Sydney

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Sydney
Nouvelle-Galles du Sud
Sydney Opera House and Harbour Bridge Dusk (2) 2019-06-21.jpg
L' Opéra de Sydney et le Sydney Harbour Bridge , deux des monuments les plus célèbres de Sydney, photographiés au crépuscule
Map of the Sydney metropolitan area
Carte de la zone métropolitaine de Sydney
Sydney is located in Australia
Sydney
Sydney
Coordonnées33°51′54″S 151°12′34″E / 33.86500°S 151.20944°E / -33.86500; 151.20944Coordonnées : 33°51′54″S 151°12′34″E  / 33.86500°S 151.20944°E / -33.86500; 151.20944
Population5 367 206 (2020) [1]  ( 1er )
 • Densité433/km 2  (1 120/mi²) (2020) [1]
Établi26 janvier 1788
Zone12 367,7 km 2 (4 775,2 milles carrés) (GCCSA) [2]
Fuseau horaireAEST ( UTC+10 )
 • Été ( heure d'été )AEDT ( UTC+11 )
Emplacement
LGA(s)Divers (31)
comtéCumberland [3]
électorat(s) de l'ÉtatDivers (49)
Division(s) fédérale(s)Divers (24)
Température maximale moyenne [4] Température minimale moyenne [4] Précipitations annuelles [4]
21,8 °C
71 °F
13,8 °C
57 °F
1 213,4 mm
47,8 pouces

Sydney ( / s ɪ d n i / ( écouter ) About this sound SID -neE ; Dharug : Gadi , [5] [6] Grand Sydney, Dharug : Eora [7] ) est la capitale de l'Etat de Nouvelle - Galles du Sud , et la ville la plus peuplée d' Australie et d' Océanie . [8] Située sur la côte est de l'Australie, la métropole entoure Port Jackson et s'étendenviron 70 km (43,5 mi) à sa périphérie vers les Blue Mountains à l' ouest , Hawkesbury au nord, le Royal National Park au sud et Macarthur au sud-ouest . [9] Sydney est composé de 658 banlieues , réparties dans 33 zones de gouvernement local . Les habitants de la ville sont connus sous le nom de "Sydneysiders". [10] En juin 2020, la population métropolitaine estimée de Sydney était de 5 367 206, [11] ce qui signifie que la ville abrite environ 66% de la population de l'État. [12]La ville a eu plusieurs surnoms tout au long de son histoire, tels que la « ville d'émeraude » et la « ville portuaire ». [13]

Les Australiens indigènes habitent la région de Sydney depuis au moins 30 000 ans, et des milliers de gravures subsistent dans toute la région, ce qui en fait l'une des plus riches d'Australie en termes de sites archéologiques aborigènes . Environ 29 groupes claniques de la nation Eora habitaient la région au moment du contact avec les Européens. [14] Au cours de son premier voyage dans le Pacifique en 1770, le lieutenant James Cook et son équipage sont devenus les premiers Européens à cartographier la côte orientale de l'Australie, touchant terre à Botany Bay et inspirant l'intérêt britannique pour la région. En 1788, la Première Flotte de bagnards , dirigée parArthur Phillip , fonda Sydney en tant que colonie pénitentiaire britannique , la première colonie européenne en Australie . Phillip a nommé le règlement d'après Thomas Townshend, 1er vicomte Sydney . [15] Le transport pénal vers la Nouvelle-Galles du Sud a pris fin peu de temps après que Sydney a été constituée en ville en 1842. Une ruée vers l'or s'est produite dans la colonie en 1851, et au cours du siècle suivant, Sydney s'est transformée d'un avant-poste colonial en un important centre culturel et économique mondial. centre. Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale , elle a connu des migrations massives et est devenue l'une des villes les plus multiculturelles au monde. [2] Lors du recensement de 2011, plus de 250 langues différentes étaient parlées à Sydney. [16] Lors du recensement de 2016 , environ 35,8 % des résidents parlaient une langue autre que l'anglais à la maison. [17] En outre, 45,4% de la population ont déclaré être nés à l'étranger et la ville a la troisième plus grande population née à l'étranger de toutes les villes du monde après Londres et New York . [18] [19] Entre 1971 et 2018, Sydney a perdu un nombre net de 716 832 personnes au profit du reste de l'Australie [20] mais sa population a continué de croître, en grande partie à cause de l'immigration.

En dépit d'être l'une des villes les plus chères du monde, [21] Sydney se classe fréquemment parmi les dix villes les plus vivables au monde . [22] [23] [24] Il est classé comme Alpha Global City par Globalization et World Cities Research Network , indiquant son influence dans la région et dans le monde entier. [25] [26] Classé onzième au monde pour l'opportunité économique, [27] Sydney a une économie de marché avancée avec des points forts dans la finance, la fabrication et le tourisme . [28] [29]Il y a une concentration importante de banques étrangères et de sociétés multinationales à Sydney et la ville est présentée comme la capitale financière de l'Australie et l'un des principaux centres financiers de l' Asie-Pacifique . [30] [31] Établie en 1850, l' Université de Sydney était la première université d'Australie et est considérée comme l'une des principales universités du monde. [32] Sydney abrite également la plus ancienne bibliothèque d'Australie, la State Library of New South Wales , ouverte en 1826. [33]

Sydney a accueilli de grands événements sportifs internationaux tels que les Jeux olympiques d' été de 2000 . La ville fait partie des quinze villes les plus visitées au monde [34] avec des millions de touristes venant chaque année pour voir les monuments de la ville. [35] Bénéficiant de plus de 1 000 000 ha (2 500 000 acres) de réserves naturelles et de parcs , [36] ses caractéristiques naturelles notables incluent le port de Sydney , le parc national royal , le jardin botanique royal et Hyde Park , le plus ancien parc du pays. [37] Attractions construites telles que le pont du port de Sydney et l' opéra de Sydney, classé au patrimoine mondialsont également bien connus des visiteurs internationaux. Le principal aéroport de passagers desservant la région métropolitaine est l' aéroport de Kingsford-Smith , l'un des plus anciens aéroports au monde en exploitation continue. [38] Établie en 1906, la gare centrale , la gare la plus grande et la plus fréquentée de l'État, est la principale plaque tournante du réseau ferroviaire de la ville . [39]

Histoire

Premiers habitants de la région

Les premiers habitants de la région maintenant connue sous le nom de Sydney étaient des Australiens indigènes qui avaient migré du nord de l'Australie et avant cela de l'Asie du Sud-Est. Alors que la datation au radiocarbone a montré des preuves d'activité humaine dans la région de Sydney il y a environ 30 000 ans, [40] Des outils de pierre aborigènes trouvés dans les sédiments de gravier de l'ouest de Sydney indiquent qu'il y avait des établissements humains dans la région depuis 45 000 à 50 000 ans BP. [41]

La première rencontre entre les autochtones et les Britanniques a eu lieu le 29 avril 1770 lorsque le lieutenant James Cook a débarqué à Botany Bay sur la péninsule de Kurnell et a rencontré le clan Gweagal . [42] [43] [44] Il a noté dans son journal qu'ils étaient confus et quelque peu hostiles envers les visiteurs étrangers. [42]Cook était en mission d'exploration et n'a pas été chargé de commencer une colonie. Il passa peu de temps à collecter de la nourriture et à effectuer des observations scientifiques avant de continuer plus au nord le long de la côte est de l'Australie et de revendiquer la nouvelle terre qu'il avait découverte pour la Grande-Bretagne. Avant l'arrivée des Britanniques, il y avait à Sydney entre 4 000 et 8 000 autochtones issus de 29 clans différents. [45]

Les premiers colons britanniques appelaient les indigènes le peuple Eora . "Eora" est le terme utilisé par la population indigène pour expliquer ses origines lors du premier contact avec les Britanniques. Son sens littéral est "de cet endroit". [46] Sydney Cove de Port Jackson à Petersham était habitée par le clan Cadigal . [45] Les principaux groupes linguistiques étaient Darug , Guringai et Dharawal . Les premiers Européens à visiter la région ont noté que les peuples autochtones menaient des activités telles que le camping et la pêche, utilisaient les arbres pour l'écorce et la nourriture, ramassaient des coquillages et cuisinaient du poisson. [42]

Établissement de la colonie

La fondation de l'Australie, 26 janvier 1788, par le capitaine Arthur Phillip RN, Sydney Cove. Peinture d' Algernon Talmage .

La Grande-Bretagne — avant cela, l' Angleterre — et l' Irlande envoyaient depuis longtemps leurs forçats de l' autre côté de l'Atlantique vers les colonies américaines . Ce commerce a pris fin avec la déclaration d'indépendance des États-Unis en 1776. La Grande-Bretagne a décidé en 1786 de fonder un nouvel avant-poste pénal sur le territoire découvert par Cook quelque 16 ans plus tôt. [15]

Le capitaine Phillip a dirigé la première flotte de 11 navires et environ 850 condamnés à Botany Bay le 18 janvier 1788, bien qu'il ait jugé l'emplacement inapproprié en raison du sol pauvre et du manque d'eau douce. Il a voyagé un peu plus au nord et est arrivé à Sydney Cove le 26 janvier 1788. [47] [48] Ce devait être l'emplacement de la nouvelle colonie. Phillip a décrit Port Jackson comme étant « sans exception le plus beau port du monde ». [49] La colonie devait d'abord s'intituler "Nouvelle Albion" (d'après Albion , autre nom de la Grande-Bretagne), mais Phillip a choisi "Sydney". La proclamation officielle et la désignation de la colonie ont eu lieu le 7 février 1788. Le lieutenant William Dawes a produit un plan de la ville en 1790, mais il a été ignoré par les dirigeants de la colonie. La disposition de Sydney aujourd'hui reflète ce manque de planification. [50]

Entre 1788 et 1792, 3 546 hommes et 766 femmes condamnés ont été débarqués à Sydney, de nombreux « criminels professionnels » avec peu des compétences requises pour l'établissement d'une colonie. La situation alimentaire atteint crise point 1790. Les premiers efforts de l' agriculture se heurtaient et des produits de l' étranger étaient rares. Mais à partir de 1791, l'arrivée plus régulière des navires et les débuts du commerce atténuent le sentiment d'isolement et améliorent l'approvisionnement. [51]

La colonie n'a pas été fondée sur les principes de liberté et de prospérité. Les cartes de cette époque ne montrent aucun bâtiment pénitentiaire ; la punition pour les condamnés était le transport plutôt que l'incarcération, mais les infractions graves étaient sanctionnées par la flagellation et la pendaison. [52] Phillip a envoyé des missions exploratoires à la recherche de meilleurs sols et s'est fixé sur la région de Parramatta comme une zone prometteuse pour l'expansion et a déplacé de nombreux condamnés à partir de la fin de 1788 pour établir un petit canton, qui est devenu le principal centre de la vie économique de la colonie, ne laissant Sydney Cove qu'en tant que port important et centre de la vie sociale. Un équipement médiocre et des sols et un climat inconnus ont continué d'entraver l'expansion de l'agriculture de Farm Cove à Parramatta et Toongabbie, mais un programme de construction, aidé par le travail des forçats, avançait régulièrement. [53]

Thomas Watling de Vue de Sydney Cove , c. 1794-1796

Les officiers et les condamnés étaient confrontés à la famine car les approvisionnements venaient à manquer et on ne pouvait pas cultiver grand-chose à partir de la terre. [54] La population indigène de la région souffrait également. On estime que la moitié des autochtones de Sydney sont morts pendant l' épidémie de variole de 1789. [45] [55] Éclairé pour son âge, l'intention personnelle de Phillip était d'établir des relations harmonieuses avec les autochtones locaux et d'essayer de réformer ainsi que de discipliner les forçats de la colonie. Phillip et plusieurs de ses officiers – notamment Watkin Tench – ont laissé derrière eux des journaux et des récits qui racontent d'immenses difficultés au cours des premières années de colonisation. [56]Une partie des efforts de Macquarie pour transformer la colonie était son autorisation pour les condamnés de réintégrer la société en tant que citoyens libres. [56] Les routes, les ponts, les quais et les bâtiments publics ont été construits en utilisant la main-d'œuvre des condamnés et en 1822, la ville avait des banques, des marchés et des voies de communication bien établies. Parramatta Road a été ouverte en 1811, c'est l'une des plus anciennes routes de Sydney et la première autoroute d' Australie entre deux villes - Sydney (centre-ville actuel) et Parramatta. [57]

Les conditions dans la colonie ne sont pas propices au développement d'une nouvelle métropole florissante, mais l'arrivée plus régulière des navires et les débuts du commerce maritime (comme la laine) contribuent à atténuer le poids de l'isolement. [52] Entre 1788 et 1792, les forçats et leurs geôliers constituaient la majorité de la population ; en une génération, cependant, une population de forçats émancipés qui pouvaient obtenir des terres a commencé à croître. Ces personnes ont été les pionnières de l'économie du secteur privé de Sydney et ont ensuite été rejointes par des soldats dont le service militaire avait expiré, et plus tard encore par des colons libres qui ont commencé à arriver de Grande-Bretagne. Le gouverneur Phillip a quitté la colonie pour l'Angleterre le 11 décembre 1792, la nouvelle colonie ayant survécu à la famine et à un immense isolement pendant quatre ans. [58]

Conflits

Entre 1790 et 1816, Sydney est devenue l'un des nombreux sites des guerres frontalières australiennes , une série de conflits entre le Royaume de Grande-Bretagne et les clans indigènes résistants. [59] En 1790, lorsque les Britanniques ont établi des fermes le long de la rivière Hawkesbury , un chef autochtone Pemulwuy a résisté aux Européens en menant une guerre de style guérilla contre les colons dans une série de guerres connues sous le nom de guerres de Hawkesbury et de Nepean qui ont eu lieu dans l'ouest Sydney. Il a fait des raids dans des fermes jusqu'à ce que le gouverneur Macquarie envoie des troupes du 46e régiment de l' armée britannique. en 1816 et mit fin au conflit en tuant 14 Australiens indigènes lors d'un raid sur leur campement. [60] [61]

En 1804, des condamnés irlandais ont mené la rébellion de Castle Hill , une rébellion de condamnés contre l'autorité coloniale dans la région de Castle Hill de la colonie britannique de la Nouvelle-Galles du Sud . Le premier et le seul soulèvement majeur de condamnés dans l'histoire australienne réprimé sous la loi martiale , la rébellion s'est terminée par une bataille entre les condamnés et les forces coloniales de l'Australie à Rouse Hill . [62] La rébellion du rhum de 1808 était la seule prise de contrôle armée réussie du gouvernement dans l'histoire australienne , où le gouverneur de la Nouvelle-Galles du Sud, William Bligh , a été évincé par le New South Wales Corps sous le commandement du major George Johnston , qui a dirigé la rébellion. Des conflits éclatèrent entre les gouverneurs et les officiers du Rum Corps, dont beaucoup étaient des propriétaires terriens comme John Macarthur .

Développement moderne

19ème siècle

Illustration aérienne de Sydney, 1888

Le début de Sydney a été façonné par les difficultés subies par les premiers colons. Au cours des premières années, la sécheresse et les maladies ont causé des problèmes généralisés, mais la situation s'est rapidement améliorée. Le gouvernement colonial militaire dépendait de l'armée, le New South Wales Corps . Macquarie a été le dernier gouverneur autocratique de la Nouvelle-Galles du Sud de 1810 à 1821 et a joué un rôle de premier plan dans le développement social et économique de Sydney qui l'a vu passer d'une colonie pénitentiaire à une société libre naissante. Il a établi des travaux publics, une banque , des églises et des institutions caritatives et a recherché de bonnes relations avec les Aborigènes.

Une scène de rue à Sydney, 1883

Au cours du XIXe siècle, Sydney a établi plusieurs de ses principales institutions culturelles. La vision du gouverneur Lachlan Macquarie pour Sydney comprenait la construction de grands bâtiments publics et d'institutions dignes d'une capitale coloniale. La rue Macquarie a commencé à prendre forme comme une artère cérémonielle de grands bâtiments. L'année 1840 était la dernière année du transport des condamnés à Sydney, qui comptait alors 35 000 habitants. [47] [52] L' or a été découvert dans la colonie en 1851 et avec lui sont venus des milliers de personnes cherchant leur fortune. [47] [63]La population de Sydney atteignit 200 000 habitants en 1871 et pendant cette période, la ville entra dans une période de prospérité qui se traduisit par la construction de grands édifices. Des palais du café de la tempérance , des hôtels ainsi que d'autres bâtiments civiques tels que des bibliothèques et des musées ont été érigés dans la ville. [64] [65] [66] La demande d'infrastructure pour soutenir la population croissante et l'activité économique ultérieure a conduit à des améliorations massives des systèmes ferroviaires et portuaires de la ville tout au long des années 1850 et 1860. [67]

Après une période de croissance rapide, de nouvelles découvertes d'or à Victoria ont commencé à attirer de nouveaux résidents de Sydney vers Melbourne dans les années 1850, ce qui a créé une rivalité historiquement forte entre Sydney et Melbourne . [68] [69] [70] Néanmoins, Sydney a dépassé la population de Melbourne au début du vingtième siècle et reste la plus grande ville d'Australie. [8] [71] Suite à la dépression des années 1890, les six colonies ont accepté de former le Commonwealth d'Australie . Les plages de Sydney étaient devenues des stations balnéaires populaires, mais les bains de mer à la lumière du jourétait considéré comme indécent jusqu'au début du 20e siècle. [53]

20e siècle-présent

Un tramway sur George Street en 1920. Sydney possédait autrefois l'un des plus grands réseaux de tramways de l'Empire britannique.

Sous le règne de la reine Victoria, la fédération des six colonies eut lieu le 1er janvier 1901. Sydney, avec une population de 481 000 habitants, devint alors la capitale de l'État de la Nouvelle-Galles du Sud. La Grande Dépression des années 1930 a eu un effet sévère sur l'économie de Sydney, comme elle l'a fait avec la plupart des villes du monde industriel. Pendant une bonne partie des années 30, jusqu'à un soutien de famille sur trois était au chômage. [72] La construction du Sydney Harbour Bridge a permis d'atténuer certains des effets du ralentissement économique en employant 1 400 hommes entre 1924 et 1932. [73] La population a continué de croître malgré la Dépression, atteignant 1 million en 1925. [67 ] La ville possédait l'un des plus grands réseaux de tramway dans l'Empire britannique jusqu'à son démantèlement en 1961.

Jour d'ouverture du pont du port de Sydney, le 19 mars 1932

Lorsque la Grande-Bretagne a déclaré la guerre à l' Allemagne en 1939, l'Australie est également entrée. Pendant la guerre, Sydney a connu une poussée de développement industriel pour répondre aux besoins d'une économie de guerre. Loin du chômage de masse, il y avait maintenant des pénuries de main-d'œuvre et les femmes devenaient actives dans des rôles masculins. Le port de Sydney a été attaqué par les Japonais en mai et juin 1942 avec une attaque directe de sous-marins japonais avec quelques pertes en vies humaines. [74] Les ménages dans toute la ville avaient construit des abris anti-aériens et effectué des exercices.

Par conséquent, Sydney a connu une croissance démographique et une diversification culturelle accrue tout au long de la période d'après-guerre. Les habitants de Sydney ont chaleureusement accueilli la reine Elizabeth II en 1954 lorsque le monarque régnant est entré pour la première fois sur le sol australien pour commencer sa tournée royale australienne . [75] Arrivée sur le Royal Yacht Britannia par Sydney Heads, Sa Majesté a débarqué à Farm Cove. Il y avait 1,7 million de personnes vivant à Sydney en 1950 et près de 3 millions en 1975. Le gouvernement australien a lancé un programme d'immigration multiculturelle à grande échelle.

Sydney a accueilli les Jeux olympiques d'été de 2000.

De nouvelles industries telles que les technologies de l'information, l'éducation, la culture, les services financiers et les arts se sont développées. L'opéra emblématique de Sydney a été inauguré en 1973 par Sa Majesté. Une nouvelle ligne d'horizon de gratte-ciel en béton et en acier a balayé une grande partie de l'ancienne ligne d'horizon de faible hauteur et souvent de grès de la ville dans les années 1960 et 1970, Australia Square étant le plus haut bâtiment de Sydney depuis son achèvement en 1967 jusqu'en 1976 et est également remarquable pour être le premier gratte-ciel d'Australie. [76]Cette croissance prolifique de l'architecture contemporaine de grande hauteur a été freinée par les lois sur le patrimoine à partir des années 1990, qui empêchent la démolition de toute structure considérée comme historiquement importante. Depuis les années 1970, Sydney a connu une transformation économique et sociale rapide. En conséquence, la ville est devenue un creuset cosmopolite .

Pour désengorger le Sydney Harbour Bridge, le Sydney Harbour Tunnel a ouvert ses portes en août 1992. Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 2000 ont eu lieu à Sydney et sont devenus les « meilleurs Jeux olympiques de tous les temps » par le président du Comité international olympique . [77] Sydney a maintenu une influence politique, économique et culturelle étendue sur l'Australie ainsi qu'une renommée internationale au cours des dernières décennies. Après les Jeux olympiques, la ville a accueilli la Coupe du monde de rugby 2003 , l' APEC Australie 2007 et la Journée mondiale de la jeunesse catholique 2008, dirigée par le pape Benoît XVI .

Géographie

Topographie

Sydney se trouve sur une côte submergée où le niveau de l'océan a augmenté pour inonder de profondes rias .

Sydney est un bassin côtier avec la mer de Tasman à l'est, les Blue Mountains à l'ouest, la rivière Hawkesbury au nord et le plateau de Woronora au sud. Le centre-ville mesure 25 kilomètres carrés (10 milles carrés), la région du Grand Sydney couvre 12 367 kilomètres carrés (4 775 milles carrés) et la zone urbaine de la ville est de 1 687 kilomètres carrés (651 milles carrés). [78] [79] [80] Les limites du Grand Sydney s'étendent sur 88 kilomètres (55 mi) de Palm Beach au nord à Waterfall au sud, et à 70 kilomètres (43 mi) de Bondi Beach à l'est jusqu'à Emu Plains à l'ouest .

Sydney s'étend sur deux régions géographiques. La plaine de Cumberland s'étend au sud et à l'ouest du port et est relativement plate. Le plateau Hornsby est situé au nord et est disséqué par des vallées escarpées. Les zones plates du sud ont été les premières à se développer au fur et à mesure que la ville grandissait. Ce n'est qu'avec la construction du Sydney Harbour Bridge que les parties nord de la côte sont devenues plus densément peuplées. Soixante-dix plages se trouvent le long de son littoral, la plage de Bondi étant l'une des plus célèbres.

La rivière Nepean s'enroule autour de la bordure ouest de la ville et devient la rivière Hawkesbury avant d'atteindre Broken Bay . La plupart des réserves d'eau de Sydney se trouvent sur les affluents de la rivière Nepean. La rivière Parramatta est principalement industrielle et draine une grande partie de la banlieue ouest de Sydney vers Port Jackson. Les parties sud de la ville sont drainées par la rivière Georges et la rivière Cooks dans Botany Bay.

Selon les calculs du Senseable City Lab du Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 25,9 % de Sydney est couverte d'arbres , ce qui en fait la troisième plus grande ville du monde avec le plus d'arbres après Singapour et Oslo , respectivement, à égalité avec Vancouver. . [81]

Géologie

Presque toutes les roches exposées autour de Sydney sont en grès de Sydney .

Sydney est principalement constituée de roches triasiques avec quelques dykes ignés récents et des cols volcaniques . Le bassin de Sydney s'est formé lorsque la croûte terrestre s'est étendue, s'est affaissée et s'est remplie de sédiments au début du Trias. [82] Le sable qui allait devenir le grès d'aujourd'hui y a été lavé par les rivières du sud et du nord-ouest et s'est déposé il y a entre 360 ​​et 200 millions d'années. Le grès a des lentilles de schiste et des lits de rivières fossiles. [82]

La biorégion du bassin de Sydney comprend des caractéristiques côtières de falaises, de plages et d'estuaires. De profondes vallées fluviales connues sous le nom de rias ont été creusées pendant la période triasique dans le grès de Hawkesbury de la région côtière où se trouve maintenant Sydney. L'élévation du niveau de la mer entre 18 000 et 6 000 ans a inondé les rias pour former des estuaires et des ports profonds. [82] Port Jackson, mieux connu sous le nom de Sydney Harbour, est l'une de ces ria . [83] Sydney présente deux types de sol principaux; des sols sableux (qui proviennent du grès de Hawkesbury) et argileux (qui proviennent de schistes et de roches volcaniques ), bien que certains sols puissent être un mélange des deux.[84]

Directement au- dessus du grès plus ancien de Hawkesbury se trouve le schiste de Wianamatta , une caractéristique géologique trouvée dans l'ouest de Sydney qui a été déposée en relation avec un grand delta de rivière au cours de la période du Trias moyen qui s'est déplacée au fil du temps d'ouest en est. Le schiste de Wianamatta comprend généralement des roches sédimentaires à grain fin telles que des schistes, des mudstones , des ironstones , des siltstones et des laminites , avec des unités de grès moins courantes. [85] Le groupe de Wianamatta est composé des unités suivantes (énumérées par ordre stratigraphique) : Bringelly Shale , Minchinbury Sandstone etSchiste d'Ashfield . [86]

Écologie

Bois herbeux typique de la région de Sydney

Les plus répandues communautés végétales dans la région de Sydney sont herbeuses ouvertes forêts [87] et quelques poches de sèches sclérophylles forêts, [88] qui se composent d' eucalyptus arbres, filaos , melaleucas , corymbias et angophora , avec des arbustes (généralement barbillons , CALLISTEMON , grevilleas et banksias ), et une graminée semi-continue dans le sous - étage . [89]Les plantes de cette communauté ont tendance à avoir des feuilles rugueuses et hérissées, car elles poussent dans des zones à faible fertilité du sol . Sydney comprend également quelques zones de forêts sclérophylles humides que l'on trouve dans les zones plus humides et surélevées du nord et du nord - est . Ces forêts sont définies par des canopées d' arbres droits et hauts avec un sous-étage humide d'arbustes à feuilles molles, de fougères arborescentes et d'herbes. [90]

Sydney abrite des dizaines d' espèces d' oiseaux , [91] qui incluent généralement le corbeau australien , la pie australienne , le pigeon huppé , le mineur bruyant et le currawong pie , entre autres. Les espèces d'oiseaux introduites que l'on trouve omniprésentes à Sydney sont le myna commun , l'étourneau sansonnet , le moineau domestique et la tourterelle tachetée . [92] Les espèces de reptiles sont également nombreuses et comprennent principalement des scinques . [93] [94] Sydney a quelques mammifèreset des espèces d' araignées , telles que le renard volant à tête grise et la toile d'entonnoir de Sydney , respectivement, [95] [96] et possède une grande diversité d' espèces marines habitant son port et de nombreuses plages. [97]

Climat

Sydney, Nouvelle-Galles du Sud
Carte climatique ( explication )
J
F
M
UNE
M
J
J
UNE
S
O
N
 
 
91
 
 
27
20
 
 
132
 
 
27
20
 
 
118
 
 
26
18
 
 
114
 
 
24
15
 
 
101
 
 
21
12
 
 
142
 
 
18
dix
 
 
80
 
 
18
9
 
 
75
 
 
19
dix
 
 
63
 
 
22
12
 
 
68
 
 
23
15
 
 
91
 
 
24
17
 
 
73
 
 
26
18
Moyenne max. et min. températures en °C
Cumul des précipitations en mm
Feuillage d'automne en mai

Dans le système classique, Sydney a un climat tempéré mais selon la classification de Köppen-Geiger , Sydney a un climat subtropical humide ( Cfa ) [98] avec des étés « chauds [et] parfois chauds » et des hivers « frais », comme décrit par le Bureau australien des statistiques . Historiquement, les précipitations ont été assez uniformes tout au long de l'année, même si ces dernières années, elles ont été plus prédominantes en été. [99] [100] [101]

À la station météorologique principale de Sydney à Observatory Hill , les températures extrêmes ont varié de 45,8 °C (114,4 °F) le 18 janvier 2013 à 2,1 °C (35,8 °F) le 22 juin 1932. [102] [103] [104] Un en moyenne 14,9 jours par an ont des températures égales ou supérieures à 30 °C (86 °F) dans le quartier central des affaires (CBD). [105] En revanche, la zone métropolitaine compte en moyenne entre 35 et 65 jours, selon la banlieue. [106] La température minimale la plus élevée enregistrée à Observatory Hill est de 27,6 °C (82 °F), le 6 février 2011, tandis que la température maximale la plus basse est de 7,7 °C (46 °F), enregistrée le 19 juillet 1868. [105] La journée la plus chaude dans la région métropolitaine de Sydney s'est produite enPenrith le 4 janvier 2020, où un maximum de 48,9 °C (120,0 °F) a été enregistré. [107] La température moyenne annuelle de la mer varie de 18,5 °C (65,3 °F) en septembre à 23,7 °C (74,7 °F) en février. [108] Sydney a une moyenne de 7,2 heures d'ensoleillement par jour [109] et 109,5 jours clairs par an. [110]

Le temps est modéré par la proximité de l'océan, et des températures plus extrêmes sont enregistrées dans les banlieues ouest de l'intérieur. [105] Sydney connaît un effet d' îlot de chaleur urbain . [111] Cela rend certaines parties de la ville plus vulnérables à la chaleur extrême, y compris les banlieues côtières. [111] [112] À la fin du printemps et en été, les températures supérieures à 35 °C (95 °F) ne sont pas rares, [113] bien que les conditions chaudes et sèches se terminent généralement par un vent du sud , [114] un puissant vent du sud qui apporte des vents violents et une chute rapide de la température. [115] Étant donné que Sydney borde laGreat Dividing Range , il peut parfois subir des vents secs de type föhn d' ouest généralement entre l'hiver et le printemps, car il se trouve du côté sous le vent des chaînes, augmentant ainsi le danger d'incendie dans la région, [116] [117] et ainsi que fournissant un facteur de refroidissement éolien qui rend généralement les températures plus fraîches qu'elles ne le sont . [118] [119] En raison de l'emplacement à l'intérieur des terres, le gel est enregistré tôt le matin dans l' ouest de Sydney à quelques reprises en hiver. L'automne et le printemps sont les saisons de transition, le printemps affichant une variation de température plus importante que l'automne. [120]

Le Bureau of Meteorology a rapporté que 2002 à 2005 ont été les étés les plus chauds à Sydney depuis le début des relevés en 1859.

Un orage d'été sur le centre-ville pris de Potts Point , 1991

[121] L'été 2007-08, cependant, s'est avéré être le plus frais depuis 1996-97 et est le seul été de ce siècle à avoir des températures égales ou inférieures à la moyenne. [122] En 2009, les conditions sèches ont apporté une tempête de poussière sévère vers l'Australie orientale . [123] [124] L' oscillation El Niño-Sud , le dipôle de l' océan Indien et le mode annulaire austral [125] [126] jouent un rôle important dans la détermination des conditions météorologiques de Sydney : sécheresse et feux de brousse d'une part, et tempêtes et inondations de l'autre, associé aux phases opposées de l'oscillation. De nombreux quartiers de la ville limitrophesla brousse a connu des feux de brousse, qui ont tendance à se produire au printemps et en été. [127] [128]

Les précipitations ont une variabilité modérée à faible et elles sont réparties au fil des mois, bien qu'elles aient été irrégulières ces derniers temps. [129] [130] Même dans ses mois de plus hautes précipitations, Sydney a relativement peu de jours de pluie, avec une moyenne moyenne de 7 à 8 jours de pluie par mois sur le seuil de 1 mm (0,04 in).

Photo satellite de la couverture nuageuse estivale sur la région métropolitaine de Sydney.

Les précipitations sont généralement plus élevées à la fin de l'été jusqu'au début de l'hiver lorsque la crête subtropicale est au sud de l'Australie, permettant aux vents d'est de dominer, et plus faibles à la fin de l'hiver jusqu'au début du printemps lorsque la crête subtropicale est au nord, car elle apporte des vents secs de l'intérieur du continent vers la ville, puisqu'il tourne dans le sens inverse des aiguilles d'une montre. [125] [131] [105] [132] De 1990 à 1999, Sydney a reçu environ 20 orages par an. [133] À la fin de l'automne et en hiver, les dépressions de la côte est peuvent apporter de grandes quantités de précipitations, en particulier dans le CBD. [134]

Au printemps et en été, les nor'easters noirs sont généralement la cause de fortes pluies, bien que d'autres formes de zones de basse pression puissent également apporter de violents déluges et des orages l'après-midi. [135] Selon la direction du vent , le temps estival peut être humide ou sec, la fin de l'été/l'automne ayant une humidité moyenne et des points de rosée plus élevés que la fin du printemps/début de l'été. En été, la plupart des pluies tombent des orages et en hiver des fronts froids . [136] Des chutes de neige ont été signalées pour la dernière fois dans la région de la ville de Sydney en 1836, tandis qu'une chute de graupel , ou grêle molle, a été confondue par beaucoup avec de la neige, en juillet 2008. [137]La ville est rarement affectée par les cyclones , bien que des vestiges d' anciens cyclones affectent la ville. La ville est également sujette à de violentes tempêtes . L'une de ces tempêtes était la tempête de grêle de 1999 , qui a produit des grêlons massifs atteignant 9 cm (3,5 pouces) de diamètre. [138]

Mois Jan fév Mar avr Peut juin juil août SEP oct nov déc Année
Enregistrement élevé °C (°F) 45,8
(114,4)
42,1
(107,8)
39,8
(103,6)
35,4
(95,7)
30,0
(86,0)
26,9
(80,4)
26,5
(79,7)
31,3
(88,3)
34,6
(94,3)
38,2
(100,8)
41,8
(107,2)
42,2
(108.0)
45,8
(114,4)
Moyenne élevée °C (°F) 27,0
(80,6)
26,8
(80,2)
25,7
(78,3)
23,6
(74,5)
20,9
(69,6)
18,2
(64,8)
17,9
(64,2)
19,3
(66,7)
21,6
(70,9)
23,2
(73,8)
24,2
(75,6)
25,7
(78,3)
22,8
(73,0)
Moyenne quotidienne °C (°F) 23,5
(74,3)
23,4
(74,1)
22,1
(71,8)
19,5
(67,1)
16,6
(61,9)
14,1
(57,4)
13,4
(56,1)
14,5
(58,1)
17,0
(62,6)
18,9
(66,0)
20,4
(68,7)
22,1
(71,8)
18,8
(65,8)
Moyenne basse °C (°F) 20,0
(68,0)
19,9
(67,8)
18,4
(65,1)
15,3
(59,5)
12,3
(54,1)
10,0
(50,0)
8,9
(48,0)
9,7
(49,5)
12,3
(54,1)
14,6
(58,3)
16,6
(61,9)
18,4
(65,1)
14,7
(58,5)
Enregistrement bas °C (°F) 10,6
(51,1)
9,6
(49,3)
9,3
(48,7)
7,0
(44,6)
4,4
(39,9)
2,1
(35,8)
2,2
(36,0)
2,7
(36,9)
4,9
(40,8)
5.7
(42.3)
7,7
(45,9)
9,1
(48,4)
2,1
(35,8)
Précipitations moyennes mm (pouces) 91,1
(3,59)
131,5
(5,18)
117,5
(4,63)
114,1
(4,49)
100,8
(3,97)
142,0
(5,59)
80,3
(3,16)
75,1
(2,96)
63,4
(2,50)
67,7
(2,67)
90,6
(3,57)
73,0
(2,87)
1 147,1
(45,16)
Jours de précipitations moyennes (≥ 0,2 mm) 12.1 12,5 13.7 12.8 12.9 12.6 11.1 10.3 10.5 11.6 11.6 11,5 143,2
Jours de pluie moyens (≥ 1 mm) 8.6 9.0 9,9 8,9 8.6 8.8 7.4 7.1 7.1 7.9 8.3 7.9 99,5
Humidité relative moyenne de l'après-midi (%) 60 62 59 58 58 56 52 47 49 53 57 58 56
Point de rosée moyen °C (°F) 16,5
(61,7)
17,2
(63,0)
15,4
(59,7)
12,7
(54,9)
10,3
(50,5)
7,8
(46,0)
6,1
(43,0)
5,4
(41,7)
7,8
(46,0)
10,2
(50,4)
12,6
(54,7)
14,6
(58,3)
11,4
(52,5)
Heures d'ensoleillement mensuelles moyennes 232,5 205,9 210,8 213.0 204,6 171,0 207,7 248,0 243.0 244,9 222,0 235,6 2 639
Heures d'ensoleillement quotidiennes moyennes 7.5 7.1 6.8 7.1 6.6 5.7 6.7 8.0 8.1 7.9 7.5 7.6 7.2
Pourcentage d' ensoleillement possible 53 54 56 61 59 60 65 72 66 61 55 55 60
Indice ultraviolet moyen 12 11 9 6 3 2 3 4 5 8 dix 12 7
Source 1 : Bureau de météorologie [139] [140]
Source 2 : Bureau of Meteorology , aéroport de Sydney (heures d'ensoleillement) ; [141] Atlas météo (indice UV moyen) [142]

Régions

Photo satellite de la région de Sydney la nuit. Wollongong est visible en bas à gauche, tandis que Gosford et la côte centrale sont visibles à l'extrême droite.

Les régions de Sydney comprennent le CBD ou la ville de Sydney (familièrement appelée «la ville») et l'ouest intérieur , la banlieue est , le sud de Sydney (y compris St George et Sutherland Shire ), le Grand Ouest de Sydney (y compris le sud-ouest de Sydney , les collines District et la région de Macarthur ), et le nord de Sydney (y compris la côte nord et les plages du nord ). La Commission du Grand Sydneydivise Sydney en cinq districts sur la base des 33 LGA de la zone métropolitaine ; la ville occidentale, la ville centrale, la ville orientale, le district nord et le district sud. [143] Le Bureau australien des statistiques inclut la ville de la côte centrale (l'ancienne ville de Gosford et le comté de Wyong) dans le cadre du Grand Sydney pour le dénombrement de la population. [144] Cela ajoute encore 330 000 personnes à la zone métropolitaine couverte par la Commission du Grand Sydney. [145] Des déclarations récentes du gouvernement de l'État (au sujet de la pandémie de COVID-19) ont inclus les Blue Mountains, la côte centrale et Wollongong comme faisant partie du Grand Sydney. [146]

Petite banlieue

Le CBD s'étend sur environ 3 kilomètres (1,9 miles) au sud de Sydney Cove. Il est bordé par Farm Cove dans le Royal Botanic Garden à l'est et Darling Harbour à l'ouest. Les banlieues entourant le CBD comprennent Woolloomooloo et Potts Point à l'est, Surry Hills et Darlinghurst au sud, Pyrmont et Ultimo à l'ouest, et Millers Point et The Rocks au nord. La plupart de ces banlieues mesurent moins d'un kilomètre carré (0,4 mille carré) de superficie. Le CBD de Sydney se caractérise par des rues et des artères considérablement étroites, créées à ses débuts de forçat au 18ème siècle.[147]

Anzac Bridge , enjambant la baie de Johnstons, relie la banlieue ouest au CBD.

Plusieurs localités, distinctes des banlieues, existent dans l'intérieur de Sydney. Central et Circular Quay sont des plaques tournantes de transport avec des correspondances de ferry, de train et de bus. Chinatown , Darling Harbour et Kings Cross sont des lieux importants pour la culture, le tourisme et les loisirs. Le Strand Arcade , situé entre Pitt Street Mall et George Street , est une galerie marchande historique de style victorien . Ouvert le 1er avril 1892, ses devantures sont une réplique exacte des façades commerciales intérieures d'origine. [148] Westfield Sydney , situé sous la tour de Sydney, est le plus grand centre commercial de Sydney. [149]

Une rue du centre-ville. Sur la photo : Paddington .

Il y a une longue tendance à l' embourgeoisement parmi les banlieues proches de Sydney. Pyrmont situé sur le port a été réaménagé d'un centre de navigation et de commerce international à une zone de logements à haute densité , d'hébergement touristique et de jeux d'argent. [150] À l'origine situé bien à l'extérieur de la ville, Darlinghurst est l'emplacement de l'ancienne prison historique de Darlinghurst , de la fabrication et du logement mixte. Il y a eu une période où c'était connu comme une zone de prostitution . Le logement de style terrasse a été largement conservé et Darlinghurst a subi une gentrification importante depuis les années 1980. [151] [152] [153]

Green Square est une ancienne zone industrielle de Waterloo en cours de rénovation urbaine d'une valeur de 8 milliards de dollars. Sur le bord du port de la ville, la banlieue historique et les quais de Millers Point sont en train d'être construits comme le nouveau quartier de Barangaroo . Le relogement forcé des résidents locaux en raison du développement de Millers Point/Barangaroo a suscité une vive controverse malgré les 6 milliards de dollars d'activité économique qu'il devrait générer. [154] [155] La banlieue de Paddington est une banlieue bien connue pour ses rues de maisons en terrasse restaurées , Victoria Barracks et ses achats, y compris les marchés hebdomadaires d'Oxford Street. [156]

Intérieur ouest

Newtown est l'un des quartiers commerciaux les plus complets de l'époque victorienne et édouardienne en Australie.

L'Inner West comprend généralement le Conseil de l' Inner West , la municipalité de Burwood , la municipalité de Strathfield et la ville de Canada Bay . Celles-ci s'étendent jusqu'à environ 11 km à l'ouest du CBD. Les banlieues de l'Inner West ont historiquement abrité des travailleurs industriels de la classe ouvrière, mais ont subi une gentrification au cours du 20e siècle. La région compte désormais principalement des logements de moyenne et haute densité. Les principales caractéristiques de la région incluent l' Université de Sydney et la rivière Parramatta, ainsi qu'une grande communauté cosmopolite et le centre de la vie nocturne de King Street à Newtown . Le pont Anzac enjambe la baie de Johnstons et relie Rozelle à Pyrmontet la ville, faisant partie du Distributeur Ouest .

La zone est desservie par les lignes de chemin de fer T1 , T2 et T3 , y compris la ligne principale de banlieue ; qui est le premier à être construit en Nouvelle-Galles du Sud. La gare de Strathfield est une plaque tournante ferroviaire secondaire à Sydney et une gare principale sur les lignes de banlieue et du nord . Il a été construit en 1876, [157] et sera un futur terminus de Parramatta Light Rail . [158] La région est également desservie par de nombreux itinéraires de bus et pistes cyclables. [159] Les autres centres commerciaux de la région comprennent Westfield Burwood et le MPO à Homebush.

Banlieue Est

Vaucluse , Bondi et autres banlieues environnantes

Les banlieues orientales englobent la municipalité de Woollahra , la ville de Randwick , le conseil municipal de Waverley et certaines parties du conseil de Bayside . La Commission du Grand Sydney envisage une population résidente de 1 338 250 personnes d'ici 2036 dans son district de l'Est de la ville (y compris la ville et l'Inner West). [160]

Ils comprennent certaines des zones les plus riches et les plus favorisées du pays, certaines rues étant parmi les plus chères au monde. Wolseley Road, à Point Piper, a un prix maximum de 20 900 $ le mètre carré, ce qui en fait la neuvième rue la plus chère au monde. [161] Plus de 75 % des quartiers de la circonscription électorale de Wentworth se situent dans le décile supérieur de l'avantage SEIFA, ce qui en fait la zone la moins défavorisée du pays. [162]

Les principaux sites touristiques incluent Bondi Beach , un site touristique majeur ; qui a été ajouté à la liste du patrimoine national australien en 2008 ; [163] et Bondi Junction , avec un centre commercial Westfield et une main-d'œuvre de bureau estimée à 6 400 d'ici 2035, [164] ainsi qu'une gare sur la ligne T4 Eastern Suburbs . La banlieue de Randwick contient l' hippodrome de Randwick , le Royal Hospital for Women , l' hôpital Prince of Wales , l'hôpital pour enfants de Sydney et le campus UNSW Kensington. La « zone de collaboration » de Randwick a une estimation de base de 32 000 emplois d'ici 2036, selon la Commission du Grand Sydney. [165]

La construction du CBD et du South East Light Rail a été achevée en avril 2020. [166] La construction principale devait être achevée en 2018, mais a été retardée jusqu'en 2020. [167] Le projet vise à fournir des services de tramway fiables et de grande capacité aux résidents en Ville et Sud-Est.

Les principaux centres commerciaux de la région incluent Westfield Bondi Junction et Westfield Eastgardens .

Sud de Sydney

Kurnell , La Pérouse et Cronulla , ainsi que diverses autres banlieues, font face à Botany Bay.

Le sud de Sydney comprend les banlieues des zones d'administration locale de l'ancien Rockdale , Georges River Council (collectivement connu sous le nom de région de St George ), et de manière générale, il comprend également les banlieues de la zone d'administration locale de Sutherland , au sud de la rivière Georges (familièrement connue comme 'La Comté').

La péninsule de Kurnell , près de Botany Bay, est le site du premier atterrissage sur la côte est faite par le lieutenant (futur capitaine) James Cook en 1770. La Pérouse , une banlieue historique du nom du navigateur français Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse (1741-1788), est remarquable pour son ancien avant-poste militaire à Bare Island et le parc national de Botany Bay .

La banlieue de Cronulla, dans le sud de Sydney, est proche du Royal National Park, le plus ancien parc national d'Australie. Hurstville, une grande banlieue avec une multitude de bâtiments commerciaux et d'immeubles résidentiels de grande hauteur dominant la ligne d'horizon, est devenue un CBD pour la banlieue sud. [168]

Nord de Sydney

Chatswood est un important quartier commercial.

Le « nord de Sydney » peut également inclure les banlieues de la Haute-Côte-Nord , de la Basse-Côte-Nord et des plages du Nord .

Les banlieues nord comprennent plusieurs points de repère - Université Macquarie , Gladesville Bridge , Ryde Bridge , Macquarie Center et Curzon Hall à Marsfield . Cette zone comprend les banlieues des zones d'administration locale de Hornsby Shire , la ville de Ryde , la municipalité de Hunter's Hill et des parties de la ville de Parramatta .

Le North Shore , un terme géographique informel désignant la zone métropolitaine nord de Sydney, se compose d' Artarmon , Chatswood , Roseville , Lindfield , Killara , Gordon , Pymble , Hornsby et bien d'autres.

La Basse-Côte-Nord désigne généralement les banlieues adjacentes au port telles que Neutral Bay , Waverton , Mosman , Cremorne , Cremorne Point , Lavender Bay , Milsons Point , Cammeray , Northbridge et North Sydney. Hunters Hill et Gladesville sont souvent aussi considérés comme faisant partie de la Basse-Côte-Nord . [169] La limite est de la Basse-Côte-Nord est Middle Harbour , ou au pont Roseville à Castle Cove etChasse de Roseville . La Haute-Côte-Nord désigne généralement les banlieues entre Chatswood et Hornsby . Il est composé de banlieues situées dans les conseils de Ku-ring-gai et Hornsby Shire .

La Côte-Nord comprend les centres commerciaux de North Sydney et Chatswood. North Sydney se compose d'un grand centre commercial, avec son propre centre d'affaires, qui contient la deuxième plus grande concentration d'immeubles de grande hauteur à Sydney, après le CBD. North Sydney est dominée par la publicité, les entreprises de marketing et les métiers associés, avec de nombreuses grandes entreprises occupant des postes dans la région.

La région de Northern Beaches comprend Manly , l'une des destinations de vacances les plus populaires de Sydney pendant une grande partie des XIXe et XXe siècles. La région comprend également Sydney Heads , une série de promontoires qui forment l'entrée large de 2 km (1,2 mi) du port de Sydney. La zone des plages du Nord s'étend au sud jusqu'à l'entrée de Port Jackson (port de Sydney), à l'ouest jusqu'à Middle Harbour et au nord jusqu'à l'entrée de Broken Bay . Le recensement australien de 2011 a révélé que les Northern Beaches étaient le district le plus blanc et monoethnique d' Australie, contrastant avec ses voisins plus diversifiés, la North Shore et la Central Coast . [170]

Une rue de banlieue typique dans les collines. Sur la photo : Lindfield .

Quartier des collines

Le district de Hills fait généralement référence aux banlieues du nord-ouest de Sydney, y compris les zones d'administration locale de The Hills Shire , des parties du conseil de la ville de Parramatta et de Hornsby Shire . Les banlieues et localités réelles qui sont considérées comme faisant partie du district de Hills peuvent être quelque peu amorphes et variables. Par exemple, la Hills District Historical Society restreint sa définition à la zone d'administration locale de Hills Shire, mais sa zone d'étude s'étend de Parramatta à Hawkesbury. La région est ainsi nommée pour sa topographie caractéristique comparativement vallonnée alors que la plaine de Cumberland s'élève, rejoignant le plateau de Hornsby.

Plusieurs de ses banlieues ont également « Hill » ou « Hills » dans leurs noms, comme Baulkham Hills , Castle Hill , Seven Hills , Beaumont Hills et Winston Hills , entre autres. Les routes Windsor et Old Windsor sont des routes historiques en Australie, car ce sont respectivement les deuxième et troisième routes tracées dans la colonie. [171]

Banlieue ouest

An aerial view of Greater Western Sydney; as well as being mostly suburban in nature, western Sydney is also made up of various industrial precincts and business parks.
Parramatta (visible in the background) is a major commercial hub and centre for Greater Western Sydney

The greater western suburbs encompasses the areas of Parramatta, the sixth largest business district in Australia, settled the same year as the harbour-side colony,[172] Bankstown, Liverpool, Penrith, and Fairfield. Covering 5,800 square kilometres (2,200 sq mi) and having an estimated resident population as at 2017 of 2,288,554, western Sydney has the most multicultural suburbs in the country. The population is predominantly of a working class background, with major employment in the heavy industries and vocational trade.[173] Toongabbie is noted for being the third mainland settlement (after Sydney and Parramatta) set up after the British colonisation of Australia began in 1788, although the site of the settlement is actually in the separate suburb of Old Toongabbie.[174]

The western suburb of Prospect, in the City of Blacktown, is home to Raging Waters, a water park operated by Parques Reunidos.[175] Auburn Botanic Gardens, a botanical garden situated in Auburn, attracts thousands of visitors each year, including a significant number from outside Australia.[176] Another prominent park and garden in the west is Central Gardens Nature Reserve in Merrylands West.[177] The greater west also includes Sydney Olympic Park, a suburb created to host the 2000 Summer Olympics, and Sydney Motorsport Park, a motorsport circuit located in Eastern Creek.[178] The Boothtown Aqueduct in Greystanes is a 19th-century water bridge that is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register as a site of State significance.[179]

To the northwest, Featherdale Wildlife Park, an Australian zoo in Doonside, near Blacktown, is a major tourist attraction, not just for Western Sydney, but for NSW and Australia.[180] Westfield Parramatta in Parramatta is Australia's busiest Westfield shopping centre, having 28.7 million customer visits per annum.[181] Established in 1799, the Old Government House, a historic house museum and tourist spot in Parramatta, was included in the Australian National Heritage List on 1 August 2007 and World Heritage List in 2010 (as part of the 11 penal sites constituting the Australian Convict Sites), making it the only site in greater western Sydney to be featured in such lists.[182] Moreover, the house is Australia's oldest surviving public building.[183] Prospect Hill, a historically significant ridge in the west and the only area in Sydney with ancient volcanic activity,[184] is also listed on the NSW State Heritage Register.[185]

Further to the southwest is the region of Macarthur and the city of Campbelltown, a significant population centre until the 1990s considered a region separate to Sydney proper. Macarthur Square, a shopping complex in Campbelltown, has become one of the largest shopping complexes in Sydney.[186] The southwest also features Bankstown Reservoir, the oldest elevated reservoir constructed in reinforced concrete that is still in use and is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register.[187] The southwest is home to one of Sydney's oldest trees, the Bland Oak, which was planted in the 1840s by William Bland in the suburb of Carramar.[188]

Urban structure

The Sydney CBD with the Opera House and Harbour Bridge. Sydney is home to the most high-rise buildings in the nation.[189]

Architecture

The sails of the Sydney Opera House

The earliest structures in the colony were built to the bare minimum of standards. Upon his appointment, Governor Lachlan Macquarie set ambitious targets for the architectural design of new construction projects. The city now has a world heritage listed building, several national heritage listed buildings, and dozens of Commonwealth heritage listed buildings as evidence of the survival of Macquarie's ideals.[190][191][192]

In 1814 the Governor called on a convict named Francis Greenway to design Macquarie Lighthouse.[193] The lighthouse and its Classical design earned Greenway a pardon from Macquarie in 1818 and introduced a culture of refined architecture that remains to this day.[194] Greenway went on to design the Hyde Park Barracks in 1819 and the Georgian style St James's Church in 1824.[195][196] Gothic-inspired architecture became more popular from the 1830s. John Verge's Elizabeth Bay House and St Philip's Church of 1856 were built in Gothic Revival style along with Edward Blore's Government House of 1845.[197][198] Kirribilli House, completed in 1858, and St Andrew's Cathedral, Australia's oldest cathedral,[199] are rare examples of Victorian Gothic construction.[197][200]

From the late 1850s there was a shift towards Classical architecture. Mortimer Lewis designed the Australian Museum in 1857.[201] The General Post Office, completed in 1891 in Victorian Free Classical style, was designed by James Barnet.[202] Barnet also oversaw the 1883 reconstruction of Greenway's Macquarie Lighthouse.[193][194] Customs House was built in 1844 to the specifications of Lewis, with additions from Barnet in 1887 and W L Vernon in 1899.[203] The neo-Classical and French Second Empire style Town Hall was completed in 1889.[204][205] Romanesque designs gained favour amongst Sydney's architects from the early 1890s. Sydney Technical College was completed in 1893 using both Romanesque Revival and Queen Anne approaches.[206] The Queen Victoria Building was designed in Romanesque Revival fashion by George McRae and completed in 1898.[207] It was built on the site of the Sydney Central Markets and accommodates 200 shops across its three storeys.[208]

As the wealth of the settlement increased, and as Sydney developed into a metropolis after Federation in 1901, its buildings became taller. Sydney's first tower was Culwulla Chambers on the corner of King Street and Castlereagh Street which topped out at 50 metres (160 feet) making 12 floors. The Commercial Traveller's Club, located in Martin Place and built in 1908, was of similar height at 10 floors. It was built in a brick stone veneer and demolished in 1972 to make way for Harry Seidler's MLC Centre.[209] This heralded a change in Sydney's cityscape and with the lifting of height restrictions in the 1960s there came a surge of high-rise construction.[210] Acclaimed architects such as Jean Nouvel, Harry Seidler, Richard Rogers, Renzo Piano, Norman Foster, and Frank Gehry have each made their own contribution to the city's skyline.

The Great Depression had a tangible influence on Sydney's architecture. New structures became more restrained with far less ornamentation than was common before the 1930s. The most notable architectural feat of this period is the Harbour Bridge. Its steel arch was designed by John Bradfield and completed in 1932. A total of 39,000 tonnes of structural steel span the 503 metres (1,650 feet) between Milsons Point and Dawes Point.[73][211]

The atrium of 1 Bligh Street, an example of Sydney's contemporary architecture

Modern and International architecture came to Sydney from the 1940s. Since its completion in 1973 the city's Opera House has become a World Heritage Site and one of the world's most renowned pieces of Modern design. It was conceived by Jørn Utzon with contributions from Peter Hall, Lionel Todd, and David Littlemore. Utzon was awarded the Pritzker Prize in 2003 for his work on the Opera House.[212] Sydney is home to Australia's first building by renowned Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, the Dr Chau Chak Wing Building (2015), based on the design of a tree house. An entrance from The Goods Line–a pedestrian pathway and former railway line–is located on the eastern border of the site.

Contemporary buildings in the CBD include Citigroup Centre,[213] Aurora Place,[214] Chifley Tower,[215][216] the Reserve Bank building,[217] Deutsche Bank Place,[218] MLC Centre,[219] and Capita Centre.[220] The tallest structure is Sydney Tower, designed by Donald Crone and completed in 1981.[221] Regulations limited new buildings to a height of 235 metres (771 feet) due to the proximity of Sydney Airport, although strict restrictions employed in the early 2000s have slowly been relaxed in the past ten years, with a maximum height restriction now sitting at 330 metres (1083 feet).[222] Green bans and heritage overlays have been in place since at least 1977 to protect Sydney's heritage after controversial demolitions in the 1970s led to an outcry from Sydneysiders to preserve the old and keep history intact, sufficiently balancing old and new architecture.[223]

Housing

Terraces in the suburb of Kirribilli

Sydney surpasses both New York City and Paris real estate prices, having some of the most expensive in the world,[224][225] The city remains Australia's most expensive housing market, with the mean house price at $1,142,212 as of December 2019 (over 25% higher the national mean house price).[226]

There were 1.76 million dwellings in Sydney in 2016 including 925,000 (57%) detached houses, 227,000 (14%) semi-detached terrace houses and 456,000 (28%) units and apartments.[227] Whilst terrace houses are common in the inner city areas, it is detached houses that dominate the landscape in the outer suburbs.

Due to environmental and economic pressures, there has been a noted trend towards denser housing. There was a 30% increase in the number of apartments in Sydney between 1996 and 2006.[228] Public housing in Sydney is managed by the Government of New South Wales.[229] Suburbs with large concentrations of public housing include Claymore, Macquarie Fields, Waterloo, and Mount Druitt. The Government has announced plans to sell nearly 300 historic public housing properties in the harbourside neighbourhoods of Millers Point, Gloucester Street, and The Rocks.[230]

Sydney is one of the most expensive real estate markets globally. It is only second to Hong Kong with the average property costing 14 times the annual Sydney salary as of December 2016.[231] A range of heritage housing styles can be found throughout Sydney. Terrace houses are found in the inner suburbs such as Paddington, The Rocks, Potts Point and Balmain–many of which have been the subject of gentrification.[232][233] These terraces, particularly those in suburbs such as The Rocks, were historically home to Sydney's miners and labourers. In the present day, terrace houses now make up some of the most valuable real estate in the city.[234]

Federation homes, constructed around the time of Federation in 1901, are located in suburbs such as Penshurst, Turramurra, and in Haberfield. Haberfield is known as "The Federation Suburb"[by whom?] due to the extensive number of Federation homes. Workers cottages are found in Surry Hills, Redfern, and Balmain. California bungalows are common in Ashfield, Concord, and Beecroft. Larger modern homes are predominantly found in the outer suburbs, such as Stanhope Gardens, Kellyville Ridge, Bella Vista to the northwest, Bossley Park, Abbotsbury, and Cecil Hills to the west, and Hoxton Park, Harrington Park, and Oran Park to the southwest.[235]

Parks and open spaces

The Royal Botanic Garden is the oldest scientific institution in Australia.

The Royal Botanic Garden is the most iconic green space in the Sydney region, hosting both scientific and leisure activities.[236] There are 15 separate parks under the administration of the City of Sydney.[237] Parks within the city centre include Hyde Park, The Domain and Prince Alfred Park.

The Centennial Parklands is the largest park in the City of Sydney, comprising 189 hectares (470 acres).[238]

The inner suburbs include Centennial Park and Moore Park in the east (both within the City of Sydney local government area), while the outer suburbs contain Sydney Park and Royal National Park in the south, Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in the north, and Western Sydney Parklands in the west, which is one of the largest urban parks in the world. The Royal National Park was proclaimed on 26 April 1879 and with 13,200 hectares (51 square miles) is the second oldest national park in the world.[239] The largest park in the Sydney metropolitan area is Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, established in 1894 with an area of 15,400 hectares (59 square miles).[240] It is regarded for its well-preserved records of indigenous habitation and more than 800 rock engravings, cave drawings and middens have been located in the park.[241]

The Anzac War Memorial in Hyde Park is a public memorial dedicated to the achievement of the Australian Imperial Force of World War I.[242]

The area now known as The Domain was set aside by Governor Arthur Phillip in 1788 as his private reserve.[243] Under the orders of Macquarie the land to the immediate north of The Domain became the Royal Botanic Garden in 1816. This makes them the oldest botanic garden in Australia.[243] The Gardens are not just a place for exploration and relaxation, but also for scientific research with herbarium collections, a library and laboratories.[244] The two parks have a total area of 64 hectares (0.2 square miles) with 8,900 individual plant species and receive over 3.5 million annual visits.[245]

To the south of The Domain is Hyde Park, the oldest public parkland in Australia which measures 16.2 hectares (0.1 square miles) in area.[246] Its location was used for both relaxation and the grazing of animals from the earliest days of the colony.[247] Macquarie dedicated it in 1810 for the "recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of the town" and named it in honour of the original Hyde Park in London.

Economy

The central business district. Sydney is the financial and economic centre of Australia, having the largest economy and contributing a quarter of Australia's total GDP.[248]

Researchers from Loughborough University have ranked Sydney amongst the top ten world cities that are highly integrated into the global economy.[249] The Global Economic Power Index ranks Sydney number eleven in the world.[250] The Global Cities Index recognises it as number fourteen in the world based on global engagement.[251]

The prevailing economic theory in effect during early colonial days was mercantilism, as it was throughout most of Western Europe.[252] The economy struggled at first due to difficulties in cultivating the land and the lack of a stable monetary system. Governor Lachlan Macquarie solved the second problem by creating two coins from every Spanish silver dollar in circulation.[252] The economy was clearly capitalist in nature by the 1840s as the proportion of free settlers increased, the maritime and wool industries flourished, and the powers of the East India Company were curtailed.[252]

Wheat, gold, and other minerals became additional export industries towards the end of the 1800s.[252] Significant capital began to flow into the city from the 1870s to finance roads, railways, bridges, docks, courthouses, schools and hospitals. Protectionist policies after federation allowed for the creation of a manufacturing industry which became the city's largest employer by the 1920s.[252] These same policies helped to relieve the effects of the Great Depression during which the unemployment rate in New South Wales reached as high as 32%.[252] From the 1960s onwards Parramatta gained recognition as the city's second CBD and finance and tourism became major industries and sources of employment.[252]

Sydney's nominal gross domestic product was AU$400.9 billion and AU$80,000 per capita[253] in 2015.[254][31] Its gross domestic product was AU$337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia.[254] The Financial and Insurance Services industry accounts for 18.1% of gross product and is ahead of Professional Services with 9% and Manufacturing with 7.2%. In addition to Financial Services and Tourism, the Creative and Technology sectors are focus industries for the City of Sydney and represented 9% and 11% of its economic output in 2012.[255][256]

Corporate citizens

There were 451,000 businesses based in Sydney in 2011, including 48% of the top 500 companies in Australia and two-thirds of the regional headquarters of multinational corporations.[257] Global companies are attracted to the city in part because its time zone spans the closing of business in North America and the opening of business in Europe. Most foreign companies in Sydney maintain significant sales and service functions but comparably less production, research, and development capabilities.[258] There are 283 multinational companies with regional offices in Sydney.[259]

Domestic economics

Pitt Street, a major street in Sydney CBD, runs from Circular Quay in the north to Waterloo in the south and is home to many large high-end retailers.[260]

Sydney has been ranked between the fifteenth and the fifth most expensive city in the world and is the most expensive city in Australia.[261] Of the 15 categories only measured by UBS in 2012, workers receive the seventh highest wage levels of 77 cities in the world.[261] Working residents of Sydney work an average of 1,846 hours per annum with 15 days of leave.[261]

The labour force of Greater Sydney Region in 2016 was 2,272,722 with a participation rate of 61.6%.[262] It was made up of 61.2% full-time workers, 30.9% part-time workers, and 6.0% unemployed individuals.[227][263] The largest reported occupations are professionals, clerical and administrative workers, managers, technicians and trades workers, and community and personal service workers.[227] The largest industries by employment across Greater Sydney are Health Care and Social Assistance with 11.6%, Professional Services with 9.8%, Retail Trade with 9.3%, Construction with 8.2%, Education and Training with 8.0%, Accommodation and Food Services 6.7%, and Financial and Insurance Services with 6.6%.[2] The Professional Services and Financial and Insurance Services industries account for 25.4% of employment within the City of Sydney.[264]

In 2016, 57.6% of working age residents had a total weekly income of less than $1,000 and 14.4% had a total weekly income of $1,750 or more.[265] The median weekly income for the same period was $719 for individuals, $1,988 for families, and $1,750 for household.[266]

Unemployment in the City of Sydney averaged 4.6% for the decade to 2013, much lower than the current rate of unemployment in Western Sydney of 7.3%.[31][267] Western Sydney continues to struggle to create jobs to meet its population growth despite the development of commercial centres like Parramatta. Each day about 200,000 commuters travel from Western Sydney to the CBD and suburbs in the east and north of the city.[267]

Home ownership in Sydney was less common than renting prior to the Second World War but this trend has since reversed.[228] Median house prices have increased by an average of 8.6% per annum since 1970.[268][269] The median house price in Sydney in March 2014 was $630,000.[270] The primary cause for rising prices is the increasing cost of land and scarcity[271] which made up 32% of house prices in 1977 compared to 60% in 2002.[228] 31.6% of dwellings in Sydney are rented, 30.4% are owned outright and 34.8% are owned with a mortgage.[227] 11.8% of mortgagees in 2011 had monthly loan repayments of less than $1,000 and 82.9% had monthly repayments of $1,000 or more.[2] 44.9% of renters for the same period had weekly rent of less than $350 whilst 51.7% had weekly rent of $350 or more. The median weekly rent in Sydney is $450.[2]

Martin Place is often recognised as being the civic heart of Sydney,[272] being home to various corporations, retail and tourist attractions.

Financial services

Macquarie gave a charter in 1817 to form the first bank in Australia, the Bank of New South Wales.[273] New private banks opened throughout the 1800s but the financial system was unstable. Bank collapses were a frequent occurrence and a crisis point was reached in 1893 when 12 banks failed.[273]

The Bank of New South Wales exists to this day as Westpac.[274] The Commonwealth Bank of Australia was formed in Sydney in 1911 and began to issue notes backed by the resources of the nation. It was replaced in this role in 1959 by the Reserve Bank of Australia which is also based in Sydney.[273] The Australian Securities Exchange began operating in 1987 and with a market capitalisation of $1.6 trillion is now one of the ten largest exchanges in the world.[275]

The Financial and Insurance Services industry now constitutes 43% of the economic product of the City of Sydney.[30] Sydney makes up half of Australia's finance sector and has been promoted by consecutive Commonwealth Governments as Asia Pacific's leading financial centre.[28][29] Structured finance was pioneered in Sydney and the city is a leading hub for asset management firms.[276] In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Sydney was ranked as having the eighth most competitive financial centre in the world.[277]

In 1985 the Federal Government granted 16 banking licences to foreign banks and now 40 of the 43 foreign banks operating in Australia are based in Sydney, including the People's Bank of China, Bank of America, Citigroup, UBS, Mizuho Bank, Bank of China, Banco Santander, Credit Suisse, Standard Chartered, State Street, HSBC, Deutsche Bank, Barclays, Royal Bank of Canada, Société Générale, Royal Bank of Scotland, Sumitomo Mitsui, ING Group, BNP Paribas, and Investec.[30][273][278][279]

Manufacturing

Sydney has been a manufacturing city since the protectionist policies of the 1920s. By 1961 the industry accounted for 39% of all employment and by 1970 over 30% of all Australian manufacturing jobs were in Sydney.[280] Its status has declined in more recent decades, making up 12.6% of employment in 2001 and 8.5% in 2011.[2][280] Between 1970 and 1985 there was a loss of 180,000 manufacturing jobs.[280] Despite this, Sydney still overtook Melbourne as the largest manufacturing centre in Australia in the 2010s.[281] Its manufacturing output of $21.7 billion in 2013 was greater than that of Melbourne with $18.9 billion.[282] Observers have noted Sydney's focus on the domestic market and high-tech manufacturing as reasons for its resilience against the high Australian dollar of the early 2010s.[282] The Smithfield-Wetherill Park Industrial Estate in Western Sydney is the largest industrial estate in the Southern Hemisphere and is the centre of manufacturing and distribution in the region.[283]

Tourism and international education

Sydney is a gateway to Australia for many international visitors. It has hosted over 2.8 million international visitors in 2013, or nearly half of all international visits to Australia. These visitors spent 59 million nights in the city and a total of $5.9 billion.[35] The countries of origin in descending order were China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Germany, Hong Kong, and India.[284]

The city also received 8.3 million domestic overnight visitors in 2013 who spent a total of $6 billion.[284] 26,700 workers in the City of Sydney were directly employed by tourism in 2011.[285] There were 480,000 visitors and 27,500 people staying overnight each day in 2012.[285] On average, the tourism industry contributes $36 million to the city's economy per day.[285]

Popular destinations include the Sydney Opera House, the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Watsons Bay, The Rocks, Sydney Tower, Darling Harbour, the State Library of New South Wales, the Royal Botanic Garden, the Australian Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Queen Victoria Building, Sea Life Sydney Aquarium, Taronga Zoo, Bondi Beach, and Sydney Olympic Park.[286]

Major developmental projects designed to increase Sydney's tourism sector include a casino and hotel at Barangaroo and the redevelopment of East Darling Harbour, which involves a new exhibition and convention centre, now Australia's largest.[287][288][289]

Sydney is the highest-ranking city in the world for international students. More than 50,000 international students study at the city's universities and a further 50,000 study at its vocational and English language schools.[251][290] International education contributes $1.6 billion to the local economy and creates demand for 4,000 local jobs each year.[291]

Demographics

Chinese New Year celebrations in Chinatown. Sydney is home to the nation's largest population of Chinese Australians.[292]

The population of Sydney in 1788 was less than 1,000.[293] With convict transportation it almost tripled in ten years to 2,953.[294] For each decade since 1961 the population has increased by more than 250,000.[295] Sydney's population at the time of the 2016 census was 5,005,400.[296] It has been forecast that the population will grow to between 8 and 8.9 million by 2061.[297] Despite this increase, the Australian Bureau of Statistics predicts that Melbourne will replace Sydney as Australia's most populous city by 2026.[298][299] The four most densely populated suburbs in Australia are located in Sydney with each having more than 13,000 residents per square kilometre (33,700 residents per square mile).[300]

The median age of Sydney residents is 36 and 12.9% of people are 65 or older.[227] The married population accounts for 49.7% of Sydney whilst 34.7% of people have never been married.[227] 48.9% of families are couples with children, 33.5% are couples without children, and 15.7% are single-parent families.[227]

Ancestry and immigration

Country of Birth (2016)[301][302]
Birthplace[N 1] Population
Australia 2,752,119
Mainland China 224,685
England 151,614
India 130,573
Greece 127,274
New Zealand 86,526
Vietnam 81,045
Philippines 75,480
Lebanon 55,979
South Korea 49,508
Hong Kong 40,577
Italy 40,492
Iraq 39,237
South Africa 35,313
Fiji 31,510
Nepal 30,424
Indonesia 29,989
Malaysia 21,211
Lebanese flags at the 2008 World Youth Day in Sydney. Sydney is also home to the nation's largest population of Lebanese Australians.[303]

Most immigrants to Sydney between 1840 and 1930 were British, Irish or Chinese. At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:[N 2][301][302]

At the 2016 census, there were 2,071,872 people living in Sydney that were born outside the country, accounting for 42.9% of the population,[305] below Miami (58.3%) and Toronto (47.0%), but above Vancouver (42.5%), Los Angeles (37.7%), New York City (37.5%), Chicago (20.7%), Paris (14.6%) and Berlin (13%). Only 33.1% of the population had both parents born in Australia.[305] Sydney has the eighth-largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. Foreign countries of birth with the greatest representation are Mainland China, England, India, New Zealand, Vietnam and the Philippines.[305]

1.5% of the population, or 70,135 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016.[N 4][301][302]

Language

38.2% of people in Sydney speak a language other than English at home with Mandarin (4.7%), Arabic (4.0%), Cantonese (2.9%), Vietnamese (2.1%) and Greek (1.6%) the most widely spoken.[305]

Religion

The indigenous people of Sydney held totemic beliefs known as "dreamings". Governor Lachlan Macquarie made an effort to found a culture of formal religion throughout the early settlement and ordered the construction of churches such as St Matthew's, St Luke's, St James's, and St Andrew's.[306] In 2011, 28.3% of Sydney residents identified themselves as Catholic, whilst 17.6% practised no religion. Additionally, 16.1% were Anglican, 4.7% were Muslim, 4.2% were Eastern Orthodox, 4.1% were Buddhist, 2.6% were Hindu, and 0.9% were Jewish.[2][227] However, according to the 2016 census, 1,082,448 (25%) residents of Sydney's Urban Centre describe themselves as Catholic, while another 1,053,500 (24.4%) people consider themselves non-religious.[307] A further 10.9% of residents identified themselves as Anglicans and an additional 5.8% as Muslim. These and other religious institutions have significantly contributed to the education and health of Sydney's residents over time, particularly through the building and management of schools and hospitals.

Crime

Crime in Sydney is low, with The Independent ranking Sydney as the fifth safest city in the world in 2019.[308] One of the biggest crime related issues to face the city in recent times was the introduction of lock-out laws in February 2014,[309] in an attempt to curb alcohol fuelled violence. Patrons could not enter clubs or bars in the inner-city after 1:30am, and last drinks were called at 3am. The lock-out laws were removed in January 2020.[310]

Culture

Science, art, and history

The Art Gallery of New South Wales, located in The Domain, is the fourth largest public gallery in Australia.
The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia.

Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park is rich in Indigenous Australian heritage, containing around 1,500 pieces of Aboriginal rock art – the largest cluster of Indigenous sites in Australia, surpassing Kakadu, which has around 5,000 sites but over a much greater landmass. The park's indigenous sites include petroglyphs, art sites, burial sites, caves, marriage areas, birthing areas, midden sites, and tool manufacturing locations, among others, which are dated to be around 5,000 years old. The inhabitants of the area were the Garigal people.[311][312] Other rock art sites exist in the Sydney region, such as in Terrey Hills and Bondi, although the locations of most are not publicised to prevent damage by vandalism, and to retain their quality, as they are still regarded as sacred sites by Indigenous Australians.[313]

The Australian Museum opened in Sydney in 1827 with the purpose of collecting and displaying the natural wealth of the colony.[314] It remains Australia's oldest natural history museum. In 1995 the Museum of Sydney opened on the site of the first Government House. It recounts the story of the city's development.[315] Other museums based in Sydney include the Powerhouse Museum and the Australian National Maritime Museum.[316][317]

The State Library of New South Wales holds the oldest library collections in Australia, being first established as the Australian Subscription Library in 1826. In 1866 then Queen Victoria gave her assent to the formation of the Royal Society of New South Wales. The Society exists "for the encouragement of studies and investigations in science, art, literature, and philosophy". It is based in a terrace house in Darlington owned by the University of Sydney.[318] The Sydney Observatory building was constructed in 1859 and used for astronomy and meteorology research until 1982 before being converted into a museum.[319]

The Museum of Contemporary Art was opened in 1991 and occupies an Art Deco building in Circular Quay. Its collection was founded in the 1940s by artist and art collector John Power and has been maintained by the University of Sydney.[320] Sydney's other significant art institution is the Art Gallery of New South Wales which coordinates the coveted Archibald Prize for portraiture.[321] Contemporary art galleries are found in Waterloo, Surry Hills, Darlinghurst, Paddington, Chippendale, Newtown, and Woollahra.

Entertainment

The State Theatre on Market Street was opened in 1929.

Sydney's first commercial theatre opened in 1832 and nine more had commenced performances by the late 1920s. The live medium lost much of its popularity to the cinema during the Great Depression before experiencing a revival after World War II.[322] Prominent theatres in the city today include State Theatre, Theatre Royal, Sydney Theatre, The Wharf Theatre, and Capitol Theatre. Sydney Theatre Company maintains a roster of local, classical, and international plays. It occasionally features Australian theatre icons such as David Williamson, Hugo Weaving, and Geoffrey Rush. The city's other prominent theatre companies are New Theatre, Belvoir, and Griffin Theatre Company. Sydney is also home to Event Cinemas' first theatre, which opened on George St in 1913, under its former Greater Union brand; the theatre currently operates, and is regarded as one of Australia's busiest cinema locations.

The Sydney Opera House is the home of Opera Australia and Sydney Symphony. It has staged over 100,000 performances and received 100 million visitors since opening in 1973.[212] Two other important performance venues in Sydney are Town Hall and the City Recital Hall. The Sydney Conservatorium of Music is located adjacent to the Royal Botanic Garden and serves the Australian music community through education and its biannual Australian Music Examinations Board exams.[323]

A concert at the Sydney Opera House

Many writers have originated in and set their work in Sydney. Others have visited the city and commented on it. Some of them are commemorated in the Sydney Writers Walk at Circular Quay. The city was the headquarters for Australia's first published newspaper, the Sydney Gazette.[324] Watkin Tench's A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay (1789) and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson in New South Wales (1793) have remained the best-known accounts of life in early Sydney.[325] Since the infancy of the establishment, much of the literature set in Sydney were concerned with life in the city's slums and working-class communities, notably William Lane's The Working Man's Paradise (1892), Christina Stead's Seven Poor Men of Sydney (1934) and Ruth Park's The Harp in the South (1948).[326] The first Australian-born female novelist, Louisa Atkinson, set various of her novels in Sydney.[327] Contemporary writers, such as Elizabeth Harrower, were born in the city and thus set most of the work there–Harrower's debut novel Down in the City (1957) was mostly set in a King's Cross apartment.[328][329][330] Well known contemporary novels set in the city include Melina Marchetta's Looking for Alibrandi (1992), Peter Carey's 30 Days in Sydney: A Wildly Distorted Account (1999), J.M. Coetzee's Diary of a Bad Year (2007) and Kate Grenville's The Secret River (2010). The Sydney Writers' Festival is held every year between April and May.[331]

Kings Cross is often regarded as being the red-light district of Sydney.

Filmmaking in Sydney was quite prolific until the 1920s when spoken films were introduced and American productions gained dominance in Australian cinema.[332] The Australian New Wave of filmmaking saw a resurgence in film production in the city–with many notable features shot in the city between the 1970s and 80s, helmed by directors such as Bruce Beresford, Peter Weir and Gillian Armstrong.[333] Fox Studios Australia commenced production in Sydney in 1998. Successful films shot in Sydney since then include The Matrix, Lantana, Mission: Impossible 2, Moulin Rouge!, Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones, Australia, and The Great Gatsby. The National Institute of Dramatic Art is based in Sydney and has several famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann, Cate Blanchett, Hugo Weaving and Jacqueline Mckenzie.[334]

Sydney is the host of several festivals throughout the year. The city's New Year's Eve celebrations are the largest in Australia.[335] The Royal Easter Show is held every year at Sydney Olympic Park. Sydney Festival is Australia's largest arts festival.[336] The travelling rock music festival Big Day Out originated in Sydney. The city's two largest film festivals are Sydney Film Festival and Tropfest. Vivid Sydney is an annual outdoor exhibition of art installations, light projections, and music. In 2015, Sydney was ranked 13th for being the top fashion capitals in the world.[337] It hosts the Australian Fashion Week in autumn. The Sydney Mardi Gras has commenced each February since 1979.

Sydney's Chinatown has had numerous locations since the 1850s. It moved from George Street to Campbell Street to its current setting in Dixon Street in 1980.[338] Little Italy is located in Stanley Street.[252]

Restaurants, bars and nightclubs can be found in the entertainment hubs in the Sydney CBD (Darling Harbour, Barangaroo, The Rocks and George Street), Oxford Street, Surry Hills, Newtown and Parramatta.[339][340] Kings Cross was previously considered the red-light district though the 2014-2020 lockout laws affected this area most. The Star is the city's casino and is situated next to Darling Harbour while the new Crown Sydney resort is in nearby Barangaroo.[341]

Media

Australia's national broadcaster, the ABC, is headquartered in Ultimo.

The Sydney Morning Herald is Australia's oldest newspaper still in print. Now a compact form paper owned by Fairfax Media, it has been published continuously since 1831.[342] Its competitor is the News Corporation tabloid The Daily Telegraph which has been in print since 1879.[343] Both papers have Sunday tabloid editions called The Sun-Herald and The Sunday Telegraph respectively. The Bulletin was founded in Sydney in 1880 and became Australia's longest running magazine. It closed after 128 years of continuous publication.[344] Sydney heralded Australia's first newspaper, the Sydney Gazette, published until 1842.

Each of Australia's three commercial television networks and two public broadcasters is headquartered in Sydney. Nine's offices and news studios are based in Willoughby,[345] Ten and Seven are based in Pyrmont, Seven has a news studio in the Sydney CBD in Martin Place[345][346] the Australian Broadcasting Corporation is located in Ultimo,[347] and the Special Broadcasting Service is based in Artarmon.[348] Multiple digital channels have been provided by all five networks since 2000. Foxtel is based in North Ryde and sells subscription cable television to most parts of the urban area.[349] Sydney's first radio stations commenced broadcasting in the 1920s. Radio became a popular tool for politics, news, religion, and sport and has managed to survive despite the introduction of television and the Internet.[350] 2UE was founded in 1925 and under the ownership of Fairfax Media is the oldest station still broadcasting.[350] Competing stations include the more popular 2GB, 702 ABC Sydney, KIIS 106.5, Triple M, Nova 96.9, and 2Day FM.[351]

Sport and outdoor activities

Sydney's earliest migrants brought with them a passion for sport but were restricted by the lack of facilities and equipment. The first organised sports were boxing, wrestling, and horse racing from 1810 in Hyde Park.[352] Horse racing remains popular to this day and events such as the Golden Slipper Stakes attract widespread attention. The first cricket club was formed in 1826 and matches were played within Hyde Park throughout the 1830s and 1840s.[352] Cricket is a favoured sport in summer and big matches have been held at the Sydney Cricket Ground since 1878. The New South Wales Blues compete in the Sheffield Shield league and the Sydney Sixers and Sydney Thunder contest the national Big Bash Twenty20 competition.

First played in Sydney in 1865, rugby grew to be the city's most popular football code by the 1880s. One-tenth of the state's population attended a New South Wales versus New Zealand rugby match in 1907.[352] Rugby league separated from rugby union in 1908. The New South Wales Waratahs contest the Super Rugby competition, while the Sydney Rays represent the city in the National Rugby Championship. The national Wallabies rugby union team competes in Sydney in international matches such as the Bledisloe Cup, Rugby Championship, and World Cup. Sydney is home to nine of the sixteen teams in the National Rugby League competition: Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, Penrith Panthers, Parramatta Eels, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters, and Wests Tigers. New South Wales contests the annual State of Origin series against Queensland.

Sydney FC and the Western Sydney Wanderers compete in the A-League (men's) and W-League (women's) soccer competitions and Sydney frequently hosts matches for the Australian national men's team, the Socceroos. The Sydney Swans and Greater Western Sydney Giants are local Australian rules football clubs that play in the Australian Football League. The Giants also compete in AFL Women's. The Sydney Kings compete in the National Basketball League. The Sydney Uni Flames play in the Women's National Basketball League. The Sydney Blue Sox contest the Australian Baseball League. The Waratahs are a member of the Australian Hockey League. The Sydney Bears and Sydney Ice Dogs play in the Australian Ice Hockey League. The Swifts are competitors in the national women's netball league.

Notable sporting venues

Sailing on Sydney Harbour

Women were first allowed to participate in recreational swimming when separate baths were opened at Woolloomooloo Bay in the 1830s. From being illegal at the beginning of the century, sea bathing gained immense popularity during the early 1900s and the first surf lifesaving club was established at Bondi Beach.[352][353] Disputes about appropriate clothing for surf bathing surfaced from time to time and concerned men as well as women. The City2Surf is an annual 14-kilometre (8.7-mile) running race from the CBD to Bondi Beach and has been held since 1971. In 2010, 80,000 runners participated which made it the largest run of its kind in the world.[354]

Sailing races have been held on Sydney Harbour since 1827.[355] Yachting has been popular amongst wealthier residents since the 1840s and the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron was founded in 1862. The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is a 1,170-kilometre (727-mile) event that starts from Sydney Harbour on Boxing Day.[356] Since its inception in 1945 it has been recognised as one of the most difficult yacht races in the world.[357] Six sailors died and 71 vessels of the fleet of 115 failed to finish in the 1998 edition.[358]

Sydney Olympic Park was built for the 2000 Olympics and has become a major sporting and recreational precinct.

The Royal Sydney Golf Club is based in Rose Bay and since its opening in 1893 has hosted the Australian Open on 13 occasions.[352] Royal Randwick Racecourse opened in 1833 and holds several major cups throughout the year.[359]

Sydney benefitted from the construction of significant sporting infrastructure in preparation for its hosting of the 2000 Summer Olympics. The Sydney Olympic Park accommodates athletics, aquatics, tennis, hockey, archery, baseball, cycling, equestrian, and rowing facilities. It also includes the high capacity Stadium Australia used for rugby, soccer, and Australian rules football. Sydney Football Stadium was completed in 1988 and is used for rugby and soccer matches. Sydney Cricket Ground was opened in 1878 and is used for both cricket and Australian rules football fixtures.[352]

The Sydney International tennis tournament is held here at the beginning of each year as the warm-up for the Grand Slam in Melbourne. Two of the most successful tennis players in history: Ken Rosewall and Todd Woodbridge were born in and live in the city.

Sydney co-hosted the FIBA Oceania Championship in 1979, 1985, 1989, 1995, 2007, 2009 and 2011.

Government

Historical governance

The Supreme Court of New South Wales was one of three of the earliest established courts in Australia.
Parliament House holds the Government of New South Wales and is the oldest public building in Australia

During early colonial times, the presiding Governor and his military shared absolute control over the population.[48] This lack of democracy eventually became unacceptable for the colony's growing number of free settlers. The first indications of a proper legal system emerged with the passing of a Charter of Justice in 1814. It established three new courts, including the Supreme Court, and dictated that English law was to be followed.[360] In 1823 the British Parliament passed an act to create the Legislative Council in New South Wales and give the Supreme Court the right of review over new legislation.[361] From 1828 all of the common laws in force in England were to be applied in New South Wales wherever it was appropriate.[361] Another act from the British Parliament in 1842 provided for members of the council to be elected for the first time.[361]

The Constitution Act of 1855 gave New South Wales a bicameral government. The existing Legislative Council became the upper house and a new body called the Legislative Assembly was formed to be the lower house.[362] An Executive Council was introduced and constituted five members of the Legislative Assembly and the Governor.[363] It became responsible for advising the ruling Governor on matters related to the administration of the state. The colonial settlements elsewhere on the continent eventually seceded from New South Wales and formed their own governments. Tasmania separated in 1825, Victoria did so in 1850, and Queensland followed in 1859.[362] With the proclamation of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 the status of local governments across Sydney was formalised and they became separate institutions from the state of New South Wales.[364]

Government in the present

Sydney is divided into local government areas (variously known as cities, councils, municipalities or shires). These local government areas have elected councils which are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales Government. The 31 local government areas making up Sydney according to the New South Wales Division of Local Government are:

Sydney's local government areas

Sydney is the location of the secondary official residences of the Governor-General of Australia and the Prime Minister of Australia, Admiralty House and Kirribilli House respectively.[365] The Parliament of New South Wales sits in Parliament House on Macquarie Street. This building was completed in 1816 and first served as a hospital. The Legislative Council moved into its northern wing in 1829 and by 1852 had entirely supplanted the surgeons from their quarters.[360] Several additions have been made to the building as the Parliament has expanded, but it retains its original Georgian façade.[366] Government House was completed in 1845 and has served as the home of 25 Governors and 5 Governors-General.[367] The Cabinet of Australia also meets in Sydney when needed.

The highest court in the state is the Supreme Court of New South Wales which is located in Queen's Square in Sydney.[368] The city is also the home of numerous branches of the intermediate District Court of New South Wales and the lower Local Court of New South Wales.[369]

In common with other Australian capital cities, Sydney has no single local government covering its whole area. Local government areas have responsibilities such as local roads, libraries, child care, community services and waste collection, whereas the state government retains responsibility for main roads, traffic control, public transport, policing, education, and major infrastructure project.[370]

In the past, the state has tended to resist amalgamating Sydney's more populated local government areas as merged councils could pose a threat to its governmental power.[371] Established in 1842, the City of Sydney is one such local government area and includes the CBD and some adjoining inner suburbs.[372] It is responsible for fostering development in the local area, providing local services (waste collection and recycling, libraries, parks, sporting facilities), representing and promoting the interests of residents, supporting organisations that target the local community, and attracting and providing infrastructure for commerce, tourism, and industry.[373] The City of Sydney is led by an elected Council and Lord Mayor who has in the past been treated as a representative of the entire city.[374]

In federal politics, Sydney was initially considered as a possibility for Australia's capital city; the newly created city of Canberra ultimately filled this role.[375] Seven Australian Prime Ministers have been born in Sydney, more than any other city, including first Prime Minister Edmund Barton and current Prime Minister Scott Morrison.

Essential public emergency services are provided and managed by the State Government. Greater Sydney is served by:

Infrastructure

Education

Education became a proper focus for the colony from the 1870s when public schools began to form and schooling became compulsory.[376] The population of Sydney is now highly educated.[citation needed] 90% of working age residents have completed some schooling and 57% have completed the highest level of school.[2] 1,390,703 people were enrolled in an educational institution in 2011 with 45.1% of these attending school and 16.5% studying at a university.[227] Undergraduate or postgraduate qualifications are held by 22.5% of working age Sydney residents and 40.2% of working age residents of the City of Sydney.[2][377] The most common fields of tertiary qualification are commerce (22.8%), engineering (13.4%), society and culture (10.8%), health (7.8%), and education (6.6%).[2]

St John's College is the oldest Roman Catholic college in Australia.

There are six public universities based in Sydney: The University of Sydney, University of New South Wales, University of Technology Sydney, Macquarie University, Western Sydney University, and Australian Catholic University. Five public universities maintain secondary campuses in the city for both domestic and international students: the University of Notre Dame Australia, Central Queensland University, Victoria University, University of Wollongong, and University of Newcastle. Charles Sturt University and Southern Cross University, both public universities, operate secondary campuses only designated for international students. In addition, four public universities offer programmes in Sydney through third-party education providers: University of the Sunshine Coast, La Trobe University, Federation University Australia and Charles Darwin University. 5.2% of residents of Sydney are attending a university.[378] The University of New South Wales and the University of Sydney are ranked top 50 in the world, the University of Technology Sydney is ranked 133, while Macquarie University is ranked 237, and Western Sydney University is ranked 474.[379] Sydney has public, denominational, and independent schools. 7.8% of Sydney residents are attending primary school and 6.4% are enrolled in secondary school.[378] There are 935 public preschool, primary, and secondary schools in Sydney that are administered by the New South Wales Department of Education.[380] 14 of the 17 selective secondary schools in New South Wales are based in Sydney.[381]

Public vocational education and training in Sydney are run by TAFE New South Wales and began with the opening of the Sydney Technical College in 1878. It offered courses in areas such as mechanical drawing, applied mathematics, steam engines, simple surgery, and English grammar.[206] The college became the Sydney Institute in 1992 and now operates alongside its sister TAFE facilities across the Sydney metropolitan area, namely the Northern Sydney Institute, the Western Sydney Institute, and the South Western Sydney Institute. At the 2011 census, 2.4% of Sydney residents are enrolled in a TAFE course.[378]

Health

The first hospital in the new colony was a collection of tents at The Rocks. Many of the convicts that survived the trip from England continued to suffer from dysentery, smallpox, scurvy, and typhoid. Healthcare facilities remained hopelessly inadequate despite the arrival of a prefabricated hospital with the Second Fleet and the construction of brand new hospitals at Parramatta, Windsor, and Liverpool in the 1790s.[382]

Governor Lachlan Macquarie arranged for the construction of Sydney Hospital and saw it completed in 1816.[382] Parts of the facility have been repurposed for use as Parliament House but the hospital itself still operates to this day. The city's first emergency department was established at Sydney Hospital in 1870. Demand for emergency medical care increased from 1895 with the introduction of an ambulance service.[382] The Sydney Hospital also housed Australia's first teaching facility for nurses, the Nightingale Wing, established with the input of Florence Nightingale in 1868.[383]

Healthcare gained recognition as a citizen's right in the early 1900s and Sydney's public hospitals came under the oversight of the Government of New South Wales.[382] The administration of healthcare across Sydney is handled by eight local health districts: Central Coast, Illawarra Shoalhaven, Sydney, Nepean Blue Mountains, Northern Sydney, South Eastern Sydney, South Western Sydney, and Western Sydney.[384] The Prince of Wales Hospital was established in 1852 and became the first of several major hospitals to be opened in the coming decades.[385] St Vincent's Hospital was founded in 1857,[153] followed by Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children in 1880,[386] the Prince Henry Hospital in 1881,[387] the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in 1882,[388] the Royal North Shore Hospital in 1885,[389] the St George Hospital in 1894,[390] and the Nepean Hospital in 1895.[391] Westmead Hospital in 1978 was the last major facility to open.[392]

Central station is a major hub for various forms of public transport.

Transport

Roads

Light Horse Interchange, the largest of its kind in Australia

The motor vehicle, more than any other factor, has determined the pattern of Sydney's urban development since World War II.[393] The growth of low density housing in the city's outer suburbs has made car ownership necessary for hundreds of thousands of households. The percentage of trips taken by car has increased from 13% in 1947 to 50% in 1960 and to 70% in 1971.[393] The most important roads in Sydney were the nine Metroads, including the 110-kilometre (68-mile) Sydney Orbital Network. Widespread criticism over Sydney's reliance on sprawling road networks, as well as the motor vehicle, have stemmed largely from proponents of mass public transport and high density housing.[394][395][396] The Light Horse Interchange in western Sydney is the largest in the southern hemisphere.[397]

There can be up to 350,000 cars using Sydney's roads simultaneously during peak hour, leading to significant traffic congestion.[393] 84.9% of Sydney households own a motor vehicle and 46.5% own two or more.[227] Car dependency is an ongoing issue in Sydney–of people who travel to work, 58.4% use a car, 9.1% catch a train, 5.2% take a bus, and 4.1% walk.[227] In contrast, only 25.2% of working residents in the City of Sydney use a car, whilst 15.8% take a train, 13.3% use a bus, and 25.3% walk.[398] With a rate of 26.3%, Sydney has the highest utilisation of public transport for travel to work of any Australian capital city.[399]

Buses

Buses traverse George Street at Ultimo.

Bus services today are conducted by a mixture of Government and private operators. In areas previously serviced by trams, the government State Transit Authority operates, in other areas, there are private (albeit part funded by the state government) operators. Integrated tickets called Opal cards operate on both government and private bus routes. State Transit alone operated a fleet of 2,169 buses and serviced over 160 million passengers during 2014. In total, nearly 225 million boardings were recorded across the bus network[400] NightRide is a nightly bus service that operate between midnight and 5am, also replacing trains for most of this period.

Trams and light rail

The CBD and South East Light Rail connects Sydney's CBD with the South Eastern suburbs.

Sydney once had one of the largest tram networks in the British Empire after London.[401] It served routes covering 291 kilometres (181 miles). The internal combustion engine made buses more flexible than trams and consequently more popular, leading to the progressive closure of the tram network with the final tram operating in 1961.[393] From 1930 there were 612 buses across Sydney carrying 90 million passengers per annum.[402]

In 1997, the Inner West Light Rail (also known as the Dulwich Hill Line) opened between Central station and Wentworth Park. It was extended to Lilyfield in 2000 and then Dulwich Hill in 2014. It links the Inner West and Darling Harbour with Central station and facilitated 9.1 million journeys in the 2016–17 financial year.[403] A second, the CBD and South East Light Rail 12 km (7.5 mi) line serving the CBD and south-eastern suburbs opened partially in December 2019 and the remainder in April 2020.[404] A light rail line serving Western Sydney has also been announced, due to open in 2023.

Trains

Sydney Trains is the suburban rail service. Its tracks form part of the New South Wales railway network. It serves 175 stations across the city and had an annual ridership of 359 million passenger journeys in 2017–18.[405] Sydney's railway was first constructed in 1854 with progressive extension to the network to serve both freight and passengers across the city, suburbs, and beyond to rural New South Wales. The main station is the Central railway station in the southern part of the CBD. In the 1850s and 1860s, the railway reached areas that are now outer suburbs of Sydney.[393]

Sydney Metro, a driverless rapid transit system separate from the suburban commuter network, commenced operation in May 2019 and will be extended into the city and down southwest by 2024 and through the inner west to Parramatta by 2030.[406][407] It currently serves 13 stations. A line to serve the greater west is planned for 2026 and will include a station for the second international airport.

Ferries

At the time the Sydney Harbour Bridge opened in 1932, the city's ferry service was the largest in the world.[408] Patronage declined from 37 million passengers in 1945 to 11 million in 1963 but has recovered somewhat in recent years.[393] From its hub at Circular Quay, the ferry network extends from Manly to Parramatta.[408]

Airports

Sydney Airport, officially "Sydney Kingsford-Smith Airport", is located in the inner southern suburb of Mascot with two of the runways going into Botany Bay. It services 46 international and 23 domestic destinations.[38] As the busiest airport in Australia it handled 37.9 million passengers in 2013 and 530,000 tonnes of freight in 2011.[38] It has been announced that a new facility named Western Sydney Airport will be constructed at Badgerys Creek from 2016 at a cost of $2.5 billion.[409] Bankstown Airport is Sydney's second busiest airport, and serves general aviation, charter and some scheduled cargo flights. Bankstown is also the fourth busiest airport in Australia by the number of aircraft movements.[410] Port Botany has surpassed Port Jackson as the city's major shipping port. Cruise ship terminals are located at Sydney Cove and White Bay.

Environmental issues and pollution reduction

George Street, blanketed by smoke from the bushfires in December 2019

As climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and pollution have become a major issue for Australia, Sydney has in the past been criticised for its lack of focus on reducing pollution, cutting back on emissions and maintaining water quality.[411] Since 1995, there have been significant developments in the analysis of air pollution in the Sydney metropolitan region. The development led to the release of the Metropolitan Air Quality Scheme (MAQS), which led to a broader understanding of the causation of pollution in Sydney, allowing the government to form appropriate responses to the pollution.[412] The 2019–20 Australian bushfire season significantly impacted outer Sydney, and consequently dramatically reduced the air quality of the Sydney metropolitan area leading to a smoky haze that lingered for many days throughout December. The air quality was 11 times the hazardous level in some days,[413][414] even making it worse than New Delhi's,[415] where it was also compared to "smoking 32 cigarettes" by Associate Professor Brian Oliver, a respiratory diseases scientist at the University of Technology Sydney.[416]

Australian cities are some of the most car-dependent cities in the world,[417] especially by world city standards, although Sydney's is the lowest of Australia's major cities at 66%.[418] Furthermore, the city also has the highest usage of public transport in an Australian city, at 27%–making it comparable with New York City, Shanghai and Berlin. Despite its high ranking for an Australian city, Sydney has a low level of mass-transit services, with a historically low-density layout and significant urban sprawl, thus increasing the likelihood of car dependency.[419][420] Strategies have been implemented to reduce private vehicle pollution by encouraging mass and public transit,[421] initiating the development of high density housing and introducing a fleet of 10 new Nissan LEAF electric cars, the largest order of the pollution-free vehicle in Australia.[422] Electric cars do not produce carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide, gases which contribute to climate change.[423][424] Cycling trips have increased by 113% across Sydney's inner-city since March 2010, with about 2,000 bikes passing through top peak-hour intersections on an average weekday.[425] Transport developments in the north-west and east of the city have been designed to encourage the use of Sydney's expanding public transportation system.

The City of Sydney became the first council in Australia to achieve formal certification as carbon-neutral in 2008.[426][427] The city has reduced its 2007 carbon emissions by 6% and since 2006 has reduced carbon emissions from city buildings by up to 20%.[425][428] The City of Sydney introduced a Sustainable Sydney 2030 program, with various targets planned and a comprehensive guide on how to reduce energy in homes and offices within Sydney by 30%.[425][429] Reductions in energy consumption have slashed energy bills by $30 million a year.[430] Solar panels have been established on many CBD buildings in an effort to minimise carbon pollution by around 3,000 tonnes a year.[431]

The city also has an "urban forest growth strategy", in which it aims to regular increase the tree coverage in the city by frequently planting trees with strong leaf density and vegetation to provide cleaner air and create moisture during hot weather, thus lowering city temperatures.[432] Sydney has also become a leader in the development of green office buildings and enforcing the requirement of all building proposals to be energy-efficient. The One Central Park development, completed in 2013, is an example of this implementation and design.[433][434][435][436]

Utilities

Warragamba Dam is Sydney's largest water supply dam.

Obtaining sufficient fresh water was difficult during early colonial times. A catchment called the Tank Stream sourced water from what is now the CBD but was little more than an open sewer by the end of the 1700s.[437] The Botany Swamps Scheme was one of several ventures during the mid 1800s that saw the construction of wells, tunnels, steam pumping stations, and small dams to service Sydney's growing population.[437]

The first genuine solution to Sydney's water demands was the Upper Nepean Scheme which came into operation in 1886 and cost over £2 million. It transports water 100 kilometres (62 miles) from the Nepean, Cataract, and Cordeaux rivers and continues to service about 15% of Sydney's total water needs.[437] Dams were built on these three rivers between 1907 and 1935.[437] In 1977 the Shoalhaven Scheme brought several more dams into service.[438]

The state-owned corporation WaterNSW now manages eleven major dams: Warragamba one of the largest domestic water supply dams in the world,[439] Woronora, Cataract, Cordeaux, Nepean, Avon, Wingecarribee Reservoir, Fitzroy Falls Reservoir, Tallowa, the Blue Mountains Dams, and Prospect Reservoir.[440] Water is collected from five catchment areas covering 16,000 square kilometres (6,178 square miles) and total storage amounts to 2.6 teralitres (0.6 cubic miles).[440] The Sydney Desalination Plant came into operation in 2010.[437] WaterNSW supplies bulk water to Sydney Water, a state-owned corporation that operates water distribution, sewerage and storm water management services across greater Sydney.

The two distributors which maintain Sydney's electricity infrastructure are Ausgrid and Endeavour Energy.[441][442] Their combined networks include over 815,000 power poles and 83,000 kilometres (52,000 miles) of electricity cables.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, Mainland China and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately
  2. ^ As a percentage of 4,519,022 persons who nominated their ancestry at the 2016 census.
  3. ^ The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group.[304]
  4. ^ a b Of any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.

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