Activismo estudantil

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Estudantes da Universidade da cidade de Hong Kong organizando unha sentada durante as protestas de Hong Kong de 2014 polo bloqueo das reformas electorais
Estudantes manifestando contra a privatización da universidade en Atenas , Grecia , 2007
Estudantes do Shimer College protestando contra os cambios ameazados na gobernanza democrática da escola , 2010
Estudantes da Universidade de Tufts manifestando para o desinvestimento dos combustibles fósiles, 2013

O activismo dos estudantes ou o activismo do campus é o traballo dos estudantes para provocar cambios políticos, ambientais, económicos ou sociais. Aínda que a miúdo se centran nas escolas, os currículos e o financiamento educativo, os grupos de estudantes influíron nos acontecementos políticos máis importantes. [1]

Os movementos dos estudantes activistas modernos varían moito en materia, tamaño e éxito, participando unha variedade de estudantes en diversos ámbitos educativos, incluíndo estudantes de escolas públicas e privadas; estudantes de primaria, medio, sénior, grao e posgrao; e todas as razas, orixes socioeconómicas e perspectivas políticas. [2] Algunhas protestas estudantís céntranse nos asuntos internos dunha institución específica; outros céntranse en cuestións máis amplas como a guerra ou a ditadura . Así mesmo, algunhas protestas estudantís céntranse no impacto dunha institución no mundo, como un desinvestimentocampaña, mentres que outras poden centrarse no impacto dunha política rexional ou nacional na institución, como unha campaña contra a política educativa do goberno. Aínda que o activismo estudantil adoita asociarse coa política de esquerdas , os movementos estudantís de dereitas non son infrecuentes; por exemplo, grandes movementos estudantís loitaron a ambos os dous lados da loita do apartheid en Sudáfrica . [3]

O activismo estudantil a nivel universitario é case tan antigo como a propia universidade . Os estudantes de París e Boloña organizaron accións colectivas xa no século XIII, principalmente por cuestións de cidades e vestidos . [4] As protestas dos estudantes por cuestións políticas máis amplas tamén teñen un longo pedigrí. Na Corea da dinastía Joseon , 150 estudantes de Sungkyunkwan organizaron unha protesta sen precedentes contra o rei en 1519 pola purga de Kimyo . [5]

As formas extremas de activismo estudantil inclúen o suicidio como o caso de Jan Palach , [6] e as protestas de Jan Zajíc contra o fin da primavera de Praga [7] e a protesta de Kostas Georgakis contra a xunta militar grega de 1967-1974. . [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]

Por país [ editar ]

Arxentina [ editar ]

Estudantes erguen a bandeira de Arxentina na Universidade de Córdoba , 1918.

En Arxentina , como noutros lugares de América Latina , a tradición do activismo estudantil remóntase polo menos ao século XIX, pero non foi ata despois de 1900 que se converteu nunha forza política importante. [14] en 1918 o activismo estudantil desencadeou unha modernización xeral das universidades tendente especialmente á democratización, chamada Revolución Universitaria (en castelán: revolución universitaria ). [15] Os feitos comezaron en Córdoba e foron acompañados por revoltas similares en toda América Latina. [14]

Australia [ editar ]

Os estudantes australianos teñen unha longa historia activa nos debates políticos. Isto é particularmente certo nas universidades máis novas que se estableceron en áreas suburbanas. [16]

Durante gran parte do século XX, o principal grupo organizador do campus en toda Australia foi a Unión Australiana de Estudantes , que foi fundada en 1937 como a Unión de Estudantes Universitarios de Australia. [17] O AUS plegou en 1984. [18] Foi substituído pola Unión Nacional de Estudantes en 1987. [18]

Bangladesh [ editar ]

A política estudantil de Bangladesh é reactiva, enfrontada e violenta. As organizacións estudantís actúan como armamento dos partidos políticos dos que forman parte. Ao longo dos anos, os enfrontamentos políticos e as disputas entre faccións nos institutos de ensino mataron a moitos, dificultando seriamente o ambiente académico. Para comprobar eses problemas, as universidades non teñen máis opción que ir a peches prolongados e inesperados. Polo tanto, as clases non se completan a tempo e hai atascos de sesións.

As ás estudantís dos partidos gobernantes dominan os campus e residencias a través do crime e a violencia para gozar de varias instalacións non autorizadas. Controlan as residencias para xestionar asentos a favor dos seus partidos e alumnos fieis. Comen e compran gratis nos restaurantes e tendas próximos. Extorsionan e collen concursos para gañar cartos ilícitos. Levan cartos aos candidatos de primeiro ano e presionan aos profesores para que lles acepten. Quitan cartos aos demandantes de emprego e presionan ás administracións universitarias para que os nomeen. [19]

Brasil [ editar ]

O 11 de agosto de 1937 formouse a União Nacional dos Estudantes (UNE) como plataforma para que os estudantes creasen o cambio no Brasil. A organización intentou unir estudantes de todo o Brasil. Porén, na década de 1940 o grupo aliñara máis co socialismo. Despois, na década de 1950, o grupo cambiou de novo a aliñación, esta vez aliñando-se con valores máis conservadores. A União Metropolitana dos Estudantes levantouse en substitución da antiga UNE socialista. Porén, non pasou moito tempo ata que a União Nacional dos Estudantes volveu poñerse do lado do socialismo, uníndose así á União Metropolitana dos Estudantes. [20]

A Unión Nacional dos Estudantes influíu na democratización do ensino superior. A súa primeira fazaña significativa ocorreu durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial , cando presionaron con éxito ao presidente brasileiro Getúlio Vargas para que se unise ao bando dos Aliados . [21]

En 1964, a UNE foi ilegalizada despois de que o líder electo João Goulart fose eliminado do poder por un golpe militar . [20] O réxime militar aterrorizou aos estudantes nun esforzo por facelos subordinados. En 1966, os estudantes comezaron a protestar de todos os xeitos a pesar da realidade do terror.

Todas as protestas levaron á Marcha dos Cen Mil en xuño de 1968. Organizada pola UNE, esta protesta foi a máis numerosa ata agora. [22] Uns meses máis tarde, o goberno aprobou a Acta Institucional Número Cinco que prohibía oficialmente aos estudantes calquera outra protesta. [22]

Canadá [ editar ]

Estudantes protestan contra o proxecto de lei 78 en Montreal, 2012.

En Canadá , as organizacións estudantís da Nova Esquerda de finais dos anos 50 e 60 convertéronse principalmente en dúas: SUPA ( Unión de Estudantes para Acción pola Paz ) e CYC (Company of Young Canadians). SUPA xurdiu a partir da CUCND (Combined Universities Campaign for Nuclear Desarmament) en decembro de 1964, nunha conferencia da Universidade de Saskatchewan. [23] Mentres CUCND se concentrou nas marchas de protesta, SUPA procurou cambiar a sociedade canadense no seu conxunto. [24]O alcance ampliouse á política de base en comunidades desfavorecidas e á "concienciación" para radicalizar e concienciar sobre a "brecha xeracional" que experimentan os mozos canadenses. SUPA era unha organización descentralizada, arraigada nos campus universitarios locais. Non obstante, a SUPA desintegrouse a finais de 1967 polos debates sobre o papel da clase obreira e da "vella esquerda". [25] Os membros mudáronse ao CYC ou convertéronse en líderes activos na CUS (Unión Canadiense de Estudantes), o que levou á CUS a asumir o manto da axitación estudantil da Nova Esquerda.

En 1968, SDU (Students for a Democratic University) formouse nas Universidades McGill e Simon Fraser. SFU SDU, orixinalmente antigos membros da SUPA e Novas Xuventudes Democráticas, absorbeu membros do Club Liberal e dos Mozos Socialistas do campus. SDU foi destacado nunha ocupación da Administración en 1968, e nunha folga estudantil en 1969. [26] Despois do fracaso da folga estudantil, SDU separouse. Algúns membros uníronse ao IWW e aos Yippies (Partido Internacional da Xuventude). Outros membros axudaron a formar a Fronte de Liberación de Vancouver en 1970. A FLQ (Fronte de Liberación de Quebec) foi considerada unha organización terrorista, o que provocou o uso da Lei de Medidas de Guerra despois de 95 bombardeos na crise de outubro . Este foi o único uso en tempo de paz da Lei de Medidas de Guerra.[27]

Desde a década de 1970, creáronse os PIRG ( Grupos de Investigación de Interese Público ) como resultado de referendos de Sindicatos de Estudantes en todo Canadá en provincias individuais. Do mesmo xeito que os seus homólogos estadounidenses, os PIRG canadenses están dirixidos, dirixidos e financiados polos estudantes. [28] A maioría operan nun modelo de toma de decisións por consenso . A pesar dos esforzos de colaboración, os PIRG canadenses son independentes entre si.

O Día Anti-Bullying (tamén coñecido como Pink Shirt Day) foi creado polos estudantes de secundaria David Shepherd e Travis Price de Berwick, Nova Escocia, [29] e agora celébrase anualmente en todo Canadá.

En 2012, xurdiu o Movemento Estudantil de Quebec debido a un aumento da matrícula do 75%; que sacou aos estudantes da clase e saíu á rúa porque ese incremento non permitía que os estudantes ampliaran comodamente a súa educación, por medo a endebedarse ou non ter cartos. Despois das eleccións dese ano, o primeiro ministro Jean Charest prometeu derrogar as leis antiasemblearias e cancelar a suba das matrículas. [30]

Chile [ editar ]

Os estudantes chilenos manifestan unha maior implicación pública na educación.

De 2011 a 2013, Chile viuse sacudida por unha serie de protestas a nivel nacional dirixidas por estudantes en todo Chile , esixindo un novo marco para a educación no país , incluíndo unha participación máis directa do Estado na educación secundaria e o fin da existencia de beneficios na educación superior. Actualmente en Chile, só o 45% dos estudantes de secundaria estuda en escolas públicas tradicionais e a maioría das universidades tamén son privadas. Non se construíron novas universidades públicas desde o final da transición chilena á democracia en 1990, aínda que o número de estudantes universitarios aumentou. Máis aló das demandas específicas en materia de educación, as protestas reflectiron un "profundo descontento" entre algunhas partes da sociedade ante o alto nivel de desigualdade de Chile.. [31] As protestas incluíron marchas non violentas masivas, pero tamén unha cantidade considerable de violencia por parte dun bando dos manifestantes, así como da policía antidisturbios.

A primeira resposta clara do goberno ás protestas foi unha proposta para un novo fondo educativo [32] e unha reorganización do gabinete que substituíu ao ministro de Educación Joaquín Lavín [33] e considerouse que non abordaba fundamentalmente as preocupacións do movemento estudantil. Tamén foron rexeitadas outras propostas do goberno.

China [ editar ]

Estudantes da Universidade de Pequín protestando na praza de Tiananmen en 1919

Desde a derrota da dinastía Qing durante a Primeira (1839–1842) e a Segunda Guerra do Opio (1856–1860), o activismo estudantil xogou un papel importante na historia moderna chinesa. [34] Impulsado principalmente polo nacionalismo chinés , o activismo estudantil chinés cre firmemente que os mozos son responsables do futuro de China. [34] Esta forte crenza nacionalista puido manifestarse en varias formas como a democracia , o antiamericanismo e o comunismo . [34]

Un dos actos máis importantes do activismo estudiantil na historia da China é de 1919 Movemento Catro de maio , que viu máis de 3.000 estudantes da Universidade de Pequín e doutras escolas reuníronse diante de Tiananmen e sostendo unha demostración. Considérase un paso esencial da revolución democrática en China, e tamén dera a luz ao comunismo chinés. Os movementos antiamericanismo liderados polos estudantes durante a Guerra Civil Chinesa tamén foron determinantes para desacreditar o goberno do KMT e levar a vitoria comunista en China. [34] En 1989, o movemento democrático liderado polos estudantes na praza de Tiananmen protestou rematou nunha brutal represión do goberno que máis tarde se chamaría masacre.

República Democrática do Congo [ editar ]

O activismo estudantil xogou un papel importante, aínda que pouco estudado, na crise de descolonización do Congo. Ao longo da década de 1960, os estudantes denunciaron a inacabada descolonización do ensino superior e as promesas non realizadas de independencia nacional. As dúas cuestións cruzaron na manifestación do 4 de xuño de 1969. O activismo estudantil continúa e mulleres como Aline Mukovi Neema, [35] gañadora do premio BBC 100 Women, seguen facendo campaña polo cambio político na República Democrática do Congo.

Europa do Leste e os estados da Unión Soviética [ editar ]

MJAFT! protesta en Albania

Durante o goberno comunista, os estudantes de Europa do Leste foron a forza detrás de varios dos casos de protesta máis coñecidos. A cadea de acontecementos que levaron á Revolución húngara de 1956 iniciouse mediante manifestacións estudantís pacíficas nas rúas de Budapest , atraendo máis tarde a traballadores e outros húngaros. En Checoslovaquia , unha das caras máis coñecidas das protestas tras a invasión liderada polos soviéticos que puxo fin á primavera de Praga foi Jan Palach , un estudante que se suicidou prendendo lume o 16 de xaneiro de 1969. O acto provocou unha gran protesta contra a ocupación. [36]

Os movementos xuvenís dominados polos estudantes tamén xogaron un papel central nas " revolucións de cores " observadas nas sociedades poscomunistas nos últimos anos.

Das revolucións de cores, a Revolución de Veludo de 1989 na capital checoslovaca de Praga foi unha delas. Aínda que a Revolución de Veludo comezou como unha celebración do Día Internacional dos Estudantes, o único evento converteuse rapidamente nun calvario a nivel nacional dirixido á disolución do comunismo. [37] A manifestación volveuse violenta cando interveu a policía. [38] Porén, os ataques policiais colleitaron simpatía a nivel nacional polos estudantes que manifestaban. Pronto desenvolvéronse moitas outras protestas nun esforzo por romper o réxime comunista dun partido de Checoslovaquia. A serie de protestas tivo éxito; derrubaron o réxime comunista e implementaron o uso das eleccións democráticas en 1990, só uns meses despois da primeira protesta. [37]

Outro exemplo diso foi o Otpor serbio ! ("Resistencia!" en serbio ), formada en outubro de 1998 como resposta ás leis represivas das universidades e dos medios que se introduciron ese ano. Na campaña presidencial de setembro de 2000, a organización deseñou a campaña "Gotov je" ("El rematou") que galvanizou o descontento de Serbia con Slobodan Milošević , resultando finalmente na súa derrota. [39]

Otpor inspirou outros movementos xuvenís do leste de Europa , como Kmara en Xeorxia , que tivo un papel importante na Revolución das Rosas , e Pora en Ucraína , que foi clave na organización das manifestacións que levaron á Revolución Laranxa . [40] Como Otpor, estas organizacións practicaron, en consecuencia, a resistencia non violenta e utilizaron o humor ridiculizador para opoñerse a líderes autoritarios. Movementos semellantes inclúen KelKel en Kirguizistán , Zubr en Bielorrusia e MJAFT! enAlbania .

Opponents of the "color revolutions" have accused the Soros Foundations and/or the United States government of supporting and even planning the revolutions in order to serve western interests.[41] Supporters of the revolutions have argued that these allegations are greatly exaggerated, and that the revolutions were positive events, morally justified, whether or not Western support had an influence on the events.

France[edit]

Occupation of the University of Lyon Law School, 1968

In France, student activists have been influential in shaping public debate. In May 1968 the University of Paris at Nanterre was closed due to problems between the students and the administration.[42] In protest of the closure and the expulsion of Nanterre students, students of the Sorbonne in Paris began their own demonstration.[43] The situation escalated into a nationwide insurrection.

The events in Paris were followed by student protests throughout the world. The German student movement participated in major demonstrations against proposed emergency legislation. In many countries, the student protests caused authorities to respond with violence. In Spain, student demonstrations against Franco's dictatorship led to clashes with police. A student demonstration in Mexico City ended in a storm of bullets on the night of October 2, 1968, an event known as the Tlatelolco massacre. Even in Pakistan, students took to the streets to protest changes in education policy, and on November 7 two college students died after police opened fire on a demonstration.[44] The global reverberations from the French uprising of 1968 continued into 1969 and even into the 1970s.[45]

Germany[edit]

Procession of students at Wartburg Festival

En 1815 en Jena ( Alemaña ) fundouse a "Urburschenschaft" . Esa foi unha Studentenverbindung que se concentrou nas ideas nacionais e democráticas. En 1817, inspiradas polas ideas liberais e patrióticas dunha Alemaña unida, as organizacións estudantís reuníronse para o festival de Wartburg no castelo de Wartburg , en Eisenach, en Turinxia , con motivo do cal se queimaron libros reaccionarios.

En 1819 o estudante Karl Ludwig Sand asasinou ao escritor August von Kotzebue , que se mofara das organizacións estudantís liberais.

En maio de 1832 celebrouse o Hambacher Fest no castelo de Hambach preto de Neustadt an der Weinstraße con preto de 30 000 participantes, entre eles moitos estudantes. Xunto coa Frankfurter Wachensturm en 1833 planeou liberar aos estudantes presos en Frankfurt e o folleto revolucionario de Georg Büchner Der Hessische Landbote , que foron eventos que provocaron as revolucións nos estados alemáns en 1848 .

Na década de 1960, o repunte mundial do radicalismo estudantil e xuvenil manifestouse a través do movemento estudantil alemán e de organizacións como a Unión de Estudantes Socialistas Alemáns . O movemento en Alemaña compartía moitas preocupacións de grupos similares noutros lugares, como a democratización da sociedade e a oposición á guerra de Vietnam , pero tamén fixo fincapé en cuestións máis específicas a nivel nacional, como aceptar o legado do réxime nazi e opoñerse ás Actas de Emerxencia alemás .

Grecia [ editar ]

O activismo estudantil en Grecia ten unha longa e intensa historia. O activismo estudantil nos anos 60 foi un dos motivos citados para xustificar a imposición da ditadura en 1967 . Tras a imposición da ditadura, o levantamento do Politécnico de Atenas en 1973 desencadeou unha serie de acontecementos que levaron ao fin abrupto do intento de "liberalización" do réxime baixo Spiros Markezinis e, despois diso, ao eventual colapso da xunta grega durante Metapolitefsi e o retorno da democracia en Grecia. Kostas Georgakis foi un estudante grego de xeoloxía que, na madrugada do 19 de setembro de 1970, se incendiou enMatteotti square in Genoa as a protest against the dictatorial regime of Georgios Papadopoulos. His suicide greatly embarrassed the junta, and caused a sensation in Greece and abroad as it was the first tangible manifestation of the depth of resistance against the junta. The junta delayed the arrival of his remains to Corfu for four months citing security reasons and fearing demonstrations while presenting bureaucratic obstacles through the Greek consulate and the junta government.[46]

Hong Kong[edit]

O grupo activista de estudantes de Hong Kong Scholarism comezou a ocupar a sede do goberno de Hong Kong o 30 de agosto de 2012. O obxectivo da protesta era, expresamente, obrigar ao goberno a retractarse dos seus plans de introducir a Educación Moral e Nacional como materia obrigatoria. [47] O 1 de setembro celebrouse un concerto aberto como parte da protesta, cunha asistencia de 40.000 persoas. [48] Finalmente, o goberno de facto derribou a Educación Moral e Nacional.

Student organizations made important roles during the Umbrella Movement. Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC) made decisions on the Hong Kong political reform on 31 August 2014, which the Nominating Committee would tightly control the nomination of the Chief Executive candidate, candidates outside the Pro-Beijing camp would not have opportunities to be nominated. The Hong Kong Federation of Students and Scholarism led a strike against the NPCSC's decision beginning on 22 September 2014, and started protesting outside the government headquarters on 26 September 2014.[49] On 28 September, the Occupy Central with Love and Peace movement announced that the beginning of their civil disobedience campaign.[50] Students and other members of the public demonstrated outside government headquarters, and some began to occupy several major city intersections.[51]

India[edit]

Students Participating in a rally during the Assam Movement

The Assam Movement (or Assam Agitation) (1979–1985) was a popular movement against illegal immigrants in Assam. The movement, led by All Assam Students Union(AASU) and the 'All Assam Gana Sangram Parishad' (AAGSP), developed a program of protests and demonstration to compel the Indian government to identify and expel illegal, (mostly Bangladeshisi), immigrants and protect and provide constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards to the indigenous Assamese people.[52][53][54][55][56]

More than 2 million of students protested in Marina beach, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India against the ban on Jallikatu.

On 16 January 2017 a large group of students (more than 2 million) protested in state of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry against the ban on Jallikattu. The ban was made by the Supreme Court of India in 2014 when PETA filed a petition against Jallikattu as a cruelty to animals. On 20 January a temporary ordinance was passed, lifting the ban on Jallikattu.

The Jadavpur University[57] of Kolkata have played an important role to contribute to the student activism of India. The Hokkolorob Movement (2014) stirred the nation as well as abroad which took place over here. It took place after the alleged police attack over unarmed students inside the campus demanding the fair justice of a student who was molested inside the campus. The Movement finally led to the expulsion of the contemporary Vice Chancellor of the university, Mr. Abhijit Chakraborty,[58] who allegedly ordered the police to do open lathicharge over the students. Some anti-social goons were also involved in the harassment of the students.[59]

JU Students Against VC

Indonesia[edit]

Early delegation of Java Youth

Indonesia is often believed to have hosted "some of the most important acts of student resistance in the world's history".[60] University student groups have repeatedly been the first groups to stage street demonstrations calling for governmental change at key points in the nation's history, and other organizations from across the political spectrum have sought to align themselves with student groups. In 1928, the Youth Pledge (Sumpah Pemuda) helped to give voice to anti-colonial sentiments.

During the political turmoil of the 1960s, right-wing student groups staged demonstrations calling for then-President Sukarno to eliminate alleged Communists from his government, and later demanding that he resign.[61] Sukarno did step down in 1967, and was replaced by Army general Suharto.[62]

Student groups also played a key role in Suharto's 1998 fall by initiating large demonstrations that gave voice to widespread popular discontent with the president in the aftermath of the May 1998 riots.[63] High school and university students in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Medan, and elsewhere were some of the first groups willing to speak out publicly against the military government. Student groups were a key part of the political scene during this period. Upon taking office after Suharto stepped down, B. J. Habibie made numerous mostly unsuccessful overtures to placate the student groups that had brought down his predecessor. When that failed, he sent a combined force of police and gangsters to evict protesters occupying a government building by force.[64] The ensuing carnage left two students dead and 181 injured.[64]

Iran[edit]

Sharif University of Technology students protest over the 2009 presidential election.

In Iran, students have been at the forefront of protests both against the pre-1979 secular monarchy and, in recent years, against the theocratic islamic republic. Both religious and more moderate students played a major part in Ruhollah Khomeini's opposition network against the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[65] In January 1978 the army dispersed demonstrating students and religious leaders, killing several students and sparking a series of widespread protests that ultimately led to the Iranian Revolution the following year. On November 4, 1979, militant Iranian students calling themselves the Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam seized the US embassy in Tehran holding 52 embassy employees hostage for a 444 days (see Iran hostage crisis).

Recent years have seen several incidents when liberal students have clashed with the Iranian government, most notably the Iranian student riots of July 1999. Several people were killed in a week of violent confrontations that started with a police raid on a university dormitory, a response to demonstrations by a group of students of Tehran University against the closure of a reformist newspaper. Akbar Mohammadi was given a death sentence, later reduced to 15 years in prison, for his role in the protests. In 2006, he died at Evin prison after a hunger strike protesting the refusal to allow him to seek medical treatment for injuries suffered as a result of torture.[66]

At the end of 2002, students held mass demonstrations protesting the death sentence of reformist lecturer Hashem Aghajari for alleged blasphemy. In June 2003, several thousand students took to the streets of Tehran in anti-government protests sparked by government plans to privatise some universities.[67]

In the May 2005 Iranian presidential election, Iran's largest student organization, The Office to Consolidate Unity, advocated a voting boycott.[68] After the election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, student protests against the government has continued. In May 2006, up to 40 police officers were injured in clashes with demonstrating students in Tehran.[69] At the same time, the Iranian government has called for student action in line with its own political agenda. In 2006, President Ahmadinejad urged students to organize campaigns to demand that liberal and secular university teachers be removed.[70]

In 2009, after the disputed presidential election, a series of student protests broke out, which became known as the Iranian Green Movement. The violent measures used by the Iranian government to suppress these protests have been the subject of widespread international condemnation.[71] As a consequence of hash repression, "the student movement entered a period of silence during Ahmadinejad's second term (2009–2013)".[72]

During the first term of Hassan Rouhani in office (2013-2017) several groups endeavored to revive the student movement through rebuilding student organizations.[72]

Israel[edit]

In Israel the students were amongst the leading figures in the 2011 Israeli social justice protests that grew out of the Cottage cheese boycott.[73]

Japan[edit]

Waseda University students rally in support of Tibet, 2008.

Japanese student movement began during the Taishō Democracy, and grew in activity after World War II. They were mostly carried out by activist students. One such event was the Anpo Protests, which occurred in 1960, in opposition to the Anpo treaty.[74] In the subsequent student uprising in 1968, leftist activists barricaded themselves in universities, resulting in armed conflict with the Japanese police force.[75] Some wider causes were supported including opposition to the Vietnam War and apartheid, and for the acceptance of the hippie lifestyle.

Malaysia[edit]

Since the amendment of Section 15 of the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 (UUCA) in 1975, students were barred from being members of, and expressing support or opposition to, any political parties or "any organization, body or group of persons which the Minister, after consultation with the Board, has specified in writing to the Vice-Chancellor to be unsuitable to the interests and well-being of the students or the University." However, in October 2011, the Court of Appeal ruled that the relevant provision in Section 15 UUCA was unconstitutional due to Article 10 of the Federal Constitution pertaining to freedom of expression.[76]

Since the act prohibiting students from expressing "support, sympathy or opposition" to any political party was enacted in 1971, Malaysian students have repeatedly demanded that the ban on political involvement be rescinded. The majority of students are not interested in politics because they are afraid that the universities will take action against them. The UUCA (also known by its Malaysian acronym AUKU) not however been entirely successful in eliminating student activism and political engagement.[77]

In Kuala Lumpur on 14 April 2012, student activists camped out at Independence Square and marched against a government loan program that they said charged students high interest rates and left them with debt.[78]

The largest student movement in Malaysia is the Solidariti Mahasiswa Malaysia (SMM; Student Solidarity of Malaysia). This is a coalition group that represents numerous student organizations.[79] Currently, SMM is actively campaigning against the UUCA and a free education at primary, secondary and tertiary level.

Mexico[edit]

A Yo Soy 132 march, 2012

During the protests of 1968, Mexican government killed an estimated 30 to 300 students and civilian protesters. This killing is known as in the Tlatelolco massacre. killing of an estimated 30 to 300 students and civilians by military and police on October 2, 1968, in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in the Tlatelolco section of Mexico City. The events are considered part of the Mexican Dirty War, when the government used its forces to suppress political opposition. The massacre occurred 10 days before the opening of the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City.[80]

More recent student movements include Yo Soy 132 in 2012. Yo Soy 132 was a social movement composed for the most part of Mexican university students from private and public universities, residents of Mexico, claiming supporters from about 50 cities around the world.[81] It began as opposition to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) candidate Enrique Peña Nieto and the Mexican media's allegedly biased coverage of the 2012 general election.[82] The name Yo Soy 132, Spanish for "I Am 132", originated in an expression of solidarity with the original 131 protest's initiators. The phrase drew inspiration from the Occupy movement and the Spanish 15-M movement.[83][84][85] The protest movement was self-proclaimed as the "Mexican spring" (an allusion to the Arab Spring) by its first spokespersons,[86] and called the "Mexican occupy movement" in the international press.[87]

Following the 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping, students responded nationally in protest from marches to destruction of property. Through social media, hashtags such as #TodosSomosAyotzinapa spread and prompted global student response.[88]

Norway[edit]

Similar to the students of Sweden, many student activists have emerged in Norway to protest climate change. While Norway is commonly viewed as a model country when it comes to combating climate change, students in Norway say there's more to be done. Though the country has put forth many internal climate combating initiatives, students worry over the country's exportation of oil and gas.[89]

Pakistan[edit]

Historically throughout Pakistan, university students have led protests against dictatorships and militant regimes. In the 1960s, the National Student Federation and the Peoples student federation worked together to protest against their current militant regime.[90] That regime was run by General Ayub Khan, the second president of Pakistan.

In 2012, Malala Yousafzai was shot by the Taliban when standing up for the right of girls in Pakistan to receive an education.[91] Surviving the attack, Yousafzai continued on as an activist for women's education. She has since written two books stressing the importance of girl's education not only in her home of Pakistan, but also around the world. Her first book, I Am Malala, details her own experience; while her second book, We Are Displaced, details the lives of girls she met from refugee camps. In 2014, she became the youngest person to receive a Nobel Peace Prize.[91] She was 17 years of age upon accepting the award.

Philippines[edit]

Student activism in the Philippines started by the time of Marcos regime in the late 1960s or early 1970s during the so-called First Quarter Storm of Martial Law. Until today, student activism continues for various causes such as for free education, corruption within the government, and extrajudicial killings. Some groups that lead these protests are the League of Filipino Students (LFS), National Union of Students of the Philippines (NUSP), Anakbayan, and Kabataan Party-List.

Russia[edit]

The Russian Empire [ru], the Soviet Union [ru], and the post-Soviet Russian Federation [ru] have all had extensive student activist movements.

South Africa[edit]

In the 1970s, students in South Africa contributed to the movement against the apartheid. On June 16, 1976, students congregated in what would come to be known at the Soweto Uprising. Here, they led a peaceful protest in response to the Bantu Education Act of 1953.[92] In an attempt to break apart the protest, police met the students with violence and force. The violence that ensued during the uprising led many to sympathize with the protesting students. The exposed nature of the apartheid caused an international abhorrence leading to its deconstruction.[93]

South Korea[edit]

Sweden[edit]

In 2018, Greta Thunberg caught international attention when she began missing classes to protest climate change. What began as sitting outside Sweden's parliament with fliers in hand, quickly became an international student movement. On March 15, 2019, students from more than 130 countries skipped school for the global climate strike.[94]

Thailand[edit]

The overthrow of Thai leader Field Marshall Thanom Kittikachorn was primarily led by students. Called the October 14, 1973 Uprising, students were successful in overthrowing his military dictatorship and restoring democracy.[95] In addition to Thanom, they also overthrew deputy Field Marshall Praphas Charusathien. After Thanom was overthrown he was forced into exile, but in 1976 returned to become a monk. Although he swore to stay out of politics, the presence of him caused student protests to begin again. On October 6, 1976, many protestors died at the hands of right-wing militants that had torn through Thammasat University.[96]

Left-wing students are now known to protest any Thanom-styled regime.

Students played a very important role in the ongoing 2020 Thai protests. Students from many parts of Thailand are participating in a series of pro-democracy movements against Thai government under Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-o-cha.[97] One instance saw a debate between students and Education Minister Nataphol Teepsuwan[98] who used to be a part of the anti-democratic People's Democratic Reform Committee that called for Prayuth to staged 2014 Thai coup d'état.[99]

Uganda[edit]

Uganda has the second youngest population in the world, with rising numbers of university students seeking improved employment opportunities.[100] Over the last 100 years since the establishment of the first Ugandan university, these students have been especially politically engaged. The structure of the university government system encourages political action, as student leadership positions are viewed as extensions of government elections and parties.[101] During British colonialism and independence, students have played a crucial role in protesting government leadership with varied success.

Ukraine[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Student occupation at Cambridge University, 2010

Student political activism has existed in U.K since the 1880s with the formation of the student representative councils, precursors of union organisations designed to present students interests. These later evolved into unions, many of which became part of the National Union of Students (NUS) formed in 1921. However, the NUS was designed to be specifically outside of "political and religious interests", reducing its importance as a centre for student activism. During the 1930s students began to become more politically involved with the formation of many socialist societies at universities, ranging from social democratic to Marxist–Leninist and Trotskyite, even leading to Brian Simon, a communist, becoming head of the NUS.[102]

However, it was not until the 1960s that student activism became important in British universities. The Vietnam war and issues of racism initiated a focus on other local frustrations, such as fees and student representation. In 1962, the first student protest against the Vietnam War was held, with CND. However, student activism did not begin on a large scale until the mid-1960s. In 1965, a student protest of 250 students was held outside Edinburgh's American embassy and the beginning of protests against the Vietnam war in Grovesnor square. It also saw the first major teach-in in Britain in 1965, where students debated the Vietnam War and alternative non-violent means of protest at the London School of Economics, sponsored by the Oxford Union.[103]

In 1966 the Radical Student Alliance and Vietnam Solidarity Campaign were formed, both of which became centres for the protest movement. However, the first student sit-in was held at the London School of Economics in 1967 by their Students' Union over the suspension of two students. Its success and a national student rally of 100,000 held in the same year is usually considered to mark the start of the movement. Up until the mid-1970s student activities were held including a protest of up to 80,000 strong in Grosvenor Square, anti-racist protests and occupations in Newcastle, the breaking down of riot control gates and forced closure of the London School of Economics, and Jack Straw becoming the head of the NUS for the RSA. However, many protests were over more local issues, such as student representation in college governance,[104] better accommodation, lower fees or even canteen prices.

Student protests erupted again in 2010 during the Premiership of David Cameron over the issue of tuition fees, higher education funding cuts and withdrawal of the Education Maintenance Allowance.[105]

During the wave of School Strikes for Climate in 2019, student strikes saw up to 300,000 school children on the streets in the UK, at protests organised by a network of local groups of youth climate activists. Umbrella campaign groups such as Scottish Youth Climate Strike in Scotland, Youth Climate Association Northern Ireland in Northern Ireland, and UK Student Climate Network in England and Wales, made demands to respective governments and local authorities on the back of these protests and achieved some successes, and continue to campaign for climate justice.

United States[edit]

A US demonstration against the Vietnam War, 1967

In the United States, student activism is often understood as a form of youth activism that can be oriented toward change in the American educational system, civil rights, law enforcement, nuclear weapons, to a wide range of issues. Student activism in the United States dates to the beginning of public education, if not before. Some of the first well documented, directed activism occurred on the campuses of black institutions like Fisk and Howard in the 1920s. At Fisk, students' concerns surrounding disciplinary rules designed to undermine black identity coalesced into demands for the resignation of President Fayette Avery McKenzie. Spurred by alum W.E.B. Du Bois' 1924 commencement speech, the students ignored the 10p.m. curfew to protest, and staged subsequent walkouts. After a committee formed to investigate the protests ruled unfavorably on Mckenzie's abilities and handling of the unrest, he resigned on April 16, 1925. Events at Fisk had wide repercussions, as black students elsewhere began to question the repressive status quo of the postwar black university.[106]

The next wave of activism was spurred by Depression-era realities of the 1930s. The American Youth Congress was a student-led organization in Washington, DC, which lobbied the US Congress against war and racial discrimination and for youth programs. It was heavily supported by First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.[107]

The counterculture era of the 1960s and early 1970s saw several waves of student activists gaining increasing political prominence in American society. Students formed social movements that moved them from resistance to liberation.[108] An early important national student group was the Students' Peace Union, established in 1959.[109] Another highlight of this period was Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) launched in Ann Arbor, Michigan, was a student-led organization that focused on schools as a social agent that simultaneously oppresses and potentially uplifts society. SDS eventually spun off the Weather Underground. Another successful group was Ann Arbor Youth Liberation, which featured students calling for an end to state-led education. Also notable were the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Atlanta Student Movement, predominantly African American groups that fought against racism and for integration of public schools across the US. The Free Speech Movement in 1964–65 at UC Berkeley used mass civil disobedience to overturn restrictions on on-campus political activities.

The Free Speech Movement was the first US student movement that became a focus of scholarly attention into student activism.[110]

The longest student strike in American history started on November 6, 1968, and lasted until March 21, 1969, at San Francisco State College to raise awareness of third-world student access to higher education.[111]

The largest student strike in American history took place in May and June 1970, in response to the Kent State shootings and the American invasion of Cambodia. Over four million students participated in this action.[112]

American society saw an increase in student activism again in the 1990s. The popular education reform movement has led to a resurgence of populist student activism against standardized testing and teaching,[113] as well as more complex issues including military/industrial/prison complex and the influence of the military and corporations in education[114] There is also increased emphasis on ensuring that changes that are made are sustainable, by pushing for better education funding and policy or leadership changes that engage students as decision-makers in schools. Notably, universities participated in the Disinvestment from South Africa movement; University of California, Berkeley, after student activism became the first institution to disinvest completely from companies implicated in and profiting from apartheid.

Major contemporary campaigns include work for funding of public schools, against increased tuitions at colleges or the use of sweatshop labor in manufacturing school apparel (e.g. United Students Against Sweatshops), for increased student voice throughout education planning, delivery, and policy-making (e.g. The Roosevelt Institution), and to raise national and local awareness of the humanitarian consequences of the Darfur Conflict.[115] There is also increasing activism around the issue of global warming. Antiwar activism has also increased leading to the creation of the Campus Antiwar Network and the refounding of SDS in 2006.

Following the national growth of the Black Lives Matter Movement, and more intensely since the 2016 election of U.S. President Donald Trump, student activism has been on the rise. Alt-right Breitbart senior editor Milo Yiannopoulos' tour sparked protest at University of California, Davis, where he was scheduled to speak alongside "Pharma Bro" Martin Shkreli and University of California, Berkeley, all shutting his talks down before they started through large-scale protest.[116]

In February 2018 after the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, many students began to organise rallies and protests against gun violence.[117] A huge series of protests including the March for Our Lives (MFOL) followed, drawing millions of protesters and notably attacking the NRA as well as US gun laws.[118] A number of student activists such as X González who helped lead the protests quickly garnered media attention for their action.[119]

Later, these students created MFOL, a non-profit 501(c)(4) organization. A number of other students have followed their lead and created other youth organizations, including Team Enough, which is being overseen by the Brady Campaign,[120] and Students Demand Action, which is being overseen by Everytown for Gun Safety.[121]

Youth activism also became popular for other issues after the March for Our Lives movement, including EighteenX18, an organization started by actress Yara Shahidi of ABC's Blacki-sh devoted to increased voter turnout in youth;[122] OneMillionOfUs, a national youth voting and advocacy organization working to educate and empower 1 million young people to vote which started by Jerome Foster II,[123] and This is Zero Hour, an environmentally-focused youth organization started by Jamie Margolin.[124]

Taiwan[edit]

See also[edit]

Organizations[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]