Russie

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Coordonnées : 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90

Fédération Russe
оссийская едерация
Hymne : 
" Hymne national de la Fédération de Russie "
осударственный гимн Российской Федерации
Russia on the globe, with unrecognised territory shown in light green.[a]
La Russie sur le globe, avec le territoire non reconnu indiqué en vert clair. [une]
Capitale
et plus grande ville
Moscou 55°45′N 37°37′E
 / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617
Langue officielle
et langue nationale
Russe [2]
Langues nationales reconnuesVoir les langues de la Russie
Groupes ethniques
(2010) [3]
Religion
(2017) [4]
Démonyme(s)russe
GouvernementRépublique constitutionnelle fédérale semi-présidentielle [5]
•  Président
Vladimir Poutine
Mikhaïl Michoustine
Valentina Matviyenko
Viatcheslav Volodine
Viatcheslav Lebedev
Corps législatifAssemblée fédérale
Conseil de la Fédération
Douma d'État
Formation
862
879
1283
16 janvier 1547
2 novembre 1721
15 mars 1917
30 décembre 1922
12 décembre 1991
12 décembre 1993
18 mars 2014
4 juillet 2020
Zone
• Le total
17 098 246 km 2 (6 601 670 milles carrés) [6] 17 125 191 km2 (y compris la Crimée) [7] ( 1er )
• L'eau (%)
13 [8]  (y compris les marécages)
Population
• Estimation 2021
  • Neutral decrease 146 171 015
  • (y compris la Crimée ) [9]
  • Neutral decrease 143 759 445
  • (hors Crimée) [9]
( 9ème )
• Densité
8,4/km 2 (21,8/mi²) ( 181e )
PIB  ( PPA )Estimation 2021
• Le total
Increase4,328 milliards de dollars [10] ( 6e )
• Par habitant
Increase29 485 $ [10] ( 55e )
PIB  (nominal)Estimation 2021
• Le total
Increase1,710 billion de dollars [10] ( 11e )
• Par habitant
Increase11 654 $ [10] ( 64e )
Gini  (2018)Negative increase 37,5 [11]
moyen  ·  98e
IDH  (2019)Increase 0,824 [12]
très élevé  ·  52e
MonnaieRouble russe ( ) ( RUB )
Fuseau horaireUTC +2 à +12
Côté conduitedroit
Indicatif d'appel+7
Code ISO 3166RU
TLD Internet

La Russie (russe : Россия , Rossiya , prononciation russe :  [rɐˈsʲijə] ), ou la Fédération de Russie , [b] est un pays qui s'étend sur l'Europe de l'Est et l'Asie du Nord . C'est le plus grand pays du monde , couvrant plus de 17 125 191 kilomètres carrés (6 612 073 milles carrés) et englobant un huitième de la masse continentale habitable de la Terre. La Russie s'étend sur onze fuseaux horaires et possède le plus grand nombre de frontières de tous les pays du monde, avec seize nations souveraines . [c] Il a une population de 146,2 millions d'habitants; et est lele pays le plus peuplé d'Europe et le neuvième pays le plus peuplé du monde. Moscou , la capitale, est la plus grande ville d'Europe ; tandis que Saint-Pétersbourg est la deuxième plus grande ville et centre culturel. Les Russes sont la plus grande nation slave et européenne ; ils parlent le russe , la langue slave la plus parlée et la langue maternelle la plus parlée en Europe.

Les Slaves de l'Est ont émergé comme un groupe reconnaissable en Europe entre le IIIe et le VIIIe siècle de notre ère. L' état médiéval de Rus' est né au IXe siècle. En 988, il a adopté le christianisme orthodoxe de l' Empire byzantin , commençant la synthèse des cultures byzantine et slave qui a défini la culture russe pour le prochain millénaire. Rus' s'est finalement désintégré, jusqu'à ce qu'il soit finalement réunifié par le Grand-Duché de Moscou au 15ème siècle. Au XVIIIe siècle, la nation s'était considérablement étendue par la conquête, l'annexion et l' exploration pour évoluer vers l' Empire russe , le troisième plus grand empire. dans l'histoire.

À la suite de la Révolution russe , la SFSR russe est devenue la plus grande et la plus importante composante de l' Union soviétique , le premier État constitutionnellement socialiste du monde . L'Union soviétique a joué un rôle décisif dans la victoire des Alliés pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale et est devenue une superpuissance et rivale des États-Unis pendant la guerre froide . L'ère soviétique a vu certaines des réalisations technologiques les plus importantes du 20e siècle, y compris le premier satellite artificiel au monde et le lancement du premier humain dans l'espace. Après la dissolution de l'Union soviétique en 1991, la SFSR de Russie s'est reconstituée en Fédération de Russie. Au lendemain de la crise constitutionnelle de 1993 , une nouvelle constitution a été adoptée, et la Russie est depuis gouvernée comme une république fédérale semi-présidentielle . Vladimir Poutine domine le système politique russe depuis 2000 et son gouvernement est accusé d' autoritarisme , de manque de libertés civiles et de corruption .

La Russie est une grande puissance et une superpuissance potentielle . Elle est classée « très élevée » dans l' indice de développement humain , avec un système de santé universel , et un enseignement universitaire gratuit . L' économie de la Russie est la onzième du monde en termes de PIB nominal et la sixième en termes de PPA . C'est un État doté d'armes nucléaires reconnu , possédant le plus grand stock d'armes nucléaires au monde ; avec la deuxième armée la plus puissante et la quatrième dépense militaire la plus élevée. Les vastes ressources minérales et énergétiques de la Russie sont les plus importantes au monde et elle figure parmi les principaux producteurs de pétrole et de gaz naturel au monde. Il est un membre permanent du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies , membre du G20 , l' OCS , le Conseil de l' Europe , l' APEC , l' OSCE , l' IIB et l' OMC , ainsi que le principal membre de la CEI , l' OTSC , et l' EAEU . La Russie abrite également le neuvième plus grand nombre d' UNESCO Sites du patrimoine mondial .

Étymologie

Le nom de Russie est dérivé de Rus' , un état médiéval peuplé principalement par les Slaves de l' Est . [13] Cependant, le nom propre est devenu plus important dans l'histoire ultérieure et le pays était généralement appelé par ses habitants "Русская земля" ( Russkaya zemlya ), qui peut être traduit par "terre russe". [14] Afin de distinguer cet état d'autres états dérivés de lui, il est désigné comme Kievan Rus' par l'historiographie moderne. Le nom Rus ' lui-même vient du peuple Rus du début du Moyen Âge ,un groupe de Norse marchands et guerriers qui ont déménagé à travers lemer Baltique et fonda un État centré sur Novgorod qui devint plus tard Kievan Rus'. [15]

Une version latine médiévale du nom Rus' était Ruthénie , qui était utilisée comme l'une des nombreuses désignations pour les régions slaves orientales et orthodoxes orientales , et généralement comme désignation pour les terres de Rus'. [16] Le nom actuel du pays, Россия ( Rossiya ), vient de la désignation grecque byzantine de la Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía  – orthographié Ρωσία ( Rosía prononcé  [roˈsia] ) en grec moderne . [17]

La manière standard de désigner les citoyens de la Russie est « Russes » en anglais. [18] Il y a deux mots en russe qui sont communément traduits en anglais par « Russes » – l'un est « русские » ( russkiye ), qui fait le plus souvent référence aux Russes ethniques  – et l'autre est « россияне » ( rossiyane ), qui fait référence aux citoyens de Russie, quelle que soit leur origine ethnique. [19]

Histoire

Histoire ancienne

L'un des premiers ossements humains modernes de plus de 40 000 ans a été trouvé dans le sud de la Russie, dans les villages de Kostyonki et Borshchyovo situés sur les rives de la rivière Don . [20] [21]

Le pastoralisme nomade s'est développé dans la steppe pontique-caspienne à partir du Chalcolithique . [23] Des vestiges de ces civilisations steppiques ont été découverts dans des endroits tels qu'Ipatovo , [23] Sintashta , [24] Arkaim , [25] et Pazyryk , [26] qui portent les premières traces connues de chevaux en guerre . [24] Dans l'antiquité classique , la steppe pontique-caspienne était connue sous le nom de Scythie . [27]

À la fin du VIIIe siècle avant notre ère, les commerçants de la Grèce antique ont introduit la civilisation classique dans les centres commerciaux de Tanais et de Phanagoria . [28]

Aux IIIe et IVe siècles de notre ère, le royaume gothique d' Oium existait dans le sud de la Russie, qui fut plus tard envahi par les Huns . [13] Entre les IIIe et VIe siècles de notre ère, le royaume du Bosphore , qui était un régime hellénistique qui succéda aux colonies grecques, [29] fut également submergé par des invasions nomades dirigées par des tribus guerrières telles que les Huns et les Avars eurasiens . [30] Les Khazars , d' origine turque , ont régné sur les steppes du bassin inférieur de la Volga entre la mer Caspienne et la mer Noire jusqu'au Xe siècle. [31]

Les ancêtres des Russes modernes sont les tribus slaves , dont certains érudits pensent que le foyer d'origine était les zones boisées des marais de Pinsk , l'une des plus grandes zones humides d'Europe. [32] Les Slaves de l'Est s'installèrent progressivement en Russie occidentale en deux vagues : l'une se déplaçant de Kiev vers l'actuelle Souzdal et Mourom et l'autre de Polotsk vers Novgorod et Rostov . [31] À partir du VIIe siècle, les Slaves de l'Est constituaient l'essentiel de la population de la Russie occidentale, [31]et lentement mais pacifiquement assimilé les peuples finnois indigènes , y compris les Merya , [33] les Muromiens , [34] et les Meshchera . [35]

Rus de Kiev

Kievan Rus' au 11ème siècle

L'établissement des premiers États slaves de l'Est au IXe siècle a coïncidé avec l'arrivée des Varègues , les Vikings qui s'aventuraient le long des voies navigables s'étendant de la mer Baltique orientale à la mer Noire et à la mer Caspienne . [36] Selon la Chronique primaire , un Varègue du peuple Rus' , nommé Rurik , fut élu souverain de Novgorod en 862. [13] En 882, son successeur Oleg s'aventura au sud et conquit Kiev , [37] qui avait été auparavant rendre hommage aux Khazars .[31] Le fils de Rurik Igor et le fils d'Igor Sviatoslav ont subséquemment soumis toutes lestribus slaves orientales locales à la domination de Kiev, ont détruit le Khazar Khaganate , [38] et ont lancé plusieurs expéditions militaires à Byzance et en Perse . [39] [40]

Du Xe au XIe siècle, la Russie kiévienne est devenue l'un des États les plus grands et les plus prospères d'Europe. [41] Les règnes de Vladimir le Grand (980-1015) et de son fils Yaroslav le Sage (1019-1054) constituent l' âge d'or de Kiev, qui a vu l'acceptation du christianisme orthodoxe de Byzance , et la création du premier slave oriental. code juridique écrit , la Russkaya Pravda . [13]

Aux XIe et XIIe siècles, les incursions constantes des tribus turques nomades, telles que les Kipchaks et les Pechenegs , provoquèrent une migration massive des populations slaves orientales vers les régions plus sûres et densément boisées du nord, en particulier vers la zone connue sous le nom de Zalesye . [42]

L'ère du féodalisme et de la décentralisation était arrivée, marquée par des luttes intestines constantes entre les membres de la dynastie Rurikid qui gouvernaient collectivement la Kievan Rus. La domination de Kiev s'est affaiblie, au profit de Vladimir-Suzdal au nord-est, de la République de Novgorod au nord-ouest et de la Galicie-Volhynie au sud-ouest. [13]

Finalement, Kievan Rus' s'est désintégré, le coup final étant l' invasion mongole de 1237-1240, qui a entraîné la destruction de Kiev et la mort d'environ la moitié de la population de Rus'. [43] Les envahisseurs, plus tard connus sous le nom de Tatars , formèrent l'État de la Horde d'Or , qui pilla les principautés russes et régna sur les étendues méridionales et centrales de la Russie pendant plus de deux siècles. [44]

La Galicie-Volhynie a finalement été assimilée par le Royaume de Pologne , tandis que la République de Novgorod et Vladimir-Suzdal dominé par les Mongols, deux régions à la périphérie de Kiev, ont établi la base de la nation russe moderne. [13] La République de Novgorod a échappé à l'occupation mongole et, avec Pskov, a conservé un certain degré d'autonomie à l'époque du joug mongol ; ils ont été largement épargnés des atrocités qui ont affecté le reste du pays. Dirigés par le prince Alexandre Nevski , les Novgorodiens repoussèrent les envahisseurs suédois lors de la bataille de la Neva en 1240, [45] ainsi que les croisés germaniques dans leBataille de la Glace en 1242. [46]

Grand-Duché de Moscou

Sergius de Radonezh bénissant Dmitri Donskoy à Trinity Sergius Lavra , avant la bataille de Kulikovo , représenté dans une peinture d' Ernst Lissner

L'État le plus puissant à avoir finalement surgi après la destruction de la Russie kiévienne était le Grand-Duché de Moscou , initialement une partie de Vladimir-Suzdal . [47] Alors qu'il était encore sous le domaine des Mongols - Tatars et avec leur connivence, Moscou a commencé à affirmer son influence dans la Rus' centrale au début du 14ème siècle, devenant progressivement la force motrice dans le processus de réunification des terres de la Rus' et l'expansion de la Russie. [48] Le dernier rival de Moscou, la République de Novgorod , prospéra en tant que centre principal du commerce des fourrures et port le plus oriental de la Ligue hanséatique . [49]

Les temps restent difficiles, avec de fréquents raids mongols-tatares . L'agriculture a souffert dès le début du petit âge glaciaire . Comme dans le reste de l'Europe, la peste était fréquente entre 1350 et 1490. [50] Cependant, en raison de la faible densité de population et d'une meilleure hygiène - pratique répandue du banya , un bain de vapeur humide - le taux de mortalité par peste n'était pas aussi élevé. sévère comme en Europe occidentale, [51] et les chiffres de la population récupérés par 1500. [50]

Menée par le prince Dmitri Donskoï de Moscou et aidée par l' Église orthodoxe russe , l'armée unie des principautés russes infligea une défaite décisive aux Mongols-Tatars lors de la bataille de Koulikovo en 1380. [52] Moscou absorba progressivement les principautés environnantes, y compris autrefois de puissants rivaux tels que Tver et Novgorod . [47]

Ivan III ("le Grand") a finalement renversé le contrôle de la Horde d'Or et consolidé l'ensemble de la Russie centrale et septentrionale sous la domination de Moscou, et a été le premier souverain russe à prendre le titre de "Grand-duc de toute la Russie"" . [47] Après la chute de Constantinople en 1453, Moscou a revendiqué la succession à l'héritage de l' Empire romain d'Orient . [47] Ivan III a épousé Sophia Palaiologina , la nièce du dernier empereur byzantin Constantin XI , et a fait de l' aigle à deux têtes byzantin le sien, et finalement les armoiries de la Russie. [53]

Tsarisme de Russie

Le tsar Ivan le Terrible , dans une évocation de Viktor Vasnetsov , 1897.

Dans le développement des idées de la Troisième Rome , le grand-duc Ivan IV (le "Terrible") fut officiellement couronné premier tsar de Russie en 1547. Le tsar promulgua un nouveau code de lois ( Sudebnik de 1550 ), institua le premier organe représentatif féodal russe. ( Zemsky Sobor ), a limité l'influence du clergé et a introduit l'autogestion locale dans les régions rurales. [54]

Au cours de son long règne, Ivan le Terrible a presque doublé le territoire russe déjà vaste en annexant les trois khanats tatars (parties de la Horde d'or désintégrée) : Kazan et Astrakhan le long de la Volga , et le khanat sibérien dans le sud-ouest de la Sibérie. [54] Ainsi, à la fin du XVIe siècle, la Russie s'étendit à l'est des montagnes de l' Oural , donc à l'est de l'Europe, et en Asie, se transformant en un État transcontinental . [55]

Cependant, le tsarisme a été affaibli par la longue et infructueuse guerre de Livonie contre la coalition du Royaume de Pologne et du Grand-Duché de Lituanie (plus tard le Commonwealth polono-lituanien ), le Royaume de Suède et le Danemark-Norvège pour l'accès à la Baltique. commerce côtier et maritime. [56] En même temps, les Tatars du Khanat de Crimée , le seul successeur restant de la Horde d'Or, ont continué à attaquer le sud de la Russie. [57] Dans un effort pour restaurer les khanats de la Volga, les Criméens et leurs alliés ottomans ont envahi la Russie centrale et ont même puincendier des parties de Moscou en 1571. Cependant, l'année suivante, la grande armée d'invasion a été complètement vaincue par les Russes dans la bataille cruciale de Molodi , éliminant à jamais la menace d'une expansion ottomane-criminelle en Russie. [58] Les raids d'esclaves de Crimée , cependant, n'ont pas cessé jusqu'à la fin du XVIIe siècle, bien que la construction de nouvelles lignes de fortification à travers la Russie méridionale, comme la ligne du Grand Abatis , ait constamment rétréci la zone accessible aux incursions. [59]

Kuzma Minin appelle les habitants de Nijni Novgorod à lever une armée de volontaires contre les envahisseurs polonais .

La mort des fils d'Ivan a marqué la fin de l'ancienne dynastie Rurik en 1598 et, combinée à la famine de 1601-1603 , a conduit à une guerre civile, à la domination des prétendants et à une intervention étrangère pendant la période des troubles au début du 17e siècle. Le Commonwealth polono-lituanien a occupé des parties de la Russie, s'étendant jusqu'à la capitale Moscou. En 1612, les Polonais sont contraints de battre en retraite par le corps de volontaires russes, dirigé par deux héros nationaux, le marchand Kuzma Minin et le prince Dmitri Pojarski . [60] La dynastie des Romanovaccéda au trône en 1613 par décision de Zemsky Sobor, et le pays commença sa sortie progressive de la crise. [61]

La Russie a continué sa croissance territoriale jusqu'au 17ème siècle, qui était l'âge des Cosaques . [62] En 1648, les paysans d'Ukraine ont rejoint les Cosaques de Zaporozhian en rébellion contre le Commonwealth polonais-lituanien pendant le soulèvement de Khmelnytsky . [63] En 1654, le leader ukrainien, Bohdan Khmelnytsky , propose de placer l'Ukraine sous la protection du tsar russe, Alexeï Ier . L'acceptation d'Aleksey de cette offre a conduit à une autre guerre russo-polonaise . En fin de compte, l'Ukraine a été divisée le long du fleuve Dniepr , laissant la partie ouest, la rive droite de l'Ukraine, sous domination polonaise et la partie orientale ( Ukraine rive gauche et Kiev ) sous domination russe. [56] Plus tard, en 1670-1671, les Cosaques du Don dirigés par Stenka Razin ont lancé un soulèvement majeur dans la région de la Volga , mais les troupes du tsar ont réussi à vaincre les rebelles. [64]

À l'est, l'exploration et la colonisation russes rapides de la vaste Sibérie ont été menées principalement par les Cosaques, chassant les fourrures et l'ivoire de valeur. [62] Les explorateurs russes ont poussé vers l'est principalement le long des routes fluviales sibériennes , et au milieu du XVIIe siècle, il y avait des colonies russes en Sibérie orientale, sur la péninsule de Chukchi , le long du fleuve Amour et sur la côte de l' océan Pacifique . [55] En 1648, Fedot Popov et Semyon Dezhnyov , deux explorateurs russes, découvrirent le détroit de Béring et devinrent les premiers Européens à naviguer vers l'Amérique du Nord. [65]

Russie impériale

Sous Pierre le Grand , la Russie fut proclamée Empire en 1721, et devint l'une des grandes puissances européennes. Au pouvoir de 1682 à 1725, Pierre bat la Suède lors de la Grande Guerre du Nord (1700−1721), la forçant à céder la Carélie occidentale et l' Ingrie (deux régions perdues par la Russie au temps des troubles ), ainsi que le gouvernorat d'Estonie et de Livonie. , sécurisant l'accès de la Russie à la mer et au commerce maritime. En 1703, sur la mer Baltique, Pierre fonda Saint-Pétersbourg comme nouvelle capitale de la Russie. Tout au long de son règne, des réformes radicales ont été faites , qui ont apporté d'importantes influences culturelles d'Europe occidentale en Russie.[66]

Le règne d' Élisabeth, la fille de Pierre Ier, en 1741-1762, vit la Russie participer à la guerre de Sept Ans (1756-1763). Au cours de ce conflit, la Russie annexa la Prusse orientale et atteignit même les portes de Berlin . Cependant, à la mort d'Élisabeth, toutes ces conquêtes ont été rendues au royaume de Prusse par le pro-prussien Pierre III de Russie . [66]

Catherine II (« la Grande »), qui a régné en 1762-1796, a présidé le siècle des Lumières de la Russie . Elle a étendu le contrôle politique russe sur le Commonwealth polono-lituanien et a incorporé la plupart de ses territoires à la Russie pendant les partitions de la Pologne , repoussant la frontière russe vers l'ouest en Europe centrale, faisant ainsi de la Russie le pays le plus peuplé d'Europe. Au sud, après le succès des guerres russo-turques contre l' Empire ottoman , Catherine a avancé la frontière de la Russie jusqu'à la mer Noire, battant le khanat de Crimée . À la suite des victoires sur l'Iran Qajar à travers les guerres russo-persanes, dans la première moitié du 19e siècle, la Russie a également réalisé des gains territoriaux importants en Transcaucasie et dans le Caucase du Nord . [66] Le successeur de Catherine, son fils Paul , était instable et se concentrait principalement sur les problèmes domestiques . Après son court règne, la stratégie de Catherine s'est poursuivie avec la conquête de la Finlande par Alexandre Ier (1801–25) de la Suède affaiblie en 1809 et de la Bessarabie aux Ottomans en 1812. En Amérique du Nord, les Russes sont devenus les premiers Européens à atteindre et coloniser l'Alaska . [67]

Expansion russe et évolution territoriale entre le XIVe et le XXe siècle. [68]

En 1803-1806, la première circumnavigation russe a été effectuée, suivie plus tard par d'autres voyages d'exploration maritime russes notables. [69] En 1820, une expédition russe découvre le continent Antarctique . [70]

Pendant les guerres napoléoniennes , la Russie a rejoint des alliances avec divers autres empires européens et a combattu contre la France . L' invasion française de la Russie à l'apogée de la puissance de Napoléon en 1812 a atteint Moscou, mais a finalement échoué lamentablement car la résistance obstinée combinée à l' hiver russe extrêmement froid a conduit à une défaite désastreuse des envahisseurs, dans laquelle plus de 95% de la pan- La Grande Armée européenne périt. Dirigée par Mikhail Kutuzov et Barclay de Tolly , l' armée impériale russe a chassé Napoléon du pays et a conduit à travers l' Europe dans la guerre de la sixième coalition , entrant finalementParisienne . Alexandre Ier contrôlait la délégation de la Russie au Congrès de Vienne , qui a défini la carte de l'Europe post-napoléonienne. [67]

Monument à Mikhail Kutuzov devant la cathédrale de Kazan à Saint-Pétersbourg. La cathédrale de Kazan et la cathédrale du Christ Sauveur à Moscou ont été construites pour commémorer la défaite de Napoléon .

Les officiers qui ont poursuivi Napoléon en Europe occidentale ont ramené avec eux des idées de libéralisme en Russie et ont tenté de restreindre les pouvoirs du tsar lors de la révolte avortée des décembristes de 1825. À la fin du règne conservateur de Nicolas I (1825-1855), un zénith période de puissance et d'influence de la Russie en Europe, a été perturbée par la défaite de la guerre de Crimée . [67] Entre 1847 et 1851, environ un million de personnes sont mortes à travers le pays à cause du choléra . [71]

Le successeur de Nicolas Alexandre II (1855-1881) a promulgué des changements importants dans tout le pays, y compris la réforme d'émancipation de 1861 . Ces réformes ont stimulé l'industrialisation et modernisé l'armée impériale russe, qui a libéré une grande partie des Balkans de la domination ottomane au lendemain de la guerre russo-turque de 1877-1878 . Pendant la majeure partie du XIXe et du début du XXe siècle, la Russie et la Grande - Bretagne se sont disputées pour combler les vides de pouvoir laissés par l'Empire ottoman en déclin, l'Iran Qajar et la dynastie Qing . Cette rivalité entre les deux grands empires européens est connue sous le nom de « Le Grand Jeu ». [72]

La fin du 19ème siècle a vu la montée de divers mouvements socialistes en Russie. Alexandre II fut tué en 1881 par des terroristes révolutionnaires, et le règne de son fils Alexandre III (1881-1894) fut moins libéral mais plus pacifique. Le dernier empereur russe, Nicolas II (1894-1917), n'a pas pu empêcher les événements de la révolution russe de 1905 , déclenchés par l'échec de la guerre russo-japonaise et l'incident de démonstration connu sous le nom de Bloody Sunday . Le soulèvement a été réprimé, mais le gouvernement a été contraint de concéder des réformes majeures ( Constitution russe de 1906 ), notamment en accordant les libertés d'expression et de réunion, la légalisation des partis politiques et la création d'un organe législatif élu, la Douma d'Etat . [72]

Révolution de février et République russe

L'empereur Nicolas II de Russie et sa famille ont été assassinés par les bolcheviks en 1918.

En 1914, la Russie est entré dans la Première Guerre mondiale en réponse à l' Autriche-Hongrie déclaration de guerre de la Russie sur l' allié de la Serbie , [73] et a combattu sur plusieurs fronts tout isolé de ses Triple Entente alliés. [74] En 1916, l' offensive Brusilov de l'armée impériale russe a presque complètement détruit l' armée austro-hongroise . [75] Cependant, la méfiance publique déjà existante à l'égard du régime a été aggravée par les coûts croissants de la guerre, les pertes élevées et les rumeurs de corruption et de trahison. Tout cela a formé le climat de la révolution russede 1917, réalisée en deux actes majeurs. [76]

La Révolution de Février força Nicolas II à abdiquer ; lui et sa famille ont été emprisonnés puis exécutés à Ekaterinbourg pendant la guerre civile russe . [61] La monarchie a été remplacée par une coalition fragile de partis politiques qui s'est déclarée le gouvernement provisoire . [77] Le 1er septembre (14) 1917, sur décret du gouvernement provisoire, la République russe est proclamée. [78] Le 6 janvier (19) 1918, l' Assemblée constituante russe a déclaré la Russie une république fédérale démocratique (en ratifiant ainsi la décision du gouvernement provisoire). [76]Le lendemain, l'Assemblée constituante a été dissoute par le Comité exécutif central panrusse . [76]

Guerre civile russe

Affiche de propagande des émigrés blancs , vers 1932.

Un établissement socialiste alternatif coexistait, le Soviet de Petrograd , exerçant le pouvoir par le biais de conseils démocratiquement élus d'ouvriers et de paysans, appelés Soviets . Le règne des nouvelles autorités n'a fait qu'aggraver la crise dans le pays au lieu de la résoudre, et finalement, la Révolution d'Octobre , dirigée par le leader bolchevique Vladimir Lénine , a renversé le gouvernement provisoire et a donné le plein pouvoir aux Soviétiques, conduisant à la création de le premier État socialiste du monde . [76]

Après la Révolution d'Octobre, la guerre civile russe éclate entre le mouvement blanc anticommuniste et le nouveau régime soviétique avec son Armée rouge . La Russie bolcheviste a perdu ses territoires ukrainiens, polonais, baltes et finlandais en signant le traité de Brest-Litovsk qui a conclu les hostilités avec les puissances centrales de la Première Guerre mondiale. [76] Les puissances alliées ont lancé une intervention militaire infructueuse en soutien aux anticommunistes. les forces. [79]Pendant ce temps, les bolcheviks et le mouvement blanc ont mené des campagnes de déportations et d'exécutions les uns contre les autres, connues respectivement sous le nom de terreur rouge et de terreur blanche . [80] À la fin de la guerre civile, l'économie et l'infrastructure de la Russie ont été lourdement endommagées. Il y a eu environ 7 à 12 millions de victimes pendant la guerre, principalement des civils. [81] Des millions sont devenus des émigrés blancs , [82] et la famine russe de 1921-22 a fait jusqu'à cinq millions de victimes. [83]

Union soviétique

Affiche de caricature politique bolchevique de 1920, montrant Vladimir Lénine balayant les monarques, le clergé et les capitalistes.

Le 30 décembre 1922, Lénine et ses collaborateurs ont formé l' Union soviétique , en fusionnant la SFSR russe avec la SFSR ukrainienne , biélorusse et transcaucasienne . Finalement, l'union s'est agrandie pour englober 15 républiques , dont la plus grande en taille et en population était la SFSR russe, qui a dominé l'union pendant toute son histoire politiquement, culturellement et économiquement. [84]

Après la mort de Lénine en 1924, une troïka a été désignée pour prendre en charge. Finalement, Joseph Staline , le secrétaire général du Parti communiste , a réussi à supprimer toutes les factions de l'opposition et à consolider le pouvoir entre ses mains pour devenir le dictateur du pays dans les années 1930. [84] Léon Trotsky , le principal partisan de la révolution mondiale , a été exilé de l'Union soviétique en 1929, et l'idée de Staline du socialisme dans un seul pays est devenue la ligne officielle. [85] La lutte interne continue dans le parti bolchevique a culminé dans la Grande Purge, une période de répression de masse en 1937-1938, au cours de laquelle des centaines de milliers de personnes ont été exécutées, y compris des membres originaux du parti et des chefs militaires forcés d'avouer des complots inexistants. [86]

Sous la direction de Staline, le gouvernement a lancé une économie dirigée , l' industrialisation du pays en grande partie rural et la collectivisation de son agriculture . Au cours de cette période de changement économique et social rapide, des millions de personnes ont été envoyées dans des camps de travail pénitentiaire , y compris de nombreux condamnés politiques pour leur opposition présumée ou réelle au régime de Staline ; des millions ont été déportés et exilés dans des régions reculées de l'Union soviétique. La désorganisation transitoire de l'agriculture du pays, combinée aux politiques sévères de l'État et à une sécheresse, a conduit à la famine soviétique de 1932-1933; et l'Union soviétique a fait la transformation coûteuse d'une économie en grande partie agraire à une grande puissance industrielle dans un court laps de temps. [87]

La Seconde Guerre mondiale

La bataille de Stalingrad , la plus grande et la plus sanglante bataille de l'histoire de la guerre, s'est terminée en 1943 par une victoire soviétique décisive contre l' armée allemande .
Victimes de la Seconde Guerre mondiale en Europe par théâtre et par année. L'effort soviétique était essentiel pour vaincre les puissances de l'Axe. [88]

Le 22 juin 1941, l'Allemagne nazie rompit le pacte Molotov-Ribbentrop ; et envahi l'Union soviétique mal préparée avec la force d'invasion la plus grande et la plus puissante de l'histoire de l'humanité, [89] ouvrant le plus grand théâtre de la Seconde Guerre mondiale . [90] Le Plan de la Faim allemand prévoyait la famine et l'extinction d'une grande partie de la population soviétique, [91] et Generalplan Ost a appelé à l'élimination de plus de 70 millions de Russes pour Lebensraum . [92]

Près de 3 millions de prisonniers de guerre soviétiques en captivité allemande ont été assassinés en seulement huit mois de 1941-1942. [93] Bien que la Wehrmacht ait connu un succès précoce considérable, son attaque a été interrompue lors de la bataille de Moscou . [94] Par la suite, les Allemands ont subi des défaites majeures d'abord à la bataille de Stalingrad à l'hiver 1942-1943, [95] puis à la bataille de Koursk à l'été 1943. [96] Un autre échec allemand était le siège de Léningrad, dans laquelle la ville a été entièrement bloquée sur terre entre 1941 et 1944 par les forces allemandes et finlandaises, et a souffert de la famine et de plus d'un million de morts, mais ne s'est jamais rendue. [97] Sous l'administration de Staline et la direction de commandants tels que Georgy Zhukov et Konstantin Rokossovsky , les forces soviétiques ont déferlé sur l'Europe orientale et centrale en 1944-1945 et ont capturé Berlin en mai 1945. [98] En août 1945, l' armée soviétique a renversé le Des Japonais du Mandchoukouo chinois et de la Corée du Nord, contribuant à la victoire des Alliés sur le Japon. [99]

La période 1941-1945 de la Seconde Guerre mondiale est connue en Russie sous le nom de Grande Guerre patriotique . [100] L'Union soviétique avec les États-Unis, le Royaume-Uni et la Chine ont été considérés comme les quatre grands des puissances alliées pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, [101] et sont devenus plus tard les quatre policiers qui ont été à la base du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies. . [102] Au cours de cette guerre, qui comprenait bon nombre des opérations de combat les plus meurtrières de l'histoire de l'humanité, les civils et militaires soviétiques ont été tués entre 26 et 27 millions , ce qui représente environ un tiers de toutes les victimes de la Seconde Guerre mondiale . [103]La perte démographique totale des citoyens soviétiques était encore plus grande. [104] L' économie et l'infrastructure soviétiques ont subi une dévastation massive, qui a provoqué la famine soviétique de 1946-1947 . [105] Néanmoins, l'Union soviétique a émergé comme une superpuissance mondiale dans la foulée. [106]

Guerre froide

Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, certaines parties de l'Europe orientale et centrale, y compris l'Allemagne de l'Est et l'est de l' Autriche, ont été occupées par l'Armée rouge selon la Conférence de Potsdam . [107] Des gouvernements communistes dépendants ont été installés dans les États satellites du bloc de l' Est . [108] Après être devenu deuxième au monde l' énergie nucléaire , [109] l'Union soviétique a créé le Pacte de Varsovie alliance, [110] et est entré dans une lutte pour la domination mondiale, connue sous le nom de la guerre froide , les États-Unis et rivalisant avec l' OTAN .[111]

Après la mort de Staline en 1953 et une courte période de régime collectif , le nouveau dirigeant Nikita Khrouchtchev dénonça les nombreux crimes et atrocités de Staline et lança la politique de déstalinisation , libérant de nombreux prisonniers politiques des camps de travail du Goulag . [112] L'assouplissement général des politiques répressives est devenu connu plus tard sous le nom de Khrouchtchev Thaw . [113] Dans le même temps, les tensions de la guerre froide atteignirent leur paroxysme lorsque les deux rivaux s'affrontèrent au sujet du déploiement des missiles Jupiter des États-Unis en Turquie et des missiles soviétiques à Cuba . [114]

Spoutnik 1 a été le premier satellite artificiel au monde.

En 1957, l'Union soviétique a lancé le premier satellite artificiel au monde , Spoutnik 1 , marquant ainsi le début de l' ère spatiale . [115] Le cosmonaute russe Youri Gagarine est devenu le premier humain à orbiter autour de la Terre, à bord du vaisseau spatial habité Vostok 1 le 12 avril 1961 . [116] Après l'éviction de Khrouchtchev en 1964, une autre période de règne collectif s'ensuivit, jusqu'à ce que Leonid Brejnev devienne le leader. L'ère des années 1970 et du début des années 1980 a ensuite été désignée comme l' ère de la stagnation, une période où la croissance économique a ralenti et les politiques sociales sont devenues statiques. La réforme Kossyguine de 1965 visait à une décentralisation partielle de l' économie soviétique et a déplacé l'accent de l'industrie lourde et des armes vers l'industrie légère et les biens de consommation, mais a été étouffée par la direction communiste conservatrice. [117] En 1979, après une révolution dirigée par les communistes en Afghanistan, les forces soviétiques ont envahi le pays, commençant finalement la guerre soviéto-afghane . L'occupation a épuisé les ressources économiques et s'est prolongée sans obtenir de résultats politiques significatifs. Enfin, les Soviétiques se sont retirés d'Afghanistanen 1989 en raison de l'opposition internationale, de la persistance de la guérilla anti-soviétique et du manque de soutien des citoyens soviétiques. [118]

Mikhaïl Gorbatchev lors de discussions en tête-à-tête avec Ronald Reagan lors du sommet de Reykjavík , 1986. [119]

À partir de 1985, le dernier dirigeant soviétique Mikhaïl Gorbatchev , qui cherchait à mettre en œuvre des réformes libérales dans le système soviétique, a introduit les politiques de glasnost (ouverture) et de perestroïka (restructuration) pour tenter de mettre fin à la période de stagnation économique et de démocratiser le gouvernement. . [120] Ceci, cependant, a conduit à la montée de forts mouvements nationalistes et séparatistes à travers le pays. [121] Avant 1991, l'économie soviétique était la deuxième plus grande du monde, mais au cours de ses dernières années, elle a été affligée par des pénuries de marchandises dans les épiceries, d'énormes déficits budgétaires et une croissance explosive de la masse monétaire conduisant à l'inflation. [122]

En 1991, les troubles économiques et politiques ont commencé à déborder lorsque les États baltes ont choisi de se séparer de l'Union soviétique. [123] Le 17 mars, un référendum a eu lieu, au cours duquel la grande majorité des citoyens participants ont voté en faveur de la transformation de l'Union soviétique en une fédération renouvelée . [124] En juin 1991, Boris Eltsine est devenu le premier président directement élu de l'histoire de la Russie lorsqu'il a été élu président de la SFSR russe. [125] En août 1991, une tentative de coup d'Étatpar des membres du gouvernement de Gorbatchev, dirigé contre Gorbatchev et visant à préserver l'Union soviétique, a plutôt conduit à la fin du Parti communiste de l'Union soviétique. [126] Le 25 décembre 1991, suite à la dissolution de l'Union soviétique , avec la Russie contemporaine, quatorze autres États post-soviétiques ont émergé. [127]

Russie post-soviétique (1991-présent)

Vladimir Poutine prête serment en tant que président lors de sa première investiture , avec Boris Eltsine à la recherche, 2000.

L'effondrement économique et politique de l'Union soviétique a conduit la Russie dans une dépression profonde et prolongée. [128] Pendant et après la désintégration de l'Union soviétique, des réformes de grande envergure, y compris la privatisation et la libéralisation des marchés et des échanges, ont été entreprises, [129] y compris des changements radicaux dans le sens de la « thérapie de choc » recommandée par les États-Unis et l' Internationale Fonds monétaire . [130]

La privatisation a largement déplacé le contrôle des entreprises des agences d'État vers des individus ayant des relations internes au sein du gouvernement, ce qui a conduit à la montée des infâmes oligarques russes . [131] Beaucoup de nouveaux riches ont déplacé des milliards d'argent et d'actifs à l'extérieur du pays dans le cadre d'une énorme fuite de capitaux . [132] La dépression de l'économie a conduit à l'effondrement des services sociaux; le taux de natalité a chuté tandis que le taux de mortalité montait en flèche, et des millions de personnes ont plongé dans la pauvreté. [133] Les années 1990 ont également vu une corruption et un anarchie extrêmes, ainsi que la montée des gangs criminels et des crimes violents. [134]

Fin 1993, les tensions entre Eltsine et le parlement russe ont culminé dans une crise constitutionnelle qui a pris fin après la force militaire. Pendant la crise, Eltsine a été soutenu par les gouvernements occidentaux et plus de 100 personnes ont été tuées. En décembre, un référendum a été organisé et approuvé, qui a introduit une nouvelle constitution, donnant au président d'énormes pouvoirs. [135]

Dmitry Medvedev et Barack Obama après la signature du traité de réduction nucléaire New START , 2010. [136]

Les années 1990 ont été en proie à des conflits armés dans le Caucase du Nord , à la fois des escarmouches ethniques locales et des insurrections islamistes séparatistes . [137] À partir du moment où les séparatistes tchétchènes ont déclaré l'indépendance au début des années 1990, une guerre de guérilla intermittente a été menée entre les groupes rebelles et les forces russes. [138] Des attaques terroristes contre des civils ont été menées par des séparatistes, faisant des milliers de morts. [ré]

La Russie a assumé la responsabilité du règlement des dettes extérieures de l'Union soviétique, même si sa population n'en représentait que la moitié au moment de sa dissolution. En 1992, la plupart des contrôles des prix à la consommation ont été supprimés, provoquant une inflation extrême et dévaluant considérablement le rouble. Avec un rouble dévalué, le gouvernement russe a eu du mal à rembourser ses dettes envers les débiteurs internes, ainsi que les institutions internationales. Malgré d'importantes tentatives de restructuration économique, la dette de la Russie a dépassé la croissance du PIB. Des déficits budgétaires élevés, associés à une fuite croissante des capitaux et à une incapacité à rembourser les dettes, ont provoqué la crise financière russe de 1998 et entraîné une nouvelle baisse du PIB. [143]

L'ère Poutine

Le 31 décembre 1999, le président Eltsine a démissionné de manière inattendue, cédant le poste au Premier ministre récemment nommé et à son successeur choisi, Vladimir Poutine . [144] Eltsine a quitté ses fonctions largement impopulaire, avec un taux d'approbation aussi bas que 2% selon certaines estimations. [145] Poutine a ensuite remporté l' élection présidentielle de 2000 , [146] et a réprimé l'insurrection tchétchène . [147] En raison des prix élevés du pétrole , d'une augmentation des investissements étrangers et de politiques économiques et fiscales prudentes, l' économie russe s'est considérablement développée ; améliorer considérablement le niveau de vie de la Russie et accroître son influence danspolitique mondiale . [148] Poutine a remporté un deuxième mandat présidentiel en 2004. [149]

Vladimir Poutine (troisième à gauche), Sergey Aksyonov (premier à gauche), Vladimir Konstantinov (deuxième à gauche) et Alexei Chalyi (à droite) signent le traité d'adhésion de la République de Crimée à la Russie en 2014

Le 2 mars 2008, Dmitri Medvedev a été élu président tandis que Poutine devenait Premier ministre, la constitution interdisant à Poutine de remplir un troisième mandat présidentiel consécutif . [150] Poutine est revenu à la présidence à la suite des élections présidentielles de 2012 , [151] et Medvedev a été nommé Premier ministre. [152] Cette direction conjointe de quatre ans par les deux a été qualifiée de « tandemocratie » par les médias étrangers. [153]

En 2014, après la fuite du président ukrainien Viktor Ianoukovitch à la suite d'une révolution , Poutine a demandé et obtenu du parlement russe l'autorisation de déployer des troupes russes en Ukraine , ce qui a conduit à la prise de contrôle de la Crimée. [154] Suite à un référendum de Crimée dans lequel la séparation a été favorisée par une large majorité d'électeurs, [155] les dirigeants russes ont annoncé l'adhésion de la Crimée à la Russie, bien que cela et le référendum qui l'a précédé n'aient pas été acceptés au niveau international . [156] L'annexion de la Crimée a entraîné des sanctions de la part des pays occidentaux, après quoi le gouvernement russe a répondu par des contre-sanctions contre un certain nombre de pays. [157]

En septembre 2015, la Russie a lancé une intervention militaire dans la guerre civile syrienne en soutien au gouvernement syrien, consistant en des frappes aériennes contre des groupes militants de l' État islamique , du Front al-Nosra (al-Qaïda au Levant), de l' Armée de conquête et d'autres groupes rebelles. [158] En mars 2018, Poutine a été élu pour un quatrième mandat présidentiel au total. [159]

In January 2020, substantial amendments to the constitution were proposed,[160] and the entire Russian government resigned,[161] leading to Mikhail Mishustin becoming the new prime minister.[162] It took effect in July following a national vote, allowing Putin to run for two more six-year presidential terms after his current term ends.[163] In April 2021, Putin signed the constitutional changes into law.[164]

Geography

Topographic map of Russia

Russia is a transcontinental country stretching vastly over two continents: Europe and Asia.[165] It spans the northernmost corner of Eurasia, and has the world's fourth-longest coastline, at 37,653 km (23,396 mi).[e][167] Russia lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W, and is larger than three continents of the world,[f] while having the same surface area as Pluto.[169]

Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia's westernmost part along the Baltic Sea, is about 9,000 km (5,592 mi) apart from its easternmost part, Big Diomede Island in the Bering Strait.[170] Russia has nine major mountain ranges, and they are found along the southern regions, which share a significant portion of the Caucasus Mountains (containing Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest peak in Russia and Europe);[5] the Altai and Sayan Mountains in Siberia; and in the East Siberian Mountains and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East (containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which at 4,750 m (15,584 ft) is the highest active volcano in Eurasia).[171][172] The Ural Mountains, running north to south through the country's west, are rich in mineral resources, and form the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia.[173]

Russia borders three oceans,[165] and over thirteen marginal seas.[g][170] Russia's major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin.[174][175] The Diomede Islands, administred by Russia and the United States, are just 3.8 km (2.4 mi) apart;[176] and Kunashir Island in the extreme southeast of Russia is just 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaido, Japan.

Russia, home to over 100,000 rivers,[165] has one of the world's largest surface water resources, with its lakes containing approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water.[172] Lake Baikal, the largest and most prominent among Russia's fresh water bodies, is the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake, containing over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water.[177] Ladoga and Onega in northwestern Russia are two of the largest lakes in Europe.[165] Russia is second only to Brazil by total renewable water resources.[178] The Volga, situated in western Russia, is the longest river in Europe; while the rivers of Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Amur in Siberia are among the longest rivers in the world.[179]

Climate

The sheer size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest. Mountains in the south and east obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian and Pacific oceans, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences. Most of Northwest Russia and Siberia has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly Sakha, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C or −96.2 °F),[174] and more moderate winters elsewhere. Russia's vast stretch of land along the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate.[181]

The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably Sochi, and some coastal and interior strips of the North Caucasus possess a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. In many regions of East Siberia and the Russian Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The westernmost parts of Kaliningrad Oblast on the Vistula Spit, and some parts in the south of Krasnodar Krai and the North Caucasus have an oceanic climate. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some southernmost silvers of Siberia, possess a semi-arid climate.[180]

Throughout much of the territory, there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.[181] The coldest month is January (February on the coastline); the warmest is usually July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia.[182]

Biodiversity

Russia, owing to its gigantic size, has diverse ecosystems, including polar deserts, tundra, forest tundra, taiga, mixed and broadleaf forest, forest steppe, steppe, semi-desert, and subtropics.[183] About half of Russia's territory is forested,[5] and it has the world's largest forest reserves,[184] which are known as the "Lungs of Europe"; coming second only to the Amazon rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs.[185]

Russian biodiversity includes 12,500 species of vascular plants, 2,200 species of bryophytes, about 3,000 species of lichens, 7,000-9,000 species of algae, and 20,000-25,000 species of fungi. Russian fauna is composed of 320 species of mammals, over 732 species of birds, 75 species of reptiles, about 30 species of amphibians, 343 species of freshwater fish (high endemism), approximately 1,500 species of saltwater fishes, 9 species of cyclostomata, and approximately 100–150,000 invertebrates (high endemism).[186] Approximately 1,100 of rare and endangered plant and animal species are included in the Russian Red Data Book.[183]

Russia's entirely natural ecosystems are conserved in nearly 15,000 specially protected natural territories of various statuses, occupying more than 10% of the country's total area.[183] They include 45 UNESCO biosphere reserves,[187] 64 national parks, and 101 nature reserves.[188] Russia still has many ecosystems which are still untouched by man—mainly in the northern taiga areas and the subarctic tundra of Siberia. Over time the country has been having improvement and application of environmental legislation, development and implementation of various federal and regional strategies and programmes, and study, inventory and protection of rare and endangered plants, animals, and other organisms, and including them in the Russian Red Data Book.[184]

Government and politics

Vladimir Putin (2018-03-01) 03 (cropped).jpg Mikhail Mishustin (2020-07-09).jpg
Vladimir Putin
President
Mikhail Mishustin
Prime Minister

According to the Constitution of Russia, the country is an asymmetric federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the president is the head of state,[189] and the prime minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches:[190]

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term).[191] Ministries of the government are composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma).

Political divisions

According to the constitution, the Russian Federation is composed of 85 federal subjects.[h] In 1993, when the new constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed, but some were later merged. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council,[192] the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.[193]

Map of federal subjects of Russia (2014).svg
Federal subjects Governance
  46 oblasts
The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.
  22 republics
Each is nominally autonomous;[194] home to a specific ethnic minority, and has its own constitution, language, and legislature, but is represented by the federal government in international affairs.[195]
  9 krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
Major cities that function as separate regions (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol).
  1 autonomous oblast
The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[196]

Federal districts

Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.[197] Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government but are a level of administration of the federal government. Federal districts' presidential envoys have the power to implement federal law and to coordinate communication between the president and the regional governors.[198]

Foreign relations

Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.

As of 2019, Russia has the world's fifth-largest diplomatic network, maintaining diplomatic relations with 190 United Nations member states, two partially-recognized states, and three United Nations observer states; with 144 embassies.[199] It is considered a potential superpower; and is a historical great power, an important regional power, and one of five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Russia is a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and the APEC, and takes a leading role in organisations such as the CIS, the EAEU, the CSTO, the SCO, and BRICS.

Russia maintains positive relations with other countries of SCO,[200] EAEU,[201] and BRICS,[202] especially with neighbouring Belarus, which is in the Union State, a supranational confederation of the latter with Russia.[203] Serbia has been a historically close ally of Russia since centuries, as both countries share a strong mutual cultural, ethnic, and religious affinity.[204] In the 21st century, Sino-Russian relations have significantly strengthened bilaterally and economically; due to shared political interests.[205] India is the largest customer of Russian military equipment, and the two countries share a historically strong strategic and diplomatic relationship since the Soviet period.[206]

Military

The Russian Armed Forces are divided into the Ground Forces, the Navy, and the Aerospace Forces—and there are also two independent arms of service: the Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops.[5] As of 2019, the military had around one million active-duty personnel, which is the world's fourth-largest.[208] Additionally, there are over 2.5 million reservists, with the total number of reserve troops possibly being as high as 20 million.[209] It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces.[5]

Russia boasts the world's second-most powerful military,[210] and is among the five recognized nuclear-weapons states, with the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons; over half of the world's nuclear weapons are owned by Russia.[211] The nation possesses the second-largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines,[212] and is one of the only three states operating strategic bombers.[213] It has the world's most powerful ground force,[214] and the second-most powerful air force and navy fleet.[215][216] Russia has the world's fourth-highest military expenditure, spending $65.1 billion in 2019.[217] It has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment, and is the world's second-largest exporter of arms, behind only the United States.[5]

Human rights and corruption

Russia's human rights management has been increasingly criticized by leading democracy and human rights watchdogs. In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.[218][219] Since 2004, Freedom House has ranked Russia as "not free" in its Freedom in the World survey.[220] Since 2011, the Economist Intelligence Unit has ranked Russia as an "authoritarian regime" in its Democracy Index, ranking it 124th out of 167 countries for 2020.[221] In regards to media freedom, Russia was ranked 149th out of 180 countries in Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index for 2020.[222]

Russia was the lowest rated European country in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2020; ranking 129th out of 180 countries.[223] Corruption is perceived as a significant problem in Russia,[224] impacting various aspects of life, including the economy,[225] business,[226] public administration,[227] law enforcement,[228][229] healthcare,[230][231] and education.[232] The phenomenon of corruption is strongly established in the historical model of public governance, and attributed to general weakness of rule of law in the country.[224]

Economy

Moscow is a major financial hub in Europe, and has one of the world's largest urban economies.
Russia's GDP growth by purchasing power parity (PPP) during 1991–2019 in international dollars

Russia has a mixed economy,[233] with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.[234] It has the world's eleventh-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. In 2017, the large service sector contributed to 62% of the total GDP, the industrial sector 32%, and the small agricultural sector roughly 5%.[5] Russia has a low unemployment rate of 4.5%,[235] and a relatively low poverty rate of 12.6%.[236] More than 70% of its population is categorized as middle class officially.[237][i] Russia's foreign exchange reserves are the world's worth $622 billion, and are the world's fifth-largest.[241] It has a labour force of roughly 70 million, which is the world's sixth-largest.[242] Russia's large automotive industry ranks as the world's tenth-largest by production.[243]

Russia is the world's fourteenth-largest exporter.[244] In 2016, the oil-and-gas sector accounted for 36% of federal budget revenues.[245] In 2019, the Natural Resources and Environment Ministry estimated the value of natural resources to 60% of the country's GDP.[246] Russia has one of the lowest external debts among major developed countries,[247] and ranked high among the "very easy" countries in the 2019 Ease of Doing Business Index.[248] It has a flat tax rate of 13%, and has the world's second-most attractive personal tax system for single managers after the United Arab Emirates.[249] However, extreme inequality of household income and wealth in the country has also been noted.[250][251]

Infrastructure

Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways.[252] The total length of common-used railway tracks is the world's third-longest, and exceeds 87,157 km (54,157 mi).[253] As of 2016, Russia has 1,452.2 thousand km of roads,[254] and its road density is among the world's lowest.[255] Russia's inland waterways are the world's second-longest, and total 102,000 km (63,380 mi).[256] Among Russia's 1,218 airports,[257] the busiest is Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, which is also the fifth-busiest airport in Europe.

The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.[258]

Russia's largest port is the Port of Novorossiysk in Krasnodar Krai along the Black Sea.[259] It is the world's sole country to operate nuclear-powered icebreakers, which advance the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia, and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route.[260]

Russia has been widely described as an energy superpower;[261] as it has the world's largest natural gas reserves,[262] the second-largest coal reserves,[263] the eighth-largest oil reserves,[264] and the largest oil shale reserves in Europe.[265] It is the world's leading natural gas exporter,[266] the second-largest natural gas producer,[267] and the second-largest oil exporter,[268] and producer.[269] Fossil fuels cause most of the greenhouse gas emissions by Russia.[270] The country is the world's fourth-largest electricity producer,[271] and the ninth-largest renewable energy producer in 2019.[272] Russia was also the world's first country to develop civilian nuclear power, and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant.[273] In 2019, It was the world's fourth-largest nuclear energy producer.[274]

Agriculture and fishery

Russia's agriculture sector contributes about 5% of the country's total GDP, although the sector employs about one-eighth of the total labour force.[275] It has the world's third-largest cultivated area, at 1,265,267 square kilometres (488,522 sq mi). However, due to the harshness of its environment, about 13.1% of its land is agricultural,[5] and only 7.4% of its land is arable.[276] The main product of Russian farming has always been grain, which occupies considerably more than half of the cropland.[275] Russia is the world's largest exporter of wheat,[277] and is the largest producer of barley,[278] buckwheat, oats,[279] and rye,[280] and the second-largest producer of sunflower seed.[281] Various analysts of climate change adaptation foresee large opportunities for Russian agriculture during the rest of the 21st century as arability increases in Siberia, which would lead to both internal and external migration to the region.[282]

More than one-third of the sown area is devoted to fodder crops, and the remaining farmland is devoted to industrial crops, vegetables, and fruits.[275] Owing to its large coastline along three oceans, Russia maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets, ranking sixth in the world in tonnage of fish caught; capturing 4,773,413 tons of fish in 2018.[283] It is also home to the world's finest caviar (the beluga), and produces about one-third of all canned fish, and some one-fourth of the world's total fresh and frozen fish.[275]

Science and technology

Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist

Russia's research and development budget is the world's ninth-highest, with an expenditure of approximately 422 billion rubles on domestic research and development.[284] In 2019, Russia was ranked tenth worldwide in the number of scientific publications.[285] Russia ranked 45th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.[286]

Since 1904, Nobel Prize were awarded to twenty-six Soviets and Russians in physics, chemistry, medicine, economy, literature and peace.[287] Mikhail Lomonosov proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law.[288] Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky (the "Copernicus of Geometry" who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry) and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev, Russian mathematicians became among the world's most influential.[289] Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table, the main framework of modern chemistry.[288] Nine Soviet/Russian mathematicians were awarded with the Fields Medal.[290] Grigori Perelman was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems Award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture in 2002.[291] Alexander Popov was among the inventors of radio,[292] while Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov were co-inventors of laser and maser.[293] Many famous Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés, among them are Igor Sikorsky,[294] and Vladimir Zworykin,[295] while many foreign ones lived and worked in Russia for a long time, such as Leonard Euler,[296] and Alfred Nobel.[297] Russian discoveries and inventions include the transformer, electric filament lamp, the aircraft, the safety parachute, electrical microscope, colour photos,[298] caterpillar tracks, track assembly, electrically powered railway wagons, videotape recorder, the helicopter, the solar cell, probiotics (found in some yogurts), the television, petrol cracking, synthetic rubber, and grain harvester.[299]

Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.[300]

Roscosmos is Russia's national space agency;[301] while Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of theoretical astronautics, whose works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program in the early stages of the Space Race and beyond.[302]

In 1957, the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched.[115] In 1961, the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yuri Gagarin.[116] Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexei Leonov.[303] Vostok 6 was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman into space (Valentina Tereshkova).[304] Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to land on the Moon,[305] Sputnik 2 was the first spacecraft to carry an animal (Laika),[306] Zond 5 brought the first Earthlings (two tortoises and other life forms) to circumnavigate the Moon,[307] Venera 7 was the first spacecraft to land on another planet (Venus),[308] and Mars 3 was the first spacecraft to land on Mars.[309] Lunokhod 1 was the first space exploration rover,[310] and Salyut 1 was the world's first space station.[311]

Russia is among the world's largest satellite launchers,[312] and has completed the GLONASS satellite navigation system. It is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter (Sukhoi Su-57),[207] and has built the world's first floating nuclear power plant.[313] Luna-Glob is a Russian Moon exploration programme, with its first mission scheduled to launch in July 2022 (Luna 25).[314] To replace the ageing Soyuz, Roscosmos is also developing the Orel spacecraft, which could conduct its first crewed fight in 2025.[315] In February 2019, it was announced that Russia is intending to conduct its first crewed mission to land on the Moon in 2031.[316] In April 2021, Roscosmos declared that it is planning to quit the ISS, and will create its own space station with the aim of launching it into orbit by 2030.[317] In June 2021, Roscosmos and China National Space Administration announced that they are jointly developing a lunar base, which is planned to be utilized from 2036.[318]

Tourism

According to the World Tourism Organization, Russia was the sixteenth-most visited country in the world, and the tenth-most visited country in Europe, in 2018, with over 24.6 million visits.[319] Russia was ranked 39th in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019.[320] According to Federal Agency for Tourism, the number of inbound trips of foreign citizens to Russia amounted to 24.4 million in 2019.[321] Russia's international tourism receipts in 2018 amounted to $11.6 billion.[319] In 2020, tourism accounted for about 4% of country's GDP.[322] Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of Russia, a theme route of ancient Russian cities, cruises on large rivers such as the Volga, and journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.[323] Russia's most visited and popular landmarks include Red Square, the Peterhof Palace, the Kazan Kremlin, the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius and Lake Baikal.[324]

Demographics

Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people according to the 2010 Census.[325]

Russia is one of the world's most sparsely populated and urbanized countries,[5] with the vast majority of its population concentrated within its western part.[326] It had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 census,[327] which rose to 146.2 million as of 2021.[9] Russia is the most populous country in Europe,[328] and the world's ninth-most populous country,[329] with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile).[330]

Since the 1990s, Russia's death rate has exceeded its birth rate, which has been called by analysts as a demographic crisis.[331] In 2018, the total fertility rate across Russia was estimated to be 1.6 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and is one of the world's lowest fertility rates.[332] Subsequently, the nation has one of the world's oldest populations, with a median age of 40.3 years.[5] In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; and since the 2010s, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.[333] However, since 2020, due to excessive deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's population has underwent its largest peacetime decline in history.[334]

Russia is a multinational state, home to over 193 ethnic groups nationwide. In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities;[325] while roughly 85% of Russia's population was of European descent, of which the vast majority were Slavs,[335] with a substantial minority of Finnic and Germanic peoples.[336][337] According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the world's third-largest, numbering over 11.6 million;[338] most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly Ukrainians.[339]

 
Largest cities or towns in Russia
Rosstat (2016[340][341]/2017)
Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.
Moscow
Moscow
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
1 Moscow Moscow [342]12,381,000 11 Rostov-na-Donu Rostov Oblast 1,120,000 Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
2 Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg [342]5,282,000 12 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk Krai [343]1,084,000
3 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Oblast [344]1,603,000 13 Perm Perm Krai 1,042,000
4 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast [345]1,456,000 14 Voronezh Voronezh Oblast 1,032,000
5 Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,267,000 15 Volgograd Volgograd Oblast 1,016,000
6 Kazan Tatarstan [346]1,232,000 16 Krasnodar Krasnodar Krai [347]881,000
7 Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk Oblast [348]1,199,000 17 Saratov Saratov Oblast 843,000
8 Omsk Omsk Oblast [349]1,178,000 18 Tolyatti Samara Oblast [350]711,000
9 Samara Samara Oblast [350]1,170,000 19 Izhevsk Udmurtia [351]646,000
10 Ufa Bashkortostan [352]1,126,000 20 Ulyanovsk Ulyanovsk Oblast 622,000

Language

Minority languages across Russia

Russian is the official and the predominantly spoken language in Russia.[2] It is the most spoken native language in Europe, the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the world's most widely spoken Slavic language.[354] Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English,[355] and is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station,[356] as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[354]

Besides Russian, approximately over 100 minority languages are spoken across Russia.[357] According to the Russian Census of 2002, 142.6 million across the country spoke Russian, 5.3 million spoke Tatar, and 1.8 million spoke Ukrainian.[358] The constitution gives the country's individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian, as well as guarantee its citizens the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.[359]

Religion

Saint Basil's Cathedral in Red Square of Moscow is the most popular icon of Russia.[360]

Russia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Christianity. It has the world's largest Orthodox population,[361][362] and according to different sociological surveys on religious adherence, between 41% to over 80% of Russia's population adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church.[363][364][365]

In 2017, a survey made by the Pew Research Center showed that 73% of Russians declared themselves as Christians—out of which 71% were Orthodox, 1% were Catholic, and 2% were Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% followed other religions.[4] According to various reports, the proportion of Atheists in Russia is between 16% and 48% of the population.[366]

Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and it is the traditional religion amongst the bulk of the peoples of the North Caucasus, and amongst some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region.[367] Buddhists are home to a sizeable population in the three Siberian regions: Buryatia, Tuva, Zabaykalsky Krai, and in Kalmykia; the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practised religion.[368]

Education

Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.[369]

Russia has a free education system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the constitution.[370] The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, and vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education.[371] Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia has the world's highest college-level or higher graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 54%.[372]

Pre-school education in Russia is highly developed, some four-fifths of children aged 3 to 6 attend day nurseries or kindergartens. Schooling is compulsory for nine years. It starts from age 6 to 7 and leads to a basic general education certificate. An additional two or three years of schooling are required for the secondary-level certificate, and some seven-eighths of Russian students continue their education past this level. Admission to an institute of higher education is selective and highly competitive: first-degree courses usually take five years.[373] The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University.[374] There are also ten highly prestigious federal universities across the country. According to a UNESCO report in 2014, Russia is the world's sixth-leading destination for international students.[375]

Health

Russia, by constitution, guarantees free, universal health care for all Russian citizens,[376] through a compulsory state health insurance program. The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation oversees the Russian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than two million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. A separate private health insurance plan is needed to access private healthcare in Russia.[377]

According to the World Bank, Russia spent 5.32% of its GDP on healthcare in 2018.[378] It has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female.[5] In 2019, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females),[379] and it had a very low infant mortality rate (5 per 1,000 live births).[380] The principle cause of death in Russia are cardiovascular diseases.[381] Obesity is a prevalent health issue in Russia. In 2016, 61.1% of Russian adults were overweight or obese.[382] However, Russia's historically high alcohol consumption rate is the biggest health issue in the country,[383] as it remains one of the world's highest, despite a stark decrease in the last decade.[384] The country's high suicide rate, although on the decline, remains a significant social issue.[385]

The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, at night.

Culture

Russian culture has been formed by the nation's history, its geographical location and its vast expanse, religious traditions, and Western influence.[386] Russian writers and philosophers have played an important role in the development of European thought.[387][388] The Russians have also greatly influenced classical music,[389] ballet,[390] sport,[391] architecture,[392] painting,[393] and cinema.[394] The nation has made pioneering contributions to science and technology and space exploration,[395] and is home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 19 out of which are cultural.[396] The large global Russian diaspora has also played a major role in spreading Russian culture throughout the world.

Art and architecture

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos. In the early 15th-century, the master icon painter Andrei Rublev created some of Russia's most treasured religious art.[397] The Russian Academy of Arts, which was established in 1757, to train Russian artists, brought Western techniques of secular painting to Russia.[66] In the 18th century, academicians Ivan Argunov, Dmitry Levitzky, Vladimir Borovikovsky became influential. The early 19th century saw many prominent paintings by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov, both of whom were known for Romantic historical canvases.[398][399] In the 1860s, a group of critical realists (Peredvizhniki), led by Ivan Kramskoy, Ilya Repin and Vasiliy Perov broke with the academy, and portrayed the many-sided aspects of social life in paintings.[397] The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolism; represented by Mikhail Vrubel and Nicholas Roerich.[400][401] The Russian avant-garde flourished from approximately 1890 to 1930; and globally influential artists from this era were El Lissitzky,[402] Kazimir Malevich,[403] Natalia Goncharova,[404] Wassily Kandinsky,[405] and Marc Chagall.[406] Notable sculptures from the Soviet era include Vera Mukhina,[407] Yevgeny Vuchetich, and Ernst Neizvestny.[408]

The Winter Palace, which served as the official residence of the Emperor of Russia, is an architectural symbol of Saint Petersburg.[409]

The history of Russian architecture begins with early woodcraft buildings of ancient Slavs,[410] and the architecture of Kievan Rus'.[411] Following the Christianization of Kievan Rus', for several centuries it was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine Empire.[412] Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia.[413] The 16th-century saw the development of the unique tent-like churches; and the onion dome design, which is a distinctive feature of Russian architecture.[414] In the 17th-century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s.[392]

After the reforms of Peter the Great, Russia's architecture became influenced by Western European styles.[415] The 18th-century taste for Rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.[416] During the reign of Catherine the Great, Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture.[417] During Alexander I's rule, Empire style became the de facto architectural style, and Nicholas I opened the gate of Eclecticism to Russia. The second half of the 19th-century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival style.[392] In early 20th-century, Russian neoclassical revival became a trend.[415] Prevalent styles of the late 20th-century were the Art Nouveau,[392] Constructivism,[418] and Socialist Classicism.[419]

Music

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), composer

Until the 18th-century, music in Russia consisted mainly of church music and folk songs and dances.[420] In the 19th-century, it was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinstein. The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. World-renowned composers of the 20th century include Alexander Scriabin, Alexander Glazunov, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Georgy Sviridov and Alfred Schnittke.[389]

Soviet and Russian conservatories have turned out generations of world-renowned soloists. Among the best known are violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer,[421][422] cellist Mstislav Rostropovich,[423] pianists Vladimir Horowitz,[424] Sviatoslav Richter,[425] and Emil Gilels,[426] and vocalist Galina Vishnevskaya.[427]

During the Soviet times, popular music also produced a number of renowned figures, such as the two balladeersVladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava,[428] and performers such as Alla Pugacheva.[429] Jazz, even with sanctions from Soviet authorities, flourished and evolved into one of the country's most popular musical forms.[428] The Ganelin Trio have been described by critics as the greatest ensemble of free-jazz in continental Europe.[430] By the 1980s, rock music became popular across Russia, and produced bands such as Aria, Aquarium,[431] DDT,[432] and Kino.[433][434] Pop music in Russia has continued to flourish since the 1960s, with globally famous acts such as t.A.T.u..[435] In the recent times, Little Big, a rave band, has gained popularity in Russia and across Europe.[436]

Literature and philosophy

Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910), is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time, with works such as War and Peace.[437]

Russian literature is considered to be among the world's most influential and developed.[387] It can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old East Slavic were composed.[438] By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, with works from Mikhail Lomonosov, Denis Fonvizin, Gavrila Derzhavin, and Nikolay Karamzin.[387] From the early 1830s, during the Golden Age of Russian Poetry, literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry, prose and drama.[439] Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and later his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore.[440][441] Following Pushkin's footsteps, a new generation of poets were born, including Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolay Nekrasov, Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Fyodor Tyutchev and Afanasy Fet.[442]

Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–1881), one of the great novelists of all time, whose masterpieces include Crime and Punishment.[443]

The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol.[444] Then came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels.[445] Fyodor Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstoy soon became internationally renowned.[446][447] Ivan Goncharov is remembered mainly for his novel Oblomov.[448] Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin wrote prose satire,[449] while Nikolai Leskov is best remembered for his shorter fiction.[450] In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist.[451] Other important 19th-century developments included the fabulist Ivan Krylov,[452] non-fiction writers such as the critic Vissarion Belinsky,[453] and playwrights such as Aleksandr Griboyedov and Aleksandr Ostrovsky.[454][455] The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. This era had poets such as Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Boris Pasternak, Konstantin Balmont,[456] Marina Tsvetaeva, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Osip Mandelshtam.[442] It also produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Andrei Bely.[442]

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian literature split into Soviet and white émigré parts. In the 1930s, Socialist realism became the predominant trend in Russia. Its leading figure was Maxim Gorky, who laid the foundations of this style.[457] Mikhail Bulgakov was one of the leading writers of the Soviet era.[458] Nikolay Ostrovsky's novel How the Steel Was Tempered has been among the most successful works of Russian literature. Various émigré writers, such as novelist Vladimir Nabokov continued to write in exile.[459] Some writers dared to oppose Soviet ideology, such as Nobel Prize-winning novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who wrote about life in the gulag camps.[460]

Russian philosophy has been greatly influential—with contributions from Alexander Herzen, who is known as the "father of Russian socialism"; Mikhail Bakunin, who is referred to as the father of anarchism; Peter Kropotkin, Mikhail Bakhtin, Helena Blavatsky, Vladimir Lenin, who is one of the world's most popular revolutionaries, and developed the political ideology of Leninism; Leon Trotsky, who is the founder of Trotskyism; and Petr Chaadaev, who influenced both the Westernizers and the Slavophiles.[388] Notable Russian philosophers of the late 19th and 20th centuries including Vladimir Solovyov,[461] Alexander Zinoviev,[462] Sergei Bulgakov,[463] Pavel Florensky,[464] Lev Shestov,[465] and Nikolai Berdyaev.[466]

Cuisine

Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.

Russian cuisine has been formed by climate, cultural and religious traditions, and the vast geography of the nation; and it shares many similarities with the cuisines of its neighbouring countries. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for many drinks.[467] Bread is very popular in Russia.[468] Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka, and okroshka. Smetana (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads.[469] Pirozhki, blini, and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Beef Stroganoff, Chicken Kiev, pelmeni, and shashlyk are popular meat dishes. Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls (golubtsy) usually filled with meat. Salads include Olivier salad, vinegret, and dressed herring.[467]

Russia's national non-alcoholic drink is kvass,[470] and the national alcoholic drink is vodka; its creation in the nation dates back to the 14th century.[471] The country has the world's highest vodka consumption,[472] while beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage.[473] Wine has become popular in Russia in the 21st century, and the country is becoming one of the world's largest wine producers.[474] Tea has also been a historically popular beverage in Russia.[475]

Media

Poster of Battleship Potemkin (1925) by Sergei Eisenstein, which was named the greatest film of all time at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958.[476]

Russia has a diverse media; with over 80 thousand media outlets, and some 22-35 thousand newspapers.[477] The largest internationally operating news agencies in Russia are TASS, RIA Novosti, and Interfax.[478] Television is the most popular media in Russia, as 99% of the Russian population receives at least one television channel,[477] and roughly 60% of Russians watch television on a daily basis.[479] Popular nationwide radio stations in Russia include Radio Rossii, Echo of Moscow, and Radio Mayak. Some popular newspapers include Komsomolskaya Pravda, Kommersant, Novaya Gazeta, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Izvestia, and The Moscow Times.[478] Russia has the largest video gaming market in Europe, with over 65 million players nationwide.[480]

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention, resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin.[481] Soviet-era filmmakers, most notably Sergei Eisenstein and Andrei Tarkovsky, would go on to become among of the world's most innovative and influential directors.[482][483] Eisenstein was a student of Lev Kuleshov, who developed the groundbreaking Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography.[484] Dziga Vertov's "Kino-Eye" theory had a huge impact on the development of documentary filmmaking and cinema realism.[485] Many Soviet socialist realism films were artistically successful, including Chapaev, The Cranes Are Flying, and Ballad of a Soldier.[394]

The 1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema.[394] The comedies of Eldar Ryazanov and Leonid Gaidai of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catchphrases still in use today.[486][487] In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace, which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.[394] In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space.[488] In 2002, Russian Ark became the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take.[489] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian cinema industry suffered large losses—however, since the late 2000s, it has seen growth once again, and continues to expand.[490]

Sports

Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.[491]

Football is the most popular sport in Russia.[386] The Soviet Union national football team became the first European champions by winning Euro 1960,[492] and reached the finals of Euro 1988.[493] Russian clubs CSKA Moscow and Zenit Saint Petersburg won the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008.[494][495] The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008.[496] Russia was the host nation for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup,[497] and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.[498]

Ice hockey is very popular in Russia, and the Soviet national ice hockey team dominated the sport internationally throughout its existence.[499] Bandy is Russia's national sport, and it has historically been the highest-achieving country in the sport.[500] The Russian national basketball team won the EuroBasket 2007,[501] and the Russian basketball club PBC CSKA Moscow is among the most successful European basketball teams.[502] The annual Formula One Russian Grand Prix is held at the Sochi Autodrom in the Sochi Olympic Park.[503]

Historically, Russian athletes have been one of the most successful contenders in the Olympic Games,[504] ranking second in an all-time Olympic Games medal count.[505] Russia is the leading nation in rhythmic gymnastics; and Russian synchronized swimming is considered to be the world's best.[506] Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing.[507] Russia has produced numerous prominent tennis players.[508] Chess is also a widely popular pastime in the nation, with many of the world's top chess players being Russian for decades.[509] The 1980 Summer Olympic Games were held in Moscow,[510] and the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics were hosted in Sochi.[511][512]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014, remains internationally recognised as a part of Ukraine.[1]
  2. ^ Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]
  3. ^ Russia shares land borders with fourteen sovereign nations: Belarus, Estonia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland to the west; Norway and Finland to the northwest; Kazakhstan and Mongolia to the south; Azerbaijan and Georgia to the southwest; China and North Korea to the southeast—while having maritime boundaries with the United States and Japan.

    Russia also shares borders the two partially recognized breakaway states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

  4. ^ Most notably the Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis, the Russian apartment bombings, the Moscow theater hostage crisis, and the Beslan school siege.[139][140][141][142]
  5. ^ Russia has an additional 850 km (530 mi) of coastline along the Caspian Sea, which is the world's largest inland body of water, and has been variously classified as a sea or a lake.[166]
  6. ^ Russia, by land area, is larger than the continents of Australia, Antarctica,[168] and Europe; which it lies partly in.
  7. ^ Russia borders, clockwise, to its west: the Baltic Sea, to its southwest: the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, to its north: the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the Pechora Sea, the White Sea, and the East Siberian Sea, to its northeast: the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea, and to its southeast: the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan.
  8. ^ Including the disputed Republic of Crimea, and the federal city of Sevastopol.
  9. ^ The claim has been disputed by many experts, and from official figures by state-run agencies.[238][239][240]

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