ボスニア戦争

ウィキペディアから、無料の百科事典
ナビゲーションにジャンプ 検索にジャンプ

ボスニア戦争
ユーゴスラビア戦争の一部
Bosnian war header.no.png
左から右に時計回りに:
1 サラエボで戦車の火事に見舞われた後、執行評議会ビルが燃えました2. 1992年5月; ラトコ・ムラディッチスルプスカ共和国軍の将校。3.サラエボのノルウェーの国連平和維持軍。

日にち1992年4月6日– 1995年12月14日
(3年、8か月、1週間、6日)
位置
結果

軍の膠着状態

交戦者
1992年10月までボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ・ヘルツェグ-ボスニア・クロアチア
 
 
 
1992年10月までRepublika Srpska Serbian Krajina
 
 

1992〜94年10月

 ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ

1992〜94年10月

 ヘルツェグボスニアクロアチア
 

1992〜94年10月

 Republika Srpskaセルビアクラジナ西ボスニア(1993年から)サポート:FRユーゴスラビア
 



 

1994–95

 ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナbヘルツェグ・ボスニア・クロアチア支援:NATO 爆撃作戦、1995年)
 
 


 

1994–95

 Republika Srpskaセルビアクラジナ西ボスニア支援:FRユーゴスラビア
 



 
司令官と指導者

Bosnia and Herzegovina アリヤ・イゼトベゴヴィッチ
ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ代表取締役社長 ハリス・シラジョジックボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの首相SeferHalilović ARBiHスタッフ1992年から1993年の最高経営責任者)ラシム・デリックARBiH参謀1993年から1995年の司令官)エンバー・ハドジハサノービックARBiH参謀長1992–1993)Bosnia and Herzegovina







NATO レイトン・W・スミス
AFSOUTHの司令官

...およびその他

フラニョ・トゥジマン
クロアチアの代表取締役社長ゴイコSusakの防衛大臣ジャンコ・ボベットコHV参謀長)





Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Mate Boban
1994年までヘルツェグボスニア大統領KrešimirZubak (1994年からヘルツェグボスニア大統領)
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

ミリヴォイ・ペトコビッチ
HVO参謀長)
...その他

SlobodanMilošević
セルビア大統領MomčiloPerišić VJ参謀長)



ラドヴァン・カラジッチ
スルプスカ共和国大統領ラトコ・ムラディッチVRS参謀長)


フィクレト・アブディッチ AP西ボスニア自治区大統領

...およびその他
ARBiH
110,000人の軍隊
100,000人が
40のタンクを
30のAPCを予約します[1]
HVO
45,000-50,000軍隊[2]
75個のタンク
50のAPC
200の大砲[3]
HV
15,000軍隊[4]
1992年:
JNA
不明1992年

VRS
80,000部隊
300戦車
700 APC800
砲兵[5]
AP西ボスニア
4,000–5,000部隊[6]
死傷者と損失
30,521人の兵士が
31,583人の民間人を殺害した[7] [8]
6,000人の兵士が
2,484人の民間人を殺害した[7] [8]
21,173人の兵士が殺された
4,179人の民間人が殺された[7] [8]
民族性と地位が述べられていない追加の5,100人が殺された[9]

a ^ 1992年から1994年まで、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ共和国は、ボスニアのクロアチア人セルビア人の大多数によってサポートされていませんでしたその結果、それは主にボスニアのイスラム教徒を代表していました。


b ^ 1994年から1995年の間に、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ共和国は、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナとボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの両方によって支援され、代表されました。これは主にワシントン合意によるものです。

ボスニア戦争セルビア・クロアチア語ラットU Bosni I Hercegovini /РатуБоснииХерцеговини)は、国際的だった武力紛争で行われたボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ、戦争が一般的に1992年4月6日に開始したと見られている1992年から1995年の間以前の多くの暴力事件に続いて。 1995年12月14日に終了した戦争がメインの交戦国はボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ共和国の力とのそれだったHerzeg、ボスニアスルプスカ共和国原始状態が主導し、供給クロアチアセルビアそれぞれ。[10] [11]

戦争はユーゴスラビア崩壊の一部でした1991年にユーゴスラビア社会主義連邦共和国からスロベニアとクロアチアが分離した後、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの多民族社会主義共和国は、主にイスラム教徒のボスニアク人(44%)、正統派セルビア人(32.5%)、カトリックが居住していました。クロアチア人(17%)– 1992年2月29日に独立のための国民投票を通過しました。ボスニアのセルビア人の政治的代表者は国民投票をボイコットし、その結果を拒否しました。ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの独立宣言に続いて (国際的に認められた)そして以前に署名されたクティレイロ計画[12](ボスニアを民族カントンに分割することを提案した)からのアリヤ・イゼトベゴビッチの撤退に続いて、ラドヴァン・カラジッチが率いスロボダンのセルビア政府によって支援さボスニアのセルビア人ミロシェビッチユーゴスラビア人民軍(JNA)は、セルビア人の領土を確保するためにボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ内で軍隊を動員し、その後すぐに戦争が全国に広がり、民族の浄化が行われました

紛争は当初、ボスニアのユーゴスラビア軍部隊が後に一方の側でスルプスカ共和国軍(VRS)に変身したことと、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ共和国軍(ARBiH)が主にボスニアク人で構成されていたこととの間で発生しました。反対側クロアチア防衛評議会(HVO)のクロアチア。クロアチア人とボシュニャク間の緊張が生じ、1992年後半を通じて増加したクロアチア人、ボシュニャク戦争初期の1993年にエスカレートしている[13]ボスニア戦争は苦い戦い、無差別を特徴とした砲撃の都市や町の、民族浄化体系的な質量レイプ主に、 Serbによって実行され、[14]そしてより少ない程度で、クロアチア人[15]とボスニアク人[16]がを発揮します。サラエボ包囲戦スレブレニツァ虐殺などの出来事は、後に紛争の象徴となりました。

セルビア人は、当初はJNAが提供した武器と資源のために軍事的に優れていましたが、1994年にボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ連邦がワシントン合意に続いて設立され、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナがスルプスカ共和国と同盟を結んだため、やがて勢いを失いました。パキスタンは、ボスニアのイスラム教徒への武器と空輸対戦車ミサイルの供給の国連の禁止を無視しましたが、スレブレニツァとマルケールの虐殺のNATOは1995年にスルプスカ共和国軍の位置を標的とした意図的な部隊作戦に介入しました。戦争を終わらせる鍵。[17] [18] [より良いソースが必要]戦争はで開催された12月14日1995年和平交渉にパリでボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの平和のための一般的な枠組み協定に署名した後、最後にしたデイトン、オハイオ州および1995年11月21上で確定された[19 ]

2008年初頭までに、旧ユーゴスラビア国際刑事裁判所は、ボスニアでの戦争に関連して、45人のセルビア人、12人のクロアチア人、4人のボスニア人を戦争犯罪で有罪としました。[20] [更新が必要]最新の推定では、戦争中に約10万人が死亡したとされています。[21] [22] [23] 220万人以上が避難し、[24]第二次世界大戦の終結以来、ヨーロッパで最も壊滅的な紛争となった[25] [26]さらに、推定12,000〜50,000人の女性がレイプされ、主にセルビア軍によって行われ、犠牲者のほとんどはボスニアのイスラム教徒であった。[27] [28]

年表

ボスニアでのイスラム教徒、クロアチア人、セルビア人の衝突は1992年2月下旬に始まり、「本格的な敵対行為は4月6日までに発生した」[4]。米国[29]欧州経済共同体(EEC)[ EEC)[ 30]ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナを認めた。[31] [32] ミシャ・グレニーは3月22日、トム・ギャラガーは4月2日、メアリー・カルドーローラ・シルバーアラン・リトルは4月6日を与える。[33]フィリップ・ハモンドは、最も一般的な見解は、戦争が1992年4月6日に始まったというものであると主張した。[31]

セルビア人は、1992年3月1日のボスニア独立国民投票の2日目に花婿の父親が殺害されサラエボの結婚式の銃撃が、戦争の最初の犠牲者であったと考えています。[34]セルビア人シジェコバック殺害は3月26日に行われ、ビイェリナ虐殺(主にボシュニャク人)は4月1日から2日に行われた。 4月5日、大勢の群衆がバリケードに近づいたとき、デモ隊がセルビア軍によって殺害されました。[35]

戦争はで最後にしたボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの平和のための一般的な枠組み協定で交渉し、ライト・パターソン空軍基地デイトン、オハイオ州1995年11月1〜21および12月14日1995年にパリで調印[36]

背景

ユーゴスラビアの崩壊

ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナでの戦争は、ユーゴスラビア社会主義連邦共和国の崩壊の結果として起こりました冷戦終結時の連合体制の弱体化の結果、ユーゴスラビアで危機が発生したユーゴスラビアでは、国民の共産党ユーゴスラビア共産主義者同盟は、そのイデオロギー的効力を失っていました。一方、コソボで暴力が発生した後、1980年代に民族ナショナリズムがルネッサンスを経験した[37]セルビア民族主義者の目標はユーゴスラビアの中央集権化であったが、ユーゴスラビアの他の国籍は連邦化と州の地方分権化を熱望した。[38]

ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナは、かつてのオスマン帝国の州であり、歴史的に多民族国家でした。 1991年の国勢調査によると、人口の44%が自分たちをイスラム教徒(ボシュニャク人)、32.5%がセルビア人、17%がクロアチア人であり、6%が自分たちをユーゴスラビア人と表現しています。[39]

1989年3月には、ユーゴスラビアの危機は、セルビアの政府は地方の支配を許可セルビア憲法改正の採択後深めコソボヴォイヴォディナを[40]それまで、コソボとボイボディナの意思決定は独立しており、両自治州もユーゴスラビア連邦レベルで投票した。セルビアは、新たに選出されたスロボダン・ミロシェビッチ大統領の下で、ユーゴスラビア大統領の8票のうち3票を支配するようになりました。したがって、モンテネグロからの追加投票により、セルビアは連邦政府の決定に大きな影響を与えることができました。この状況は他の共和国からの反対につながり、ユーゴスラビア連邦の改革を要求しました。

1990年1月20日、ユーゴスラビア共産党連盟の第14回臨時会議で、共和国の代表団はユーゴスラビア連邦が直面している主要な問題について合意できませんでした。その結果、スロベニアとクロアチアの代表団は議会を去った。ミラン・クーチャンが率いるスロベニアの代表団は民主的な変化とより緩い連邦を要求したが、ミロシェビッチが率いるセルビアの代表団はそれに反対した。[要出典]

1990年11月のボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナで最初の複数政党制選挙では、投票は主に民族に応じて行われ、ボスニア民主行動党(SDA)、セルビア民主党(SDS)、およびクロアチア民主同盟の成功につながりました。民主連合(HDZBiH)。[41]

締約国は、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ社会主義共和国の大統領がボスニアク人、議会の大統領がセルビア人、首相がクロアチア人になるように、民族に沿って権力を分割しました分離主義ナショナリスト政党は、クロアチアやスロベニアを含む他の共和国で権力を獲得しました。[42]

ユーゴスラビア戦争の始まり

1991年のボスニアヘルツェゴビナの民族地図
  ボシュニャク人   セルビア人   クロアチア人
1991年11月のセルビア自治州

1991年の初めに、ユーゴスラビアで進行中の危機について話し合うために、6つのユーゴスラビア共和国の指導者と2つの自治区の間で多数の会議が開催されました。[43]セルビアの指導部は連邦の解決策を支持したが、クロアチアとスロベニアの指導部は主権国家の同盟を支持した。ボスニアの指導者アリヤ・イゼトベゴビッチは2月に非対称連合を提案し、スロベニアとクロアチアは残りの4つの共和国とのゆるい関係を維持することになりました。その後まもなく、彼は立場を変え、そのような連邦の前提条件として主権ボスニアを選びました。[44]

3月25日、フラニョ・トゥジマンとセルビア大統領のスロボダン・ミロシェヴィッチが開催Karađorđevoで会議を[45]ユーゴスラビアの一部の政治家が、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの分割に2人の大統領が同意したと主張したため、会議は後の数か月で物議を醸した。[46]

6月6日、イゼトベゴビッチとマケドニアのキログリゴロフ大統領は、クロアチア、スロベニア、および他の4つの共和国の連合の間の弱い連合を提案しましたが、ミロシェビッチによって拒否されました。[47]

1991年6月25日、スロベニアとクロアチアの両方が独立を宣言しました。これにより、スロベニアでは10日間戦争と呼ばれる短い武力紛争が発生し、セルブ民族の人口が多い地域ではクロアチアの独立戦争がエスカレートしました。[48] 1991年の後半、クロアチアでは戦争が激化していた。ユーゴスラビア人民軍(JNA)も、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナからクロアチアを攻撃しました。[49]

1991年7月には、代表者のセルビア民主党SDS社長を含む(SDS)、ラドヴァン・カラジッチ、およびマヘームド・フィリポビッチアディルZulfikarpašićからイスラム教徒のボシュニャク機関(MBO)は、として知られている契約起草Zulfikarpašić・カラジッチ契約SRボスニアを残すだろうSRセルビアおよびSRモンテネグロとの州連合のヘルツェゴビナ。合意はクロアチアの政党によって非難された。イゼトベゴビッチは当初、イニシアチブを歓迎しましたが、後に合意を却下しました。[50] [51]

9月と1991年11月の間に、SDSは6「の作成に編成セルビア人自治区」(のSAOを)。[52]これは、ユーゴスラビアからの離脱に向けたボシュニャク人の措置に対応したものであった。[53]ボスニアクロアチア人も同様の措置を講じた。[53]

1991年8月、欧州経済共同体ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナが戦争に陥るのを防ぐために会議主催ました。

1991年9月25日、国連安全保障理事会決議713を可決し、旧ユーゴスラビアのすべての領土に武器禁輸を課しました。禁輸措置は、JNAとセルビア軍にほとんど影響を与えませんでした。その時までに、クロアチア軍は兵舎の戦いの間にJNAから大量の武器を押収しました。禁輸措置は、ボスニア戦争の開始時にボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナに大きな影響を及ぼしました。[54]セルビア軍は、JNAの兵器と装備を継承し、クロアチア軍とボシュニャク軍は、禁輸措置に違反してクロアチアを通じて武器を入手した。[55]

1991年9月19日、JNAは、地方政府によって公に抗議されたモスタル市周辺の地域に追加の軍隊を移動させた。 1991年9月20日、JNAはボスニア北東部のヴィシェグラード地域を経由してヴコヴァルの前線に軍隊を移送しまし。それに応じて、地元のクロアチア人とボスニア人はバリケードと機関銃のポストを設置しました。彼らは60台のJNA戦車の列を停止させたが、翌日強制的に解散させられた。 1,000人以上がその地域から逃げなければなりませんでした。ボスニア戦争が始まるほぼ7か月前のこの行動は、ボスニアでのユーゴスラビア戦争の最初の犠牲者を引き起こしました。 10月の初日、JNAはヘルツェゴビナ東部のクロアチア人村、ラブノ攻撃し、平準化した。クロアチア南部のドゥブロヴニク攻撃します。[56]

1991年10月6日、ボスニアのアリヤ・イゼトベゴビッチ大統領は、「それは私たちの戦争ではない」という声明を含む中立のテレビ宣言を行いました。[57]その間、イゼトベゴビッチは10月14日にボスニア議会でJNAに関して次の声明を発表した。 '軍に対して何もしないでください。(...)軍隊の存在は私たちにとって安定要因であり、私たちはその軍隊が必要です(...)。今まで私たちは陸軍に問題を抱えていませんでした、そして私たちは後で問題を抱えることはありません。[58]

1990年を通じて、RAM計画、セルビア国外でセルビア人を組織し、駆け出しのSDS党の管理を強化し、武器と弾薬の事前配置を目的としてSDBユーゴスラビア人民軍(JNA)選ばれたセルビア人役員のグループによって開発されました[59]

この計画は、領土を持つすべてのセルビア人が同じ州で一緒に暮らす第3のユーゴスラビアの枠組みを準備することを目的としていました。[60]

ジャーナリストのジュゼッペ・ザッカリアは、1992年にベオグラードで開催されたセルブ陸軍将校の会議を要約し、イスラム教徒の宗教的および社会的構造の最も脆弱な部分として女性と子供を標的とする明確な政策を採用したと報告した。[61] RAM計画は1980年代に作成されたと考えられています。[62]その存在は、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナのクロアチア人であるユーゴスラビア首相であるアンテ・マルコビッチによって漏らされたそれの存在と可能な実施はボスニア政府を驚かせました。[63] [64]

最終的な政治危機

1991年10月15日、サラエボのボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ社会主義共和国議会は、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの主権に関する覚書」を単純過半数で可決しました[65] [66]覚書は、ボスニアのセルビア人議員によって激しく争われ、憲法の改正LXXは手続き上の保護措置を必要としそのような問題には3分の2の過半数必要であると主張した。とにかく覚書が議論され、ボスニアのセルビア人による議会のボイコットにつながり、ボイコット中に法案が可決されました。[67]セルビアの政治代表は、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナのセルビア人集会を宣言した1991年10月24日、セルビア人はユーゴスラビアに留まりたいと宣言した。[53]民主行動党(SDA)は、アリヤ・イゼトベゴヴィッチ率いる、独立性を追求するために決定された、欧州と米国でサポートされていた[68] SDSは、それが独立を宣言した場合、それがあったように、セルビア人が脱退することを明らかにしました自己決定を行使する彼らの権利。[68]

HDZ BiHは、クロアチアの与党であるクロアチア民主同盟(HDZ)の支部として設立されました。国の独立を求めたが、党内で分裂があり、一部のメンバーはクロアチアの大多数の地域の分離を主張した。[69] 1991年11月、クロアチアの指導部は、クロアチア人が過半数を占める地域で自治コミュニティを組織した。 1991年11月12日、BosnianPosavinaのクロアチアコミュニティがBosanskiBrodに設立されました。ボスニア北部の8つの自治体を対象としました。[70] 1991年11月18日、ヘルツェグ・ボスニアのクロアチア人コミュニティがモスタルに設立されたマテ・ボバンが社長に選ばれました。[71]その創設文書は次のように述べています。「コミュニティは、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの前者またはその他のユーゴスラビアに対する国家の独立が存在する限り、民主的に選出されたボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ共和国政府を尊重します」。[72]

ボリサヴ・ヨビッチの回想録は、1991年12月5日、ミロシェビッチがBiHのJNA軍を再編成し、ボスニア以外の要員を撤退させるよう命じたことを示しています。ボスニアのセルビア人は、ボスニアのセルビア軍の中核を形成するために残ります。[73]したがって、月末までに、BiHのJNAの職員の10〜15%だけが共和国外から来ていた。[73]シルバーとリトルは、ミロシェビッチがボスニア生まれのすべてのJNA兵士にBiHへの移送を密かに命じたことに注意する。[73]ヨヴィッチの回想録は、ミロシェビッチがボスニアへの攻撃をかなり前もって計画していたことを示唆している。[73]

1992年1月9日、ボスニアのセルビア人は「ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナのセルビア人共和国」(SR BiH、後にスルプスカ共和国)を宣言しましたが、公式には独立を宣言しませんでした。[53] 1992年1月11日のユーゴスラビア平和会議仲裁委員会は、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナに関する意見第4号で、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナの独立はまだ国民投票を行っていないため、認めるべきではないと述べた。[74]

議会の会期が延期されてから1時間後の1992年1月25日、議会は2月29日と3月1日に独立に関する国民投票を求めた。[65]ボスニア・クロアチア人の過半数の代表が、まだ設立されていない国民投票評議会の前に国民投票の質問をするという動議を却下した後、セルビア人議員が撤退した後、討論は終了した。[75]国民投票の提案は、SDSメンバーが不在の場合、イスラム教徒の代理人によって提案された形式で採択された。[75]ブルクとシュープが指摘しているように、「決定はボスニア政府とセルビア人を衝突コースに置いた」。[75]来たる国民投票は、2月に国際的な懸念を引き起こした。[76]

クロアチア戦争は、1992年2月21日に国連安全保障理事会決議743をもたらし、国連保護軍(UNPROFOR)を創設しました

Carrington-Cutillero計画:セルビアのカントンは赤、ボスニアックのカントンは緑、クロアチアのカントンは青で示されています

2月21〜22日のリスボンの会談で、EC調停人のジョゼクティレイロ平和計画を発表し、ボスニアの独立国家を3つの構成単位に分割することを提案しました。合意は2月25日にボシュニャクの指導部によって非難された。[76] 1992年2月28日、SR BiHの憲法は、その共和国の領土には「セルビア自治区および地区、ならびにセルビア人が居住する地域を含む、ボスニアおよびヘルツェゴビナの他のセルビア民族組織の領土が含まれる」と宣言した。第二次世界大戦での大量虐殺により、人々は少数派のままでした」と述べ、ユーゴスラビアの一部であると宣言されました。[77]

ボスニアのセルビア人議員は、1992年2月29日と3月1日に開催された国民投票をボイコットするようセルビア人に助言しました。人口の約34%が、国民投票を大部分ボイコットしました)。[78]セルビアの政治指導部は、抗議の障害物を設定するための口実として国民投票を使用した。独立は1992年3月3日にボスニア議会によって正式に宣言された。[29]

1992年3月の不安

3月1日の国民投票の間、サラエボはセルビアの結婚式での銃撃を除いて静かでした。[79]バシュチャルシヤでのセルビアの旗の振り回しは、国民投票の日に意図的な挑発と見なされ、ほとんどのボスニアのクロアチア人とイスラム教徒によって支持されたが、ほとんどのボスニアのセルビア人によってボイコットされた。[80]花婿の父であるニコラ・ガルドビッチが殺され、セルビア正教会の司祭が負傷した。目撃者は、殺人者を「Ćelo」としても知られるラミズ・デラリッチ特定しました。これは、共産主義の崩壊以来ますます勇敢な犯罪者になり、ボスニアック準軍事組織「グリーンベレー帽」のメンバーでもあったと述べられたマイナーなギャングです。「。彼と別の加害者容疑者に対して逮捕状が発行された。SDSは殺害を非難し、彼を逮捕できなかったのはSDAまたはボスニア政府の共謀によるものだと主張した。[81] [82] SDSのスポークスマンは、セルビア人が致命的な危険にさらされており、独立したボスニアではさらにそうなるだろうが愛国同盟の創設者であるセファー・ハリロヴィッチは、それは結婚式ではなく挑発であると述べ、結婚式のゲストをSDS活動家であると非難した。次の早朝、市内の主要な通過地点で、武装して覆面をしたSDS支持者が配置された[83]

1992年3月3日にボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナがユーゴスラビアからの独立を宣言した後、セルビア人と領土全体の政府軍との間で散発的な戦闘が勃発しました。[84]

1992年3月18日、すべての3つの側面は、署名されたリスボン協定アリヤ・イゼトベゴヴィッチボシュニャクため、ラドヴァン・カラジッチセルビア人のためにとマテ・ボバンクロアチア人のために。しかし、1992年3月28日、イゼトベゴビッチは、サラエボで当時のユーゴスラビア駐在米国大使ウォーレン・ジマーマンと会談した後、署名を撤回し、ボスニアのあらゆる種類の民族的分裂に反対することを宣言しました。

何が言われ、誰が言ったのかは不明のままです。ジマーマンは、彼が署名を撤回した場合、米国はボスニアに独立国家としての承認を与えるだろうとイゼトベゴビッチに語ったことを否定している。議論の余地のないことは、その同じ日にイゼトベゴビッチが彼の署名を撤回し、合意を放棄したことです。[85]

後半に1992年3月には、セルビア人と中や近く組み合わせクロアチア人とボシュニャク軍の間に戦っていたBosanskiブロート[86]が得られSijekovacにおけるセルビア人の村人の殺害[87] 1992年4月1日から2日まで、セルビアの準軍組織がビイェリナの虐殺を犯し、その犠牲者のほとんどはボシュニャク人であった。[88]

派閥

ボスニア戦争には3つの派閥がありました。

3つの民族グループは、主にそれぞれの民族または国の派閥を支持しました。ボシュニャク人は主にARBiH、クロアチア人はHVO、セルビア人はVRSです。各派閥に外国人ボランティアがいました。

ボスニアン

1997年の米国訪問中のアリヤ・イゼトベゴビッチ

ボシュニャクは主に編成ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ共和国軍Armija共和国Bosne私Hercegovineの軍隊として、ARBiH)ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ共和国。ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ共和国の部隊は5つの軍団に分割されました。第1軍団はサラエボとゴラジュデの地域で活動し、より強力な第5軍団はビハチとその周辺のHVOユニットと協力したボサンスカクラジナ西部のポケットに配置されました。ボスニア政府軍は装備が不十分で、戦争の準備ができていませんでした。[誰によると? ] [89]

ボスニア領土防衛の参謀長であるSeferHalilovićは、1992年6月に、彼の軍隊は70%がイスラム教徒、18%がクロアチア人、12%がセルビア人であると主張した。[90]ボスニア軍のセルビア人とクロアチア人の兵士の割合は、サラエボ、モスタル、トゥズラで特に高かった。[91]ボスニア軍本部の副司令官は、ボスニア軍で最高位のセルビア人であるJovanDivjak将軍であったクロアチア人のStjepanŠiber将軍が2番目の副司令官でした。イゼトベゴビッチはまたヘルツェゴビナのクロアチア防衛軍の司令官であるブラジュクラリエビッチ大佐を 任命した。、多民族の親ボスニア防衛戦線を組み立てるために、クラリェビッチ暗殺の7日前にボスニア陸軍本部のメンバーになる。[92]この多様性は、戦争の過程で減少することでした。[90] [93]

ボスニア政府は武器禁輸を解除するよう働きかけましたが、それはイギリス、フランス、ロシアによって反対されました。この政策を追求する米国の提案は、リフトアンドストライクとして知られていました。米国議会は禁輸措置の解除を求める2つの決議を可決したが、米国と前述の国との間に亀裂が生じることを恐れて、両方ともビル・クリントン大統領によって拒否された。それにもかかわらず、米国は「黒い」C-130輸送機とイスラム教徒グループを含むバックチャネルの両方を使用して、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ軍に武器を密輸し、イランが供給した武器をクロアチアからボスニアに輸送することを許可した。[94] [95] [96]しかし、「トゥズラの黒い飛行」を調整するアメリカ(そしておそらくトルコ)の努力に対するNATOの広範な反対に照らして、イギリスとノルウェーはこれらの措置の不承認とNATOの武器禁輸の執行に対する逆効果を表明した。[97]

パキスタンの軍統合情報局も1992年から1995年にかけて積極的な役割を果たし、イスラム教徒の戦闘機に武器、弾薬、誘導対戦車ミサイルを密かに供給して、セルビア人との戦闘の機会を与えました。したがって、パキスタンはボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナへの武器供給の国連禁止に反対しており、ジャベド・ナシル将軍は後に、ISIが対戦車誘導ミサイルをボスニアに空輸したと主張しました。包囲。[98] [99] [100]

彼の本ではザ・クリントンがテープ:社長と歴史レスリング2009年から、歴史家と作者テイラー支店、米大統領の友人ビル・クリントンは、1993年から2001年を通して彼の大統領の間に社長と公共70回の以上記録されたセッションを行った[101] [102] 1993年10月14日に録音されたセッションによると、次のように述べられている。

クリントン大統領は、ヨーロッパの米国の同盟国が禁輸措置を調整または削除する提案を阻止したと述べた。彼らは、より多くの武器が流血を煽るだけであると主張して、もっともらしい人道的理由で反対を正当化したが、個人的に、主要な同盟国は、独立したボスニアがヨーロッパで唯一のイスラム教国として「不自然」であることに反対したと述べた。彼は、それがボスニアの不利な点に閉じ込められたという理由だけで、彼らが禁輸を支持したと言った。 [..]第二次世界大戦中のヨーロッパのユダヤ人の窮状に関する盲目の外交を彷彿とさせるそのような冷笑にショックを表明したとき、クリントン大統領は肩をすくめただけでした。彼はフランソワ・ミッテラン大統領が言ったフランスの人々は、ボスニアは所属しておらず、英国当局はまた、キリスト教ヨーロッパの痛みを伴うが現実的な回復についても語ったと言って、特に率直でした。英国とフランスに対して、とりわけドイツの首相ヘルムート・コールは、ドイツが国連安全保障理事会の議席を保持していなかったために失敗したこともあり、国連の武器禁輸を再考する動きを支持したと彼は述べた。

— テイラーブランチ、クリントンテープ:大統領とのレスリングの歴史[103]

クロアチア

クロアチア人は1991年後半に軍隊の組織化を開始しました。1992年4月8日、クロアチア防衛評議会Hrvatskovijećeobrane、HVO)が「ヘルツェグボスニアにおけるクロアチア防衛の最高機関」として設立されました。[104] HVOは、モスタル、トミスラヴグラード、ビテス、オラシエに本部を置く4つの作戦区域で組織された。[105] 1993年2月、HVOのメインスタッフはHVOの強さを34,080人の将校と男性と推定した。[106]その兵器には、主にT-34とT-55を含む約50の主力戦車と、500のさまざまな砲兵器が含まれていました。[107]

戦争の初めに、クロアチア政府はクロアチア軍とボシュニャク軍の両方の武装を支援しました。[108]兵站センターは、ARBiHの兵士を募集するためにザグレブとリエカに設立された。[109]クロアチア州兵後でに正式に改名さ(Zbor Narodneガルド、ZNG)、クロアチア軍フルバツカvojska、HV)は、セルビア人勢力に対してボスニアPosavina、ヘルツェゴビナ、西ボスニアに従事していました。[110]クロアチア・ボスニア戦争中、クロアチア政府はHVOに武器を提供し、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナを起源とするボランティアの部隊をHVOに派遣することを組織した。[111]

クロアチア防衛軍(HOS)、の準軍事翼権利のクロアチア党HVOとARBiHとともにセルビア人勢力と戦いました、。HOSは、指揮官ブラジュクラリエビッチの死後間もなく解散し、HVOとARBiHに組み込まれました。[112]

セルビア

スルプスカ共和国軍Vojska共和国Srpske、VRSは)それはに忠実だっ月1992年12に設立されましたスルプスカ共和国から脱却したくなかった、ボスニアのセルビアの一部FRユーゴスラビア

セルビアは、後方支援、資金、物資をVRSに提供しました。ボスニアのセルビア人は、JNA将校軍団のかなりの部分を占めていました。ミロシェビッチは、ボスニアのセルビア人に頼って戦争に勝ちました。コマンドチェーン、兵器、およびラトコ・ムラディッチ将軍を含む高位の軍人のほとんどはJNAでした。[113]

準軍組織とボランティア

ボスニア戦争中に活動したさまざまな準軍組織:セルビア人「ホワイトイーグルス」(ベリオルロヴィ)と「セルビア義勇親衛隊」(SrpskaDobrovoljačkaGarda)、別名「アルカンの虎」。ボスニア語「愛国同盟」(Patriotskaリーガ)と「グリーン・ベレー」(Zelene Beretke)。そして、クロアチア人「クロアチア防衛軍」(Hrvatske Obrambene Snage)などザ・セルビア人とクロアチア人はセルビアとクロアチアから関わったボランティアの準軍事組織、およびそれらの国では民族主義政党でサポートされていました。

戦争は様々な国から外国の戦闘機と傭兵を引き付けました。ボランティアは、宗教的または民族的な忠誠心を含むさまざまな理由で、場合によってはお金のために戦うようになりました。原則として、ボシュニャク人はイスラム諸国から、セルビア人は東方正教会諸国から、クロアチア人はカトリック諸国から支援を受けました。外国の戦闘機の存在は十分に文書化されていますが、これらのグループのいずれも、それぞれの軍隊の総人員力の5パーセントを超えて構成されていませんでした。[要出典]

ボスニアのセルビア人は、他の正教会のキリスト教からの志願を含む、東ヨーロッパのさまざまな国からのキリスト教スラブの戦闘機からの支援を受けました[114] [115]。これらには、数百人のロシア人、[116]約100人のギリシャ人、[117]、そして一部のウクライナ人とルーマニア人が含まれていました。[117] 1,000人ものそのようなボランティアを推定する人もいます。[118]ギリシャ語のボランティアギリシャボランティアガードはに参加していると報告されたスレブレニツァ虐殺と、ギリシャ語フラグは町はセルビア人に落ちたときにスレブレニツァに掲揚されます。[119]

スウェーデンに戻ったときに戦争犯罪で起訴されたジャッキー・アルクロフなどのネオナチを含む、他のヨーロッパ諸国からの何人かの個人がクロアチア人側のために戦うことを志願しまし。その後、彼は彼が犯し告白戦争犯罪にボスニアのイスラム教徒の民間人にしHeliodromDreteljキャンプクロアチア軍の一員として。[120]

The Bosnians received support from Muslim groups. Pakistan supported Bosnia while providing technical and military support.[121][122] Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) allegedly ran an active military intelligence program during the Bosnian War which started in 1992 lasting until 1995. Executed and supervised by Pakistani General Javed Nasir, the program provided logistics and ammunition supplies to various groups of Bosnian mujahideen during the war. The ISI Bosnian contingent was organised with financial assistance provided by Saudi Arabia, according to the British historian Mark Curtis.[123]

According to The Washington Post, Saudi Arabia provided $300 million in weapons to government forces in Bosnia with the knowledge and tacit cooperation of the United States, a claim denied by US officials.[124] Foreign Muslim fighters also joined the ranks of the Bosnian Muslims, including from the Lebanese guerrilla organisation Hezbollah,[125] and the global organization al-Qaeda.[126][127][128][129]

Prelude

During the war in Croatia, arms had been pouring into Bosnia. The JNA armed Bosnian Serbs, and the Croatian Defence Force armed Herzegovinian Croats.[130] The Bosnian Muslim Green Berets and Patriotic League were established already in fall 1991, and drew up a defense plan in February 1992.[130] It was estimated that 250–300,000 Bosnians were armed, and that some 10,000 were fighting in Croatia.[131] By March 1992, perhaps three-quarters of the country were claimed by Serb and Croat nationalists.[131] On 4 April 1992, Izetbegović ordered all reservists and police in Sarajevo to mobilise, and SDS called for evacuation of the city's Serbs, marking the 'definite rupture between the Bosnian government and Serbs'.[132] Bosnia and Herzegovina received international recognition on 6 April 1992.[29] The most common view is that the war started that day.[133]

Course of the war

1992

A victim of a mortar attack delivered to a Sarajevo hospital in 1992

Bosnian Serb political leader Radovan Karadžić stated "Our optimum is a Greater Serbia, and if not that, then a Federal Yugoslavia".[134] The war in Bosnia escalated in April.[135] On 3 April, the Battle of Kupres began between the JNA and a combined HV-HVO force that ended in a JNA victory.[136] On 6 April Serb forces began shelling Sarajevo, and in the next two days crossed the Drina from Serbia proper and besieged Muslim-majority Zvornik, Višegrad and Foča.[132] According to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, in 1992, after the capture of Zvornik, Bosnian Serb troops killed several hundred Muslims and forced tens of thousands to flee the area.[137] All of Bosnia was engulfed in war by mid-April.[132] On 23 April, the JNA evacuated its personnel by helicopter from the barracks in Čapljina,[138] which had been blockaded since 4 March.[139] There were some efforts to halt violence.[140] On 27 April, the Bosnian government ordered the JNA to be put under civilian control or expelled, which was followed by a series of conflicts in early May between the two.[141] Prijedor was taken over by Serbs on 30 April.[citation needed] On 2 May, the Green Berets and local gang members fought back a disorganised Serb attack aimed at cutting Sarajevo in two.[141] On 3 May, Izetbegović was kidnapped at the Sarajevo airport by JNA officers, and used to gain safe passage of JNA troops from downtown Sarajevo.[141] However, Bosnian forces attacked the departing JNA convoy, which embittered all sides.[141] A cease-fire and agreement on evacuation of the JNA was signed on 18 May, and on 20 May the Bosnian presidency declared the JNA an occupation force.[141]

The Army of Republika Srpska was newly established and put under the command of General Ratko Mladić, in a new phase of the war.[141] Shellings on Sarajevo on 24, 26, 28 and 29 May were attributed to Mladić by UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali.[142] Civilian casualties of a 27 May shelling of the city led to Western intervention, in the form of sanctions imposed on 30 May through UNSCR 757.[142] That same day Bosnian forces attacked the JNA barracks in the city, which was followed by heavy shelling.[142] On 5 and 6 June the last JNA personnel left the city during heavy street fighting and shelling.[142] The 20 June cease-fire, executed in order for UN takeover of the Sarajevo airport for humanitarian flights, was broken as both sides battled for control of the territory between the city and airport.[142] The airport crisis led to Boutros-Ghali's ultimatum on 26 June, that the Serbs stop attacks on the city, allow the UN to take control of the airport, and place their heavy weapons under UN supervision.[142] Meanwhile, media reported that Bush considered the use of force in Bosnia.[142] World public opinion was 'decisively and permanently against the Serbs' following media reports on the sniping and shelling of Sarajevo.[143]

Goran Jelisić shooting at a Bosnian Muslim victim in Brčko in 1992

Outside of Sarajevo, the combatants' successes varied greatly in 1992.[143] Serbs had seized Muslim-majority cities along the Drina and Sava rivers and expelled their Muslim population within months.[143] A joint Bosnian–HVO offensive in May, having taken advantage of the confusion following JNA withdrawal, reversed Serb advances into Posavina and central Bosnia.[143] The offensive continued southwards, besieging Doboj, thereby cutting off Serb forces in Bosanska Krajina from Semberija and Serbia.[143] In mid-May, Srebrenica was retaken by Bosnian forces under Naser Orić.[143] Serb forces suffered a costly defeat in eastern Bosnia in May, when according to Serbian accounts Avdo Palić's force was ambushed near Srebrenica, killing 400.[143] From May to August, Goražde was besieged by the VRS, until they were pushed out by the ARBiH. In April 1992, Croatian Defence Council (HVO) entered the town of Orašje and, according to Croatian sources, began a mass campaign of harassment against local Serb civilians, including torture, rape and murder.[144][145]

On 15 May 1992, a JNA column was ambushed in Tuzla. 92nd Motorised JNA Brigade (stationed in "Husinska buna" barracks in Tuzla) received orders to leave the city of Tuzla and Bosnia-Herzegovina, and to enter Serbia. An agreement was made with the Bosnian government that JNA units would be allowed until 19 May to leave Bosnia peacefully. Despite the agreement, the convoy was attacked in Tuzla's Brčanska Malta district with rifles and rocket launchers; mines were also placed along its route. 52 JNA soldiers were killed and over 40 were wounded, most of them ethnic Serbs.[146][147]

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was admitted as a member State of the United Nations on 22 May 1992.[148]

Model of the Čelebići camp, near Konjic, presented as evidence in the Mucić et al. trial

From May to December 1992, the Bosnian Ministry of the Interior (BiH MUP), Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and later the Bosnian Territorial Defence Forces (TO RBiH) operated the Čelebići prison camp. It was used to detain 700 Bosnian Serb prisoners of war arrested during military operations that were intended to de-block routes to Sarajevo and Mostar in May 1992 which had earlier been blocked by Serb forces. Of these 700 prisoners, 13 died while in captivity.[149] Detainees at the camp were subjected to torture, sexual assaults, beatings and otherwise cruel and inhuman treatment. Certain prisoners were shot and killed or beaten to death.[150][151]

On 6 May 1992, Mate Boban met with Radovan Karadžić in Graz, Austria, where they reached an agreement for a ceasefire and discussed the details of the demarcation between a Croat and Serb territorial unit in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[152] However, the ceasefire was broken on the following day when the JNA and Bosnian Serb forces mounted an attack on Croat-held positions in Mostar.[153]

By June 1992, the number of refugees and internally displaced persons had reached 2.6 million.[154] By September 1992, Croatia had accepted 335,985 refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly Bosniak civilians (excluding men of drafting age).[155] The large number of refugees significantly strained the Croatian economy and infrastructure.[156] Then-U.S. Ambassador to Croatia, Peter Galbraith, tried to put the number of Muslim refugees in Croatia into a proper perspective in an interview on 8 November 1993. He said the situation would be the equivalent of the United States taking in 30,000,000 refugees.[157] The number of Bosnian refugees in Croatia was at the time surpassed only by the number of the internally displaced persons within Bosnia and Herzegovina itself, at 588,000.[155] Serbia took in 252,130 refugees from Bosnia, while other former Yugoslav republics received a total of 148,657 people.[155]

Map of Operation Corridor 92, fought between the VRS and the HV-HVO

In June 1992, the Bosnian Serbs started Operation Corridor in northern Bosnia against HV–HVO forces, to secure an open road between Belgrade, Banja Luka, and Knin.[158] The reported deaths of twelve newborn babies in Banja Luka hospital due to a shortage of bottled oxygen for incubators was cited as an immediate cause for the action,[159] but the veracity of these deaths has since been questioned. Borisav Jović, a contemporary high-ranking Serbian official and member of the Yugoslav Presidency, has claimed that the report was just wartime propaganda, stating that Banja Luka had two bottled oxygen production plants in its immediate vicinity and was virtually self-reliant in that respect.[160] Operation Corridor began on 14 June 1992, when the 16th Krajina Motorized Brigade of the VRS, aided by a VRS tank company from Doboj, began the offensive near Derventa. The VRS captured Modriča on 28 June, Derventa on 4–5 July, and Odžak on 12 July. The HV–HVO forces were reduced to isolated positions around Bosanski Brod and Orašje, which held out during August and September. The VRS managed to break through their lines in early October and capture Bosanski Brod. Most of the remaining Croat forces withdrew north to Croatia. The HV–HVO continued to hold the Orašje enclave and were able to repel an VRS attack in November.[161]

On 21 June 1992, Bosniak forces entered the Bosnian Serb village of Ratkovići near Srebrenica and murdered 24 Serb civilians.[162]

In June 1992, the UNPROFOR, originally deployed in Croatia, had its mandate extended into Bosnia and Herzegovina, initially to protect the Sarajevo International Airport. In September, the role of UNPROFOR was expanded to protect humanitarian aid and assist relief delivery in the whole Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as to help protect civilian refugees when required by the Red Cross.[citation needed]

On 4 August 1992, the IV Knight Motorised Brigade of the ARBiH attempted to break through the circle surrounding Sarajevo, and a fierce battle ensued between the ARBiH and the VRS in and around the damaged FAMOS factory in the suburb of Hrasnica [bs]. The VRS repelled the attack, but failed to take Hrasnica in a decisive counterattack.[163]

On 12 August 1992, the name of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was changed to Republika Srpska (RS).[77][164] By November 1992, 1,000 square kilometres (400 sq mi) of eastern Bosnia was under Muslim control.[143]

Croat–Bosniak relations in late 1992

The Croat–Bosniak alliance, formed at the beginning of the war, was often not harmonious.[2] The existence of two parallel commands caused problems in coordinating the two armies against the VRS.[165] An attempt to create a joint HVO and TO military headquarters in mid-April failed.[166] On 21 July 1992, the Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation was signed by Tuđman and Izetbegović, establishing a military cooperation between the two armies.[167] At a session held on 6 August, the Bosnian Presidency accepted HVO as an integral part of the Bosnian armed forces.[168]

Despite these attempts, tensions steadily increased throughout the second half of 1992.[166] An armed conflict occurred in Busovača in early May and another one on 13 June. On 19 June, a conflict between the units of the TO on one side, and HVO and HOS units on the other side broke out in Novi Travnik. Incidents were also recorded in Konjic in July, and in Kiseljak and the Croat settlement of Stup in Sarajevo during August.[169] On 14 September, the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared the proclamation of Herzeg-Bosnia unconstitutional.[170]

On 18 October, a dispute over a gas station near Novi Travnik that was shared by both armies escalated into armed conflict in the town center. The situation worsened after HVO Commander Ivica Stojak was killed near Travnik on 20 October.[171] On the same day, fighting escalated on an ARBiH roadblock set on the main road through the Lašva Valley. Spontaneous clashes spread throughout the region and resulted in almost 50 casualties until a ceasefire was negotiated by the UNPROFOR on 21 October.[172] On 23 October, a major battle between the ARBiH and the HVO started in the town of Prozor in northern Herzegovina and resulted in an HVO victory.[173]

On 29 October, the VRS captured Jajce. The town was defended by both the HVO and the ARBiH, but the lack of cooperation, as well as an advantage in troop size and firepower for the VRS, led to the fall of the town.[174][175] Croat refugees from Jajce fled to Herzegovina and Croatia, while around 20,000 Bosniak refugees settled in Travnik, Novi Travnik, Vitez, Busovača, and villages near Zenica.[175] Despite the October confrontations, and with each side blaming the other for the fall of Jajce, there were no large-scale clashes and a general military alliance was still in effect.[176] Tuđman and Izetbegović met in Zagreb on 1 November 1992 and agreed to establish a Joint Command of HVO and ARBiH.[177]

1993

First version of the Vance-Owen plan, which would have established 10 provinces
  Bosniak province
  Croat province
  Serb province
  Sarajevo district
  Present-day administrative borders

On 7 January 1993, Orthodox Christmas Day, 8th Operational Unit Srebrenica, a unit of the ARBiH under the command of Naser Orić, attacked the village of Kravica near Bratunac. 46 Serbs died in the attack: 35 soldiers and 11 civilians.[178][179][180] The attack on a holiday was intentional, as the Serbs were unprepared. The Bosniak forces used the Srebrenica safe zone (where no military was allowed) to carry out attacks on Serb villages including Kravica, and then flee back into the safe zone before the VRS could catch them. 119 Serb civilians and 424 Serb soldiers died in Bratunac during the war.[180] Republika Srpska claimed that the ARBiH forces torched Serb homes and massacred civilians. However, this could not be independently verified during the ICTY trials, which concluded that many homes were already previously destroyed and that the siege of Srebrenica caused hunger, forcing Bosniaks to attack nearby Serb villages to acquire food and weapons to survive. In 2006, Orić was found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) on the charges of not preventing murder of Serbs, but was subsequently acquitted of all charges on appeal.[181]

On 8 January 1993, the Serbs killed the deputy prime minister of the RBiH Hakija Turajlić after stopping the UN convoy taking him from the airport.[182]

On 16 January 1993, soldiers of the ARBiH attacked the Bosnian Serb village of Skelani, near Srebrenica.[183][184] 69 people were killed, 185 were wounded.[183][184] Among the victims were 6 children.[185][184]

A number of peace plans were proposed by the UN, the United States, and the European Community (EC), but they had little impact on the war. These included the Vance-Owen Peace Plan, revealed in January 1993.[186] The plan was presented by the UN Special Envoy Cyrus Vance and EC representative David Owen. It envisioned Bosnia and Herzegovina as a decentralised state with ten autonomous provinces.[187]

On 22 February 1993, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 808 that decided "that an international tribunal shall be established for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law".[188] On 15–16 May, the Vance-Owen peace plan was rejected on a referendum.[189] The peace plan was viewed by some as one of the factors leading to the escalation of the Croat–Bosniak conflict in central Bosnia.[190]

On 25 May 1993 the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was formally established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations Security Council.[188] On 31 March 1993, the United Nations Security Council issued Resolution 816, calling on member states to enforce a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.[191] On 12 April 1993, NATO commenced Operation Deny Flight to enforce this no-fly zone.[192]

Outbreak of the Croat–Bosniak War

Bodies of people killed in April 1993 around Vitez.
Novi Travnik in 1993, during the Croat–Bosniak War

Much of 1993 was dominated by the Croat–Bosniak War.[177] In early January, the HVO and the ARBiH clashed in Gornji Vakuf in central Bosnia. A temporary ceasefire was reached after several days of fighting with UNPROFOR mediation.[193] The war spread from Gornji Vakuf into the area of Busovača in the second half of January.[194] Busovača was the main intersection point of the lines of communication in the Lašva Valley. By 26 January, the ARBiH seized control of several villages in the area, including Kaćuni and Bilalovac on the Busovača–Kiseljak road, thus isolating Kiseljak from Busovača. In the Kiseljak area, the ARBiH secured the villages northeast of the town of Kiseljak, but most of the municipality and the town itself remained in HVO control.[195] On 26 January, six POWs and a Serb civilian were killed by the ARBiH in the village of Dusina, north of Busovača.[196] The fighting in Busovača also led to a number of Bosniak civilian casualties.[197]

On 30 January, ARBiH and HVO leaders met in Vitez, together with representatives from UNPROFOR and other foreign observers, and signed a ceasefire in the area of central Bosnia, which came into effect on the following day.[198] The situation was still tense so Enver Hadžihasanović, commander of ARBiH's 3rd Corps, and Tihomir Blaškić, commander of HVO's Operative Zone Central Bosnia, had a meeting on 13 February where a joint ARBiH-HVO commission was formed to resolve incidents.[199] The January ceasefire in central Bosnia held through the following two months and in the first weeks of April, despite numerous minor incidents.[200] The Croats attributed the escalation of the conflict to the increased Islamic policy of the Bosniaks, while Bosniaks accused the Croat side of separatism.[13]

Central Bosnia

The beginning of April was marked by a series of minor incidents in central Bosnia between Bosniak and Croat civilians and soldiers, including assaults, murders and armed confrontations.[201] The most serious incidents were the kidnapping of four members of the HVO outside Novi Travnik, and of HVO commander Živko Totić near Zenica by the mujahideen. The ARBiH representatives denied any involvement in these incidents and a joint ARBiH-HVO commission was formed to investigate them. The HVO personnel were subsequently exchanged in May for POWs that were arrested by the HVO.[202] The April incidents escalated into an armed conflict on 15 April in the area of Vitez, Busovača, Kiseljak and Zenica. The outnumbered HVO in the Zenica municipality was quickly defeated, followed by a large exodus of Croat civilians.[203]

In the Busovača municipality, the ARBiH gained some ground and inflicted heavy casualties on the HVO, but the HVO held the town of Busovača and the Kaonik intersection between Busovača and Vitez.[204] The ARBiH failed to cut the HVO held Kiseljak enclave into several smaller parts and isolate the town of Fojnica from Kiseljak.[205] Many Bosniak civilians were detained or forced to leave Kiseljak.[206]

In the Vitez area, Blaškić used his limited forces to carry out spoiling attacks on the ARBiH, thus preventing the ARBiH from cutting of the Travnik–Busovača road and seizing the SPS explosives factory in Vitez.[207] On 16 April, the HVO launched a spoiling attack on the village of Ahmići, east of Vitez. After the attacking units breached the ARBiH lines and entered the village, groups of irregular HVO units went from house to house, burning them and killing civilians. The massacre in Ahmići resulted in more than 100 killed Bosniak civilians.[208][209] Elsewhere in the area, the HVO blocked the ARBiH forces in the Stari Vitez quarter of Vitez and prevented an ARBiH advance south of the town.[210]

On 24 April, mujahideen forces attacked the village of Miletići northeast of Travnik and killed four Croat civilians. The rest of the captured civilians were taken to the Poljanice camp.[196] However, the conflict did not spread to Travnik and Novi Travnik, although both the HVO and the ARBiH brought in reinforcements from this area.[211] On 25 April, Izetbegović and Boban signed a ceasefire agreement.[212] ARBiH Chief of Staff, Sefer Halilović, and HVO Chief of Staff, Milivoj Petković, met on a weekly basis to solve ongoing issues and implement the ceasefire.[213] However, the truce was not respected on the ground and the HVO and ARBiH forces were still engaged in the Busovača area until 30 April.[204]

Herzegovina
Aerial photograph of destroyed buildings in Mostar

The Croat–Bosniak War spread from central Bosnia to northern Herzegovina on 14 April with an ARBiH attack on a HVO-held village outside of Konjic. The HVO responded with capturing three villages northeast of Jablanica.[214] On 16 April, 15 Croat civilians and 7 POWs were killed by the ARBiH in the village of Trusina, north of Jablanica.[215] The battles of Konjic and Jablanica lasted until May, with the ARBiH taking full control of both towns and smaller nearby villages.[214]

By mid-April, Mostar had become a divided city with the majority Croat western part dominated by the HVO, and the majority Bosniak eastern part dominated by the ARBiH. The Battle of Mostar began on 9 May when both the east and west parts of the city came under artillery fire.[216] Fierce street battles followed that, despite a ceasefire signed on 13 May by Milivoj Petković and Sefer Halilović, continued until 21 May.[217] The HVO established prison camps in Dretelj near Čapljina and in Heliodrom,[218] while the ARBiH formed prison camps in Potoci and in a school in eastern Mostar.[219] The battle was renewed on 30 June. The ARBiH secured the northern approaches to Mostar and the eastern part of the city, but their advance to the south was repelled by the HVO.[220]

June–July Offensives

The front lines in the Lašva Valley in 1993 between the ARBiH and the HVO, including Novi Travnik, Vitez and Busovača

In the first week of June, the ARBiH attacked the HVO headquarters in the town of Travnik and HVO units positioned on the front lines against the VRS. After three days of street fighting the outnumbered HVO forces were defeated, with thousands of Croat civilians and soldiers fleeing to nearby Serb-held territory as they were cut off from HVO held positions. The ARBiH offensive continued east of Travnik to secure the road to Zenica, which was achieved by 14 June.[221][222] On 8 June, 24 Croat civilians and POWs were killed by the mujahideen near the village of Bikoši.[223] The mujahideen moved into deserted Croat villages in the area following the end of the offensive.[224]

A similar development took place in Novi Travnik. On 9 June, the ARBiH attacked HVO units positioned east of the town, facing the VRS in Donji Vakuf, and the next day heavy fighting followed in Novi Travnik.[225] By 15 June, the ARBiH secured the area northwest of the town, while the HVO kept the northeastern part of the municipality and the town of Novi Travnik. The battle continued into July with only minor changes on the front lines.[226]

The HVO in the town of Kakanj was overran in mid June and around 13–15,000 Croat refugees fled to Kiseljak and Vareš.[227] In the Kiseljak enclave, the HVO held off an attack on Kreševo, but lost Fojnica on 3 July.[228] On 24 June, the Battle of Žepče began that ended with an ARBiH defeat on 30 June.[229] In late July the ARBiH seized control of Bugojno,[227] leading to the departure of 15,000 Croats.[218] A prison camp was established in the town football stadium, where around 800 Croats were sent.[230]

At the beginning of September, the ARBiH launched an operation known as Operation Neretva '93 against the HVO in Herzegovina and central Bosnia, on a 200 km long front. It was one of their largest offensives in 1993. The ARBiH expanded its territory west of Jablanica and secured the road to eastern Mostar, while the HVO kept the area of Prozor and secured its forces rear in western Mostar.[231] During the night of 8/9 September, at least 13 Croat civilians were killed by the ARBiH in the Grabovica massacre. 29 Croat civilians were killed in the Uzdol massacre on 14 September.[232][233]

On 23 October, 37 Bosniaks were killed by the HVO in the Stupni Do massacre.[234] The massacre was used as an excuse for an ARBiH attack on the HVO-held Vareš enclave at the beginning of November. Croat civilians and soldiers abandoned Vareš on 3 November and fled to Kiseljak. The ARBiH entered Vareš on the following day, which was looted after its capture.[235]

May–June 1993 UN Safe Areas extension

In an attempt to protect civilians, the role of UNPROFOR was further extended in May 1993 to protect the "safe havens" that United Nations Security Council had declared around Sarajevo, Goražde, Srebrenica, Tuzla, Žepa and Bihać in Resolution 824 of 6 May 1993.[236] On 4 June 1993 the UN Security Council passed Resolution 836 authorising the use of force by UNPROFOR in the protection of the safe zones.[237] On 15 June 1993, Operation Sharp Guard, a naval blockade in the Adriatic Sea by NATO and the Western European Union, began and continued until it was lifted on 18 June 1996 on termination of the UN arms embargo.[237]

The HVO and the ARBiH continued to fight side by side against the VRS in some areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the Bihać pocket, Bosnian Posavina and the Tešanj area. Despite some animosity, an HVO brigade of around 1,500 soldiers also fought along with the ARBiH in Sarajevo.[238][239] In other areas where the alliance collapsed, the VRS occasionally cooperated with both the HVO and ARBiH, pursuing a local balancing policy and allying with the weaker side.[240]

1994

The forced deportations of Bosniaks from Serb-held territories and the resulting refugee crisis continued to escalate. Thousands of people were being bused out of Bosnia each month, threatened on religious grounds. As a result, Croatia was strained by 500,000 refugees, and in mid-1994 the Croatian authorities forbade entry to a group of 462 refugees fleeing northern Bosnia, forcing UNPROFOR to improvise shelter for them.[241]

Markale massacre

Damaged buildings in Grbavica during the Siege of Sarajevo

On 5 February 1994 Sarajevo suffered its deadliest single attack of the entire siege with the first Markale massacre, when a 120 millimeter mortar shell landed in the centre of the crowded marketplace, killing 68 people and wounding another 144. On 6 February, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali formally requested NATO to confirm that future requests for air strikes would be carried out immediately.[242]

On 9 February 1994, NATO authorised the Commander of Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), US Admiral Jeremy Boorda, to launch air strikes—at the request of the UN—against artillery and mortar positions in or around Sarajevo determined by UNPROFOR to be responsible for attacks against civilian targets.[237][243] Only Greece failed to support the use of air strikes, but did not veto the proposal.[242]

NATO also issued an ultimatum to the Bosnian Serbs demanding the removal of heavy weapons around Sarajevo by midnight of 20–21 February, or they would face air strikes. On 12 February, Sarajevo enjoyed its first casualty free day since April 1992.[242] The large-scale removal of Bosnian-Serb heavy weapons began on 17 February 1994.[242]

Washington Agreement

The Croat-Bosniak war ended with the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the HVO Chief of Staff, general Ante Roso, and the ARBiH Chief of Staff, general Rasim Delić, on 23 February 1994 in Zagreb. The agreement went into effect on 25 February.[244][245] A peace agreement known as the Washington Agreement, mediated by the US, was concluded on 2 March by representatives of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Herzeg-Bosnia. The agreement was signed on 18 March 1994 in Washington. Under this agreement, the combined territory held by the HVO and the ARBiH was divided into autonomous cantons within the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tuđman and Izetbegović also signed a preliminary agreement on a confederation between Croatia and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[246][247] The Croat-Bosniak alliance was renewed, although the issues dividing them were not resolved.[245]

The first military effort coordinated between the HVO and the ARBiH following the Washington Agreement was the advance towards Kupres, which was retaken from the VRS on 3 November 1994.[248] On 29 November, the HV and the HVO initiated Operation Winter '94 in southwestern Bosnia. After a month of fighting, Croat forces had taken around 200 square kilometres (77 square miles) of VRS-held territory and directly threatened the main supply route between Republika Srpska and Knin, the capital of Republic of Serbian Krajina. The primary objective of relieving pressure on the Bihać pocket was not achieved, although the ARBiH repelled VRS attacks on the enclave.[249]

UNPROFOR and NATO

UN troops on their way up "Sniper Alley" in Sarajevo

NATO became actively involved when its jets shot down four Serb aircraft over central Bosnia on 28 February 1994 for violating the UN no-fly zone.[250] On 12 March 1994, the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) made its first request for NATO air support, but close air support was not deployed, owing to a number of delays associated with the approval process.[251] On 20 March an aid convoy with medical supplies and doctors reached Maglaj, a city of 100,000 people, which had been under siege since May 1993 and had been surviving off food supplies dropped by US aircraft. A second convoy on 23 March was hijacked and looted.[246]

On 10–11 April 1994, UNPROFOR called in air strikes to protect the Goražde safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Serbian military command outpost near Goražde by two US F-16 jets.[237][246][251] This was the first time in NATO's history it had conducted air strikes.[246] In retaliation, Serbs took 150 U.N. personnel hostage on 14 April.[237][251] On 15 April the Bosnian government lines around Goražde broke,[246] and on 16 April a British Sea Harrier was shot down over Goražde by Serb forces.

Around 29 April 1994, a Danish contingent (Nordbat 2) on peacekeeping duty in Bosnia, as part of UNPROFOR's Nordic battalion located in Tuzla, was ambushed when trying to relieve a Swedish observation post (Tango 2) that was under heavy artillery fire by the Bosnian Serb Šekovići brigade at the village of Kalesija.[252] The ambush was dispersed when the UN forces retaliated with heavy fire in what would be known as Operation Bøllebank.

On 12 May, the US Senate adopted S. 2042, introduced by Sen. Bob Dole, to unilaterally lift the arms embargo against the Bosnians, but it was repudiated by President Clinton.[253][254] On 5 October 1994, Pub.L. 103–337 was signed by the President and stated that if the Bosnian Serbs had not accepted the Contact Group proposal by 15 October the President should introduce a UN Security Council proposal to end the arms embargo, and that if it was not passed by 15 November, only funds required by all UN members under Resolution 713 could be used to enforce the embargo, which would effectively end the embargo.[255] On 12–13 November, the US unilaterally lifted the arms embargo against the government of Bosnia.[255][256]

On 5 August, at the request of UNPROFOR, NATO aircraft attacked a target within the Sarajevo Exclusion Zone after weapons were seized by Bosnian Serbs from a weapons collection site near Sarajevo. On 22 September 1994, NATO aircraft carried out an air strike against a Bosnian Serb tank at the request of UNPROFOR.[237] Operation Amanda was an UNPROFOR mission led by Danish peacekeeping troops, with the aim of recovering an observation post near Gradačac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on 25 October 1994.[257]

On 19 November 1994, the North Atlantic Council approved the extension of Close Air Support to Croatia for the protection of UN forces in that country.[237] NATO aircraft attacked the Udbina airfield in Serb-held Croatia on 21 November, in response to attacks launched from that airfield against targets in the Bihac area of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 23 November, after attacks launched from a surface-to-air missile site south of Otoka (north-west Bosnia and Herzegovina) on two NATO aircraft, air strikes were conducted against air defence radars in that area.[237]

1995

Bosnia and Herzegovina before the Dayton Agreement

On 25 May 1995, NATO bombed VRS positions in Pale due to their failure to return heavy weapons. The VRS then shelled all safe areas, including Tuzla. Approximately 70 civilians were killed and 150 were injured.[258] During April and June, Croatian forces conducted two offensives known as Leap 1 and Leap 2. With these offensives, they secured the remainder of the Livno Valley and threatened the VRS-held town of Bosansko Grahovo.[259]

On 11 July 1995, Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) forces under general Ratko Mladić occupied the UN "safe area" of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia where more than 8,000 men were killed in the Srebrenica massacre (most women were expelled to Bosniak-held territory).[260][261] The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), represented on the ground by a 400-strong contingent of Dutch peacekeepers, Dutchbat, failed to prevent the town's capture by the VRS and the subsequent massacre.[262][263][264][265] The ICTY ruled this event as genocide in the Krstić case.

In line with the Split Agreement signed between Tuđman and Izetbegović on 22 July, a joint military offensive by the HV and the HVO codenamed Operation Summer '95 took place in western Bosnia. The HV-HVO force gained control of Glamoč and Bosansko Grahovo and isolated Knin from Republika Srpska.[266] On 4 August, the HV launched Operation Storm that effectively dissolved the Republic of Serbian Krajina.[267] With this, the Bosniak-Croat alliance gained the initiative in the war, taking much of western Bosnia from the VRS in several operations in September and October. The first one, Operation Una, began on 18 September 1995, when HV crossed the Una river and entered Bosnia. In 2006, Croatian authorities began investigating allegations of war crimes committed during this operation, specifically the killing of 40 civilians in the Bosanska Dubica area by troops of the 1st Battalion of the 2nd Guards Brigade.[268]

Seated from left to right: Slobodan Milošević, Alija Izetbegović and Franjo Tuđman signing the final peace agreement in Paris on 14 December 1995.

The HV-HVO secured over 2,500 square kilometres (970 square miles) of territory during Operation Mistral 2, including the towns of Jajce, Šipovo and Drvar. At the same time, the ARBiH engaged the VRS further to the north in Operation Sana and captured several towns, including Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Petrovac, Ključ and Sanski Most.[269] A VRS counteroffensive against the ARBiH in western Bosnia was launched on 23/24 September. Within two weeks the VRS was in the vicinity of the town of Ključ. The ARBiH requested Croatian assistance and on 8 October the HV-HVO launched Operation Southern Move under the overall command of HV Major General Ante Gotovina. The VRS lost the town of Mrkonjić Grad, while HVO units came within 25 kilometres (16 miles) south of Banja Luka.[270]

On 28 August, a VRS mortar attack on the Sarajevo Markale marketplace killed 43 people.[271] In response to the second Markale massacre, on 30 August, the Secretary General of NATO announced the start of Operation Deliberate Force, widespread airstrikes against Bosnian Serb positions supported by UNPROFOR rapid reaction force artillery attacks.[272] On 14 September 1995, the NATO air strikes were suspended to allow the implementation of an agreement with Bosnian Serbs for the withdrawal of heavy weapons from around Sarajevo.[citation needed] Twelve days later, on 26 September, an agreement of further basic principles for a peace accord was reached in New York City between the foreign ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the FRY.[273] A 60-day ceasefire came into effect on 12 October, and on 1 November peace talks began in Dayton, Ohio.[273] The war ended with the Dayton Peace Agreement signed on 21 November 1995; the final version of the peace agreement was signed 14 December 1995 in Paris.[citation needed]

Following the Dayton Agreement, a NATO led Implementation Force (IFOR) was deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina. This 80,000 strong unit, was deployed in order to enforce the peace, as well as other tasks such as providing support for humanitarian and political aid, reconstruction, providing support for displaced civilians to return to their homes, collection of arms, and mine and unexploded ordnance clearing of the affected areas.[citation needed]

Casualties

A grave digger at a cemetery in Sarajevo, 1992
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Percent Change of Ethnic Bosniaks from 1991 to 2013

Calculating the number of deaths resulting from the conflict has been subject to considerable, highly politicised debate, sometimes "fused with narratives about victimhood", from the political elites of various groups.[274] Estimates of the total number of casualties have ranged from 25,000 to 329,000. The variations are partly the result of the use of inconsistent definitions of who can be considered victims of the war, as some research calculated only direct casualties of military activity while other research included those who died from hunger, cold, disease or other war conditions. Early overcounts were also the result of many victims being entered in both civilian and military lists because little systematic coordination of those lists took place in wartime conditions. The death toll was originally estimated in 1994 at around 200,000 by Cherif Bassiouni, head of the UN expert commission investigating war crimes.[275]

Prof. Steven L. Burg and Prof. Paul S. Shoup, writing in 1999, observed about early high figures:

The figure of 200,000 (or more) dead, injured, and missing was frequently cited in media reports on the war in Bosnia as late as 1994. The October 1995 bulletin of the Bosnian Institute for Public Health of the Republic Committee for Health and Social Welfare gave the numbers as 146,340 killed, and 174,914 wounded on the territory under the control of the Bosnian army. Mustafa Imamovic gave a figure of 144,248 perished (including those who died from hunger or exposure), mainly Muslims. The Red Cross and the UNHCR have not, to the best of our knowledge, produced data on the number of persons killed and injured in the course of the war. A November 1995 unclassified CIA memorandum estimated 156,500 civilian deaths in the country (all but 10,000 of them in Muslim- or Croat-held territories), not including the 8,000 to 10,000 then still missing from Srebrenica and Zepa enclaves. This figure for civilian deaths far exceeded the estimate in the same report of 81,500 troops killed (45,000 Bosnian government; 6,500 Bosnian Croat; and 30,000 Bosnian Serb). [276]

RDC figures

Dead or disappeared figures according to RDC
(as reported in June 2012)[7]
Total dead or disappeared
101,040
(total includes unknown status below, percentages ignore 'unknowns')
Bosniaks 62,013 61.4%
Serbs 24,953 24.7%
Croats 8,403 8.3%
Other ethnicities 571 0.6%
Civilians
38,239
(percentages are of civilian dead)
Bosniaks 31,107 81.3%
Serbs 4,178 10.9%
Croats 2,484 6.5%
Other ethnicities 470 1.2%
Soldiers
57,701
(percentages are of military dead)
Bosniaks 30,906 53.6%
Serbs 20,775 36%
Croats 5,919 10.3%
Other ethnicities 101 0.2%
Unknown status
(percentage is of all dead or disappeared)
Ethnicity unstated 5,100 5%

In June 2007, the Sarajevo-based Research and Documentation Center published extensive research on the Bosnian war deaths, also called The Bosnian Book of the Dead, a database that initially revealed a minimum of 97,207 names of Bosnia and Herzegovina's citizens confirmed as killed or missing during the 1992–1995 war.[277][278] The head of the UN war crimes tribunal's Demographic Unit, Ewa Tabeau, has called it "the largest existing database on Bosnian war victims",[279] and it is considered the most authoritative account of human losses in the Bosnian war.[280] More than 240,000 pieces of data were collected, checked, compared and evaluated by an international team of experts in order to produce the 2007 list of 97,207 victims' names.[278]

The RDC 2007 figures stated that these were confirmed figures and that several thousand cases were still being examined. All of the RDC figures are believed to be a slight undercount as their methodology is dependent on a family member having survived to report the missing relative, though the undercount is not thought to be statistically significant.[7] At least 30 percent of the 2007 confirmed Bosniak civilian victims were women and children.[277]

The RDC published periodic updates of its figures until June 2012, when it published its final report.[281] The 2012 figures recorded a total of 101,040 dead or disappeared, of whom 61.4 percent were Bosniaks, 24.7 percent were Serbs, 8.3 percent were Croats and less than 1 percent were of other ethnicities, with a further 5 percent whose ethnicity was unstated.[7]

Civilian deaths were established as 38,239, which represented 37.9 percent of total deaths. Bosniaks accounted for 81.3 percent of those civilian deaths, compared to Serbs 10.9 percent and Croats 6.5 percent.[7] The proportion of civilian victims is, moreover, an absolute minimum because the status of 5,100 victims was unestablished[7] and because relatives had registered their dead loved ones as military victims in order to obtain veteran's financial benefits or for 'honour' reasons.[282][283]

Both the RDC and the ICTY's demographic unit applied statistical techniques to identify possible duplication caused by a given victim being recorded in multiple primary lists, the original documents being then hand-checked to assess duplication.[283][284]

Some 30 categories of information existed within the database for each individual record, including basic personal information, place and date of death, and, in the case of soldiers, the military unit to which the individual belonged.[283] This has allowed the database to present deaths by gender, military unit, year and region of death,[8] in addition to ethnicity and 'status in war' (civilian or soldier). The category intended to describe which military formation caused the death of each victim was the most incomplete and was deemed unusable.[283]

ICTY figures

ICTY death figures[285](issued by the Demographic Unit in 2010)
Total killed
104,732
Bosniaks c. 68,101
Serbs c. 22,779
Croats c. 8,858
Others c. 4,995
Civilians killed
36,700
Bosniaks 25,609
Serbs 7,480
Croats 1,675
Others 1,935
Soldiers killed
68,031
(includes Police)
Bosniaks 42,492
Serbs 15,298
Croats 7,182
Others 3,058

Research conducted in 2010 for the Office of the Prosecutors at the Hague Tribunal, headed by Ewa Tabeau, pointed to errors in earlier figures and calculated the minimum number of victims as 89,186, with a probable figure of around 104,732.[285][286] Tabeau noted the numbers should not be confused with "who killed who", because, for example, many Serbs were killed by the Serb army during the shelling of Sarajevo, Tuzla and other multi-ethnic cities.[287] The authors of this report said that the actual death toll may be slightly higher.[285][288]

These figures were not based solely on 'battle deaths', but included accidental deaths taking place in battle conditions and acts of mass violence. Specifically excluded were "non-violent mortality increases" and "criminal and unorganised violence increases". Similarly 'military deaths' included both combat and non-combat deaths.[285]

Other statistics

There are no statistics dealing specifically with the casualties of the Croat-Bosniak conflict along ethnic lines. However, according to The RDC's data on human losses in the regions, in Central Bosnia 62 percent of the 10,448 documented deaths were Bosniaks, while Croats constituted 24 percent and Serbs 13 percent. The municipalities of Gornji Vakuf and Bugojno are geographically located in Central Bosnia (known as Gornje Povrbasje region), but the 1,337 region's documented deaths are included in Vrbas regional statistics. Approximately 70–80 percent of the casualties from Gornje Povrbasje were Bosniaks. In the region of Neretva river, of 6,717 casualties, 54 percent were Bosniaks, 24 percent Serbs and 21 percent Croats. The casualties in those regions were mainly, but not exclusively, the consequence of Croat-Bosniak conflict.[citation needed]

According to the UN, there were 167 fatalities amongst UNPROFOR personnel during the course of the force's mandate, from February 1992 to March 1995. Of those who died, three were military observers, 159 were other military personnel, one was a member of the civilian police, two were international civilian staff and two were local staff.[289]

In a statement in September 2008 to the United Nations General Assembly, Haris Silajdžić said that "According to the ICRC data, 200,000 people were killed, 12,000 of them children, up to 50,000 women were raped, and 2.2 million were forced to flee their homes. This was a veritable genocide and sociocide".[290] However, Silajdžić and others have been criticised for inflating the number of fatalities to attract international support.[291] An ICRC book published in 2010 cites the total number killed in all of the Balkan Wars in the 1990s as "about 140,000 people".[292]

Many of the 34,700 people who were reported missing during the Bosnian war remain unaccounted for. In 2012 Amnesty reported that the fate of an estimated 10,500 people, most of whom were Bosnian Muslims, remained unknown.[293][294] Bodies of victims are still being unearthed two decades later. In July 2014 the remains of 284 victims, unearthed from the Tomašica mass grave near the town of Prijedor, were laid to rest in a mass ceremony in the northwestern town of Kozarac, attended by relatives.[295]

The UNCHR stated that the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina forced more than 2.2 million people to flee their homes, making it the largest displacement of people in Europe since the end of World War II.[24]

War crimes

According to a report compiled by the UN, and chaired by M. Cherif Bassiouni, while all sides committed war crimes during the conflict, Serbian forces were responsible for ninety percent of them, whereas Croatian forces were responsible for six percent, and Bosniak forces four percent.[296] The report echoed conclusions published by a Central Intelligence Agency estimate in 1995.[297][298] In October 2019, a third of the war crime charges filed by the Bosnian state prosecution during the year were transferred to lower-level courts, which sparked criticism of prosecutors.[299]

Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic distribution at the municipal level in Bosnia and Herzegovina before (1991) and after the war (1998)

Ethnic cleansing was a common phenomenon in the war. This entailed intimidation, forced expulsion, or killing of the unwanted ethnic group as well as the destruction of the places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings of that ethnic group. Academics Matjaž Klemenčič and Mitja Žagar argue that: "Ideas of nationalistic ethnic politicians that Bosnia and Herzegovina be reorganised into homogenous national territories inevitably required the division of ethnically mixed territories into their Serb, Croat, and Muslim parts".[39] According to numerous ICTY verdicts and indictments, Serb[300][301][302] and Croat[89][303][304] forces performed ethnic cleansing of their territories planned by their political leadership to create ethnically pure states (Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia). Serb forces carried out the atrocities known as the "Srebrenica genocide" at the end of the war.[305] The Central Intelligence Agency claimed, in a 1995 report, that Bosnian Serb forces were responsible for 90 percent of the ethnic cleansing committed during the conflict.[298]

Based on the evidence of numerous HVO attacks, the ICTY Trial Chamber concluded in the Kordić and Čerkez case that by April 1993 Croat leadership had a common design or plan conceived and executed to ethnically cleanse Bosniaks from the Lašva Valley in Central Bosnia. Dario Kordić, as the local political leader, was found to be the planner and instigator of this plan.[303]

Although comparatively rare, there were also cases of pro-Bosniak forces having 'forced other ethnic groups to flee' during the war.[16]

Genocide

Exhumations in Srebrenica, 1996

A trial took place before the International Court of Justice, following a 1993 suit by Bosnia and Herzegovina against Serbia and Montenegro alleging genocide. The ICJ ruling of 26 February 2007 indirectly determined the war's nature to be international, though clearing Serbia of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by the forces of Republika Srpska. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia failed to prevent genocide committed by Serb forces and failed to punish those responsible, and bring them to justice.[citation needed] A telegram sent to the White House on 8 February 1994 and penned by U.S. Ambassador to Croatia, Peter W. Galbraith, stated that genocide was occurring. The telegram cited "constant and indiscriminate shelling and gunfire" of Sarajevo by Karadzic's Yugoslav People Army; the harassment of minority groups in Northern Bosnia "in an attempt to force them to leave"; and the use of detainees "to do dangerous work on the front lines" as evidence that genocide was being committed.[306] In 2005, the United States Congress passed a resolution declaring that "the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing meet the terms defining genocide".[307]

Despite the evidence of many kinds of war crimes conducted simultaneously by different Serb forces in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially in Bijeljina, Sarajevo, Prijedor, Zvornik, Banja Luka, Višegrad and Foča, the judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica or Eastern Bosnia in 1995.[citation needed]

The court concluded the crimes committed during the 1992–1995 war, may amount to crimes against humanity according to the international law, but that these acts did not, in themselves, constitute genocide per se.[308] The Court further decided that, following Montenegro's declaration of independence in May 2006, Serbia was the only respondent party in the case, but that "any responsibility for past events involved at the relevant time the composite State of Serbia and Montenegro".[309]

Rape

An estimated 12,000–50,000 women were raped, most of them Bosnian Muslims with the majority of cases committed by Serb forces.[27][28] This has been referred to as "Mass rape",[310][311][312] particularly with regard to the coordinated use of rape as a weapon of war by members in the VRS and Bosnian Serb police.[310][311][312][313] For the first time in judicial history, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) declared that "systematic rape", and "sexual enslavement" in time of war was a crime against humanity, second only to the war crime of genocide.[310] Rape was most systematic in Eastern Bosnia (e.g. during campaigns in Foča and Višegrad), and in Grbavica during the siege of Sarajevo. Women and girls were kept in various detention centres where they had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions and were mistreated in many ways including being repeatedly raped. A notorious example was "Karaman's house" in Foča.[314][315] Common complications among surviving women and girls include psychological, gynaecological and other physical disorders, as well as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.

Prosecutions and legal proceedings

Radovan Karadžić (left), former president of Republika Srpska, Ratko Mladić (right), former Chief of Staff of the Army of the Republika Srpska, both sentenced by the ICTY

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established in 1993 as a body of the UN to prosecute war crimes committed during the wars in the former Yugoslavia, and to try their perpetrators. The tribunal is an ad hoc court which is located in The Hague, the Netherlands.[316]

According to legal experts, as of early 2008, 45 Serbs, 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks were convicted of war crimes by the ICTY in connection with the Balkan wars of the 1990s.[20] Both Serbs and Croats were indicted and convicted of systematic war crimes (joint criminal enterprise), while Bosniaks were indicted and convicted of individual ones. Most of the Bosnian Serb wartime leadership – Biljana Plavšić,[317] Momčilo Krajišnik,[318] Radoslav Brđanin,[301] and Duško Tadić[319] – were indicted and judged guilty for war crimes and ethnic cleansing.

The former president of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadžić was held on trial[320] and was sentenced to life in prison for crimes, including crimes against humanity and genocide.[321] Ratko Mladić was also tried by the ICTY, charged with crimes in connection with the siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre.[322] Mladić was found guilty and also sentenced to life imprisonment by The Hague in November 2017.[323] Paramilitary leader Vojislav Šešelj has been on trial since 2007 accused of being a part of a joint criminal enterprise to ethnically cleanse large areas of Bosnia-Herzegovina of non-Serbs.[324] The Serbian president Slobodan Milošević was charged with war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia, including grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, crimes against humanity and genocide,[325] but died in 2006 before the trial could finish.[326]

The skull of a victim of the July 1995 Srebrenica massacre in an exhumed mass grave outside of Potočari, 2007

After the death of Alija Izetbegović, The Hague revealed that an ICTY investigation of Izetbegović had been in progress which ended with his death.[327][328] Bosniaks who were convicted of or were tried for war crimes include Rasim Delić, chief of staff of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, who was sentenced to three years' imprisonment on 15 September 2008 for his failure to prevent the Bosnian mujahideen members of the Bosnian army from committing crimes against captured civilians and enemy combatants.[329] Enver Hadžihasanović, a general of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was sentenced to 3.5 years for authority over acts of murder and wanton destruction in Central Bosnia.[330] Hazim Delić was the Bosniak Deputy Commander of the Čelebići prison camp, which detained Serb civilians. He was sentenced to 18 years by the ICTY Appeals Chamber on 8 April 2003 for murder and torture of the prisoners and for raping two Serbian women.[331][332] Bosnian commander Sefer Halilović was charged with one count of violation of the laws and customs of war on the basis of superior criminal responsibility of the incidents during Operation Neretva '93 and found not guilty.[333] Serbs have accused Sarajevo authorities of practicing selective justice by actively prosecuting Serbs while ignoring or downplaying Bosniak war crimes.[334]

Dario Kordić, political leader of Croats in Central Bosnia, was convicted of the crimes against humanity in Central Bosnia i.e. ethnic cleansing and sentenced to 25 years in prison.[303] On 29 May 2013, in a first instance verdict, the ICTY sentenced Prlić to 25 years in prison. The tribunal also convicted five other war time leaders of the joint trial: defence minister of Herzeg-Bosnia Bruno Stojić (20 years), military officers Slobodan Praljak (20 years) and Milivoj Petković (20 years), military police commander Valentin Ćorić (20 years), and head of prisoner exchanges and detention facilities Berislav Pušić (10 years). The Chamber ruled, by majority, with the presiding judge Jean-Claude Antonetti dissenting, that they took part in a joint criminal enterprise (JCE) against the non-Croat population of Bosnia and Herzegovina and that the JCE included the Croatian President Franjo Tuđman, Defence Minister Gojko Šušak, and general Janko Bobetko.[335] However, on 19 July 2016 the Appeals Chamber in the case announced that the "Trial Chamber made no explicit findings concerning [Tudjman's, Šušak's and Bobetko's] participation in the JCE and did not find [them] guilty of any crimes."[336][337]

Genocide at Srebrenica is the most serious war crime that any Serbs were convicted of. Crimes against humanity, is the most serious war crime that any Bosniaks or Croats were convicted of.[338]

Reconciliation

Mourners at the reburial ceremony for an exhumed victim of the Srebrenica massacre
A cemetery in Mostar flying the flag of Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (left), the flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

On 6 December 2004, Serbian president Boris Tadić made an apology in Bosnia and Herzegovina to all those who suffered crimes committed in the name of the Serb people.[339]

Croatia's president Ivo Josipović apologised in April 2010 for his country's role in the Bosnian War. Bosnia and Herzegovina's then-president Haris Silajdžić in turn praised relations with Croatia, remarks that starkly contrasted with his harsh criticism of Serbia the day before. "I'm deeply sorry that the Republic of Croatia has contributed to the suffering of people and divisions which still burden us today", Josipović told Bosnia and Herzegovina's parliament.[340]

On 31 March 2010, the Serbian parliament adopted a declaration "condemning in strongest terms the crime committed in July 1995 against Bosniak population of Srebrenica" and apologizing to the families of the victims, the first of its kind in the region. The initiative to pass a resolution came from President Boris Tadić, who pushed for it even though the issue was politically controversial. In the past, only human rights groups and non-nationalistic parties had supported such a measure.[341]

Assessment

Civil war or a war of aggression

Due to the involvement of Croatia and Serbia, there has been a long-standing debate as to whether the conflict was a civil war or a war of aggression on Bosnia by neighbouring states. Academics Steven Burg and Paul Shoup argue that:

From the outset, the nature of the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina was subject to conflicting interpretations. These were rooted not only in objective facts on the ground, but in the political interests of those articulating them.[276]

On the one hand, the war could be viewed as "a clear-cut case of civil war – that is, of internal war among groups unable to agree on arrangements for sharing power".[276]

David Campbell is critical of narratives about "civil war", which he argues often involve what he terms "moral levelling", in which all sides are "said to be equally guilty of atrocities", and "emphasise credible Serb fears as a rationale for their actions".[342]

In contrast to the civil war explanation, Bosniaks, many Croats, western politicians and human rights organizations claimed that the war was a war of Serbian and Croatian aggression based on the Karađorđevo and Graz agreements, while Serbs often considered it a civil war. [276]

Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian Croats enjoyed substantial political and military backing from Serbia and Croatia, and the decision to grant Bosnia diplomatic recognition also had implications for the international interpretation of the conflict. As Burg and Shoup state:

From the perspective of international diplomacy and law...the international decision to recognize the independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina and grant it membership in the United Nations provided a basis for defining the war as a case of external aggression by both Serbia and Croatia. With respect to Serbia, the further case could be made that the Bosnian Serb army was under the de facto command of the Yugoslav army and was therefore an instrument of external aggression. With respect to Croatia, regular Croatian army forces violated the territorial integrity of Bosnia-Herzegovina, lending further evidence in support of the view that this was a case of aggression. [276]

Sumantra Bose, meanwhile, argues that it is possible to characterise the Bosnian War as a civil war, without necessarily agreeing with the narrative of Serb and Croat nationalists. He states that while "all episodes of severe violence have been sparked by 'external' events and forces, local society too has been deeply implicated in that violence" and therefore argues that "it makes relatively more sense to regard the 1992–95 conflict in Bosnia as a 'civil war' – albeit obviously with a vital dimension that is territorially external to Bosnia".[343]

In the cases involving Duško Tadić and Zdravko Mucić, the ICTY concluded that the conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an international one:

[F]or the period material to this case (1992), the armed forces of the Republika Srpska were to be regarded as acting under the overall control of and on behalf of the FRY (the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). Hence, even after 19 May 1992 the armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina between the Bosnian Serbs and the central authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina must be classified as an international armed conflict.[344]

Similarly, in the cases involving Ivica Rajić, Tihomir Blaškić and Dario Kordić, the ICTY concluded that the conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia was also an international one:

[F]or purposes of the application of the grave breaches provisions of Geneva Convention IV, the significant and continuous military action by the armed forces of Croatia in support of the Bosnian Croats against the forces of the Bosnian Government on the territory of the latter was sufficient to convert the domestic conflict between the Bosnian Croats and the Bosnian Government into an international one.[344]

In 2010, Bosnian Commander Ejup Ganić was detained in London on a Serbian extradition request for alleged war crimes. Judge Timothy Workman decided that Ganić should be released after ruling that Serbia's request was "politically motivated". In his decision, he characterised the Bosnian War to have been an international armed conflict as Bosnia had declared independence on 3 March 1992.[345]

Academic Mary Kaldor argues that the Bosnian War is an example of what she terms new wars, which are neither civil nor inter-state, but rather combine elements of both.[346]

Ethnic war

In The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s, Ithaca College Professor V.P. Gagnon challenges the widely accepted belief in the West that the Bosnian War (and the other Yugoslav wars) were a product of ethnic hatred between the warring factions. Gagnon argues that the wars were caused by power-hungry political elites who resisted political and economical liberalization and democratization, not ordinary people.[347] In disputing the common assessment by Western academics, politicians and journalists of an ethnic war and of the Balkans as a region antithetical to Western values, Gagnon cites high intermarriage rates, the high percentage of draft-resisters, resistance to nationalist movements and favourable views of inter-ethnic relations in polling conducted in the late 1980s in Yugoslavia among other factors.[348]

In popular culture

Film

The Bosnian War has been depicted in a number of films including Hollywood films such as The Hunting Party, starring Richard Gere as journalist Simon Hunt in his bid to apprehend suspected war criminal and former Bosnian Serb president Radovan Karadžić; Behind Enemy Lines, loosely based on the Mrkonjić Grad incident, tells about a downed US Navy pilot who uncovers a massacre while on the run from Serb troops who want him dead; The Peacemaker, starring George Clooney and Nicole Kidman, is a story about a US Army colonel and a White House nuclear expert investigating stolen Russian nuclear weapons obtained by a revenge-fueled Yugoslav diplomat, Dušan Gavrić.

In the Land of Blood and Honey, is a 2011 American film written, produced and directed by Angelina Jolie; the film was Jolie's directorial debut and it depicts a love story set against the mass rape of Muslim women in the Bosnian War. The Spanish/Italian 2013 film Twice Born, starring Penélope Cruz, based on a book by Margaret Mazzantini. It tells the story of a mother who brings her teenage son to Sarajevo, where his father died in the Bosnian conflict years ago.

British films include Welcome to Sarajevo, about the life of Sarajevans during the siege. The Bosnian-British film Beautiful People directed by Jasmin Dizdar portrays the encounter between English families and arriving Bosnian refugees at the height of the Bosnian War. The film was awarded the Un Certain Regard at the 1999 Cannes Festival. The Spanish film Territorio Comanche shows the story of a Spanish TV crew during the siege of Sarajevo. The Polish film Demons of War (1998), set during the Bosnian conflict, portrays a Polish group of IFOR soldiers who come to help a pair of journalists tracked by a local warlord whose crimes they had taped.[citation needed]

Bosnian director Danis Tanović's No Man's Land won the Best Foreign Language Film awards at the 2001 Academy Awards and the 2002 Golden Globes. The Bosnian film Grbavica, about the life of a single mother in contemporary Sarajevo in the aftermath of systematic rape of Bosniak women by Serbian troops during the war, won the Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival.[349][350]

The 2003 film Remake, directed by Bosnian director Dino Mustafić and written by Zlatko Topčić, follows father Ahmed and son Tarik Karaga during World War II and the Siege of Sarajevo. It premiered at the 32nd International Film Festival Rotterdam.[351][352][353] The 2010 film The Abandoned, directed by Adis Bakrač and written by Zlatko Topčić, tells the story of a boy from a home for abandoned children who tries to find the truth about his origins, it being implied that he is the child of a rape. The film premiered at the 45th Karlovy Vary International Film Festival.[354][355][356]

The 1997 film The Perfect Circle, directed by Bosnian filmmaker Ademir Kenović, tells the story of two boys during the Siege of Sarajevo and was awarded with the François Chalais Prize at the 1997 Cannes Festival.

The 1998 film Savior, starring Dennis Quaid tells the story of a hardened mercenary in the Foreign Legion who begins to find his own humanity when confronted with atrocities during the fighting in Bosnia.

Pretty Village, Pretty Flame directed by Serbian filmmaker Srđan Dragojević, presents a bleak yet darkly humorous account of the Bosnian War. The Serbian film Life Is a Miracle, produced by Emir Kusturica, depicts the romance of a pacific Serb station caretaker and a Muslim Bosniak young woman entrusted to him as a hostage in the context of Bosniak-Serb border clashes; it was nominated at the 2004 Cannes Festival.[citation needed]

Short films such as In the Name of the Son, about a father who murders his son during the Bosnian War, and 10 Minutes, which contrasts 10 minutes of life of a Japanese tourist in Rome with a Bosnian family during the war, received acclaim for their depiction of the war.[citation needed]

A number of Western films made the Bosnian conflict the background of their stories – some of those include Avenger, based on Frederick Forsyth's novel in which a mercenary tracks down a Serbian warlord responsible for war crimes, and The Peacemaker, in which a Yugoslav man emotionally devastated by the losses of war plots to take revenge on the United Nations by exploding a nuclear bomb in New York. The Whistleblower tells the true story of Kathryn Bolkovac, a UN peacekeeper that uncovered a human-trafficking scandal involving the United Nations in post-war Bosnia. Shot Through the Heart is a 1998 TV film, directed by David Attwood, shown on BBC and HBO in 1998, which covers the Siege of Sarajevo during the Bosnian War from the perspective of two Olympic-level Yugoslavian marksmen, one whom becomes a sniper.[citation needed]

Quo Vadis, Aida? is a 2020 Bosnian film, written and directed by Jasmila Žbanić, about Aida, a UN translator who tries to save her family after the Army of Republika Srpska takes over the city of Srebrenica immediately prior to the Srebrenica massacre.[357]

Drama series

The award-winning British television series, Warriors, aired on BBC One in 1999. It tells the story of a group of British peacekeepers during the Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing. Many of the war's events were depicted in the Pakistani drama series, Alpha Bravo Charlie, written and directed by Shoaib Mansoor in 1998. Produced by the Inter-Services Public Relations (ISPR), the series showed several active battlefield events and the involvement of Pakistan military personnel in the UN peacekeeping missions. Alpha Bravo Charlie was presented on Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV).

Documentaries

A BBC documentary series, The Death of Yugoslavia, covers the collapse of Yugoslavia from the roots of the conflict in the 1980s to the subsequent wars and peace accords, and a BBC book was issued with the same title. Other documentaries include Bernard-Henri Lévy's Bosna! about Bosnian resistance against well equipped Serbian troops at the beginning of the war; the Slovenian documentary Tunel upanja (A Tunnel of Hope) about the Sarajevo Tunnel constructed by the besieged citizens of Sarajevo to link Sarajevo with Bosnian government territory; and the British documentary A Cry from the Grave about the Srebrenica massacre. Miracle in Bosnia is a 1995 documentary film shot on the occasion of the third anniversary of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; it premiered at the 1995 Cannes Film Festival and won the Special Award.[358][359][360] The Bosnian War is a central focus in The Diplomat, a documentary about the career of Richard Holbrooke.[361] Yugoslavia: The Avoidable War (1999) looks at the wider context of the ex-Yugoslavian civil wars.

Books

Semezdin Mehmedinović's Sarajevo Blues and Miljenko Jergović's Sarajevo Marlboro are among the best known books written during the war in Bosnia. Zlata's Diary is a published diary kept by a young girl, Zlata Filipović, which chronicles her life in Sarajevo from 1991 to 1993. Because of the diary, she is sometimes referred to as "The Anne Frank of Sarajevo". The Bosnia List by Kenan Trebincevic and Susan Shapiro chronicles the war through the eyes of a Bosnian refugee returning home for the first time after 18 years in New York.

Other works about the war include:

  • Bosnia Warriors: Living on the Front Line, by Major Vaughan Kent-Payne is an account of UN operations in Bosnia written by A British Army infantry officer who was based in Vitez, Central Bosnia for seven months in 1993.[362]
  • Necessary Targets (by Eve Ensler)
  • Winter Warriors – Across Bosnia with the PBI by Les Howard, a factual account by a British Territorial infantryman who volunteered to serve as a UN Peacekeeper in the latter stages of the war, and during the first stages of the NATO led Dayton Peace Accord.[363]
  • Pretty Birds, by Scott Simon, depicts a teenage girl in Sarajevo, once a basketball player on her high school team, who becomes a sniper.
  • The Cellist of Sarajevo, by Steven Galloway, is a novel following the stories of four people living in Sarajevo during the war.
  • Life's Too Short to Forgive, written in 2005 by Len Biser, follows the efforts of three people who unite to assassinate Karadzic to stop Serb atrocities.
  • Fools Rush In, written by Bill Carter, tells the story of a man who helped bring U2 to a landmark Sarajevo concert.
  • Evil Doesn't Live Here, by Daoud Sarhandi and Alina Boboc, presents 180 posters created by Bosnian artist which plastered walls during the war.
  • The Avenger by Frederick Forsyth.
  • Hotel Sarajevo by Jack Kersh.
  • Top je bio vreo by Vladimir Kecmanović, a story of a Bosnian Serb boy in the part of Sarajevo held by Bosnian Muslim forces during the Siege of Sarajevo.
  • I Bog je zaplakao nad Bosnom (And God cried over Bosnia), written by Momir Krsmanović, is a depiction of war that mainly focuses on the crimes committed by Muslim people.
  • Safe Area Goražde is a graphic novel by Joe Sacco about the war in eastern Bosnia.
  • Dampyr is an Italian comic book, created by Mauro Boselli and Maurizio Colombo and published in Italy by Sergio Bonelli Editore about Harlan Draka, half human, half vampire, who wages war on the multifaceted forces of Evil. The first two episodes are located in Bosnia and Herzegovina (#1 Il figlio del Diavolo) i.e. Sarajevo (#2 La stirpe della note) during the Bosnian War.
  • Goodbye Sarajevo – A True Story of Courage, Love and Survival by Atka Reid and Hana Schofield and published in 2011, is the story of two sisters from Sarajevo and their separate experiences of the war.
  • Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War (by Peter Maas), published in 1997 is his account as a reporter at the height of the Bosnian War.
  • My War Gone By, I Miss It So by Anthony Loyd is a memoir of Loyd's time spent covering the conflict as a photojournalist and writer.[364]
  • The Pepperdogs, a 2004 novel by Bing West, features a United States Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance team caught between sides during the NATO peacekeeping effort.[365]

Music

U2's "Miss Sarajevo", about the war in Bosnia, features Bono and Luciano Pavarotti.[366] Other songs include "Bosnia" by The Cranberries, "Sarajevo" by UHF, "Pure Massacre" by Silverchair, "Sva bol svijeta" by Fazla and others. The concept album "Dead Winter Dead" by Savatage tells a story set during the Bosnian war.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ramet 2010, p. 130.
  2. ^ a b Christia 2012, p. 154.
  3. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 450.
  4. ^ a b Mulaj 2008, p. 53.
  5. ^ Finlan 2004, p. 21
  6. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 451.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Calic, Marie–Janine (2012). "Ethnic Cleansing and War Crimes, 1991–1995". In Ingrao, Charles W.; Emmert, Thomas A. (eds.). Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4. Footnotes in source identify numbers as June 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d "Spolna i nacionalna struktura žrtava i ljudski gubitci vojnih formacija (1991–1996)". Prometej.
  9. ^ "After years of toil, book names Bosnian war dead". Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  10. ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia". Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  11. ^ "ICJ: The genocide case: Bosnia v. Serbia – See Part VI – Entities involved in the events 235–241" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  12. ^ "From Lisbon to Dayton: International Mediation and the Bosnia Crisis" (PDF). Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  13. ^ a b Christia 2012, p. 172.
  14. ^ Wood 2013, pp. 140, 343.
  15. ^ Forsythe 2009, p. 145
  16. ^ a b "Bosnia Handout". fas.org.
  17. ^ Cohen, Roger (31 August 1995). "Conflict in the Balkans: The overview; NATO presses Bosnia bombing, vowing to make Sarajevo safe". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  18. ^ Holbrooke, Richard (1999). To End a War. New York: Modern Library. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-375-75360-2. OCLC 40545454.
  19. ^ "Dayton Peace Accords on Bosnia". US Department of State. 30 March 1996. Retrieved 19 March 2006.
  20. ^ a b "Karadzic Sent to Hague for Trial Despite Violent Protest by Loyalists", The New York Times, 30 July 2008.
  21. ^ "Bosnia war dead figure announced". BBC. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  22. ^ "Bosnia's dark days – a cameraman reflects on war of 1990s". CBC. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  23. ^ Logos 2019, p. 265, 412.
  24. ^ a b "Jolie highlights the continuing suffering of the displaced in Bosnia". UNHCR. 6 April 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  25. ^ Hartmann, Florence. "Bosnia". Crimes of War. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  26. ^ Harsch, Michael F. (2015). The Power of Dependence: NATO-UN Cooperation in Crisis Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-19-872231-1.
  27. ^ a b Burg & Shoup 2015, p. 222.
  28. ^ a b Crowe, David M. (2013). War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice: A Global History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-230-62224-1.
  29. ^ a b c Bose 2009, p. 124.
  30. ^ Walsh, Martha (2001). Women and Civil War: Impact, Organizations, and Action. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 57, The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was recognised by the European Union on 6 April. On the same date, Bosnian Serb nationalists began the siege of Sarajevo, and the Bosnian war began. ISBN 9781588260468.
  31. ^ a b Hammond 2007, p. 51.
  32. ^ Rogel, Carole (2004). The Breakup of Yugoslavia and Its Aftermath. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 59, Neither recognition nor UN membership, however, saved Bosnia from the JNA, the war there began on April 6. ISBN 9780313323577.
  33. ^ Mulaj 2008, p. 76.
  34. ^ Donia 2006, p. 291.
  35. ^ Donia 2006, p. 284.
  36. ^ "15 years ago, Dayton Peace Accords: a milestone for NATO and the Balkans". NATO. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  37. ^ Pavkovic, Aleksandar (1997). The fragmentation of Yugoslavia: nationalism and war in the Balkans. MacMillan Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-312-23084-5.
  38. ^ Crnobrnja, Mihailo (1994). The Yugoslav drama. I.B. Tauris & Co. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-86064-126-8.
  39. ^ a b Klemenčič, Matjaž; Žagar, Mitja (2004). The former Yugoslavia's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3.
  40. ^ Bethlehem & Weller 1997, p. 20
  41. ^ Campbell, David (1998). National deconstruction: Violence, identity, and justice in Bosnia. U of Minnesota Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8166-2937-4.
  42. ^ S. Lobell; P. Mauceri (2004). Ethnic Conflict and International Politics: Explaining Diffusion and Escalation. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-1-4039-8141-7.
  43. ^ Sadkovich 2007, p. 239.
  44. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 386.
  45. ^ Lučić 2008, p. 72.
  46. ^ Lučić 2008, pp. 74–75.
  47. ^ Tanner 2001, p. 248.
  48. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 58, 91.
  49. ^ Lukic & Lynch 1996, p. 206.
  50. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 426.
  51. ^ Schindler 2007, p. 71.
  52. ^ Caspersen 2010, p. 82.
  53. ^ a b c d Trbovich 2008, p. 228.
  54. ^ Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 85.
  55. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 59–61.
  56. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 416.
  57. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 25.
  58. ^ Tape record of the BiH Parliament, 88/3. – 89/2. AG, 89/3. – 90/4.
  59. ^ Judah, Tim (2008). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. p. 273. ISBN 9780300147841.
  60. ^ Lukic & Lynch 1996, p. 204.
  61. ^ Card, Claudia (2010). Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide. Cambridge University Press. p. 269. ISBN 9781139491709.
  62. ^ Tatum, Dale C. (2010). Genocide at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century: Rwanda, Bosnia, Kosovo, and Darfur. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 76. ISBN 9780230109674.
  63. ^ Dobbs, Michael (1997). Down with Big Brother: The Fall of the Soviet Empire. A&C Black. pp. 426–27. ISBN 9780747533948.
  64. ^ Luki, Reneo; Lynch, Allen (1996). Europe from the Balkans to the Urals: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. SIPRI, Oxford University Press. p. 204. ISBN 9780198292005.
  65. ^ a b Trbovich 2008, p. 221.
  66. ^ Cook, Bernard A. (2001). Europe Since 1945. 1. Taylor and Francis. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-8153-4057-7.
  67. ^ Trbovich 2008, pp. 220–224.
  68. ^ a b Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 103.
  69. ^ Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 48.
  70. ^ Tomas & Nazor 2013, p. 281.
  71. ^ Krišto 2011, p. 44.
  72. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 259.
  73. ^ a b c d Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 101.
  74. ^ Roland Rich (1993). "Recognition of States: The Collapse of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union" (PDF). European Journal of International Law. 4 (1): 48–51. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  75. ^ a b c Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 105.
  76. ^ a b Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 108.
  77. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  78. ^ "The Referendum on Independence in Bosnia-Herzegovina: 29 February–1 March 1992". Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. 1992. p. 19. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2009.
  79. ^ Judah, Tim (2008). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780300147841.
  80. ^ Kumar, Radha (1999). Divide and Fall? Bosnia in the Annals of Partition. Verso. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-85984-183-9.
  81. ^ Donia, Robert J. (2014). Radovan Karadzic: Architect of the Bosnian Genocide. Cambridge University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9781107073357.
  82. ^ "Godišnjica ubistva srpskog svata na Baščaršiji". Glas Srpske. 1 March 2009. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  83. ^ Morrison, Kenneth (2016). Sarajevo's Holiday Inn on the Frontline of Politics and War. Springer. p. 88. ISBN 9781137577184.
  84. ^ Cannon, P., The Third Balkan War and Political Disunity: Creating A Cantonal Constitutional System for Bosnia-Herzegovina, Jrnl. Trans. L. & Pol., Vol. 5-2
  85. ^ de Krnjevic-Miskovic, Damjan. "Alija Izetbegović, 1925–2003". In the National Interest. Archived from the original on 27 June 2004. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  86. ^ Sudetic, Chuck (28 March 1992). "Bosnia asking for U.N. peace forces". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  87. ^ Knezevic, Irena (30 May 2010). "Croatian president honors Serb victims in Bosnia". Associated Press. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  88. ^ "Prosecutor v. Momčilo Krajišnik: Judgement" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 27 September 2006. pp. 113–118. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  89. ^ a b "ICTY: Naletilić and Matinović verdict" (PDF).
  90. ^ a b Kozar, Duro (2 August 1996). "Croats and Serbs are (un)suitable". Oslobodenje-Svijet. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
  91. ^ Pejanović, Mirko (2004). Through Bosnian Eyes: The Political Memoir of a Bosnian Serb. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-55753-359-3.
  92. ^ "Vjesnik: 13.5.2003". www.hsp1861.hr.
  93. ^ Nettelfield, Lara J. (2010). Courting Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Hague Tribunal's Impact in a Postwar State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-521-76380-6.
  94. ^ Aldrich, Richard J. (22 April 2002). "Richard J Aldrich: America used Islamists to arm Bosnian Muslims" – via www.theguardian.com.
  95. ^ "U.S. OKd Iranian Arms for Bosnia, Officials Say". Los Angeles Times. 5 April 1996.
  96. ^ "House Report 105-804: INVESTIGATION INTO IRANIAN ARMS SHIPMENTS TO BOSNIA".
  97. ^ "BBC Correspondent: Allies and Lies transcript".
  98. ^ Wiebes, Cees (2003). Intelligence and the War in Bosnia, 1992–1995: Volume 1 of Studies in intelligence history. LIT Verlag. p. 195. ISBN 9783825863470. Pakistan definitely defied the United Nations ban on supply of arms to the Bosnian Muslims and sophisticated anti-tank guided missiles were airlifted by the Pakistani intelligence agency, ISI, to help Bosnians fight the Serbs.
  99. ^ Abbas, Hassan (2015). Pakistan's Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 9781317463283. Javed Nasir confesses that despite the U.N. ban on supplying arms to the besieged Bosnians, he successfully airlifted sophisticated antitank guided missiles which turned the tide in favour of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs to lift the siege.
  100. ^ Schindler, John R. Unholy Terror. Zenith Imprint. p. 154. ISBN 9781616739645. Pakistan's notorious Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate [...] violated the UN embargo and provided Bosnian Muslims with sophisticated antitank guided missiles.
  101. ^ "Presidential Confidential: Bill Clinton After Hours". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  102. ^ "'The Clinton Tapes,' a New Book". The New York Times. 21 September 2009.
  103. ^ Taylor Branch (2009). The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President. Simon and Schuster. p. 31. ISBN 9781416594345.
  104. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 262.
  105. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 27.
  106. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 22.
  107. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 62–63.
  108. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 266.
  109. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 267.
  110. ^ Blic, N1, Srna: Hrvatski pukovnik Vinko Štefanek: "Ja sam komandovao HVO na području Orašja", 5. studenoga 2016. (pristupljeno 26. studenoga 2016.)
  111. ^ Marijan 2004, pp. 280–281.
  112. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 46–48.
  113. ^ Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 102.
  114. ^ Thomas, Nigel; Mikulan, Krunoslav; Pavlović, Darko (2006). The Yugoslav Wars: Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia 1992–2001. Osprey Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-19-517429-8.
  115. ^ "Srebrenica – a 'safe' area". Dutch Institute for War Documentation. 10 April 2002. Retrieved 17 February 2010.[dead link]
  116. ^ Lukic & Lynch 1996, p. 333.
  117. ^ a b Koknar 2003.
  118. ^ "Uloga pravoslavnih dobrovoljaca u ratu u BiH".
  119. ^ Helena Smith, "Greece faces shame of role in Serb massacre", The Observer, 5 January 2003; retrieved 25 November 2006.
  120. ^ Karli, Sina (11 November 2006). "Šveđanin priznao krivnju za ratne zločine u BiH" [Swede confesses to war crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina]. Nacional (weekly) (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
  121. ^ "Pakistan sends more troops to Bosnia". UPI. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  122. ^ "Pakistan says it will stay in Bosnia". UPI. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  123. ^ Curtis, Mark (2010). Secret Affairs Britain's Collusion with Radical Islam (New updated ed.). London: Profile. p. 212. ISBN 978-1847653017.
  124. ^ Molotsky, Irvin. U.S. Linked To Saudi Aid For Bosnians . The New York Times, 2 February 1996
  125. ^ Fisk, Robert (7 September 2014). "After the atrocities committed against Muslims in Bosnia, it is no wonder today's jihadis have set out on the path to war in Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  126. ^ Atwan, Abdel Bari (2012). The Secret History of al Qaeda. Saqi. p. 155. ISBN 9780863568435.
  127. ^ Clements, Frank (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 153. ISBN 9781851094028.
  128. ^ Woehrel, Steven (2007). "Islamic Terrorism and the Balkans". In Malbouisson, Cofie D. (ed.). Focus on Islamic Issues. Nova Publishers. p. 75. ISBN 9781600212048.
  129. ^ Freeman, Michael (2016). Financing Terrorism: Case Studies. Routledge. p. 186. ISBN 9781317135074.
  130. ^ a b Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 74.
  131. ^ a b Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 75.
  132. ^ a b c Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 129.
  133. ^ Mulaj 2008, p. 53, Hammond 2007, p. 51
  134. ^ Karadžić Trial Chamber Judgement 2016, p. 1023
  135. ^ CIA 2002, p. 136.
  136. ^ CIA 2002b, pp. 355–356.
  137. ^ "Kako su Ukrajinci u Bosni spasili hiljade ljudi od masakra". BBC News na srpskom. 18 August 2020.
  138. ^ Niške Vesti "Izvedena za samo 75 minuta", 24-Apr-15, accessed on 13-Nov-17 http://niskevesti.info/izvedena-za-samo-75-minuta-godisnjica-operacije-spasavanja-vojnika-iz-opkoljene-kasarne-u-capljini/ Archived 6 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  139. ^ CIA 2002b, p. 262.
  140. ^ Burg & Shoup 1999, pp. 129–131.
  141. ^ a b c d e f Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 131.
  142. ^ a b c d e f g Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 132.
  143. ^ a b c d e f g h Burg & Shoup 1999, p. 133.
  144. ^ Portal Novosti: "Kako su "harali" nasi dečki", accessed on 21-Nov017 (in Croatian) https://www.portalnovosti.com/kako-su-harali-nasi-decki
  145. ^ Večernji.hr: "Potvrđena optužnica protiv deset pripadnika HVO s područja Orašja", accessed on 21=Nov-17 (in Croatian) https://www.vecernji.hr/vijesti/potvrdena-optuznica-protiv-deset-pripadnika-hvo-s-podrucja-orasja-1146287
  146. ^ Nezavisne novine "Tuzlanska kolona teška mrlja na obrazu Tuzle" retrieved on 21 August 2016 http://www.nezavisne.com/novosti/bih/Tuzlanska-kolona-teska-mrlja-na-obrazu-Tuzle/192218
  147. ^ RTS "Dve decenije od napada na Tuzlansku kolonu", retrieved on 21 August 2016 http://www.rts.rs/page/stories/sr/story/11/region/1102510/dve-decenije-od-napada-na-tuzlansku-kolonu.html
  148. ^ D. Grant, Thomas (2009). Admission to the United Nations: Charter Article 4 and the Rise of Universal Organization. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 226. ISBN 978-9004173637.
  149. ^ Nettelfield (2010), p. 174
  150. ^ "Delalic et al. – Judgement". Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  151. ^ "Appeals Chamber to render its Judgement in the Celebici Case on 20 February 2001". Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  152. ^ Krišto 2011, pp. 49–50.
  153. ^ CIA 2002, p. 156.
  154. ^ Young, Kirsten (September 2001). "UNHCR and ICRC in the former Yugoslavia: Bosnia-Herzegovina" (PDF). International Review of the Red Cross. 83 (843): 782. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  155. ^ a b c Meznaric & Zlatkovic Winter 1993, pp. 3–4.
  156. ^ Yigan Chazan (9 June 1992). "Croatian coast straining under 200,000 refugees: Yigan Chazan in Split finds room running out for the many escaping from war in Bosnia". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  157. ^ Blaskovich, Jerry (1997). Anatomy of Deceit: An American Physician's First-Hand Encounter with the Realities of the War in Croatia. New York City: Dunhill Publishing. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-935016-24-6.
  158. ^ Tanner 2001, p. 287.
  159. ^ Večernje novosti & 16 June 2011.
  160. ^ Vreme & 23 January 1999.
  161. ^ CIA 2002b, pp. 315–318.
  162. ^ Nezavisne novine: "Služen parastos za 24 ubijenih Srba iz Ratkovića", accessed on 06-Apr-17 http://www.nezavisne.com/novosti/drustvo/Sluzen-parastos-za-24-ubijenih-Srba-iz-Ratkovica/311230
  163. ^ Veteran.ba: "Obiljezena 22. godisnjica bitke za FAMOS", accessed on 06-Apr-17, http://www.veteran.ba/clanak/614/obiljezena_22_godisnjica_bitke_za_famos.html Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  164. ^ McDonald, Gabrielle Kirk (June 1999). Documents and cases. ISBN 978-90-411-1134-0.
  165. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 272.
  166. ^ a b Shrader 2003, p. 66.
  167. ^ Krišto 2011, p. 50.
  168. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 270.
  169. ^ Marijan 2004, pp. 276–277.
  170. ^ Prlic et al. 2013, p. 150.
  171. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 68.
  172. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 69.
  173. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 277.
  174. ^ CIA 2002, p. 148.
  175. ^ a b Shrader 2003, p. 3.
  176. ^ Malcolm 1995, p. 327.
  177. ^ a b Marijan 2004, p. 271.
  178. ^ "Bratunac: Parastos ubijenim Srbima". B92. 6 January 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  179. ^ Ivanisevic, Bogdan. "Orić's Two Years" Archived 11 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
  180. ^ a b "The Myth of Bratunac: A Blatant Numbers Game". Research and Documentation Center. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  181. ^ "Former commander of Bosnian Muslim forces acquitted by UN tribunal". UN News Centre. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  182. ^ LeBor, Adam (2006). Complicity With Evil. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11171-2.
  183. ^ a b http://www.novosti.rs: Skelani Zlocin jos bez kazne
  184. ^ a b c http://www.srebrenica-project.com Archived 27 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine: Историјски пројекат Сребреница
  185. ^ "Ni da prebolimo ni da oprostimo".
  186. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 13.
  187. ^ Tanner 2001, p. 288.
  188. ^ a b Bethlehem & Weller 1997, p. 42.
  189. ^ Burg & Shoup 2015, p. 249.
  190. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 4.
  191. ^ Bethlehem & Weller 1997, p. 33.
  192. ^ CIA 2002b, p. 402.
  193. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 74–75.
  194. ^ Marijan 2004, p. 279.
  195. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 75–77.
  196. ^ a b Hadžihasanović & Kubura Trial Chamber Judgement 2006, p. 5.
  197. ^ Kordić & Čerkez Appeals Chamber Judgement 2004, p. 7.
  198. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 78.
  199. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 80.
  200. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 82.
  201. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 86.
  202. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 87–89.
  203. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 115–117.
  204. ^ a b Shrader 2003, p. 110.
  205. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 115.
  206. ^ CIA 2002, p. 193.
  207. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 91–92.
  208. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 93–94.
  209. ^ Blaškić Appeals Chamber Judgement 2004, pp. 8–9.
  210. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 100.
  211. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 119–120.
  212. ^ Bethlehem & Weller 1997, p. 618.
  213. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 125.
  214. ^ a b CIA 2002b, pp. 433–434.
  215. ^ Memić Mensur et al. Judgement 2016.
  216. ^ Christia 2012, pp. 157–158.
  217. ^ CIA 2002, p. 194.
  218. ^ a b Tanner 2001, p. 290.
  219. ^ Ćurić Enes et al. 2015.
  220. ^ CIA 2002, p. 200.
  221. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 195–196.
  222. ^ Shrader 2003, pp. 131–132.
  223. ^ Delić Trial Chamber Judgement 2008, p. 3.
  224. ^ Hećimović 2006, p. 17.
  225. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 133.
  226. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 134.
  227. ^ a b Shrader 2003, p. 137.
  228. ^ CIA 2002b, p. 425.
  229. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 196–197.
  230. ^ Schindler 2007, p. 100.
  231. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 202–204.
  232. ^ Halilović Trial Chamber Judgement 2005, pp. 3–4.
  233. ^ CIA 2002, p. 203.
  234. ^ Rajić Judgement Summary 2006, p. 2.
  235. ^ Shrader 2003, p. 157.
  236. ^ UN Security Council Resolution 824 (adopted 6 May 1993).
  237. ^ a b c d e f g h "NATO Handbook: Evolution of the Conflict". NATO. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  238. ^ Christia 2012, p. 161-162.
  239. ^ CIA 2002, p. 201-202.
  240. ^ Christia 2012, p. 160.
  241. ^ Power, Samantha (21 June 1994). "Croatia slams the door on brutalized refugees". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  242. ^ a b c d Bethlehem & Weller 1997, p. liii.
  243. ^ Carnes, Mark Christopher (2005). American national biography. 29. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-19-522202-9.
  244. ^ Bethlehem & Weller 1997, p. 680.
  245. ^ a b Shrader 2003, p. 159.
  246. ^ a b c d e Bethlehem & Weller 1997, p. liv.
  247. ^ Krišto 2011, p. 57.
  248. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 242–243.
  249. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 250–251.
  250. ^ Economides, Spyros & Taylor, Paul (2007). "Former Yugoslavia" Mats Berdal & Spyro Economides (eds), United Nations Interventionism, 1991–2004, p. 89. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  251. ^ a b c UN Document A/54/549, Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to General Assembly resolution 53/35: The fall of Srebrenica, un.org, Archived 12 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 25 April 2015.
  252. ^ Hansen, Ole Kjeld (1997). "Operation "Hooligan-bashing" – Danish Tanks at War". Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  253. ^ Bethlehem & Weller 1997, p. lvi.
  254. ^ Simone, Ernest (2000). Foreign Policy of the United States. 1. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-56072-850-4.
  255. ^ a b Simone 2000, p. 187
  256. ^ "U.S. Will Honor Bosnia Arms Embargo". Los Angeles Times. Reuters. 13 November 1994. President Clinton ordered U.S. warships in the Adriatic to stop intercepting vessels suspected of smuggling arms for the Muslims beginning midnight Saturday.
  257. ^ "Danish Tanks at War" Archived 23 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, milhist.dk; accessed 25 April 2015.
  258. ^ Karadžić Trial Chamber Judgement 2016, pp. 2454–2455.
  259. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 299–300.
  260. ^ Krstić Appeals Chamber Judgement 2004, pp. 1–2.
  261. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 347–348.
  262. ^ ICTY, Prosecutor vs Krstic, Judgement Archived 17 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Case No. IT-98-33, United Nations, 2 August 2001"Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2006. Retrieved 8 June 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (685 KB), "Findings of Fact", paragraphs 18 and 26 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  263. ^ "UN Srebrenica immunity questioned". BBC. 18 June 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  264. ^ Comprehensive report of the proceedings, www.vandiepen.com Archived 3 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  265. ^ "Under The UN Flag; The International Community and the Srebrenica Genocide" by Hasan Nuhanović, pub. DES Sarajevo, 2007; ISBN 978-9958-728-87-7 [1] Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine [2] Archived 24 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  266. ^ Tanner 2001, pp. 295–296.
  267. ^ Tanner 2001, pp. 297–298.
  268. ^ Šoštarić, Eduard (14 August 2006). "Otvorena istraga zbog akcije "Una"" [Investigation of Operation Una Opens]. Nacional (in Croatian)
  269. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 380–381.
  270. ^ CIA 2002, pp. 390–391.
  271. ^ Mladić Trial Chamber Judgement 2017, p. 2315.
  272. ^ Gazzini, Tarcisio (2005). The changing rules on the use of force in international law. Manchester University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7190-7325-0.
  273. ^ a b Group, Taylor Francis (2003). The Europa World Year Book 2003. p. 803. ISBN 978-1-85743-227-5.
  274. ^ Nettelfield, Lara J. (2010). "Research and repercussions of death tolls: The case of the Bosnian Book of the Dead". In Andreas, Peter; Greenhill, Kelly M. (eds.). Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 159–187. ISBN 978-0-8014-7618-1.
  275. ^ "102.000 drept i Bosnia", NRK News, 14 November 2004. (in Norwegian) Archived 18 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  276. ^ a b c d e Burg & Shoup 2000, pp. 169–191.
  277. ^ a b "Wayback Machine". web.archive.org. Cite uses generic title (help)
  278. ^ a b Bosnia's "Book of the Dead", Institute for War and Peace Reporting, 26 June 2007
  279. ^ "Bosnia war dead figure announced". BBC News. 21 June 2007.
  280. ^ Roger D. Petersen (2011). Western Intervention in the Balkans: The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139503303. Retrieved 22 July 2013., p. 121
  281. ^ Sito-Sucic, Daria; Robinson, Matt (15 February 2013). "After years of toil, book names Bosnian war dead". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  282. ^ Jay D. Aronson (2013). Counting Civilian Casualties: An Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict. Oxford University Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780199977314. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  283. ^ a b c d Patrick Ball; Ewa Tabeau & Philip Verwimp (17 June 2007). "The Bosnian Book of Dead: Assessment of the Database" (PDF). Households in Conflict Network. p. 5. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  284. ^ Tabeau, Ewa; Bijak, Jakub (2005). "War-related Deaths in the 1992–1995 Armed Conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Critique of Previous Estimates and Recent Results". European Journal of Population. 21 (2–3): 187–215. doi:10.1007/s10680-005-6852-5. ISSN 1572-9885. S2CID 154970521.
  285. ^ a b c d Zwierzchowski, Jan & Tabeau, Ewa (1 February 2010). "The 1992–95 War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Census-based multiple system estimation of casualties undercount" (PDF). Households in Conflict Network and the German Institute for Economic Research. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  286. ^ New War Demographics Feature, ICTY.org; accessed 25 May 2015.
  287. ^ OTP – Casualties of Bosnian War, icty.org; accessed 25 May 2015.
  288. ^ Hague Tribunal Archived 18 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine, icty.org; accessed 3 August 2015.
  289. ^ "Former Yugoslavia – UNPROFOR: Profile". Department of Public Information, United Nations. 31 August 1996. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  290. ^ "Statement by Dr. Haris Silajdžić Chairman of the Presidency Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF). United Nations. 23 September 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  291. ^ George Kenney (23 April 1995). "The Bosnian calculation". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  292. ^ Missing Lives – Book and Photo Exhibition Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 7 June 2010
  293. ^ "Balkans: Thousands still missing two decades after conflicts". Amnesty International. 30 August 2012. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  294. ^ ICRC Annual Report 2010 Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, icrc.org; accessed 25 May 2015, p. 345
  295. ^ "Bosnia Buries 284 Bodies from Wartime Mass Grave". Balkan Insight. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  296. ^ Waller, James E. (2002). Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing. Oxford University Press. pp. 276–277. ISBN 978-0-19-514868-8.
  297. ^ Kennedy, Michael D. (2002). Cultural Formations of Postcommunism: Emancipation, Transition, Nation and War. University of Minnesota Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-8166-3857-4.
  298. ^ a b "C.I.A. Report on Bosnia Blames Serbs for 90% of the War Crimes" by Roger Cohen, The New York Times, 9 March 1995.
  299. ^ "Bosnian Prosecution Criticised over War Crimes Indictments". Balkan Insight. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  300. ^ "Prosecutor v. Vujadin Popovic, Ljubisa Beara, Drago Nikolic, Ljubomir Borovcanin, Radivoje Miletic, Milan Gvero, and Vinko Pandurevic" (PDF). In the Motion, the Prosecution submits that both the existence and implementation of the plan to create an ethnically pure Bosnian Serb state by Bosnian Serb political and military leaders are facts of common knowledge and have been held to be historical and accurate in a wide range of sources.
  301. ^ a b "ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin judgement". Archived from the original on 14 April 2009.
  302. ^ "Tadic Case: The Verdict". Importantly, the objectives remained the same: to create an ethnically pure Serb State by uniting Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina and extending that State from the FRY […] to the Croatian Krajina along the important logistics and supply line that went through opstina Prijedor, thereby necessitating the expulsion of the non-Serb population of the opstina.
  303. ^ a b c "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict" (PDF).
  304. ^ "Prosecutor v. Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petkovic, Valentin Coric and Berislav Pusic" (PDF). Significantly, the Trial Chamber held that a reasonable Trial Chamber, could make a finding beyond any reasonable doubt that all of these acts were committed to carry out a plan aimed at changing the ethnic balance of the areas that formed Herceg-Bosna and mainly to deport the Muslim population and other non-Croat population out of Herceg-Bosna to create an ethnically pure Croatian territory within Herceg-Bosna.
  305. ^ Address at Potočari Memorial Cemetery Archived 3 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine, un.org, 23 June 2004.
  306. ^ Peter W. Galbraith. "Galbraith telegram" (PDF). United States Department of State.
  307. ^ A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the massacre at Srebrenica in July 1995 Archived 7 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, thomas.loc.gov; accessed 25 April 2015.
  308. ^ "Sense Tribunal: SERBIA FOUND GUILTY OF FAILURE TO PREVENT AND PUNISH GENOCIDE". Archived from the original on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  309. ^ Statement of the President of the Court[dead link], icj-cij.org; accessed 25 April 2015.
  310. ^ a b c Osborn, Andrew (23 February 2001). "Mass rape ruled a war crime". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
  311. ^ a b "Hague court upholds rape charges". BBC. 12 June 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  312. ^ a b "Opening Statement of Senator Dick Durbin Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law Hearing on "Rape as a Weapon of War: Accountability for Sexual Violence in Conflict"". United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. 1 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  313. ^ Stiglmayer, Alexandra; Marion Faber; Cynthia Enloe; Roy Gutman (1994). Mass Rape: The War Against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 85, 86, 198. ISBN 978-0-8032-9229-1.
  314. ^ "ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements". Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  315. ^ "The Society for Threatened Peoples (GfbV): Documentation about war crimes – Tilman Zülch". Archived from the original on 9 March 2008.
  316. ^ 030306IA ICTY Archived 26 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine, un.org; accessed 25 April 2015.
  317. ^ "Prosecutor v. Biljana Plavsic judgement" (PDF). Biljana Plavsic was sentenced to 11 years' imprisonment.
  318. ^ "Prosecutor v. Momcilo Krajisnik judgement" (PDF). Sentenced to 27 years' imprisonment
  319. ^ "Prosecutor v. Duško Tadić – Judgement" (PDF). United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 14 July 1997. Retrieved 3 November 2009.
  320. ^ "Prosecutor v. Radovan Karadžić – Second Amended Indictment" (PDF). United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  321. ^ "Bosnia-Herzegovina: Karadžić life sentence sends powerful message to the world". Amnesty International. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  322. ^ "Prosecutor v. Ratko Mladic – Amended Indictment" (PDF). United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 8 November 2002. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  323. ^ Bowcott, Owen; Borger, Julian (22 November 2017). "Ratko Mladić convicted of genocide and war crimes at UN tribunal". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  324. ^ "Prosecutor seeks 28-year jail term for Vojislav Šešelj". BBC News. 7 March 2012.
  325. ^ "Milosevic charged with Bosnia genocide". BBC News. 23 November 2001.
  326. ^ "Milosevic found dead in his cell". BBC News. 11 March 2006.
  327. ^ "Bosnia leader was war crimes suspect". BBC. 22 October 2003.
  328. ^ "Dead Bosnia Hero Focus of War Crimes Inquiry". The New York Times. 23 October 2003.
  329. ^ Case Information Sheet: Rasim Delić, icty.org; accessed 19 May 2015.
  330. ^ "Hadzihasanovic i Kubura – sažetak -". Archived from the original on 24 July 2008.
  331. ^ "Celebici case: the Judgement of the Trial Chamber – press release". International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 16 November 1998. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
  332. ^ ""ČELEBIĆI CAMP" (IT-96-21) – case information sheet" (PDF). United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  333. ^ Halilović Trial Chamber Judgement 2005, p. 8.
  334. ^ "Bosnia Opens Trial of Muslims for War Crimes" Archived 22 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Yahoo.com, 19 April 2012; retrieved 19 May 2015.
  335. ^ "Six Senior Herceg-Bosna Officials Convicted". icty.org. 29 May 2013.
  336. ^ "Ministry: ICTY confirms Croatia wasn't responsible". EBL News. 19 July 2016.
  337. ^ "ICTY denies Croatia's request to be included in Prlic et al appeal". EBL News. 19 July 2016.
  338. ^ ICTY cases, indictments and proceedings Archived 6 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, un.org; accessed 19 May 2015.
  339. ^ Serb leader apologises in Bosnia, bbc.co.uk; accessed 19 May 2015.
  340. ^ "Croatian president apologizes to Bosnia over war". CBC. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  341. ^ "Serbian Declaration on Srebrenica Massacre an Imperfect but Important Step", International Center for Transitional Justice; accessed 19 May 2015.
  342. ^ Campbell, David (1998). "Metabosnia: Narratives of the Bosnian War". Review of International Studies. 24 (2): 261–81. doi:10.1017/S0260210598002617. JSTOR 20097522.
  343. ^ Bose 2002, p. 21.
  344. ^ a b "Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity: Topical Digests of the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia". Human Rights Watch. February 2004. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  345. ^ Workman, Timothy (27 July 2010). "The Government of the Republic of Serbia vs. Ejup Ganić" (PDF). City of Westminster Magistrates' Court. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  346. ^ Kaldor, Mary (2007). New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-3863-8.
  347. ^ Gagnon Jr. 2006, p. 7, 87, 131, 178.
  348. ^ Gagnon Jr. 2006, p. 32, summary.
  349. ^ Hak, Andrea (5 November 2016). "5 Bosnian Films You Need to See". Culture Trip. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  350. ^ "Women in love". The Economist. 16 November 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  351. ^ "IFFR: "Remake"". iffr.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  352. ^ "32. Internacionalni Film Festival Rotterdam". sarajevo-X.com. 22 January 2003. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  353. ^ "Dino Mustafić novo je veliko ime evropske kinematografije: Njegov film "Remake" najgledaniji je u Rotterdamu". infobiro.ba. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  354. ^ "KVIFF PROGRAMME". kviff.com. 8 July 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  355. ^ "The Abandoned". filmneweurope.com. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  356. ^ "Svjetska premijera filma "Ostavljeni" Adisa Bakrača". klix.ba. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  357. ^ "Quo Vadis, Aida? Film by Bosnia Director Jasmila Zbanic on the Venice Biennale". Sarajevo Times. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  358. ^ "ČUDO U BOSNI". bhfilm.ba. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  359. ^ "CUDO U BOSNI (1995)". bfi.org.uk. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  360. ^ "Film i rat". bhdani.ba. 5 April 2002. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  361. ^ Jukic, Elvira M. (17 August 2015). "Sarajevo Festival-Goers Overflow at Holbrooke Film". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  362. ^ Whitaker, Raymond (12 April 1998). "Painful lessons in how to say no". The Independent. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  363. ^ Barnes, Mark (25 September 2013). "Winter Warriors – Across Bosnia with the PBI review". War History Online. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  364. ^ My War Gone By, I Miss It So. ISBN 0140298541.
  365. ^ "The Pepperdogs". Goodreads. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  366. ^ "Just the 2 of U". The Irish Times. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2009.

Further reading

Books

Journals

Other sources

External links