、そして含む劇的な社会的、人口動態の変化につながったカリフォルニア大虐殺先住民の。

エンターテインメントスポーツなどの大衆文化への注目すべき貢献は、カリフォルニアに起源があります。州はまた、コミュニケーション、情報、イノベーション、環境保護、経済学、政治の分野で注目に値する貢献をしてきました。[20] [21] [22]世界で最も古く、最大の映画産業であるハリウッドの本拠地であり、世界のエンターテインメントに大きな影響を与えてきました。ヒッピーのカウンターカルチャー、ビーチ車の文化[身体では確認されていない]パソコンの起源と考えられています。[23]他の革新の中でも。[24] [25]サンフランシスコベイエリアとロサンゼルス大都市圏は、それぞれ世界のテクノロジー産業とエンターテインメント産業の中心地として広く見られています。カリフォルニア州の経済は非常に多様です。その58%は、金融、政府、不動産サービス、テクノロジー、専門的、科学的、技術的なビジネスサービスに基づいています。[26]州の経​​済の1.5%しか占めていませんが、[26]カリフォルニアの農業産業は、米国のどの州よりも生産量が最も多い州です。[27] [28] [29]カリフォルニアの港と港は、米国からの輸入の約3分の1を処理しており、そのほとんどが環太平洋地域を起源としています。 国際貿易。

州の非常に多様な地理は、西太平洋岸と大都市圏から東のシエラネバダ山脈、北西のレッドウッドダグラスモミの森から南東のモハーベ砂漠にまで及びます。セントラルバレー、主要な農業地域は、国家の中心部を支配します。カリフォルニアは温暖な地中海性気候モンスーンの季節気候でよく知られていますが、州の規模が大きいため、北部の湿った温帯雨林から内部の乾燥した砂漠までさまざまな気候になり、雪が降ります。高山山の中。これらすべての要因により、膨大な水需要が発生します。時間の経過とともに、干ばつ山火事の頻度が増加し、季節性が低下し、年間を通じて増加し、カリフォルニアの水の安全性にさらに負担をかけています。[30] [31]

語源

スペイン人は、バハカリフォルニア半島と、現在のカリフォルニア州となった地域であるアルタカリフォルニアにラスカリフォルニアという名前を付けました

ガルシ・ロドリゲス・デ・モンタルボによる1510年の作品「エスプランディアンの冒険」に記録されているように、この名前は、カラフィア女王の架空の物語にあるカリフォルニアの神話上の島に由来している可能性があります。[32]この作品は、アマディス・デ・ガウラで始まった人気のあるスペインの騎士道物語シリーズの5番目でした[33] [34] [35]カラフィア女王の王国は、金の鎧を着てアマゾンのように住んでいた美しい黒人女性やグリフィンやその他の奇妙な獣が住む、金と真珠が豊富な人里離れた土地であると言われていました[32] [36] [37]架空の楽園では、支配者のカラフィア女王がイスラム教徒と一緒に戦い、彼女の名前はイスラム教徒の指導者であるカリフの称号を反映するために選ばれた可能性があります。カリフォルニアという名前は、島がカリフ制であったことを意味している可能性があります。[32] [38]

インディーズの右側にカリフォルニアと呼ばれる島があり、地上の楽園のその部分に非常に近く、黒人女性が一人もいない状態で住んでいて、彼らはアマゾンのように住んでいたことを知ってください。彼らは強い情熱的な心と偉大な美徳を備えた丈夫な体でした。島自体は、大胆でゴツゴツした岩のおかげで、世界で最も野生の1つです。

— エスプランディアンの冒険の第CLVII章[39]

州名の短縮形には、CA、Cal、Cali、Calif、Califas、およびUS-CAが含まれます。

歴史

ヨーロッパとの接触時のカリフォルニアの部族グループと言語の地図

最初の住民

少なくとも過去13、000年間の連続した到着の波によって解決された[40]カリフォルニアは、コロンブス以前の北アメリカで最も文化的および言語的に多様な地域の1つでした[41]先住民のさまざまな推定値は、100,000から300,000の範囲です。[42]カリフォルニアの先住民には、海岸に住む大規模な定住人口から内陸部のグループに至るまで、ネイティブアメリカンの70を超える異なる民族グループ含まれていました。カリフォルニアのグループはまた、バンド、部族、村、そして資源が豊富な海岸、チュマシュ族ポモなどの大規模な諸公国など、政治組織も多様でした。サリナン貿易、異人種間結婚、軍事同盟は、多様なグループ間の多くの社会的および経済的関係を促進しました。

スペインの支配

ミッションサンディエゴデアルカラは1848年のように描かれました。1769年に設立され、カリフォルニアミッションの最初のものでした

カリフォルニアの海岸を探検した最初のヨーロッパ人は、ポルトガルの船長フアンロドリゲスカブリロが率いるスペインのセーリング遠征隊のメンバーでした。彼らは1542年9月28日にサンディエゴ湾入り、少なくともサンミゲル島まで北に到達しました[43]私掠船で探検家のフランシス・ドレークは、1579年にカリフォルニア海岸の未定義の部分を探検し、主張し、将来の都市サンフランシスコの北に上陸した[44]アメリカ人に足を踏み入れた最初のアジア人は、1587年にフィリピン人の船員がスペインの船でモロベイに到着したときに起こった。[45] [46] [注1] セバスティアン・ビスカイノはのために1602年にカリフォルニアの海岸を探検し、マッピングされた新スペインに上陸入れ、モントレー[49]

16世紀にカリフォルニアを地上で探検したにもかかわらず、ロドリゲスのカリフォルニアの島としての考えは根強く残っていました。このような描写は、18世紀に至るまで多くのヨーロッパの地図に登場しました。[50]

ポルトラ遠征1769年から1770年の、スペインの宣教師が率いるフニペロ・セラは21のセットアップ始まったカリフォルニア州のミッションを上かの海岸近くアルタ(アッパー)カリフォルニア州で始まり、サンディエゴ。同じ時期に、スペイン軍はいくつかの砦(プレシディオス)と3つの小さな町(プエブロ)を建設しましたサンフランシスコのミッションは、サンフランシスコの街に成長し、プエブロの二人はロサンゼルスとの都市へと成長しましたサンノゼ。他のいくつかの小さな都市や町も、今日まで残っているさまざまなスペインのミッションやプエブロの周りに出現しました。

この同じ時期に、ロシア帝国からの船員がカリフォルニアの海岸に沿って探検し、1812年にフォートロスに交易所を設立しました[51]カリフォルニアにあるロシアの19世紀初頭の沿岸集落は、サンフランシスコ湾のスペイン人集落の最北端のすぐ北に位置し、北アメリカの最南端のロシア人集落でした。フォートロスに関連するロシア人の入植地は、ポイントアリーナからトマレス湾に広がっていました[52]

メキシコの支配

人口がまばらなメキシコの州であった1838年のアルタカリフォルニア示す地図[53]

1821年、メキシコ独立戦争メキシコ(カリフォルニアを含む)にスペインからの独立をもたらしました。次の25年間、アルタカリフォルニアは、新しく独立したメキシコの国の、人里離れた、人口の少ない北西部の行政区域として残りました。ミッションの状態で最高の土地のほとんどを制御し、された世俗1834でとメキシコ政府の財産となりました。[54]知事は、政治的影響力を持つ他の人々に土地の多くの正方形のリーグを与えた。これらの巨大な牧場または牛の牧場は、メキシコカリフォルニアの支配的な機関として浮上しました。Californiosが所有するランチョ(カリフォルニア出身のヒスパニック)ボストンの商人と牛革と獣脂を交換した人。牛肉は1849年のカリフォルニアゴールドラッシュまで商品になりませんでした

1820年代から、米国と将来のカナダからの捕獲者と入植者が北カリフォルニアに到着しました。これらの新しい到着者は、シスキュートレイルカリフォルニアトレイルオレゴントレイルオールドスパニッシュトレイル使用してカリフォルニアとその周辺の険しい山々と過酷な砂漠を横断しました。

新たに独立したメキシコの初期の政府は非常に不安定であり、これを反映して、1831年以降、カリフォルニアはまた、内部および中央メキシコ政府との一連の武力紛争を経験しました。[55]この激動の政治期間中、フアンバウティスタアルバラドは1836年から1842年の間に知事を確保することができた。[56]最初の電源にアルバラードをもたらした軍事行動は一瞬カリフォルニアは独立した状態であることを宣言していた、とによって支援されていた英米カリフォルニア州の住民[57]など、アイザック・グラハム[58]1840年、パスポートを持っていなかった住民100人が逮捕され、グラハム事件が発生しました。これは、英国海軍当局者の執り成しによって部分的に解決されました[57]

アラスカ出身ロシア人は、1812年にカリフォルニアに最大の入植地であるフォートロスを設立しました

カリフォルニアで最大の牧場主の1人はジョンマーシュでした。メキシコの裁判所から自分の土地の不法占拠者に対する正義を得ることができなかった後、彼はカリフォルニアが米国の一部になるべきであると決定しました。マーシュは、カリフォルニアの気候、土壌、その他の理由でそこに定住することを支持する手紙を書くキャンペーンを実施しました。また、「マーシュのルート」として知られるようになった最善のルートも実施しました。彼の手紙は読まれ、読み直され、回覧され、全国の新聞に印刷され、カリフォルニアに向かう最初の幌馬車隊が始まりました。[59]彼は移民に、彼らが落ち着くまで牧場にとどまるように勧め、彼らがパスポートを取得するのを手伝った。[60]

カリフォルニアへの組織的な移住の時期を先導した後、マーシュは、大いに嫌われているメキシコの将軍、マヌエル・ミシェルトレナと彼が交代したカリフォルニア州知事、フアン・バウティスタ・アルバラドとの間の軍事戦闘に巻き込まれた。それぞれの軍隊はロサンゼルス近くのプロビデンシア戦いで会った。マーシュはミシェルトレナの軍隊に加わるという彼の意志に反して強制されていた。上司を無視して、戦闘中、彼は反対側に会談の合図をした。アメリカからの入植者が両側で戦っていました。彼はこれらの男性に彼らがお互いに戦う理由がないことを確信させた。マーシュの行動の結果、彼らは戦いを放棄し、ミシェルトレナは敗北し、カリフォルニア生まれのピオピコは敗北した。知事に戻されました。これは、米国によるカリフォルニアの最終的な買収への道を開いた。[61] [62] [63] [64] [65]

カリフォルニア共和国と征服

カリフォルニア共和国ベアフラッグは、1846年のベアフラッグ反乱のソノマ最初に提起されました

1846年、ソノマとその周辺のアメリカ人入植者のグループがベアフラッグ反乱の際にメキシコの支配に反抗しました。その後、反政府勢力はソノマでクマの旗(クマ、星、赤い縞模様、「カリフォルニア共和国」という言葉をフィーチャー)を掲げました。共和国の唯一の大統領だったウィリアムB.イデ[66]ベア旗反乱の際に極めて重要な役割を果たしました。アメリカ人入植者によるこの反乱は、後のアメリカ軍によるカリフォルニア侵攻の前奏曲として機能し、近くのアメリカ軍司令官と緊密に調整されました。

カリフォルニア共和国は短命でした。[67]同じ年は、米墨戦争(1846–48)の勃発を示した[68]コモドールときにジョン・D・スロート米国海軍はに航海モントレー湾と米国のカリフォルニア州の軍事占領を始め、北カリフォルニアは、米国軍ヶ月未満で降伏しました。[69]南カリフォルニアでの一連の防衛戦の後、カフエンガ条約は1847年1月13日にカリフォルニオスによって署名され、カリフォルニアでのアメリカの支配を確保した。[70]

初期のアメリカ時代

カリフォルニアは1850年妥協の下で連合認められています
サンフランシスコでの商船c。 1850–51
南北戦争中のCalifornia100 Company(A社)のギドン
最初の大陸横断鉄道の1869年完成の描写。トーマスヒルによる最後のスパイク(1881年)

戦争を終わらせたグアダルーペイダルゴ条約(1848年2月2日)に続いて、アルタカリフォルニアの付属メキシコ領土の最西端はすぐにアメリカのカリフォルニア州になり、古い領土の残りは新しいアメリカ人に細分されましたアリゾナ、ネバダ、コロラドユタの領土。古いバハカリフォルニアのさらに人口が少なく乾燥した低地は、メキシコの一部として残っていました。 1846年、旧アルタカリフォルニア西部の入植者の総人口は、1769年のヒスパニック系入植前の約30万人から、8,000人に加えて約10万人のネイティブアメリカンと推定されていました。[71]

この地域の公式なアメリカ併合のわずか1週間前の1848年に、カリフォルニアで金が発見されました。これは、州の人口統計と財政の両方を永遠に変えることになる出来事でした。その後まもなく、探鉱者や鉱夫が数千人が到着したため、この地域への大規模な移民の流入が発生しました。カリフォルニアのゴールドラッシュの最中に、米国市民、ヨーロッパ人、中国人、その他の移民とともに人口が急増しました。 1850年にカリフォルニアが州に申請するまでに、カリフォルニアの入植者人口は10万人に増加しました。 1854年までに、30万人以上の入植者がやって来ました。[72] 1847年から1870年の間に、サンフランシスコの人口は500人から150,000人に増加した。[73] カリフォルニアは突然人口の少ない背水ではなくなりましたが、一夜にして主要な人口の中心に成長したようです。

スペインとその後のメキシコ統治下のカリフォルニアの政府の所在地は、1777年から1845年までモントレーにあった。[54]アルタカリフォルニアの最後のメキシコ知事であるピオピコは、1845年に首都を一時的にロサンゼルスに移した。領事館もモントレーのトーマス・O・ラーキン領事の下にありました

1849年、州憲法会議が最初にモントレーで開催されました。大会の最初の任務の中には、新しい州都の場所の決定がありました。最初の完全な立法会議はサンノゼ(1850–1851)で開催されました。その後の場所には、ヴァレーホ(1852–1853)と近くのベニシア(1853–1854)が含まれていました。これらの場所も最終的には不十分であることが判明しました。首都は1854年[74]以来サクラメントにあり、1862年にサクラメントでの洪水のためにサンフランシスコで会期が開かれたときの短い休憩がありました。州の憲法条約が州憲法を完成させると、州議会に州への入会を申請しました。。 1850年9月9日、1850年の妥協の一環として、カリフォルニアは自由州になり、9月 9日は州の祝日なりました

中にアメリカ南北戦争(1861-1865)、カリフォルニア州は、ワシントンに金の出荷の東を送っ連合のサポートに[75]しかしながら、州内に親南の共感者の大規模な派遣団が存在したため、州は完全な軍事連隊を召集して東方に派遣し、北軍の戦争努力に公式に奉仕することができなかった。それでも、北軍内のいくつかの小規模な軍事ユニットは、メンバーの大多数がカリフォルニア出身であるため、「カリフォルニア100カンパニー」などの非公式にカリフォルニア州に関連付けられていました

カリフォルニアが連合に加盟したとき、カリフォルニアと米国大陸の他の地域との間の旅行は、時間のかかる危険な偉業でした。19年後、リンカーン大統領によって青信号が出されてから7年後、1869年に最初の大陸横断鉄道が完成しました。その後、カリフォルニアは1週間で東部の州から到達可能になりました。

州の多くは、果物の栽培と農業全般に非常に適していました。広大な小麦、その他の穀物、野菜作物、綿花、ナッツや果樹(南カリフォルニアのオレンジを含む)が栽培され、セントラルバレーやその他の地域での州の驚異的な農業生産の基盤が築かれました。

19世紀には、中国からの多数の移民がゴールドラッシュの一環として、または仕事を求めて州に旅行しました。[76]カリフォルニアからユタへの大陸横断鉄道の建設には中国人が不可欠であることが証明されたが、中国人との雇用競争が州内で反中国暴動を引き起こし、最終的に米国は中国からの圧力への対応として部分的に中国からの移住を終了した。 1882年の中国人排斥法のあるカリフォルニア[77]

先住民族

ユカイアメンドシノ郡ポモ族の村、ヨカヨc。 1916年

初期のスペインとメキシコの支配下では、カリフォルニアの先住民は、とりわけ、カリフォルニアの先住民がまだ自然免疫を発達させていないユーラシアの病気から、急激に減少していました。[78]その新しいアメリカの政権の下で、それ自身の先住民に対するカリフォルニアの厳しい政府の政策は改善しなかった。他のアメリカの州と同様に、先住民の多くは、鉱夫、牧場主、農民などのアメリカ人入植者によって、すぐに彼らの土地から強制的に連れ去られました。カリフォルニアは自由国家としてアメリカの組合に入ったが、「浮浪または孤児となったインディアン」は、1853年のインディアンの政府と保護に関する法律の下で彼らの新しい英米の巨匠によって事実上奴隷にされた[79]何百人もの先住民が殺された虐殺もありました。

1850年から1860年の間に、カリフォルニア州政府は、先住民から入植者を保護することを目的とした民兵を雇うために約150 万ドルを支払いました(そのうちの約25万ドルは連邦政府によって払い戻されました)[80]後の数十年で、先住民は居留地と牧場に置かれました。それらはしばしば小さくて孤立していて、そこに住む人々を維持するのに十分な天然資源や政府からの資金がありませんでした。[81]その結果、カリフォルニアの台頭は先住民にとって災難でした。ベンジャミン・マドリーやエド・カスティーロを含む数人の学者やネイティブアメリカンの活動家は、カリフォルニア州政府の行動を大量虐殺として説明しています。[81] [82]

1900年〜現在

ハリウッド映画スタジオ、1922年

20世紀には、何千人もの日本人が米国とカリフォルニアに移住し、特に州内の土地を購入して所有しようとしました。しかし、1913年に州は、アジアからの移民が土地を所有することを除いて、外国人土地法を可決しました。[83]第二次世界大戦中、カリフォルニアの日系アメリカ人はトゥーリーレイクマンザナーなどの強制収容所に収容された[84] 2020年、カリフォルニアはこの抑留について公式に謝罪した。[85]

カリフォルニアへの移住は20世紀初頭に加速し、リンカーンハイウェイルート66などの主要な大陸横断高速道路が完成しました。 1900年から1965年の間に、人口は100万人未満からユニオンで最大に増加しました。 1940年、国勢調査局は、カリフォルニアの人口を6.0%がヒスパニック、2.4%がアジア人、89.5%が非ヒスパニック系白人であると報告しました。[86]

人口のニーズを満たすために、カリフォルニアロサンゼルス上水路のような主要なエンジニアリングの偉業オーロビルシャスタダム。そしてゴールデンゲートブリッジは、状態間で建設されました。州政府はまた、公教育の非常に効率的なシステムを開発するために、1960年にカリフォルニア高等教育マスタープランを採用しました

一方、穏やかな地中海性気候、安価な土地、州の多様な地理に魅了された映画製作者は、1920年代にハリウッドにスタジオシステム確立しました。カリフォルニアは第二次世界大戦中に生産された全米軍用兵器の8.7%を製造し、48州の中で3番目(ニューヨークミシガンに次ぐ)にランクされました[87]しかしながら、カリフォルニアは、サンディエゴ、ロサンゼルス、サンフランシスコのドライドック施設で、戦争中の軍用船(輸送、貨物、リバティ船ビクトリー船、軍艦などの[商船])の生産で簡単に第1位にランクされました。ベイエリア。[88] [89] [90][91]第二次世界大戦後、カリフォルニアの経済は強力な航空宇宙および防衛産業によって大幅に拡大し[92]冷戦の終結後にその規模は縮小した [92] [93] スタンフォード大学とその工学部長フレデリック・ターマンは、教職員と卒業生が州を離れるのではなくカリフォルニアに留まり、現在シリコンバレーとして知られている地域にハイテク地域を開発することを奨励し始めた [94]これらの努力の結果、カリフォルニアはエンターテインメントと音楽産業、技術、工学、航空宇宙産業の世界の中心地、そして米国の農業生産の中心地と見なされています。[95]ドットコムバストの直前、カリフォルニアは国の中で世界で5番目に大きな経済を持っていた。[96]それでも、1991年以来、そして1980年代後半に南カリフォルニア始まって、カリフォルニアはほとんどの年で国内移民の純損失を見てきました。これはしばしばメディアによってカリフォルニアの脱出と呼ばれます。[97]

生誕地シリコンバレーの」ガレージ、スタンフォード大学の卒業生ビル・ヒューレットデビッド・パッカードは1930年代に彼らの最初の製品を開発しました

20世紀半ばから後半にかけて、州内で多くの人種関連の事件が発生しました。警察とアフリカ系アメリカ人の間の緊張は、都心部での失業と貧困と相まって、1965年のワッツ暴動や1992年のロドニーキング暴動などの暴力的な暴動を引き起こしました。[98] [99]カリフォルニアはまた、認識された人種的不公正と戦うためにアフリカ系アメリカ人を武装させることで知られるグループであるブラックパンサー党のハブでもあった[100]さらに、メキシコ人、フィリピン人、および他の移民農業労働者は、1960年代と1970年代に、より良い賃金を求めセサールチャベス周辺の州に集まった[101]

20世紀の間に、カリフォルニアで2つの大きな災害が発生しました。サンフランシスコ地震と1928年聖フランシスコダムの洪水は、米国史上最悪のまま。[102]

大気汚染の問題は軽減されましたが、汚染に関連する健康問題は続いています。スモッグとして知られる茶色のもやは、自動車の排気ガスに関する連邦および州の規制が通過した後、大幅に緩和されました。[103] [104]

2001年エネルギー危機により、計画停電、電力料金の高騰、近隣諸国からの電力の輸入が発生しました。サザンカリフォルニアエジソンパシフィックガスアンドエレクトリックカンパニーは激しい批判を受けました。[105]

都市部の住宅価格は上昇を続けました。 1960年代に25,000ドルの費用がかかった控えめな家は、2005年までに都市部で50万ドル以上の費用がかかります。投機家は、住むつもりのない家を購入し、数か月で莫大な利益を上げることを期待し、さらに物件を購入することでそれを転覆させました。住宅ローン会社は、価格が上昇し続けると誰もが想定していたため、準拠していました。バブルが破裂住宅価格がクラッシュし始めたよう2007-8でブーム年が終わりました。多くの金融機関や投資家がひどく傷ついたため、数千億の資産価値が消滅し、差し押さえが急増しました。[106] [107]

21世紀には、気候変動に起因する干ばつと頻繁な山火事が州で発生しました。[108] [109] 2011年から2017年まで、持続的な干ばつはその記録された歴史の中で最悪でした。[110] 2018年の野火シーズンは、州で最も致命的で最も破壊的なものでした。[111]

地理

地形図カリフォルニア州の

カリフォルニア州は、アラスカ州とテキサス州に次いで、米国で3番目に大きな州です。[112]カリフォルニアは地理的に2つの地域に分割されることがよくあります。南カリフォルニアは最南端の10郡で構成され[113] [114]北カリフォルニアは最北端の48郡で構成されます。[115] [116]北はオレゴン州、東と北東はネバダ州、南東はアリゾナ州、西太平洋と国境を接しており、メキシコバハカリフォルニア州と国境を接している。南に(バハカリフォルニアスルと並ん北アメリカのカリフォルニア地域の一部を構成しています)。

州の真ん中には、東はシエラネバダ山脈、西は沿岸山脈、北カスケード山脈、南テハチャピ山地囲まれカリフォルニアセントラルバレーがありますセントラルバレーはカリフォルニアの生産的な農業の中心地です。

北部サクラメント-サンジョアキン川デルタによって2つに分割されサクラメントバレーは、サクラメント川の流域として機能し、南部のサンジョアキンバレーは、サンジョアキン川の流域です。どちらの谷も、その中を流れる川にちなんで名付けられました。浚渫により、サクラメント川とサンジョアキン川は、いくつかの内陸都市がになるのに十分な深さを保っています。

サクラメント-サンジョアキン川デルタは、州にとって重要な給水ハブです。水はデルタから、州のほぼ全長を横断するポンプと運河の広範なネットワークを介して、セントラルバレーと州の水プロジェクトおよびその他のニーズに迂回されます。デルタからの水 は、州の人口のほぼ3分の2にあたる約2,300万人に飲料水を提供し、サンウォーキンバレーの西側の農民にも水を提供しています。

スイスン湾は、サクラメント川とサンジョアキン川の合流点にあります。水はカークィネス海峡によって排水され、サンフランシスコ湾の北の延長であるサンパブロ湾に流れ込みゴールデンゲート海峡を経由して太平洋に接続します。

チャネル諸島はオフに位置している南部の海岸をしながら、ファラロン諸島は、サンフランシスコの西側に位置しています。

シエラネバダ山脈(スペイン語で「雪の範囲」)には、米国本土48州ホイットニー山の最高峰が14,505フィート(4,421 m)にあります。[3] [4] [5]この範囲には、氷河で彫られたドームで有名なヨセミテバレー地球上で最大の生物である巨大なセコイアの木があるセコイア国立公園深い淡水湖であるタホ湖があります。州で最大の湖。

シエラネバダ山脈の東には、オーエンズバレーモノ湖があります。これは渡り鳥の生息地です。州の西部にはクリアレイクがあります。これは、カリフォルニアで地域ごとに最大の淡水湖です。タホ湖はもっと大きいですが、カリフォルニアとネバダの国境で区切られています。シエラネバダ山脈は冬に北極の気温に下がり、米国最南端の氷河であるパリセード氷河を含む数十の小さな氷河があります。

テュレア湖はミシシッピ川の最大の淡水湖の西でした。更新世時代のコーコラン湖の残骸であるトゥラリー湖は、支流の河川が農業灌漑と都市用水に転用された後、20世紀初頭までに干上がった。[117]

州の総表面積の約45%が森林に覆われており[118]、カリフォルニアの松の種の多様性は他のどの州にも匹敵しません。カリフォルニアには、アラスカを除く他のどの州よりも多くの森林地帯があります。カリフォルニアホワイトマウンテンの木々の多くは世界で最も古いものです。個々のブリストルコーンパインは5、000年以上前のものです。[119] [120]

南には大きな内陸の塩湖、ソルトン湖があります。中南部の砂漠はモハーベと呼ばれています。モハーベの北東にあるデスバレー北米で最も低く、最もホットな場所、含まれ、バッドウォーターを-279フィート(-85メートル)では。[7]デスバレーの底からホイットニー山の頂上までの水平距離は90マイル(140 km)未満です。確かに、カリフォルニア南東部のほとんどすべてが乾燥した暑い砂漠であり、夏の間は日常的に極端な高温になります。カリフォルニア州とアリゾナ州の南東の国境は完全にコロラド川によって形成されており、南部からその水の約半分が得られます。

カリフォルニアの都市の大部分はどちらかに配置されているサンフランシスコのベイエリアサクラメント大都市圏カリフォルニア州北部。またはロサンゼルス地域インランド・エンパイア、またはサンディエゴ首都圏南カリフォルニア。ロサンゼルスエリア、ベイエリア、サンディエゴメトロポリタンエリアは、カリフォルニア海岸沿いのいくつかの主要なメトロポリタンエリアの1つです。

一環として、環太平洋火山帯、カリフォルニア州は、対象となる津波洪水、干ばつ、サンタアナ風山火事地滑り険しい地形上、およびいくつか持っている火山を州内を走るいくつかの断層のために多くの地震があり、最大のものはサンアンドレアス断層です。毎年約37,000件の地震が記録されていますが、そのほとんどは小さすぎて感じられません。[121]

気候

カリフォルニアのケッペンの気候タイプ

州のほとんどは地中海性気候ですが、州の規模が大きいため、気候は極地から亜熱帯にまで及びます。涼しいカリフォルニア海流の沖合では、海岸近くに夏のが発生することがよくあります。さらに内陸部では、冬は寒く、夏は暑くなります。海上での緩和により、ロサンゼルスとサンフランシスコの海岸線の夏の気温は、米国のすべての主要な大都市圏の中で最も涼しく、北アメリカ大陸の内陸部と東海岸の同じ緯度の地域と比較して独特に涼しくなります。 。サンディエゴでさえメキシコと国境を接する海岸線は、米国本土のほとんどの地域よりも夏は涼しくなります。わずか数マイル内陸にある夏の極端な気温はかなり高く、ロサンゼルスのダウンタウンは海岸より数度暖かくなります。同じ微気候現象がベイエリアの気候にも見られます。ベイエリアでは、海から保護された地域は、海に近い近くの地域よりもかなり暑い夏を経験します。

州の北部は南部よりも雨が多い。カリフォルニアの山脈も気候に影響を与えます。州の最も雨の多い地域のいくつかは西向きの山の斜面です。カリフォルニア北西部は温暖な気候で、セントラルバレーは地中海性気候ですが、海岸よりも極端な気温が高くなっています。シエラネバダ山脈を含む高山は、冬は雪、夏は穏やかから中程度の暑さの高山気候です。

カリフォルニアの歴史上最大の20の山火事のうち5つは、2020年の山火事シーズンの一部でした

カリフォルニアの山々は東側に雨の影を作り、広大な砂漠を作り出していますカリフォルニア東部の標高の高い砂漠は夏が暑く冬が寒いのに対し、カリフォルニア南部の山々の東の低地の砂漠は夏が暑く、冬はほとんど霜が降りません。海面下に大きな広がりを持つ砂漠であるデスバレーは、世界で最も暑い場所と見なされています。1913年7月10日に、世界最高気温[122] [123] 134°F(56.7°C)が記録されました。カリフォルニアの最低気温は、1月20日に-45°F(-43°C)でした。 、1937年、ボカで[124]

以下の表は、州全体の選択した場所での1月と8月の平均気温を示しています。人口の多いものとそうでないものがあります。これには、ユーレカ周辺フンボルト湾地域の比較的涼しい夏、デスバレーの極度の暑さ、シエラネバダマンモスの山岳気候が含まれます。

カリフォルニアの選択されたコミュニティの平均気温と降水量[125]
位置 8月
(°F)
8月
(°C)
1月
(°F)
1月
(°C)
年間
降水量
(mm / in)
ロサンゼルス 83/64 29/18 66/48 20/8 377/15
LAX / LAビーチ 75/64 23/18 65/49 18/9 326/13
サンディエゴ 76/67 24/19 65/49 18/9 262/10
サンノゼ 82/58 27/14 58/42 14/5 401/16
サンフランシスコ 67/54 20/12 56/46 14/8 538/21
フレズノ 97/66 34/19 55/38 12/3 292/11
サクラメント 91/58 33/14 54/39 12/3 469/18
オークランド 73/58 23/14 58/44 14/7 588/23
ベーカーズフィールド 96/69 36/21 56/39 13/3 165/7
リバーサイド 94/60 35/18 67/39 19/4 260/10
ユーレカ 62/53 16/11 54/41 12/5 960/38
デスヴァレー 115/86 46/30 67/40 19/4 60/2
マンモスレイク 77/45 25/7 40/15 4 / −9 583/23

エコロジー

ホイットニー山(上)はデスバレー(下)のバッドウォーターベイシンから90マイル(140 km)未満の距離にあります。

カリフォルニアは、世界で最も豊かで多様な地域の1つであり、最も絶滅の危機に瀕している生態系コミュニティがいくつか含まれています。カリフォルニアは新北区の一部であり、多くの陸域エコリージョンにまたがっています[126]

カリフォルニアの固有種の多くには、カタリナアイアンウッド(Lyonothamnus floribundusなど、他の場所で消滅した残存種が含まれいます他の多くの固有種は、分化または適応放散によって発生しました。これにより、複数の種が共通の祖先から発達し、カリフォルニアライラック(セアノサスなどの多様な生態学的条件を利用します。都市化、伐採、過剰放牧、および外来種の導入が生息地に侵入したため、多くのカリフォルニア固有種が絶滅の危機に瀕しています。

植物と動物

カリフォルニアは、植物相のコレクションでいくつかの最上級を誇っています:最大の木最も高い木、そして最も古い木カリフォルニアの在来草は多年生植物です。[127]ヨーロッパとの接触後、これらは一般にヨーロッパの一年生草の侵入種に取って代わられたそして、現代では、カリフォルニアの丘は夏に特徴的な黄金色に変わります。[128]

カリフォルニアは気候と地形の多様性が最も高いため、州にはソノラ砂漠の下部にある6つのライフゾーンがあります。ソノラ川上流(丘陵地帯といくつかの沿岸地域)、移行(沿岸地域と湿った北東部の郡); カナダ、ハドソニアン、北極圏は、州の最高標高で構成されています。[129]

ソノラ川下流域の乾燥した気候での植物の生活には、多様な在来のサボテン、メスキート、パロバードが含まれています。ジョシュアツリーはモハーベ砂漠で発見されました。顕花植物には、矮性砂漠のポピーとさまざまなアスターが含まれます。セントラルバレーでは、フリーモントコットンウッドバレーオークが繁栄しています。ソノラの上部ゾーンには、小さな低木の森、発育不全の木、草本植物が特徴のシャパラルベルトが含まれています。ネモフィラミントファセリアビオラ、およびカリフォルニアポピー(Eschscholzia californica、州の花)もこのゾーンで繁栄し、ルピナスと一緒に、世界の他のどこよりも多くの種がここで発生します。[129]

The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California laurel, sugar pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies.[130]

The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine, red fir, and lodgepole pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 feet (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.[129][131]

A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park

Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever. As of December 1997, 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.[129]

In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher, bushtit, and California condor.[129][132][133][134]

In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well.[129][135]

The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, mountain chickadee, hermit thrush, American dipper, and Townsend's solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the gray-crowned rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as Anna's hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker.[citation needed] Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. As of April 2003, the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.[129]

Sea otter in Morro Bay, California

Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and cutthroat. Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.[129]

As of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies are also endangered[136] and two that are threatened are on the federal list.[137][138] Among threatened animals are the coastal California gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and northern spotted owl. California has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km2) of National Wildlife Refuges.[129] As of September 2010, 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list.[139] Also, as of the same year, 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.[139]

Rivers

The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley. The two rivers join in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, flowing into the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. Many major tributaries feed into the Sacramento–San Joaquin system, including the Pit River, Feather River and Tuolumne River.

The Klamath and Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California. The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona.

Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California. The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.

Regions

Demographics

Population

Historical population
Census Pop.
185092,597
1860379,994310.4%
1870560,24747.4%
1880864,69454.3%
18901,213,39840.3%
19001,485,05322.4%
19102,377,54960.1%
19203,426,86144.1%
19305,677,25165.7%
19406,907,38721.7%
195010,586,22353.3%
196015,717,20448.5%
197019,953,13427.0%
198023,667,90218.6%
199029,760,02125.7%
200033,871,64813.8%
201037,253,95610.0%
202039,538,2236.1%
Sources: 1790–1990, 2000, 2010, 2020[140][141][8]
Chart does not include Indigenous population figures.
Studies indicate that the Native American
population in California in 1850 was close to 150,000
before declining to 15,000 by 1900.[142]

The United States Census Bureau reports that the population of California was 39,538,223 on April 1, 2020, a 6.13% increase since the 2010 United States census.[8] The population was projected to reach forty million by 2020.[143]

Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths).[144] During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people.[144] The state of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009.[145] However, according to the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, since 1990 almost 3.4 million Californians have moved to other states, with most leaving to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona.[146] According to the Department of Finance, California's population declined by 182,083 people in 2020, the first time that there has been a net decrease in population since 1900.[147]

Within the Western hemisphere California is the second most populous sub-national administrative entity (behind the state of São Paulo in Brazil)[148] and third most populous sub-national entity of any kind outside Asia (in which wider category it also ranks behind England in the United Kingdom, which has no administrative functions). California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world.[149][150] The Greater Los Angeles Area is the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area, while Los Angeles, with nearly half the population of New York City, is the second-largest city in the United States. Conversely, San Francisco, with nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, is the most densely populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the United States. Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states.[151][152] Including Los Angeles, four of the top 20 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco (17th). The center of population of California is located three miles southwest of the city of Shafter, Kern County.[note 2]

As of 2018, the average life expectancy in California was 80.8 years, above the national average of 78.7, which is the second highest in the country.[154]

Cities and towns

The state has 482 incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".[155]

Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850.[156] San Jose, San Diego, and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850.[157][158][159] Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality, on July 1, 2011.[160][161]

The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area.

Largest metropolitan statistical areas in California
CA Rank U.S. Rank Metropolitan statistical area[163] 2020 Census[162] 2010 Census[162] Change Counties[163]
1 2 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA 13,200,998 12,828,837 +2.90% Los Angeles, Orange
2 12 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA MSA 4,749,008 4,335,391 +9.54% Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo
3 13 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA MSA 4,599,839 4,224,851 +8.88% Riverside, San Bernardino
4 17 San Diego-Carlsbad, CA MSA 3,298,634 3,095,313 +6.57% San Diego
5 26 Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA MSA 2,397,382 2,149,127 +11.55% El Dorado, Placer, Sacramento, Yolo
6 35 San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA MSA 2,000,468 1,836,911 +8.90% San Benito, Santa Clara
7 56 Fresno, CA MSA 1,008,654 930,450 +8.40% Fresno
8 62 Bakersfield, CA MSA 909,235 839,631 +8.29% Kern
9 70 Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA MSA 843,843 823,318 +2.49% Ventura
10 75 Stockton-Lodi, CA MSA 779,233 685,306 +13.71% San Joaquin
Largest combined statistical areas in California
CA Rank U.S. Rank Combined statistical area[162] 2020 Census[162] 2010 Census[162] Change Counties[163]
1 2 Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area 18,644,680 17,877,006 +4.29% Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura
2 4 San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area 9,714,023 8,923,942 +8.85% Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Merced, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus
3 23 Sacramento-Roseville, CA Combined Statistical Area 2,680,831 2,414,783 +11.02% El Dorado, Nevada, Placer, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo, Yuba
4 45 Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area 1,317,395 1,234,297 +6.73% Fresno, Kings, Madera
5 125 Redding-Red Bluff, CA Combined Statistical Area 247,984 240,686 +3.03% Shasta, Tehama

Migration

Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.[164] Along with the rest of the United States, California's immigration pattern has also shifted over the course of the late 2000s to early 2010s.[165] Immigration from Latin American countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants now coming from Asia.[166] In total for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants. Fifty-seven percent came from Asian countries versus 22% from Latin American countries.[166] Net immigration from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating.[165] As a result, it is projected that Hispanic citizens will constitute 49% of the population by 2060, instead of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births.[165][167]

The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers.[168] The number of migrants arrested attempting to cross the Mexican border in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1 million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011.[169] Despite these recent trends, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percent of the state's population, the third highest percentage of any state in the country,[170][note 3] totaling nearly 2.6 million.[171] In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles, Monterey, San Benito, Imperial, and Napa Counties—the latter four of which have significant agricultural industries that depend on manual labor.[172] More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico.[171] The state of California and some California cities, including Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco,[173] have adopted sanctuary policies.[174]

Race and ethnicity

Ethnic composition as of the 2020 census
Race and Ethnicity[175] Alone Total
Hispanic or Latino[note 4] 39.4% 39.4
 
Non-Hispanic White/Anglo 34.7% 34.7
 
38.3% 38.3
 
Asian 15.1% 15.1
 
17.0% 17
 
African American 5.4% 5.4
 
6.4% 6.4
 
Native American 0.4% 0.4
 
1.3% 1.3
 
Pacific Islander 0.3% 0.3
 
0.7% 0.7
 
Other 0.6% 0.6
 
1.3% 1.3
 
California historical racial demographics
Racial composition 1970[176] 1990[176] 2000[177] 2010[178]
White 89.0% 69.0% 59.5% 57.6%
Asian 2.8% 9.6% 10.9% 13.0%
Black 7.0% 7.4% 6.7% 6.2%
Native 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.3% 0.4%
Some other race 0.7% 13.2% 16.8% 17.0%
Two or more races 4.8% 4.9%

According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination):[179]

By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race). Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California.[179] Non-Hispanic whites constituted 36.8% of the state's population.[179] Californios are the Hispanic residents native to California, who make up the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in California since 1542, of varying Mexican American/Chicano, Criollo Spaniard, and Mestizo origin.[180]

As of 2011, 75.1% of California's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white (white Hispanics are counted as minorities).[181]

In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4 million, constituting a third of the nation's total. California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state.[182]

According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60% of the state population.[183] Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while Hispanic and Asian populations have grown. Between 1970 and 2011, non-Hispanic whites declined from 80% of the state's population to 40%, while Hispanics grew from 32% in 2000 to 38% in 2011.[184] It is currently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49% of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration.[167] With the decline of immigration from Latin America, Asian Americans now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India and the Philippines, respectively.[185]


Languages

Non-English Languages Spoken in California by more than 100,000 persons
Language Population
(as of 2016)[186]
Spanish 10,672,610 speakers
Chinese 1,231,425
Tagalog 796,451
Vietnamese 559,932
Korean 367,523
Persian 203,770
Armenian 192,980
Arabic 191,954
Hindi 189,646
Russian 155,746
Punjabi 140,128
Japanese 139,430
French 123,956

English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. In 2010, the Modern Language Association of America estimated that 57.02% (19,429,309) of California residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 42.98% spoke another language at home. According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 73% of people who speak a language other than English at home are able to speak English "well" or "very well," while 9.8% of them could not speak English at all.[187] Like most U.S. states (32 out of 50), California law enshrines English as its official language, and has done so since the passage of Proposition 63 by California voters. Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.[188][189][190]

In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other state in the nation. New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than 100,000 persons.[191] The most common language spoken besides English was Spanish, spoken by 28.46% (9,696,638) of the population.[167][165] With Asia contributing most of California's new immigrants, California had the highest concentration nationwide of Vietnamese and Chinese speakers, the second highest concentration of Korean, and the third highest concentration of Tagalog speakers.[187]

California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families.[192][193] A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages among California farmworkers.[194] All of California's indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization.[note 5]

As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century. This variety, known as California English, has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.[195]

Culture

Sunset at Venice Beach

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia.[196][failed verification]

California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.

The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.

Mass media and entertainment

Two prominent California landmarks representing the state's mass media and entertainment: the Hollywood Sign (l) symbolizes the Los Angeles entertainment industry, while San Francisco's Sutro Tower (r) transmits numerous TV and radio stations across the Bay Area

Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major global center for entertainment, with the U.S. film industry's "Big Five" major film studios (Columbia, Disney, Paramount, Universal, and Warner Bros.) being based in or around the area.

The four major American television broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC) all have production facilities and offices in the state. All four, plus the two major Spanish-language networks (Telemundo and Univision) each have at least two owned-and-operated TV stations in California, one in Los Angeles and one in the San Francisco Bay Area.

The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several prominent internet media and social media companies, including three of the "Big Five" technology companies (Apple, Facebook, and Google) as well as other services such as Netflix, Pandora Radio, Twitter, Yahoo!, and YouTube.

One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS (AM) in the Bay Area, was founded in 1909. Universal Music Group, one of the "Big Four" record labels, is based in Santa Monica. California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound, Bay Area thrash metal, g-funk, nu metal, stoner rock, surf music, West Coast hip hop, and West Coast jazz.

Religion

Religion in California (2014)[197]
religion percent
Protestantism
32%
Catholicism
28%
Unaffiliated
27%
Judaism
2%
Buddhism
2%
Hinduism
2%
Islam
1%
Mormonism
1%
Other
5%

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent. Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 1% Muslim, 2% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.[197] This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.[198] The American Jewish Year Book placed the total Jewish population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006.[199] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953.[200]

The first priests to come to California were Catholic missionaries from Spain. Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California continues to have a large Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.

A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally.[201]

Sports

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum hosted the Summer Olympics in 1932 and 1984.

California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises. San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 11 times at four different stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium. A twelfth, Super Bowl 50, was held at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara on February 7, 2016.[202]

California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others.

California is the only U.S. state to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The 1932 and 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games.[203] Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup took place in California, with the Rose Bowl hosting eight matches (including the final), while Stanford Stadium hosted six matches.

Team Sport League
Los Angeles Rams American football National Football League (NFL)
Los Angeles Chargers American football National Football League
San Francisco 49ers American football National Football League
Los Angeles Dodgers Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB)
Los Angeles Angels Baseball Major League Baseball
Oakland Athletics Baseball Major League Baseball
San Diego Padres Baseball Major League Baseball
San Francisco Giants Baseball Major League Baseball
Golden State Warriors Basketball National Basketball Association (NBA)
Los Angeles Clippers Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Lakers Basketball National Basketball Association
Sacramento Kings Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Sparks Basketball Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)
Anaheim Ducks Ice hockey National Hockey League (NHL)
Los Angeles Kings Ice hockey National Hockey League
San Jose Sharks Ice hockey National Hockey League
Los Angeles Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer (MLS)
San Jose Earthquakes Soccer Major League Soccer
Los Angeles Football Club Soccer Major League Soccer
LA Giltinis Rugby union Major League Rugby (MLR)
San Diego Legion Rugby union Major League Rugby

Education

Torrance High School, one of the oldest high schools in continuous use in California

Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grows with the economy and student enrollment figures.[204]

In 2016, California's K–12 public school per-pupil spending was ranked 22nd in the nation ($11,500 per student vs. $11,800 for the U.S. average).[205]

For 2012, California's K–12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0.102 (the U.S. average was 0.137), while paying the 7th most per employee, $49,000 (the U.S. average was $39,000).[206][207][208]

A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from overregulation.[209]

The University of California, Berkeley is the first and oldest campus of the UC system.
The Claremont Colleges east of L.A. include some of the most selective liberal arts colleges in the U.S.[210]

California public postsecondary education is organized into three separate systems:

  • The state's public research university system is the University of California (UC). As of fall 2011, the University of California had a combined student body of 234,464 students.[211] There are ten UC campuses. Nine are general campuses offering both undergraduate and graduate programs which culminate in the award of bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctorates. There is one specialized campus, UC San Francisco, which is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health care, and is home to the UCSF Medical Center, the highest ranked hospital in California.[212] The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of California high school students, but several of the campuses have become even more selective.[213][214][215] The UC system historically held exclusive authority to award the doctorate, but this has since changed and CSU now has limited statutory authorization to award a handful of types of doctoral degrees independently of UC.
  • The California State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000 students. The CSU (which takes the definite article in its abbreviated form, while UC does not) was originally intended to accept the top one-third of California high school students, but several of the campuses have become much more selective.[215][216] The CSU was originally authorized to award only bachelor's and master's degrees, and could award the doctorate only as part of joint programs with UC or private universities. Since then, CSU has been granted the authority to independently award several doctoral degrees (in specific academic fields that do not intrude upon UC's traditional jurisdiction).
  • The California Community Colleges system provides lower-division coursework culminating in the associate's degree, as well as basic skills and workforce training culminating in various kinds of certificates. It is the largest network of higher education in the U.S., composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6 million.

California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.

Twinned regions

California has twinning arrangements with the region of Catalonia in Spain[217] and with the Province of Alberta in Canada.[218][219]

Economy

A tree map depicting the distribution of occupations across California

California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. As of 2019, the gross state product (GSP) was $3.2 trillion ($80,600 per capita), the largest in the United States.[220] California is responsible for one seventh of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP).[221] As of 2018, California's nominal GDP is larger than all but four countries (the United States, China, Japan, and Germany).[222][223] In terms of Purchasing power parity (PPP),[224] it is larger than all but eight countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia).[225] California's economy is larger than Africa and Australia and is almost as large as South America.[226]

  • Total Non farm Employment (2016): 14,600,349
  • Total employer establishments (2016): 922,477[227]

The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.[228] As of June 2021, California has an unemployment rate of 7.6%.[229]

California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy. In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006.[230] Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.[230]

Orange Grove outside of Santa Paula

Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004.[231] This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.[231] In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue.[232] In 2011, that number grew to $43.5 billion products revenue.[233] The Agriculture sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce.[234] According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes.[235]

The Googleplex in Mountain View, California, is the corporate headquarters of Google. Silicon Valley is a center for the global technology industry.

Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation.[236] Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.[237] Using the supplemental poverty measure, California has a poverty rate of 23.5%, the highest of any state in the country.[238] However, using the official measure the poverty rate was only 13.3% as of 2017.[239] Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.

In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation.[240] In 2010, California residents were ranked first among the states with the best average credit score of 754.[241]

State finances

State spending increased from $56 billion in 1998 to $127 billion in 2011.[244][245] California, with 12% of the United States population, has one-third of the nation's welfare recipients.[246] California has the third highest per capita spending on welfare among the states, as well as the highest spending on welfare at $6.67 billion.[247] In January 2011, California's total debt was at least $265 billion.[248] On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however the state's debt remains at $132 billion.[249][250]

With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and Proposition 55 in 2016, California now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000 (though the top brackets are only temporary until Proposition 55 expires at the end of 2030). While Proposition 30 also enacted a minimum state sales tax of 7.5%, this sales tax increase was not extended by Proposition 55 and reverted to a previous minimum state sales tax rate of 7.25% in 2017. Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate.[251]

All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction. Property tax increases are capped at 2% annually or the rate of inflation (whichever is lower), per Proposition 13.

Infrastructure

Energy

Moss Landing Power Plant, located on the coast of Monterey Bay.

Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. However, because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States.[252] Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.[253]

As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020.[254] Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems facility are located in the Mojave Desert. California's wind farms include Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. The Tehachapi area is also where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located.[255] Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power. It would be possible to convert the total supply to 100% renewable energy, including heating, cooling and mobility, by 2050.[256]

The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation.

California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre, the latter having been shut down in 2013. More than 1,700 tons of radioactive waste are stored at San Onofre,[257] which sits in an area where there is a record of past tsunamis.[258] Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.[259][note 6] In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones.

Transportation

One of Caltrans's tall "stack" interchanges

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States.[261][262] The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.[263]

The state has been a pioneer in road construction. One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was the longest suspension bridge main span in the world at 4,200 feet (1,300 m) between 1937 (when it opened) and 1964. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high.[264] The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western United States.[265] It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built.[266]

Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), the 4th busiest airport in the world in 2018, and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), the 25th busiest airport in the world in 2018, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.

California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States.[267]

Map of California showing the primary roadways

The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10,000 employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property.

The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file.[268] In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force.[269]

Inter-city rail travel is provided by Amtrak California; the three routes, the Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner, and San Joaquin, are funded by Caltrans. These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records. The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route.[270] Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain, SMART), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster).

The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 800-mile (1,300 km) rail system. Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election,[271] with the first phase of construction estimated to cost $64.2 billion.[272]

Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach.

Water

Aerial view of the Delta–Mendota Canal (left) and the California Aqueduct, at the Interstate 205 crossing west of Tracy

California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over 40,000,000 acre-feet (49 km3) of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects.[273] Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.

The California Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies.[274] Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water."[275]

Government and politics

State government

Democrats Jerry Brown and Eric Garcetti. Brown served twice as Governor of California and Garcetti is currently serving as Mayor of Los Angeles.

The capital of California is located within Sacramento.[276] The state is organized into three branches of government—the executive branch consisting of the governor[277] and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate;[278] and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts.[279] The state also allows ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification.[280] Before the passage of California Proposition 14 (2010), California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. After June 8, 2010, when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county central committee offices,[281] all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party.[282] At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation.[282] If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held.[282]

Executive branch

The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and state superintendent of public instruction. They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.[283]

Legislative branch

The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.

Judicial branch

California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law[284] (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007.[285] Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Oklahoma and Texas are far more active in carrying out executions).[286][287]

California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1,600 judges (the federal system has only about 840). At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the chief justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one member from each house of the state legislature.

Local government

Counties

California is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards.[288][289] In addition, the county serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas. Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors.[290]

City and town governments

Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities.[155] General-law municipalities owe their existence to state law and are consequently governed by it; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters. Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. Most small cities have a council–manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city. Some larger cities have a directly elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial. The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.

School districts and special districts

About 1,102 school districts, independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education.[291] California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts.[291]

There are about 3,400 special districts in California.[292] A special district, defined by California Government Code § 16271(d) as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area. The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service.

Federal representation

The state of California sends 53 members to the House of Representatives,[293] the nation's largest congressional state delegation. Consequently, California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 55. The current speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California's 12th district, Nancy Pelosi;[294] Kevin McCarthy, representing the state's 23rd district, is the House Minority Leader.[294]

California is represented by U.S. senators Dianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Alex Padilla, a native and former secretary of state of California. Former U.S. senator Kamala Harris, a native, former district attorney from San Francisco, former attorney general of California, resigned on January 18, 2021, to assume her role as the current Vice President of the United States. In the 1992 U.S. Senate election, California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer.[295] Set to follow the Vice President-Elect, Gov. Newsom appointed Secretary of State Alex Padilla to finish the rest of Harris's term which ends in 2022, Padilla has vowed to run for the full term in that election cycle. Padilla was sworn in on January 20, 2021, the same day as the Inauguration of President-Elect Joe Biden as well as Harris.[296][297]

Armed forces

In California, as of 2009, the U.S. Department of Defense had a total of 117,806 active duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were Sailors or Marines, 18,339 were Airmen, and 11,097 were Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees. Additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reservists and Guardsman in California.[298]

In 2010, Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military.[299] However, as of 2002, Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population.[300]

In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War).[301] As of 2010, there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and just over four thousand served before World War II (the largest population of this group of any state).[302]

California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps.

On August 5, 1950, a nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber carrying a nuclear bomb crashed shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. Brigadier General Robert F. Travis, command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead.[303]

Welcome sign at Fort Irwin National Training Center
The main gate of Camp Pendleton
Carl Vinson, Nimitz and Ronald Reagan at North Island Naval Air Station
Beale Air Force Base main gate
Coast Guard Island in the Oakland Estuary
United States Armed Forces in California. From left to right: Fort Irwin, Camp Pendleton, NAS North Island, Beale Air Force Base, and Coast Guard Island

Ideology

California registered voters as of August 30, 2021[304]
Party Number of Voters Percentage California party registration by county.svg

Party registration by county
(October 2018):

  Democrat >=30%
  Democrat >=40%
  Democrat >=50%
  Republican >=30%
  Republican >=40%
Democratic 10,265,897 46.54%
Republican 5,298,738 24.02%
No Party Preference 5,105,330 23.25%
American Independent 715,712 3.24%
Libertarian 214,698 0.97%
Peace and Freedom 110,576 0.5%
Green 88,419 0.4%
Other 140,854 0.64%
Total 22,078,290 100%

California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter.[305] In socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. In the 2016 United States presidential election, California had the third highest percentage of Democratic votes behind the District of Columbia and Hawaii.[306] In the 2020 United States presidential election, it had the 6th highest behind the District of Columbia, Vermont, Massachusetts, Maryland, and Hawaii. According to the Cook Political Report, California contains five of the 15 most Democratic congressional districts in the United States.

Among the political idiosyncrasies, California was the second state to recall their state governor, the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by vote (including Proposition 8 in 2008). Voters also passed Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund stem cell research, making California the second state to legalize stem cell research after New Jersey, and Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state's primary election process. California has also experienced disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. California voters have rejected affirmative action on multiple occasions, most recently in November 2020.

The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections. From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors. Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party.

Several political movements have advocated for Californian independence. The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both advocate for Californian independence along the lines of progressivism and civic nationalism.[307] The Yes California movement attempted to organize an independence referendum via ballot initiative for 2019, which was then postponed.[308]

The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate.

The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. From 1952 through 1988, California was a Republican leaning state, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with 1964 as the exception. Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.S. Presidents, respectively. However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last eight elections, starting in 1992.

In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States Congress in 2007. As the result of gerrymandering, the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive. In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. After the 2012 elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38–15 majority in the delegation. Following the 2018 midterm House elections, Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven.

In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County had remained largely Republican until the 2016 and 2018 elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates.[309][310] One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities.[311]

In February 2021, out of the 25,166,581 people eligible to vote, 22,154,304 people were registered to vote.[312] Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats (10,228,144), Republicans (5,347,377), and No Party Preference (5,258,223).[312] Los Angeles County had the largest number of registered Democrats (3,043,535) and Republicans (995,112) of any county in the state.[312]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Since 1565, Spanish galleons had been visiting Manila in the Philippines to make trade.[47][48]
  2. ^ The coordinates of the center of population are at 35°27′49″N 119°19′31″W / 35.463595°N 119.325359°W / 35.463595; -119.325359.[153]
  3. ^ Behind Nevada and Arizona.
  4. ^ Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and partial ancestry
  5. ^ The following are a list of the indigenous languages: Root languages of California: Athabaskan Family: Hupa, Mattole, Lassik, Wailaki, Sinkyone, Cahto, Tolowa, Nongatl, Wiyot, Chilula; Hokan Family: Pomo, Shasta, Karok, Chimiriko; Algonquian Family: Whilkut, Yurok; Yukian Family: Wappo; Penutian Family: Modok, Wintu, Nomlaki, Konkow, Maidu, Patwin, Nisenan, Miwok, Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Ohlone, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts, Foothill Yokuts; Hokan Family: Esselen, Salinan, Chumash, Ipai, Tipai, Yuma, Halchichoma, Mohave; Uto-Aztecan Family: Mono Paiute, Monache, Owens Valley Paiute, Tubatulabal, Panamint Shoshone, Kawaisu, Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Gabrielino, Juaneno, Luiseno, Cuipeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Chemehuevi
  6. ^ Minnesota also has a moratorium on construction of nuclear power plants, which has been in place since 1994.[260]

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Works cited

Further reading

External links

Preceded by
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on September 9, 1850 (31st)
Succeeded by

Coordinates: 37°N 120°W / 37°N 120°W / 37; -120 (State of California)