Cシャープ(プログラミング言語)

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C#
C Sharp wordmark.svg
パラダイムマルチパラダイム構造化必須オブジェクト指向イベント駆動型タスク駆動型機能的汎用的反射的並行
家族C
によって設計されたAnders HejlsbergMicrosoft
デベロッパーMads Torgersen(Microsoft
初登場2000 ; 21年前[1] (2000)
安定リリース
10.0 [2] Edit this on Wikidata / 2021年11月8日; 33日前 (8 November 2021)
規律の入力静的動的[3] 強い安全主格部分的に推測
プラットホーム共通言語インフラストラクチャ
ライセンス
ファイル名拡張子.cs.csx
Webサイトドキュメント.microsoft .COM / EN-US / DOTNET / CSHARP /
主な実装
ビジュアルC# .NET.NET Frameworkの(中止)、モノDotGNU(中止)ユニバーサルのWindowsプラットフォーム
方言
ポリフォニックC#拡張C#
に影響を受けた
C ++[6] EiffelF#[a] HaskellIconJ#J ++Java[6] MLModula-3Object Pascal[7] VB
影響を受け
Chapel,[8] Clojure,[9] Crystal,[10] D, J#, Dart,[11] F#, Hack, Java,[12][13] Kotlin, Nemerle, Oxygene, Rust, Swift,[14] Vala, TypeScript

C# (/si ʃɑːrp/ see sharp)[b] is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language. C# encompasses static typing, strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.[15]

C# was designed by Anders Hejlsberg from Microsoft in 2000 and was later approved as an international standard by Ecma (ECMA-334) in 2002 and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270) in 2003. Microsoft introduced C# along with .NET Framework and Visual Studio, both of which were closed-source. At the time, Microsoft had no open-source products. Four years later, in 2004, a free and open-source project called Mono began, providing a cross-platform compiler and runtime environment for the C# programming language. A decade later, Microsoft released Visual Studio Code (code editor), Roslyn (compiler), and the unified .NET platform (software framework), all of which support C# and are free, open-source, and cross-platform. Mono also joined Microsoft but was not merged into .NET.

As of 2021, the most recent version of the language is C# 10.0, which was released in 2021 in .NET 6.0.[16][17]

Design goals

The Ecma standard lists these design goals for C#:[15]

History

During the development of the .NET Framework, the class libraries were originally written using a managed code compiler system called "Simple Managed C" (SMC).[19][20] In January 1999, Anders Hejlsberg formed a team to build a new language at the time called Cool, which stood for "C-like Object Oriented Language".[21] Microsoft had considered keeping the name "Cool" as the final name of the language, but chose not to do so for trademark reasons. By the time the .NET project was publicly announced at the July 2000 Professional Developers Conference, the language had been renamed C#, and the class libraries and ASP.NET runtime had been ported to C#.

Hejlsberg is C#'s principal designer and lead architect at Microsoft, and was previously involved with the design of Turbo Pascal, Embarcadero Delphi (formerly CodeGear Delphi, Inprise Delphi and Borland Delphi), and Visual J++. In interviews and technical papers he has stated that flaws[22] in most major programming languages (e.g. C++, Java, Delphi, and Smalltalk) drove the fundamentals of the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which, in turn, drove the design of the C# language itself.

James Gosling, who created the Java programming language in 1994, and Bill Joy, a co-founder of Sun Microsystems, the originator of Java, called C# an "imitation" of Java; Gosling further said that "[C# is] sort of Java with reliability, productivity and security deleted."[23][24] Klaus Kreft and Angelika Langer (authors of a C++ streams book) stated in a blog post that "Java and C# are almost identical programming languages. Boring repetition that lacks innovation,"[25] "Hardly anybody will claim that Java or C# are revolutionary programming languages that changed the way we write programs," and "C# borrowed a lot from Java - and vice versa. Now that C# supports ボクシングとアンボクシングでは、Javaでも非常によく似た機能があります。」[26] 2000年7月、Hejlsbergは、C#は「Javaクローンではなく」、その設計では「C ++にはるかに近い」と述べました。[27]

Since the release of C# 2.0 in November 2005, the C# and Java languages have evolved on increasingly divergent trajectories, becoming two quite different languages. One of the first major departures came with the addition of generics to both languages, with vastly different implementations. C# makes use of reification to provide "first-class" generic objects that can be used like any other class, with code generation performed at class-load time.[28] Furthermore, C# has added several major features to accommodate functional-style programming, culminating in the LINQ extensions released with C# 3.0 and its supporting framework of lambda expressions, extension methods, and anonymous types.[29] These features enable C# programmers to use functional programming techniques, such as closures, when it is advantageous to their application. The LINQ extensions and the functional imports help developers reduce the amount of boilerplate code that is included in common tasks like querying a database, parsing an xml file, or searching through a data structure, shifting the emphasis onto the actual program logic to help improve readability and maintainability.[30]

C# used to have a mascot called Andy (named after Anders Hejlsberg). It was retired on January 29, 2004.[31]

C# was originally submitted to the ISO subcommittee JTC 1/SC 22 for review,[32] under ISO/IEC 23270:2003,[33] was withdrawn and was then approved under ISO/IEC 23270:2006.[34] The 23270:2006 is withdrawn under 23270:2018 and approved with this version.[35]

Name

Microsoft first used the name C# in 1988 for a variant of the C language designed for incremental compilation.[36] That project was not completed but the name lives on.

The name "C sharp" was inspired by the musical notation whereby a sharp symbol indicates that the written note should be made a semitone higher in pitch.[37] This is similar to the language name of C++, where "++" indicates that a variable should be incremented by 1 after being evaluated. The sharp symbol also resembles a ligature of four "+" symbols (in a two-by-two grid), further implying that the language is an increment of C++.[38]

技術的なディスプレイの制限(などの標準フォント、ブラウザ、)およびシャープ記号(という事実によるU + 266F MUSICシャープ記号(HTML ♯ ・は ♯))、最も上に存在しないキーボードレイアウト番号記号U + 0023番号記号(HTML ))は、プログラミング言語の表記名のシャープな記号を近似するために選択されました。[39] この規則は、ECMA-334 C#言語仕様に反映されています。[15] #  #

「sharp」サフィックスは、J#(Java 1.1から派生したMicrosoftによって設計された.NET言語)、A#Adaから派生)、および関数型プログラミング言語F#[40] Eiffel for .NETの元の実装はEiffel#と呼ばれ​​ていました。[41]完全なEiffel言語がサポートされるようになったため、この名前は廃止されました。接尾辞はまたのために使用されているライブラリのような、のGtk#(A .NETラッパーのためのGTKと他のGNOMEライブラリ)とココア#(のラッパーココア)。

バージョン

バージョン 言語仕様 日にち 。ネット Visual Studio
Ecma ISO / IEC マイクロソフト
C#1.0 2002年12月 2003年4月 2002年1月 2002年1月 .NET Framework 1.0 Visual Studio .NET 2002
C#1.1
C#1.2
2003年10月 2003年4月 .NET Framework 1.1 Visual Studio .NET 2003
C#2.0 [42] 2006年6月 2006年9月 2005年9月[c] 2005年11月 .NET Framework 2.0
.NET Framework 3.0
Visual Studio 2005
Visual Studio 2008
C#3.0 [43] なし 2007年8月 2007年11月 .NET Framework 2.0(LINQを除く)[44]

.NET Framework 3.0(LINQを除く)[44]
.NET Framework 3.5

Visual Studio 2008
C#4.0 [45] 2010年4月 2010年4月 .NET Framework 4 Visual Studio 2010
C#5.0 [46] 2017年12月 2018年12月 2013年6月 2012年8月 .NET Framework 4.5 Visual Studio 2012
Visual Studio 2013
C#6.0 [47] なし 下書き 2015年7月 .NET Framework 4.6
.NET Core 1.0
.NET Core 1.1
Visual Studio 2015
C#7.0 [48] [49] 仕様案 2017年3月 .NET Framework 4.7 Visual Studio2017バージョン15.0
C#7.1 [50] 仕様案 2017年8月 .NET Core 2.0 Visual Studio2017バージョン15.3 [51]
C#7.2 [52] 仕様案 2017年11月 Visual Studio2017バージョン15.5 [53]
C#7.3 [54] 仕様案 2018年5月 .NET Core 2.1
.NET Core 2.2
.NET Framework 4.8
Visual Studio 2017 version 15.7[53]
C# 8.0[55] Specification proposal September 2019 .NET Core 3.0
.NET Core 3.1
Visual Studio 2019 version 16.3[56]
C# 9.0[57] Specification proposal September 2020 .NET 5.0 Visual Studio 2019 version 16.8[56]
C# 10.0[58] Specification proposal November 2021 .NET 6.0 Visual Studio 2022 version 17.0[59]

Syntax

The core syntax of the C# language is similar to that of other C-style languages such as C, C++ and Java, particularly:

Distinguishing features

Some notable features of C# that distinguish it from C, C++, and Java where noted, are:

Portability

By design, C# is the programming language that most directly reflects the underlying Common Language Infrastructure (CLI).[60] Most of its intrinsic types correspond to value-types implemented by the CLI framework. However, the language specification does not state the code generation requirements of the compiler: that is, it does not state that a C# compiler must target a Common Language Runtime, or generate Common Intermediate Language (CIL), or generate any other specific format. Theoretically, a C# compiler could generate machine code like traditional compilers of C++ or Fortran.

入力

C#は、キーワードを使用した暗黙的に型指定された変数宣言varと、キーワードのnew[]後にコレクション初期化子を使用した暗黙的に型指定された配列をサポートします。

C# supports a strict Boolean data type, bool. Statements that take conditions, such as while and if, require an expression of a type that implements the true operator, such as the Boolean type. While C++ also has a Boolean type, it can be freely converted to and from integers, and expressions such as if (a) require only that a is convertible to bool, allowing a to be an int, or a pointer. C# disallows this "integer meaning true or false" approach, on the grounds that forcing programmers to use expressions that return exactly bool can prevent certain types of programming mistakes such as if (a = b) (use of assignment = instead of equality ==).

C#はC ++よりもタイプセーフです。デフォルトでの唯一の暗黙の変換は、整数の拡張など、安全であると見なされる変換です。これは、コンパイル時、JIT、および場合によっては実行時に適用されます。ブール値と整数の間、または列挙型メンバーと整数の間で暗黙的な変換は発生しません(任意の列挙型に暗黙的に変換できるリテラル0を除く)。デフォルトで両方とも暗黙的であるC ++コピーコンストラクターおよび変換演算子とは異なり、ユーザー定義の変換は明示的または暗黙的にマークする必要があります。

C# has explicit support for covariance and contravariance in generic types, unlike C++ which has some degree of support for contravariance simply through the semantics of return types on virtual methods.

Enumeration members are placed in their own scope.

The C# language does not allow for global variables or functions. All methods and members must be declared within classes. Static members of public classes can substitute for global variables and functions.

Local variables cannot shadow variables of the enclosing block, unlike C and C++.

Metaprogramming

Metaprogramming can be achieved in several ways:

  • Reflection using framework API
  • Expression tree[61] language feature represents code as an abstract syntax tree, where each node is an expression that can be inspected or executed. This enables dynamic modification of executable code at runtime. Expression tree introduced some homoiconicity to the language.
  • Attribute language feature are metadata attached to a field or a block of code like assemblies, members and types, and are equivalent to annotations in Java. Attributes are accessible to both the compiler and programmatically through reflection. Many of these attributes duplicate the functionality of GCC's and VisualC++'s platform-dependent preprocessor directives.
  • Roslyn C#コンパイラの[62]機能であるソースジェネレータは、コンパイル時のメタプログラミングを可能にします。コンパイルプロセス中に、開発者はコンパイルされているコードを(コンパイラAPIを使用して)検査し、コンパイルに追加できる新しいC#ソースファイルを生成できます。

メソッドと関数

A method in C# is a member of a class that can be invoked as a function (a sequence of instructions), rather than the mere value-holding capability of a class property. As in other syntactically similar languages, such as C++ and ANSI C, the signature of a method is a declaration comprising in order: any optional accessibility keywords (such as private), the explicit specification of its return type (such as int, or the keyword void if no value is returned), the name of the method, and finally, a parenthesized sequence of comma-separated parameter specifications, each consisting of a parameter's type, its formal name and optionally, a default value to be used whenever none is provided. Certain specific kinds of methods, such as those that simply get or set a class property by return value or assignment, do not require a full signature, but in the general case, the definition of a class includes the full signature declaration of its methods.

Like C++, and unlike Java, C# programmers must use the scope modifier keyword virtual to allow methods to be overridden by subclasses.[63]

Extension methods in C# allow programmers to use static methods as if they were methods from a class's method table, allowing programmers to add methods to an object that they feel should exist on that object and its derivatives.

The type dynamic allows for run-time method binding, allowing for JavaScript-like method calls and run-time object composition.

C# has support for strongly-typed function pointers via the keyword delegate. Like the Qt framework's pseudo-C++ signal and slot, C# has semantics specifically surrounding publish-subscribe style events, though C# uses delegates to do so.

C# offers Java-like synchronized method calls, via the attribute [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)], and has support for mutually-exclusive locks via the keyword lock.

Property

C# supports classes with properties. The properties can be simple accessor functions with a backing field, or implement getter and setter functions.

Since C# 3.0 the syntactic sugar of auto-implemented properties is available,[64] where the accessor (getter) and mutator (setter) encapsulate operations on a single attribute of a class.

Namespace

A C# namespace provides the same level of code isolation as a Java package or a C++ namespace, with very similar rules and features to a package. Namespaces can be imported with the "using" syntax.[65]

Memory access

In C#, memory address pointers can only be used within blocks specifically marked as unsafe,[66] and programs with unsafe code need appropriate permissions to run. Most object access is done through safe object references, which always either point to a "live" object or have the well-defined null value; it is impossible to obtain a reference to a "dead" object (one that has been garbage collected), or to a random block of memory. An unsafe pointer can point to an instance of an 'unmanaged' value type that does not contain any references to garbage-collected objects, array, string, or a block of stack-allocated memory. Code that is not marked as unsafe can still store and manipulate pointers through the System.IntPtr type, but it cannot dereference them.

管理対象メモリを明示的に解放することはできません。代わりに、自動的にガベージコレクションされます。ガベージコレクションは、ほとんどの場合に不要になったメモリを解放する責任からプログラマーを解放することによりメモリリークの問題に対処しますオブジェクトへの参照を必要以上に長く保持するコードでも、必要以上にメモリ使用量が増える可能性がありますが、オブジェクトへの最終参照が解放されると、メモリはガベージコレクションに使用できます。

例外

A range of standard exceptions are available to programmers. Methods in standard libraries regularly throw system exceptions in some circumstances and the range of exceptions thrown is normally documented. Custom exception classes can be defined for classes allowing specific handling to be put in place for particular circumstances as needed.[67]

Checked exceptions are not present in C# (in contrast to Java). This has been a conscious decision based on the issues of scalability and versionability.[68]

Polymorphism

Unlike C++, C# does not support multiple inheritance, although a class can implement any number of "interfaces" (fully abstract classes). This was a design decision by the language's lead architect to avoid complications and to simplify architectural requirements throughout CLI.

When implementing multiple interfaces that contain a method with the same name and taking parameters of the same type in the same order (i.e. the same signature), similar to Java, C# allows both a single method to cover all interfaces and if necessary specific methods for each interface.

However, unlike Java, C# supports operator overloading.[69]

統合言語クエリ(LINQ)

C#には、.NETFrameworkを介してLINQを利用する機能があります。IEnumerable<T>インターフェイスがオブジェクトに実装されている場合、開発者はさまざまなデータソースをクエリできますこれには、XMLドキュメント、ADO.NETデータセット、およびSQLデータベースが含まれます。[70]

Using LINQ in C# brings advantages like Intellisense support, strong filtering capabilities, type safety with compile error checking ability, and consistency for querying data over a variety of sources.[71] There are several different language structures that can be utilized with C# and LINQ and they are query expressions, lambda expressions, anonymous types, implicitly typed variables, extension methods, and object initializers.[72]

Functional programming

Though primarily an imperative language, C# 2.0 offered limited support for functional programming through first-class functions and closures in the form of anonymous delegates.[73] C# 3.0 expanded support for functional programming with the introduction of a lightweight syntax for lambda expressions,[74] extension methods (an affordance for modules), and a list comprehension syntax in the form of a "query comprehension" language. C# 7.0 adds features typically found in functional languages like tuples, local functions and pattern matching.[75] C# 9.0 introduces record feature[76] which is primarily built for better supporting immutable data models.

Common type system

C# has a unified type system. This unified type system is called Common Type System (CTS).[77]

A unified type system implies that all types, including primitives such as integers, are subclasses of the System.Object class. For example, every type inherits a ToString() method.

Categories of data types

CTS separates data types into two categories:[77]

  1. Reference types
  2. Value types

値型のインスタンスには、参照整合性も参照比較セマンティクスもありません。値型の等式と不等式の比較では、対応する演算子がオーバーロードされていない限り、インスタンス内の実際のデータ値が比較されます。値型はから派生し、常にデフォルト値を持ち、いつでも作成およびコピーできます。値型に関する他のいくつかの制限は、それらが互いに派生できず(ただし、インターフェースを実装できる)、明示的なデフォルト(パラメーターなし)コンストラクターを持つことができないことです。値型の例は、(符号付き32ビット整数)、(32ビットIEEE浮動小数点数)、(16ビットUnicodeコード単位)、(特定の時点を識別するなどのすべてのプリミティブ型です。ナノ秒の精度で)。他の例はSystem.ValueTypeintfloatcharSystem.DateTimeenum (enumerations) and struct (user defined structures).

In contrast, reference types have the notion of referential identity, meaning that each instance of a reference type is inherently distinct from every other instance, even if the data within both instances is the same. This is reflected in default equality and inequality comparisons for reference types, which test for referential rather than structural equality, unless the corresponding operators are overloaded (such as the case for System.String). Some operations are not always possible, such as creating an instance of a reference type, copying an existing instance, or performing a value comparison on two existing instances. Though specific reference types can provide such services by exposing a public constructor or implementing a corresponding interface (such as ICloneable or IComparable). Examples of reference types are object(他のすべてのC#クラスの最終的な基本クラス)、(Unicode文字の文字列)、および(すべてのC#配列の基本クラス)。 System.StringSystem.Array

どちらのタイプカテゴリも、ユーザー定義のタイプで拡張できます。

ボクシングとアンボクシング

ボクシングは、値型オブジェクトを対応する参照型の値に変換する操作です。[77] C#でのボクシングは暗黙的です。

ボックス化解除は、参照型(以前はボックス化されていた)の値を値型の値に変換する操作です。[77] C#でのボックス化解除には、明示的な型キャストが必要です。タイプTのボックス化されたオブジェクトは、T(またはnull許容T)に対してのみボックス化解除できます。[78]

例:

int foo = 42;         // Value type.
object bar = foo;     // foo is boxed to bar.
int foo2 = (int)bar;  // Unboxed back to value type.

Libraries

The C# specification details a minimum set of types and class libraries that the compiler expects to have available. In practice, C# is most often used with some implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), which is standardized as ECMA-335 Common Language Infrastructure (CLI).

In addition to the standard CLI specifications, there are many commercial and community class libraries that build on top of the .NET framework libraries to provide additional functionality.[79]

C# can make calls to any library included in the List of .NET libraries and frameworks.

Examples

Hello World

The following is a very simple C# program, a version of the classic "Hello world" example using the top-level statements feature introduced in C# 9:[80]

using System;

Console.WriteLine("Hello, world!");

For code written as C# 8 or lower, the entry point logic of a program must be written in a Main method inside a type:

using System;

// A version of the classic "Hello World" program
class Program
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Hello, world!");
    }
}

This code will display this text in the console window:

Hello, world!

Each line has a purpose:

using System;

The above line imports all types in the System namespace. For example, the Console class used later in the source code is defined in the System namespace, meaning it can be used without supplying the full name of the type (which includes the namespace).

// A version of the classic "Hello World" program

This line is a comment; it describes and documents the code for the programmer(s).

class Program

Above is a class definition for the Program class. Everything that follows between the pair of braces describes that class.

{
    ...
}

The curly brackets demarcate the boundaries of a code block. In this first instance, they are marking the start and end of the Program class.

static void Main(string[] args)

This declares the class member method where the program begins execution. The .NET runtime calls the Main method. Unlike in Java, the Main method does not need the public keyword, which tells the compiler that the method can be called from anywhere by any class.[81] Writing static void Main(string[] args) is equivalent to writing private static void Main(string[] args). The static keyword makes the method accessible without an instance of Program. Each console application's Main entry point must be declared static otherwise the program would require an instance of Program, but any instance would require a program. To avoid that irresolvable circular dependency, C# compilers processing console applications(上記のように)メソッドがない場合はエラーを報告しますキーワードは、その宣言して何もありません戻り値をstatic MainvoidMain

コンソールWriteLine "Hello、world!" );

この行は出力を書き込みます。名前空間のConsole静的クラスSystemです。これは、コンソールアプリケーションの標準の入力、出力、およびエラーストリームへのインターフェイスを提供します。プログラムはConsoleメソッドを呼び出します。このメソッドWriteLineは、引数、文字列を含む行をコンソールに表示します"Hello, world!"

GUI

GUIの例:

 システムを使用する; 
System.Windows.Formsを使用する ;

class Program
{
    static void Main()
    {
        MessageBox.Show("Hello, World!");
        Console.WriteLine("Is almost the same argument!");
    }
}

This example is similar to the previous example, except that it generates a dialog box that contains the message "Hello, World!" instead of writing it to the console.

Images

Another useful library is the System.Drawing library, which is used to programmatically draw images. For example:

using System;
using System.Drawing;

public class Example
{
    public static Image img;

    static void Main()
    {
        img = Image.FromFile("Image.png");
    }
}

This will create an image that is identical to that stored in "Image.png".

Standardization and licensing

In August 2001, Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard and Intel co-sponsored the submission of specifications for C# as well as the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) to the standards organization Ecma International. In December 2001, ECMA released ECMA-334 C# Language Specification. C# became an ISO standard in 2003 (ISO/IEC 23270:2003 - Information technology — Programming languages — C#)。ECMAは、2002年12月にC#の第2版と同等の仕様を採用していました。2005年6月、ECMAはC#仕様の第3版を承認し、ECMA-334を更新しました。追加には、部分クラス、匿名メソッド、null許容型、およびジェネリックス(C ++テンプレートにいくらか似ています)が含まれていました。2005年7月、ECMAはISO / IEC JTC 1に、後者のFast-Trackプロセス、標準、および関連するTRを介して提出しました。このプロセスには通常6〜9か月かかります。

C#言語定義とCLIは、ISOおよびEcma標準の下で標準化されており、特許クレームからの合理的で差別のないライセンス保護を提供します。

Microsoft initially agreed not to sue open-source developers for violating patents in non-profit projects for the part of the framework that is covered by the OSP.[82] Microsoft has also agreed not to enforce patents relating to Novell products against Novell's paying customers[83] with the exception of a list of products that do not explicitly mention C#, .NET or Novell's implementation of .NET (The Mono Project).[84] However, Novell maintained that Mono does not infringe any Microsoft patents.[85] Microsoft also made a specific agreement not to enforce patent rights related to the Moonlight browser plugin, which depends on Mono, provided it is obtained through Novell.[86]

A decade later, Microsoft began developing free, open-source, and cross-platform tooling for C#, namely Visual Studio Code, .NET Core, and Roslyn. Mono joined Microsoft as a project of Xamarin, a Microsoft subsidiary.

Implementations

Microsoft is leading the development of the open-source reference C# compilers and set of tools. The first compiler, Roslyn, compiles into intermediate language (IL), and the second one, RyuJIT,[87] is a JIT (just-in-time) compiler, which is dynamic and does on-the-fly optimization and compiles the IL into native code for the front-end of the CPU.[88] RyuJIT is open source and written in C++.[89] Roslyn is entirely written in managed code (C#), has been opened up and functionality surfaced as APIs. It is thus enabling developers to create refactoring and diagnostics tools.[4][90] Two branches of official implementation are .NET Framework (closed-source, Windows-only) and .NET Core (open-source, cross-platform); they eventually converged into one open-source implementation: .NET 5.0.[91] At .NET Framework 4.6, a new JIT compiler replaced the former.[87][92]

Other C# compilers (some of which include an implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure and .NET class libraries):

  • Mono, a Microsoft-sponsored project provides an open-source C# compiler, a complete open-source implementation of the CLI (including the required framework libraries as they appear in the ECMA specification,) and a nearly complete implementation of the NET class libraries up to .NET Framework 3.5.
  • The Elements tool chain from RemObjects includes RemObjects C#, which compiles C# code to .NET's Common Intermediate Language, Java bytecode, Cocoa, Android bytecode, WebAssembly, and native machine code for Windows, macOS, and Linux.
  • The DotGNU project (now discontinued) also provided an open-source C# compiler, a nearly complete implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure including the required framework libraries as they appear in the ECMA specification, and subset of some of the remaining Microsoft proprietary .NET class libraries up to .NET 2.0 (those not documented or included in the ECMA specification, but included in Microsoft's standard .NET Framework distribution).

The Unity game engine uses C# as its primary scripting language. The Godot game engine has implemented an optional C# module thanks to a donation of $24,000 from Microsoft.[93]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ for async
  2. ^ By convention, a number sign is used for the second character in normal text; in artistic representations, sometimes a true sharp sign is used: C♯. However the ECMA 334 standard states: "The name C# is written as the LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C (U+0043) followed by the NUMBER SIGN # (U+0023)."
  3. ^ The Microsoft C# 2.0 specification document only contains the new 2.0 features. For older features, use the 1.2 specification above.

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Further reading

External links