Histoire de l'Europe

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L'Europe représentée par le cartographe anversois Abraham Ortelius en 1595

L' histoire de l'Europe se préoccupe de la découverte et de la collecte, de l'étude, de l'organisation et de la présentation et de l'interprétation des événements et des affaires passés des peuples d' Europe depuis le début des documents écrits. À l' époque néolithique et à l'époque des migrations indo-européennes , l'Europe a vu des afflux humains de l'est et du sud-est et d'importants échanges culturels et matériels ultérieurs. La période dite de l'Antiquité classique a commencé avec l'émergence des cités-États de la Grèce antique . Plus tard, l' Empire romain en vint à dominer tout le bassin méditerranéen. La chute de l'Empire romain en 476 après JC marque traditionnellement le début du Moyen Âge . À partir du 14e siècle, une Renaissance de la connaissance a remis en question les doctrines traditionnelles de la science et de la théologie. Simultanément, la Réforme protestante a créé des églises protestantes principalement en Allemagne, en Scandinavie et en Angleterre. Après 1800, la révolution industrielle a apporté la prospérité en Grande-Bretagne et en Europe occidentale. Les principales puissances européennes ont établi des colonies dans la plupart des Amériques et de l'Afrique, et dans certaines parties de l'Asie. Au 20e siècle, la Première et la Seconde Guerre mondiale ont fait un nombre considérable de morts. La guerre froidedominé la géopolitique européenne de 1947 à 1989. Après la chute du rideau de fer , les pays européens se sont rapprochés.

Aperçu

Au cours de l' ère néolithique (à partir de c. 7000 avant JC.) et le temps des migrations indo-européennes (à partir de c. 4000 avant JC.) L'Europe a vu des migrations massives de l'est et du sud-est qui a également apporté l'agriculture, les nouvelles technologies, et l'Indo -Les langues européennes, principalement à travers les régions de la péninsule balkanique et de la région de la mer Noire .

Certaines des civilisations les plus connues de l'Europe préhistorique tardive étaient les Minoennes et les Mycéniennes , qui ont prospéré pendant l' âge du bronze jusqu'à ce qu'elles s'effondrent en peu de temps vers 1200 avant JC.

La période dite de l'Antiquité classique a commencé avec l'émergence des cités-États de la Grèce antique . Après avoir finalement stoppé l' avancée perse en Europe à travers les guerres gréco-persanes au 5ème siècle avant JC, l'influence grecque a atteint son apogée sous le vaste empire d' Alexandre le Grand , s'étendant à travers l'Asie, l'Afrique et d'autres parties de l'Europe.

Les Thraces , leur puissant royaume odrysien , leur culture et leur architecture distinctes étaient depuis longtemps présents en Europe du Sud-Est.

L' Empire romain en vint à dominer tout le bassin méditerranéen . En 300 après JC, l'Empire romain a été divisé en empires d' Occident et d' Orient . Au cours des IVe et Ve siècles, les peuples germaniques d'Europe du Nord, pressés par les Huns , se sont renforcés et ont mené des attaques répétées qui ont entraîné la chute de l'Empire romain d'Occident . L'effondrement de l'empire d'Occident en 476 après JC marque traditionnellement la fin de la période classique et le début du Moyen Âge .

En Europe occidentale, les peuples germaniques sont devenus plus puissants dans les vestiges de l'ancien Empire romain d'Occident et ont établi leurs propres royaumes et empires. De tous les peuples germaniques, les Francs se hissent à une position d' hégémonie sur l'Europe occidentale, l' Empire franc atteignant son apogée sous Charlemagne vers 800. Cet empire fut ensuite divisé en plusieurs parties ; La Francie occidentale deviendrait le Royaume de France , tandis que la Francie orientale deviendrait le Saint Empire romain germanique , précurseur de l'Allemagne et de l'Italie modernes. Les îles britanniques ont été le site de plusieurs migrations à grande échelle.

L' Empire byzantin - la partie orientale de l' Empire romain , avec sa capitale Constantinople , a survécu pendant les 1000 prochaines années. Pendant la majeure partie de son existence, l'empire était le plus dominant empire , aussi la plus puissante force économique, culturelle et militaire en Europe. Le puissant et long empire bulgare a été son principal concurrent dans la région de l'Europe du Sud-Est pendant des siècles. L' art byzantin , l' architecture , la domination politique et les réalisations culturelles et linguistiques bulgares ont laissé un grand héritage aux orthodoxes et aux slaves .L'Europe et au-delà du Moyen Âge à nos jours.

L' ère viking , période de migrations des peuples scandinaves, s'est déroulée de la fin du VIIIe siècle au milieu du XIe siècle. Les Normands , descendants des Vikings qui se sont installés dans le nord de la France, ont eu un impact significatif sur de nombreuses régions d'Europe, de la conquête normande de l'Angleterre à la Sicile . Le peuple Rus' fonda Kievan Rus' , qui devint la Russie. Après 1000, les croisades étaient une série d'expéditions militaires motivées par la religion, destinées à l'origine à ramener le Levant sous la domination chrétienne. Les croisés ont ouvert des routes commerciales qui ont permis aux républiques marchandes de Gêneset Venise pour devenir de grandes puissances économiques. La Reconquista , un mouvement apparenté, a travaillé à reconquérir l' Ibérie pour la chrétienté .

Les paysans préparant les champs pour l'hiver avec une herse et semant pour le grain d'hiver, des Heures très riches du duc de Berry , c.1410

L'Europe de l'Est au Haut Moyen Âge a été dominée par l'ascension et la chute de l' Empire mongol . Menés par Gengis Khan , les Mongols étaient un groupe de nomades des steppes qui ont établi un empire décentralisé qui, à son apogée, s'étendait de la Chine à l'est jusqu'à la mer Noire et la mer Baltique en Europe. Alors que le pouvoir mongol diminuait vers la fin du Moyen Âge , le Grand-Duché de Moscou est devenu la plus forte des nombreuses principautés et républiques russes et deviendrait le tsarisme de Russie en 1547. La fin du Moyen Âge a représenté une période de bouleversements en Europe. L'épidémie connue sous le nom de peste noireet une famine associée a provoqué une catastrophe démographique en Europe alors que la population s'effondrait. Les luttes dynastiques et les guerres de conquête ont maintenu de nombreux États européens en guerre pendant une grande partie de la période. En Scandinavie, l' Union de Kalmar a dominé le paysage politique, tandis que l'Angleterre a combattu avec l'Écosse dans les guerres d'indépendance écossaise et avec la France dans la guerre de Cent Ans . En Europe centrale, le Commonwealth polono-lituanien est devenu un grand empire territorial, tandis que le Saint Empire romain germanique, qui était une monarchie élective , a été dominé pendant des siècles par la maison de Habsbourg . La Russie a continué à s'étendre vers le sud et vers l'est dans les anciennes terres mongoles. Dans leBalkans , l' Empire ottoman envahit les terres byzantines, culminant avec la chute de Constantinople en 1453, que les historiens marquent comme la fin du Moyen Âge.

Commençant au 14ème siècle à Florence et s'étendant plus tard à travers l'Europe, une Renaissance de la connaissance a remis en question les doctrines traditionnelles de la science et de la théologie. La redécouverte des connaissances classiques grecques et romaines a eu un énorme effet libérateur sur les intellectuels. Simultanément, la Réforme protestante sous l'allemand Martin Luther a remis en question l'autorité papale. Henri VIII prit le contrôle de l'Église anglaise et de ses terres. Les guerres de religion européennes ont été menées entre les dirigeants allemands et espagnols. La Reconquista a mis fin à la domination musulmane dans la péninsule ibérique . Dans les années 1490, une série d'explorations océaniques a marqué l' âge de la découverte, établissant des liens directs avec l'Afrique, les Amériques et l'Asie. Les guerres de religion ont continué à se dérouler en Europe, jusqu'à la paix de Westphalie en 1648 . La couronne espagnole a maintenu son hégémonie en Europe et était la première puissance du continent jusqu'à la signature du traité des Pyrénées , qui a mis fin à un conflit entre l'Espagne et la France qui avait commencé pendant la guerre de Trente Ans . Une série sans précédent de guerres majeures et de révolutions politiques a eu lieu en Europe et dans le monde entre 1610 et 1700. [1]

Une machine à vapeur Watt . La machine à vapeur , alimentée principalement par le charbon, a propulsé la révolution industrielle dans le nord-ouest de l'Europe du XIXe siècle.

La révolution industrielle a commencé en Grande - Bretagne , basée sur le charbon, la vapeur et les usines de textile. Le changement politique en Europe continentale a été stimulé par la Révolution française sous la devise liberté, égalité, fraternité . Napoléon Bonaparte a pris le contrôle, a fait de nombreuses réformes à l'intérieur de la France et a transformé l'Europe occidentale. Mais son ascension a stimulé à la fois le nationalisme et la réaction et il a été vaincu en 1814-1815 lorsque les anciens conservateurs royaux sont revenus au pouvoir.

La période entre 1815 et 1871 a vu des tentatives révolutionnaires dans une grande partie de l'Europe (à l'exception de la Grande-Bretagne). Ils ont tous échoué cependant. Au fur et à mesure que la main-d'œuvre industrielle augmentait en Europe occidentale, le socialisme et l'activité syndicale se développaient. Les derniers vestiges du servage ont été abolis en Russie en 1861. La Grèce et les autres nations des Balkans ont entamé un long et lent chemin vers l' indépendance de l' Empire ottoman , à partir des années 1820. L'Italie a été unifiée dans son Risorgimento en 1860. Après la guerre franco-prussienne de 1870-71, Otto von Bismarcka unifié les États allemands en un empire qui était politiquement et militairement dominant jusqu'en 1914. La majeure partie de l'Europe s'est précipitée pour les colonies impériales en Afrique et en Asie à l'ère de l'empire . La Grande-Bretagne et la France ont construit les plus grands empires, tandis que les diplomates ont veillé à ce qu'il n'y ait pas de guerres majeures en Europe, à l'exception de la guerre de Crimée des années 1850.

Le déclenchement de la Première Guerre mondiale en 1914 a été précipité par la montée du nationalisme dans le sud-est de l'Europe alors que les grandes puissances prenaient parti. La révolution d'octobre 1917 a conduit l' Empire russe à devenir le premier État communiste au monde , l' Union soviétique . Les Alliés , dirigés par la Grande-Bretagne, la France et les États-Unis, ont vaincu les puissances centrales , dirigées par l' Empire allemand et l' Autriche-Hongrie , en 1918. Au cours de la Conférence de paix de Paris, les Big Four ont imposé leurs conditions dans une série de traités, notamment lesTraité de Versailles . La dévastation humaine et matérielle de la guerre était sans précédent.

L'Allemagne a perdu son empire d'outre-mer et plusieurs provinces, a dû payer d'importantes réparations et a été humiliée par les vainqueurs. Ils avaient à leur tour des dettes importantes envers les États-Unis. Les années 1920 ont été prospères jusqu'en 1929 lorsque la Grande Dépression a éclaté, ce qui a entraîné l'effondrement de la démocratie dans de nombreux États européens. Le régime nazi d' Adolf Hitler est arrivé au pouvoir en 1933, a réarmé l'Allemagne et, avec l'Italie de Mussolini, a cherché à s'affirmer sur le continent. D'autres nations, qui n'avaient pas pris les attraits du fascisme, ont cherché à éviter les conflits. Ils ont fixé des limites d' apaisement , qu'Hitler a continuellement ignorées. La Seconde Guerre mondiale a commencé. La guerre s'est terminée par la défaite despuissances de l'Axe, mais la menace d'un nouveau conflit a été reconnue avant la fin de la guerre. Beaucoup d'Américains se méfiaient de la façon dont l'URSS traiterait la paix - en URSS, il y avait de la paranoïa contre les forces américaines en Europe. Les réunions entre les dirigeants du Front de l'Est et du Front de l'Ouest à Yalta se sont avérées peu concluantes. Dans les derniers mois de la guerre, il y avait une course jusqu'à l'arrivée. Les territoires libérés des nazis par les troupes de l'URSS découvrirent qu'ils avaient échangé le fascisme contre le socialisme. L'URSS, cependant, ne quittera pas ces territoires avant quarante ans. L'URSS a affirmé qu'elle avait besoin d'États tampons entre elle et l' OTAN naissante . A l'ouest, le terme rideau de ferentré dans la langue. Les États-Unis ont lancé le plan Marshall de 1948 à 1951 et l' OTAN à partir de 1949, et ont reconstruit des économies industrielles qui étaient toutes florissantes dans les années 1950. La France et l'Allemagne de l'Ouest ont pris l'initiative de former la Communauté économique européenne , qui est finalement devenue l' Union européenne (UE). La sécularisation a vu l'affaiblissement des églises protestantes et catholiques dans la majeure partie de l'Europe, sauf là où elles étaient des symboles de réaction, comme en Pologne. Les contre-révolutions de 1989 ont mis fin à la fois à l'hégémonie soviétique et au socialismeen Europe de l'Est, la restauration capitaliste qui en a résulté engendrait des ravages économiques et sociaux pour les peuples. L'Allemagne a été réunifiée, l'intégration de l'Europe s'est approfondie et l'OTAN et l'UE se sont étendues à l'est. L' UE a été soumise à une pression croissante en raison de la récession mondiale après 2008 .

Préhistoire de l'Europe

Carte illustrant les premières migrations humaines dans l'Europe préhistorique.

L'homo erectus a migré d'Afrique vers l'Europe avant l'émergence de l'homme moderne. Homo erectus georgicus , qui vivait il y a environ 1,8 million d'années en Géorgie , est le premier hominidé à avoir été découvert en Europe. [2] Lézignan-la-Cèbe en France, Orce [3] en Espagne, Monte Poggiolo [4] en Italie et Kozarnika en Bulgarie comptent parmi les plus anciens sites paléolithiques d'Europe.

La première apparition de personnes anatomiquement modernes en Europe a été datée de 35 000 av. J.-C., généralement appelée Cro-Magnon. Les premiers sites en Europe sont Riparo Mochi (Italie), Geissenklösterle (Allemagne) et Isturitz (France). [5] Certaines cultures de transition développées localement ( Uluzzien en Italie et en Grèce, Altmühlien en Allemagne, Szélétien en Europe centrale et Châtelperronien au sud-ouest) utilisent clairement des technologies du Paléolithique supérieur à des dates très anciennes.

Néanmoins, l'avancée définitive de ces technologies est faite par la culture aurignacienne . Les origines de cette culture peuvent se situer au Levant (ahmarien) et en Hongrie (premier aurignacien plein). Vers 35 000 av. J.-C., la culture aurignacienne et sa technologie s'étaient étendues à la majeure partie de l'Europe. Les derniers Néandertaliens semblent avoir été contraints de se replier au cours de ce processus vers la moitié sud de la péninsule ibérique .

Vers 29 000 av. J.-C., une nouvelle technologie/culture est apparue dans la région occidentale de l'Europe : le Gravettien . Cette technologie/culture a été théorisée comme étant venue avec les migrations de personnes des Balkans (voir Kozarnika ).

Vers 16 000 av. J.-C., l'Europe vit l'apparition d'une nouvelle culture, dite magdalénienne , peut-être enracinée dans l'ancien Gravettien. Cette culture supplanta bientôt le Solutréen et le Gravettien de principalement la France, l'Espagne, l'Allemagne, l'Italie, la Pologne, le Portugal et l'Ukraine. La culture de Hambourg a prévalu en Europe du Nord dans le 14e et le 13e millénaire avant notre ère comme Creswellien (également appelé les Britanniques Magdalénien) a fait peu de temps après dans les îles britanniques. Vers 12 500 avant JC, la glaciation de Würmterminé. Lentement, au cours des millénaires suivants, les températures et le niveau de la mer ont augmenté, modifiant l'environnement des peuples préhistoriques. Néanmoins, la culture magdalénienne a persisté jusqu'à c. 10 000 BC, quand il a rapidement évolué en deux microlithist cultures: aziliens ( Federmesser ), en Espagne et sud de la France, puis Sauveterrien , en France du Sud et Tardenoisien en Europe centrale, tandis qu'en Europe du Nord , le complexe Lyngby a réussi la culture de Hambourg avec l'influence également du groupe Federmesser . La preuve d'un établissement permanent date du 8ème millénaire avant JC dans les Balkans.

Les migrations indo-européennes ont commencé vers c. 4200 avant JC. à travers les régions de la mer Noire et de la péninsule balkanique en Europe de l' Est et du Sud-Est. Au cours des 3000 prochaines années, les langues indo-européennes se sont étendues à travers l'Europe.

Dans la nécropole de Varna - un lieu de sépulture de 4569 à 4340 avant JC et l'un des sites archéologiques les plus importants de la préhistoire mondiale, a été trouvé le plus ancien trésor d'or (objets en or élaborés) au monde. [6] Des artefacts dorés récemment découverts dans un autre site en Bulgarie près de Durankulak semblent avoir 7 000 ans. [7]

Le Néolithique a atteint l'Europe centrale au 6e millénaire avant JC et certaines parties de l'Europe du Nord aux 5e et 4e millénaires avant JC.

Carte montrant les expansions néolithiques du 7e au 5e millénaire avant JC, y compris la culture Cardium en bleu.
L'Europe du néolithique tardif en c. 4000-3500 avant JC.
Schéma des migrations indo-européennes de c. 4000 à 1000 avant JC selon l'hypothèse Kurgan
Europe de la fin de l'âge du bronze.

Europe ancienne

Minoens et Mycènes 2000-1100 BC

Le trésor d' Atrée , ou tombeau d'Agamemnon à Mycènes 1250 av.

La première civilisation lettrée bien connue en Europe était celle des Minoens. La civilisation minoenne était une civilisation de l' âge du bronze qui est apparue sur l'île de Crète et a prospéré d'environ le 27ème siècle avant JC au 15ème siècle avant JC. [8] Elle a été redécouverte au début du XXe siècle grâce aux travaux de l'archéologue britannique Arthur Evans . Will Durant l'a qualifié de "premier maillon de la chaîne européenne". [9]

Les Minoens ont été remplacés par la civilisation mycénienne qui a prospéré pendant la période approximativement entre 1600 avant JC, lorsque la culture helladique en Grèce continentale a été transformée sous les influences de la Crète minoenne et 1100 avant JC. Les principales villes mycéniennes étaient Mycènes et Tirynthe en Argolide, Pylos en Messénie, Athènes en Attique, Thèbes et Orchomenus en Béotie et Iolkos en Thessalie. En Crète , les Mycéniens occupaient Knossos . Des sites de peuplement mycéniens sont également apparus en Épire , [10] [11] Macédoine, [12] [13] sur les îles de la mer Égée , sur les côtes de l' Asie Mineure , du Levant , [14] à Chypre [15] et en Italie. [16] [17] Des artefacts mycéniens ont été trouvés bien en dehors des limites du monde mycénienne.

Contrairement aux Minoens, dont la société bénéficiait du commerce, les Mycéniens avançaient par conquête. La civilisation mycénienne était dominée par une aristocratie guerrière . Vers 1400 avant JC, les Mycéniens ont étendu leur contrôle à la Crète, au centre de la civilisation minoenne, et a adopté une forme de script minoenne (appelé Linear A ) pour écrire leur première forme de grec en linéaire B .

La civilisation mycénienne a péri avec l' effondrement de la civilisation de l'âge du bronze sur les rives orientales de la mer Méditerranée. L'effondrement est généralement attribué à l' invasion dorienne , bien que d'autres théories décrivant les catastrophes naturelles et le changement climatique aient également été avancées. [ citation nécessaire ] Quelles que soient les causes, la civilisation mycénienne avait définitivement disparu après LH III C, lorsque les sites de Mycènes et Tirynthe furent à nouveau détruits et perdirent de leur importance. Cette fin, au cours des dernières années du XIIe siècle av. Le début du 11e siècle avant JC a ouvert un nouveau contexte, celui de la protogéométrique, le début de la période géométrique, les sombres grec Age de l' historiographie traditionnelle.

Période de la première antiquité

Le Parthénon , un ancien temple athénien sur l' Acropole (ville au sommet d'une colline) est tombé à Rome en 176 av.

Les Grecs et les Romains ont laissé un héritage en Europe qui est évident dans les langues, la pensée , les arts visuels et le droit européens. La Grèce antique était un ensemble de cités-États à partir desquelles s'est développée la forme originale de la démocratie. Athènes était la ville la plus puissante et la plus développée, et un berceau d'apprentissage depuis l'époque de Périclès . Les forums de citoyens ont débattu et légiféré sur la politique de l'État, et de là sont nés certains des philosophes classiques les plus remarquables, tels que Socrate , Platon et Aristote , dont le dernier a enseigné Alexandre le Grand .

Par ses campagnes militaires, le roi du royaume de Macédoine , Alexandre, répandit la culture et l'apprentissage hellénistique jusqu'aux bords de l' Indus . Pendant ce temps, la République romaine s'est renforcée grâce à la victoire sur Carthage lors des guerres puniques . La sagesse grecque passa dans les institutions romaines, alors qu'Athènes elle-même était absorbée sous la bannière du Sénat et du Peuple de Rome ( SPQR ).

L'Europe en l'an 301 av.

Les Romains ont étendu leurs domaines de l'Anatolie à l'est à la Bretagne à l'ouest. En 44 avant JC, alors qu'elle approchait de son apogée, son dictateur Jules César fut assassiné par des sénateurs pour tenter de restaurer la République. Dans la tourmente qui s'ensuivit, Octavian (gouverné sous le nom d'Auguste ; et en tant que divi filius , ou Fils de Dieu, puisque Julius l'avait adopté comme héritier) usurpa les rênes du pouvoir et combattit le Sénat romain. Tout en proclamant la renaissance de la République, il avait inauguré le transfert de l'État romain d'une république à un empire, l' Empire romain , qui dura plus de quatre siècles jusqu'à la chute de l' Empire romain d'Occident .

Grèce antique

La civilisation hellénique était un ensemble de cités-états ou poleis avec différents gouvernements et cultures qui ont réalisé des développements notables dans les domaines du gouvernement, de la philosophie, des sciences, des mathématiques, de la politique, des sports, du théâtre et de la musique.

Les cités-états les plus puissantes étaient Athènes , Sparte , Thèbes , Corinthe et Syracuse . Athènes était une puissante cité-État hellénique et s'est gouvernée avec une première forme de démocratie directe inventée par Clisthène ; les citoyens d'Athènes votaient eux-mêmes la législation et les projets de loi. Athènes était la maison de Socrate , [18] Platon et de l' Académie platonicienne .

Les cités-États helléniques ont établi des colonies sur les rives de la mer Noire et de la Méditerranée ( Mineure asiatique , Sicile et Italie du Sud en Magna Graecia ). À la fin du 6ème siècle avant JC, tous les grecs états de la ville en Asie Mineure avaient été incorporés dans l' Empire perse , alors que celui - ci avait fait des gains territoriaux dans les Balkans (comme Macedon , Thrace , Paeonia , etc.) et Europe de l' Est appropriée comme bien. Au cours du 5ème siècle avant JC, certaines des cités grecques ont tenté de renverser la domination perse lors de la révolte ionienne , qui a échoué. Cela a déclenché lepremière invasion perse de la Grèce continentale . À un moment donné au cours des guerres gréco-persanes qui ont suivi , à savoir pendant la deuxième invasion perse de la Grèce , et précisément après la bataille des Thermopyles et la bataille d'Artemisium , presque toute la Grèce au nord de l' isthme de Corinthe avait été envahie par les Perses, [19] mais les cités grecques ont remporté une victoire décisive à la bataille de Platées . Avec la fin des guerres gréco-persanes, les Perses ont finalement été contraints de manière décisive à se retirer de leurs territoires en Europe. Les guerres gréco-persanes et la victoire des cités grecques influença directement tout le cours ultérieur de l'histoire européenne et en donnerait le ton.

Une mosaïque montrant Alexandre le Grand combattant Darius III

Certaines cités-États grecques ont formé la Ligue de Delian pour continuer à combattre la Perse, mais la position d'Athènes en tant que leader de cette ligue a conduit Sparte à former la Ligue rivale du Péloponnèse . Les guerres du Péloponnèse s'ensuivirent et la Ligue du Péloponnèse fut victorieuse. Par la suite, le mécontentement envers l'hégémonie spartiate a conduit à la guerre de Corinthe et à la défaite de Sparte à la bataille de Leuctres . En même temps, au nord, régnait le royaume thrace odrysien entre le 5ème siècle avant JC et le 1er siècle après JC.

Les luttes intestines helléniques ont rendu les cités grecques vulnérables, et Philippe II de Macédoine a uni les cités grecques sous son contrôle. Le fils de Philippe II, connu sous le nom d' Alexandre le Grand , envahit la Perse voisine , renverse et incorpore ses domaines, envahit l'Égypte et s'éloigne jusqu'en Inde , multipliant les contacts avec les peuples et les cultures de ces régions qui marquèrent le début de la Période hellénistique .

Après la mort d'Alexandre, son empire s'est divisé en plusieurs royaumes dirigés par ses généraux, les Diadochi . Les Diadochi se sont battus les uns contre les autres dans une série de conflits appelés les Guerres des Diadochi . Au début du 2ème siècle avant notre ère, trois grands royaumes sont restés: l' Égypte ptolémaïque , l' empire séleucide et la Macédoine . Ces royaumes ont répandu la culture grecque dans des régions aussi éloignées que la Bactriane . [20]

La république romaine et ses voisins en 58 av.

Rome antique

L'ascension de Rome

Cicéron s'adresse au Sénat romain pour dénoncer la conspiration de Catilina pour renverser la République , par Cesare Maccari

Une grande partie de l'apprentissage grec a été assimilée par l'État romain naissant alors qu'il s'étendait vers l'extérieur de l'Italie, profitant de l'incapacité de ses ennemis à s'unir : le seul défi à l'ascension romaine venait de la colonie phénicienne de Carthage et de ses défaites lors des trois guerres puniques. marqua le début de l' hégémonie romaine . D'abord gouvernée par des rois , puis en république sénatoriale (la République romaine ), Rome devint finalement un empire à la fin du Ier siècle avant J.-C., sous Auguste et ses successeurs autoritaires.

L'Empire romain à son apogée en 117 après JC, sous l'empereur Trajan

L' empire romain avait son centre dans la Méditerranée, contrôlant tous les pays de ses rives ; la frontière nord était marquée par les fleuves Rhin et Danube . Sous l'empereur Trajan (2ème siècle après JC), l'empire a atteint son expansion maximale, contrôlant environ 5 900 000 km 2 (2,3 millions de milles carrés) de surface terrestre, y compris l' Italie , la Gallia , la Dalmatie , l' Aquitaine , la Bretagne , la Baetica , l' Hispanie , la Thrace , la Macédoine , la Grèce , Mésie ,Dacie , Pannonie , Égypte , Asie Mineure , Cappadoce , Arménie , Caucase , Afrique du Nord, Levant et certaines parties de la Mésopotamie . Pax Romana , une période de paix, de civilisation et d'un gouvernement centralisé efficace dans les territoires soumis a pris fin au 3ème siècle, lorsqu'une série de guerres civiles a miné la force économique et sociale de Rome.

Au 4ème siècle, les empereurs Dioclétien et Constantin ont pu ralentir le processus de déclin en divisant l'empire en une partie occidentale avec une capitale à Rome et une partie orientale avec la capitale à Byzance, ou Constantinople (aujourd'hui Istanbul). Alors que Dioclétien a sévèrement persécuté le christianisme, Constantin a déclaré la fin officielle de la persécution des chrétiens parrainée par l'État en 313 avec l' édit de Milan , préparant ainsi le terrain pour que l' Église devienne l' église d'État de l'Empire romain vers 380.

Déclin de l'Empire romain

Carte de la partition de l'Empire romain en 395, à la mort de Théodose Ier : l' Empire romain d'Occident est représenté en rouge et l' Empire romain d'Orient (Empire byzantin) est représenté en violet

L'Empire romain avait été attaqué à plusieurs reprises par des armées d'invasion d'Europe du Nord et en 476, Rome est finalement tombée. Romulus Auguste , le dernier empereur de l' Empire romain d' Occident , se rendit au roi germanique Odoacre . L'historien britannique Edward Gibbon a soutenu dans The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776) que les Romains étaient devenus décadents et avaient perdu leur vertu civique.

Gibbon a déclaré que l'adoption du christianisme signifiait la croyance en une vie meilleure après la mort, et rendait donc les gens paresseux et indifférents au présent. « À partir du XVIIIe siècle », a fait remarquer Glen W. Bowersock, [21] « nous avons été obsédés par la chute : elle a été considérée comme un archétype de chaque déclin perçu et, par conséquent, comme un symbole de nos propres peurs. ." Il reste l'une des plus grandes questions historiques, et a une tradition riche en intérêt scientifique.

Quelques autres dates notables sont la bataille d'Andrinople en 378, la mort de Théodose Ier en 395 (la dernière fois que l'Empire romain a été politiquement unifié), la traversée du Rhin en 406 par les tribus germaniques après le retrait des légions pour défendre l'Italie contre Alaric Ier , la mort de Stilicon en 408, suivie de la désintégration des légions occidentales, la mort de Justinien Ier , le dernier empereur romain qui tenta de reconquérir l'occident, en 565, et l'avènement de l'Islam après 632. De nombreux savants soutiennent que plutôt qu'une « chute », les changements peuvent être décrits plus précisément comme une transformation complexe. [22] Au fil du temps, de nombreuses théories ont été proposées sur la raison pour laquelle l'Empire est tombé, ou s'il est effectivement tombé.

Antiquité tardive et période de migration

Une carte simplifiée des migrations du IIe au Ve siècle. Voir aussi la carte du monde en 820 après JC .

Lorsque l'empereur Constantin avait reconquis Rome sous la bannière de la croix en 312, il publia peu après l' édit de Milan en 313 (précédé par l' édit de Serdica en 311), déclarant la légalité du christianisme dans l'Empire romain. En outre, Constantin a officiellement déplacé la capitale de l'Empire romain de Rome à la ville grecque de Byzance, qu'il a rebaptisée Nova Roma - elle a ensuite été nommée Constantinople ("Ville de Constantine").

Théodose I , qui avait fait du christianisme la religion officielle de l'Empire romain, serait le dernier empereur à présider un Empire romain uni, jusqu'à sa mort en 395. L'empire a été divisé en deux moitiés : l' Empire romain d'Occident centré à Ravenne , et l'Empire romain d'Orient (plus tard appelé l'Empire byzantin ) centré à Constantinople. L'Empire romain fut attaqué à plusieurs reprises par des tribus hunniques , germaniques , slaves et autres tribus « barbares » (voir : Période de migration ), et en 476, finalement, la partie occidentale tomba aux mains du chef Héruli Odoacre .

Carte montrant l'Europe en 526 après JC avec les trois puissances dominantes de l'ouest

L'autorité romaine dans la partie occidentale de l'empire s'était effondrée et un vide de pouvoir s'était formé à la suite de cet effondrement ; l'organisation centrale, les institutions, les lois et le pouvoir de Rome s'étaient effondrés, ce qui rendait de nombreuses régions ouvertes à l'invasion des tribus migrantes. Au fil du temps, la féodalité et la seigneurieapparurent, deux institutions imbriquées qui prévoyaient la division des terres et du travail, ainsi qu'une hiérarchie large mais inégale de la loi et de la protection. Ces hiérarchies localisées étaient basées sur le lien des gens du commun à la terre sur laquelle ils travaillaient et à un seigneur, qui fournirait et administrerait à la fois la loi locale pour régler les différends entre les paysans, ainsi que la protection contre les envahisseurs extérieurs. Contrairement à la domination romaine, avec ses lois et son armée standard à travers l'empire et sa grande bureaucratie pour les administrer et collecter les impôts, chaque seigneur (bien qu'ayant des obligations envers un seigneur supérieur) était en grande partie souverain dans son domaine. Le sort d'un paysan pouvait varier considérablement en fonction des compétences en leadership et des attitudes envers la justice du seigneur envers son peuple. Dîmesou des loyers étaient payés au seigneur, qui devait à son tour des ressources, et des hommes armés en temps de guerre, à son seigneur, peut-être un prince régional. Cependant, les niveaux de hiérarchie ont varié dans le temps et dans l'espace.

Les provinces occidentales devaient bientôt être dominées par trois grandes puissances : d'abord, les Francs ( dynastie mérovingienne ) en Francia 481-843 après JC, qui couvraient une grande partie de la France et de l'Allemagne actuelles ; deuxièmement, le royaume wisigoth 418-711 après JC dans la péninsule ibérique (Espagne moderne); et troisièmement, le royaume ostrogoth de 493-553 après JC en Italie et dans certaines parties des Balkans occidentaux Les Ostrogoths ont ensuite été remplacés par le royaume des Lombards568-774 après JC. Ces nouvelles puissances occidentales se sont appuyées sur les traditions romaines jusqu'à ce qu'elles évoluent en une synthèse des cultures romaine et germanique. Bien que ces pouvoirs couvraient de vastes territoires, ils n'avaient pas les grandes ressources et la bureaucratie de l'empire romain pour contrôler les régions et les localités. Les invasions en cours et les conflits de frontières signifiaient généralement une vie plus risquée et plus variée que celle sous l'empire. Cela signifiait qu'en général plus de pouvoir et de responsabilités étaient laissés aux seigneurs locaux. D'un autre côté, cela signifiait également plus de liberté, en particulier dans les zones les plus reculées.

En Italie, Théodoric le Grand a commencé la romanisation culturelle du nouveau monde qu'il avait construit. Il fit de Ravenne un centre de la culture de l'art romano-grec et sa cour favorisa l'épanouissement de la littérature et de la philosophie en latin . En Ibérie, le roi Chindasuinth a créé le code wisigoth . [23]

Dans la partie orientale, l'État dominant était le reste de l'Empire romain d'Orient .

Dans le système féodal, de nouveaux princes et rois sont apparus, dont le plus puissant était sans doute le souverain franc Charlemagne . En 800, Charlemagne, fort de ses conquêtes territoriales massives, est couronné empereur des Romains (Imperator Romanorum) par le pape Léon III , consolidant ainsi son pouvoir en Europe occidentale. Le règne de Charlemagne a marqué le début d'un nouvel Empire romain germanique à l'ouest, le Saint Empire romain germanique . En dehors de ses frontières, de nouvelles forces se rassemblaient. Les Rus de Kiev marquaient leur territoire, une Grande Moravie se développait, tandis que les Angles et les Saxons sécurisent leurs frontières.

Pendant toute la durée du VIe siècle, l' Empire romain d'Orient a été mêlé à une série de conflits meurtriers, d'abord avec l' Empire perse sassanide (voir Guerres romano-persanes ), suivi par l'assaut du califat islamique naissant ( Rashidun et Omeyyade ). En 650, les provinces d' Égypte , de Palestine et de Syrie sont perdues aux mains des forces musulmanes , suivies de l' Hispanie et de l'Italie méridionale aux VIIe et VIIIe siècles (voir Conquêtes musulmanes ). L'invasion arabe de l'est a été stoppée après l'intervention duBulgarian Empire (see Han Tervel).

Post-classical Europe

The Middle Ages are commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire (or by some scholars, before that) in the 5th century to the beginning of the early modern period in the 16th century, marked by the rise of nation states, the division of Western Christianity in the Reformation, the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance, and the beginnings of European overseas expansion which allowed for the Columbian Exchange.[24][25]

Byzantium

Constantine I and Justinian I offering their fealty to the Virgin Mary inside the Hagia Sophia

Many consider Emperor Constantine I (reigned 306–337) to be the first "Byzantine Emperor". It was he who moved the imperial capital in 324 from Nicomedia to Byzantium, which re-founded as Constantinople, or Nova Roma ("New Rome").[26] The city of Rome itself had not served as the capital since the reign of Diocletian (284–305). Some date the beginnings of the Empire to the reign of Theodosius I (379–395) and Christianity's official supplanting of the pagan Roman religion, or following his death in 395, when the empire was split into two parts, with capitals in Rome and Constantinople. Others place it yet later in 476, when Romulus Augustulus, traditionally considered the last western Emperor, was deposed, thus leaving sole imperial authority with the emperor in the Greek East. Others point to the reorganisation of the empire in the time of Heraclius (c. 620) when Latin titles and usages were officially replaced with Greek versions. In any case, the changeover was gradual and by 330, when Constantine inaugurated his new capital, the process of hellenization and increasing Christianisation was already under way. The Empire is generally considered to have ended after the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Plague of Justinian was a pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine Empire, including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541–542. It is estimated that the Plague of Justinian killed as many as 100 million people across the world.[27][28] It caused Europe's population to drop by around 50% between 541 and 700.[29] It also may have contributed to the success of the Muslim conquests.[30][31]

Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages span roughly five centuries from 500 to 1000.[32]

Europe in the Early Middle Ages

In the East and Southeast of Europe new dominant states formed: the Avar Khaganate (567–after 822), Old Great Bulgaria (632–668), the Khazar Khaganate (c. 650–969) and Danube Bulgaria (founded by Asparuh in 680) were constantly rivaling the hegemony of the Byzantine Empire.

From the 7th century Byzantine history was greatly affected by the rise of Islam and the Caliphates. Muslim Arabs first invaded historically Roman territory under Abū Bakr, first Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate, who entered Roman Syria and Roman Mesopotamia. As the Byzantines and neighboring Sasanids were severely weakened by the time, amongst the most important reason(s) being the protracted, centuries-lasting and frequent Byzantine–Sasanian wars, which included the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, under Umar, the second Caliph, the Muslims entirely toppled the Sasanid Persian Empire, and decisively conquered Syria and Mesopotamia, as well as Roman Palestine, Roman Egypt, and parts of Asia Minor and Roman North Africa. In the mid 7th century AD, following the Muslim conquest of Persia, Islam penetrated into the Caucasus region, of which parts would later permanently become part of Russia.[33] This trend, which included the conquests by the invading Muslim forces and by that the spread of Islam as well continued under Umar's successors and under the Umayyad Caliphate, which conquered the rest of Mediterranean North Africa and most of the Iberian Peninsula. Over the next centuries Muslim forces were able to take further European territory, including Cyprus, Malta, Crete, and Sicily and parts of southern Italy.[34]

The Muslim conquest of Hispania began when the Moors (Berbers and Arabs) invaded the Christian Visigothic kingdom of Hispania in the year 711, under the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad. They landed at Gibraltar on 30 April and worked their way northward. Tariq's forces were joined the next year by those of his Arab superior, Musa ibn Nusair. During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Muslim rule – save for small areas in the northwest (Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. In 711, Visigothic Hispania was very weakened because it was immersed in a serious internal crisis caused by a war of succession to the throne involving two Visigoth suitors. The Muslims took advantage of the crisis within the Hispano-Visigothic society to carry out their conquests. This territory, under the Arab name Al-Andalus, became part of the expanding Umayyad empire.

The second siege of Constantinople (717) ended unsuccessfully after the intervention of Tervel of Bulgaria and weakened the Umayyad dynasty and reduced their prestige. In 722 Don Pelayo, a nobleman of Visigothic origin, formed an army of 300 Astur soldiers, to confront Munuza's Muslim troops. In the battle of Covadonga, the Astures defeated the Arab-Moors, who decided to retire. The Christian victory marked the beginning of the Reconquista and the establishment of the Kingdom of Asturias, whose first sovereign was Don Pelayo. The conquerors intended to continue their expansion in Europe and move northeast across the Pyrenees, but were defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732. The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the 'Abbāsids,[35] and, in 756, the Umayyads established an independent emirate in the Iberian Peninsula.[36]

Feudal Christendom

Europe in 1000, with most European states already formed
Europe in 1204.

The Holy Roman Empire emerged around 800, as Charlemagne, King of the Franks and part of the Carolingian dynasty, was crowned by the pope as emperor. His empire based in modern France, the Low Countries and Germany expanded into modern Hungary, Italy, Bohemia, Lower Saxony and Spain. He and his father received substantial help from an alliance with the Pope, who wanted help against the Lombards.[37] His death marked the beginning of the end of the dynasty, which collapsed entirely by 888. The fragmentation of power led to semiautonomy in the region, and has been defined as a critical starting point for the formation of states in Europe.[38]

To the east, Bulgaria was established in 681 and became the first Slavic country.[citation needed] The powerful Bulgarian Empire was the main rival of Byzantium for control of the Balkans for centuries and from the 9th century became the cultural centre of Slavic Europe. The Empire created the Cyrillic script during the 9th century AD, at the Preslav Literary School, and experienced the Golden Age of Bulgarian cultural prosperity during the reign of emperor Simeon I the Great (893–927). Two states, Great Moravia and Kievan Rus', emerged among the Slavic peoples respectively in the 9th century. In the late 9th and 10th centuries, northern and western Europe felt the burgeoning power and influence of the Vikings who raided, traded, conquered and settled swiftly and efficiently with their advanced seagoing vessels such as the longships. The Vikings had left a cultural influence on the Anglo-Saxons and Franks as well as the Scots.[39] The Hungarians pillaged mainland Europe, the Pechenegs raided Bulgaria, Rus States and the Arab states. In the 10th century independent kingdoms were established in Central Europe including Poland and the newly settled Kingdom of Hungary. The kingdom of Croatia also appeared in the Balkans. The subsequent period, ending around 1000, saw the further growth of feudalism, which weakened the Holy Roman Empire.

In eastern Europe, Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in 921, after Almış I converted to Islam under the missionary efforts of Ahmad ibn Fadlan.[40]

Slavery in the early medieval period had mostly died out in western Europe by about the year 1000 AD, replaced by serfdom. It lingered longer in England and in peripheral areas linked to the Muslim world, where slavery continued to flourish. Church rules suppressed slavery of Christians. Most historians argue the transition was quite abrupt around 1000, but some see a gradual transition from about 300 to 1000.[41]

High Middle Ages

Europe in 1097, as the First Crusade to the Holy Land commences

The slumber of the Dark Ages was shaken by a renewed crisis in the Church. In 1054, the East–West Schism, an insoluble split, occurred between the two remaining Christian seats in Rome and Constantinople (modern Istanbul).

The High Middle Ages of the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries show a rapidly increasing population of Europe, which caused great social and political change from the preceding era. By 1250, the robust population increase greatly benefited the economy, reaching levels it would not see again in some areas until the 19th century.[42]

From about the year 1000 onwards, Western Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more politically organized. The Vikings had settled in Britain, Ireland, France and elsewhere, whilst Norse Christian kingdoms were developing in their Scandinavian homelands. The Magyars had ceased their expansion in the 10th century, and by the year 1000, the Roman Catholic Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary was recognised in central Europe. With the brief exception of the Mongol invasions, major barbarian incursions ceased.

Bulgarian sovereignty was reestablished with the anti-Byzantine uprising of the Bulgarians and Vlachs in 1185. The crusaders invaded the Byzantine empire, captured Constantinople in 1204 and established their Latin Empire. Kaloyan of Bulgaria defeated Baldwin I, Latin emperor of Constantinople, in the Battle of Adrianople on 14 April 1205. The reign of Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria led to maximum territorial expansion and that of Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria to a Second Golden Age of Bulgarian culture. The Byzantine Empire was fully reestablished in 1261.

In the 11th century, populations north of the Alps began to settle new lands, some of which had reverted to wilderness after the end of the Roman Empire. In what is known as the "great clearances", vast forests and marshes of Europe were cleared and cultivated. At the same time settlements moved beyond the traditional boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new frontiers in Europe, beyond the Elbe river, tripling the size of Germany in the process. Crusaders founded European colonies in the Levant, the majority of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered from the Muslims, and the Normans colonised southern Italy, all part of the major population increase and resettlement pattern.

The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual, spiritual and artistic works. The most famous are the great cathedrals as expressions of Gothic architecture, which evolved from Romanesque architecture. This age saw the rise of modern nation-states in Western Europe and the ascent of the famous Italian city-states, such as Florence and Venice. The influential popes of the Catholic Church called volunteer armies from across Europe to a series of Crusades against the Seljuq Turks, who occupied the Holy Land. The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers to develop the philosophy of Scholasticism.

A divided church

The Great Schism between the Western (Catholic) and Eastern (Orthodox) Christian Churches was sparked in 1054 by Pope Leo IX asserting authority over three of the seats in the Pentarchy, in Antioch, Jerusalem and Alexandria. Since the mid-8th century, the Byzantine Empire's borders had been shrinking in the face of Islamic expansion. Antioch had been wrested back into Byzantine control by 1045, but the resurgent power of the Roman successors in the West claimed a right and a duty for the lost seats in Asia and Africa. Pope Leo sparked a further dispute by defending the filioque clause in the Nicene Creed which the West had adopted customarily. The Orthodox today state that the XXVIIIth Canon of the Council of Chalcedon explicitly proclaimed the equality of the Bishops of Rome and Constantinople. The Orthodox also state that the Bishop of Rome has authority only over his own diocese and does not have any authority outside his diocese. There were other less significant catalysts for the Schism however, including variance over liturgy. The Schism of Roman Catholic and Orthodox followed centuries of estrangement between the Latin and Greek worlds.

Holy wars

The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade

After the East–West Schism, Western Christianity was adopted by the newly created kingdoms of Central Europe: Poland, Hungary and Bohemia. The Roman Catholic Church developed as a major power, leading to conflicts between the Pope and Emperor. The geographic reach of the Roman Catholic Church expanded enormously due to the conversions of pagan kings (Scandinavia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary), the Christian Reconquista of Al-Andalus, and the crusades. Most of Europe was Roman Catholic in the 15th century.

Early signs of the rebirth of civilization in western Europe began to appear in the 11th century as trade started again in Italy, leading to the economic and cultural growth of independent city-states such as Venice and Florence; at the same time, nation-states began to take form in places such as France, England, Spain, and Portugal, although the process of their formation (usually marked by rivalry between the monarchy, the aristocratic feudal lords and the church) actually took several centuries. These new nation-states began writing in their own cultural vernaculars, instead of the traditional Latin. Notable figures of this movement would include Dante Alighieri and Christine de Pizan (born Christina da Pizzano), the former writing in Italian, and the latter, although an Italian (Venice), relocated to France, writing in French. (See Reconquista for the latter two countries.) Elsewhere, the Holy Roman Empire, essentially based in Germany and Italy, further fragmented into a myriad of feudal principalities or small city states, whose subjection to the emperor was only formal.

The 14th century, when the Mongol Empire came to power, is often called the Age of the Mongols. Mongol armies expanded westward under the command of Batu Khan. Their western conquests included almost all of Russia (save Novgorod, which became a vassal),[43] and the Kipchak-Cuman Confederation. Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland managed to remain sovereign states. Mongolian records indicate that Batu Khan was planning a complete conquest of the remaining European powers, beginning with a winter attack on Austria, Italy and Germany, when he was recalled to Mongolia upon the death of Great Khan Ögedei. Most historians believe only his death prevented the complete conquest of Europe.[citation needed] The areas of Eastern Europe and most of Central Asia that were under direct Mongol rule became known as the Golden Horde. Under Uzbeg Khan, Islam became the official religion of the region in the early 14th century.[44] The invading Mongols, together with their mostly Turkic subjects, were known as Tatars. In Russia, the Tatars ruled the various states of the Rus' through vassalage for over 300 years.

In the Northern Europe, Konrad of Masovia gave Chelmno to the Teutonic Knights in 1226 as a base for a Crusade against the Old Prussians and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Livonian Brothers of the Sword were defeated by the Lithuanians, so in 1237 Gregory IX merged the remainder of the order into the Teutonic Order as the Livonian Order. By the middle of the century, the Teutonic Knights completed their conquest of the Prussians before conquering and converting the Lithuanians in the subsequent decades. The order also came into conflict with the Eastern Orthodox Church of the Pskov and Novgorod Republics. In 1240 the Orthodox Novgorod army defeated the Catholic Swedes in the Battle of the Neva, and, two years later, they defeated the Livonian Order in the Battle on the Ice. The Union of Krewo in 1386, bringing two major changes in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: conversion to Catholicism and establishment of a dynastic union between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland marked both the greatest territorial expansion of the Grand Duchy and the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410.

Late Middle Ages

The spread of the "Black Death" from 1347 to 1351 through Europe

The Late Middle Ages spanned the 14th and early 15th centuries.[45] Around 1300, centuries of European prosperity and growth came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, such as the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, killed people in a matter of days, reducing the population of some areas by half as many survivors fled. Kishlansky reports:

The Black Death touched every aspect of life, hastening a process of social, economic, and cultural transformation already underway.... Fields were abandoned, workplaces stood idle, international trade was suspended. Traditional bonds of kinship, village, and even religion were broken amid the horrors of death, flight, and failed expectations. "People cared no more for dead men than we care for dead goats," wrote one survivor.[46]

Depopulation caused labor to become scarcer; the survivors were better paid and peasants could drop some of the burdens of feudalism. There was also social unrest; France and England experienced serious peasant risings including the Jacquerie and the Peasants' Revolt. At the same time, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Great Schism. Collectively these events have been called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages.[47]

Beginning in the 14th century, the Baltic Sea became one of the most important trade routes. The Hanseatic League, an alliance of trading cities, facilitated the absorption of vast areas of Poland, Lithuania, and Livonia into trade with other European countries. This fed the growth of powerful states in this part of Europe including Poland-Lithuania, Hungary, Bohemia, and Muscovy later on. The conventional end of the Middle Ages is usually associated with the fall of the city of Constantinople and of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Turks made the city the capital of their Ottoman Empire, which lasted until 1922 and included Egypt, Syria, and most of the Balkans. The Ottoman wars in Europe, also sometimes referred to as the Turkish wars, marked an essential part of the history of the continent as a whole.

A key 15th-century development was the advent of the movable type of printing press circa 1439 in Mainz,[48] building upon the impetus provided by the prior introduction of paper from China via the Arabs in the High Middle Ages.[49] Paper was already readily available in Europe by the late 14th century.[49] While forms of moveable type of printing press had been already used in China and Korea, the technique was singularly successful in Europe given the small number of characters of the Latin alphabet, massively reducing costs of book production.[50] The adoption of the technology across the continent at dazzling speed for the remaining part of the 15th century would usher a revolution and by 1500 over 200 cities in Europe had presses that printed between 8 and 20 million books.[48]

Homicide rates plunge over 800 years

At the local level, levels of violence were extremely high by modern standards in medieval and early modern Europe. Typically, small groups would battle their neighbors, using the farm tools at hand such as knives, sickles, hammers and axes. Mayhem and death were deliberate. The vast majority of people lived in rural areas. Cities were few, and small in size, but their concentration of population was conducive to violence. Long-term studies of places such as Amsterdam, Stockholm, Venice and Zurich show the same trends as rural areas. Across Europe, homicide trends (not including military actions) show a steady long-term decline.[51][52] Regional differences were small, except that Italy's decline was later and slower. From approximately 1200 AD through 1800 AD, homicide rates from violent local episodes declined by a factor of ten, from approximately 32 deaths per 100 000 people to 3.2 per 100 000. In the 20th century the homicide rate fell to 1.4 per 100 000. Police forces seldom existed outside the cities; prisons only became common after 1800. Before then harsh penalties were imposed for homicide (severe whipping or execution) but they proved ineffective at controlling or reducing the insults to honor that precipitated most of the violence. The decline does not correlate with economics. Most historians attribute the trend in homicides to a steady increase in self-control of the sort promoted by Protestantism, and necessitated by schools and factories.[53][54][55]

Historian Manuel Eisner has summarized the patterns from over 300 historical studies.

Homicide rates
in Europe[56]
Deaths per year
per 100 000 population
13–14th centuries 32
15th century 41
16th century 19
17th century 11
18th century 3.2
19th century 2.6
20th century 1.4

Early Modern Europe

Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) maritime trade routes in the Mediterranean and Black Sea

The Early Modern period spans the centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution, roughly from 1500 to 1800, or from the discovery of the New World in 1492 to the French Revolution in 1789. The period is characterised by the rise to importance of science and increasingly rapid technological progress, secularised civic politics and the nation state. Capitalist economies began their rise. The early modern period also saw the rise and dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. As such, the early modern period represents the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of feudalism, serfdom and the power of the Catholic Church. The period includes the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the disastrous Thirty Years' War, the European colonisation of the Americas and the European witch-hunts.

Renaissance

Despite these crises, the 14th century was also a time of great progress within the arts and sciences. A renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman led to the Italian Renaissance.

The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the north, west and middle Europe during a cultural lag of some two and a half centuries, its influence affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, history, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.

The Italian Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca), deemed the first full-blooded Humanist, wrote in the 1330s: "I am alive now, yet I would rather have been born in another time." He was enthusiastic about Greek and Roman antiquity. In the 15th and 16th centuries the continuing enthusiasm for the ancients was reinforced by the feeling that the inherited culture was dissolving and here was a storehouse of ideas and attitudes with which to rebuild. Matteo Palmieri wrote in the 1430s: "Now indeed may every thoughtful spirit thank god that it has been permitted to him to be born in a new age." The renaissance was born: a new age where learning was very important.

The Renaissance was inspired by the growth in the study of Latin and Greek texts and the admiration of the Greco-Roman era as a golden age. This prompted many artists and writers to begin drawing from Roman and Greek examples for their works, but there was also much innovation in this period, especially by multi-faceted artists such as Leonardo da Vinci. The Humanists saw their repossession of a great past as a Renaissance – a rebirth of civilization itself.[57]

Important political precedents were also set in this period. Niccolò Machiavelli's political writing in The Prince influenced later absolutism and realpolitik. Also important were the many patrons who ruled states and used the artistry of the Renaissance as a sign of their power.

In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity and through novel approaches to thought – the immediate past being too "Gothic" in language, thought and sensibility.

Exploration and trade

Cantino planisphere, 1502, earliest chart showing explorations by Vasco da Gama, Columbus and Cabral

Toward the end of the period, an era of discovery began. The growth of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the fall of Constantinople in 1453, cut off trading possibilities with the east. Western Europe was forced to discover new trading routes, as happened with Columbus' travel to the Americas in 1492, and Vasco da Gama's circumnavigation of India and Africa in 1498.

The numerous wars did not prevent European states from exploring and conquering wide portions of the world, from Africa to Asia and the newly discovered Americas. In the 15th century, Portugal led the way in geographical exploration along the coast of Africa in search of a maritime route to India, followed by Spain near the close of the 15th century, dividing their exploration of the world according to the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494.[58] They were the first states to set up colonies in America and European trading posts (factories) along the shores of Africa and Asia, establishing the first direct European diplomatic contacts with Southeast Asian states in 1511, China in 1513 and Japan in 1542. In 1552, Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible conquered two major Tatar khanates, the Khanate of Kazan and the Astrakhan Khanate. The Yermak's voyage of 1580 led to the annexation of the Tatar Siberian Khanate into Russia, and the Russians would soon after conquer the rest of Siberia, steadily expanding to the east and south over the next centuries. Oceanic explorations soon followed by France, England and the Netherlands, who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes into the Pacific Ocean, reaching Australia in 1606[59] and New Zealand in 1642.

Reformation

The Ninety-Five Theses of German monk Martin Luther, which criticized the Catholic Church
Map of Europe in 1648

With the development of the printing press, new ideas spread throughout Europe and challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation under German Martin Luther questioned Papal authority. The most common dating of the Reformation begins in 1517, when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses, and concludes in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia that ended years of European religious wars.[60]

During this period corruption in the Catholic Church led to a sharp backlash in the Protestant Reformation. It gained many followers especially among princes and kings seeking a stronger state by ending the influence of the Catholic Church. Figures other than Martin Luther began to emerge as well like John Calvin whose Calvinism had influence in many countries and King Henry VIII of England who broke away from the Catholic Church in England and set up the Anglican Church; his daughter Queen Elizabeth finished the organization of the church. These religious divisions brought on a wave of wars inspired and driven by religion but also by the ambitious monarchs in Western Europe who were becoming more centralized and powerful.

The Protestant Reformation also led to a strong reform movement in the Catholic Church called the Counter-Reformation, which aimed to reduce corruption as well as to improve and strengthen Catholic dogma. Two important groups in the Catholic Church who emerged from this movement were the Jesuits, who helped keep Spain, Portugal, Poland, and other European countries within the Catholic fold, and the Oratorians of Saint Philip Neri, who ministered to the faithful in Rome, restoring their confidence in the Church of Jesus Christ that subsisted substantially in the Church of Rome. Still, the Catholic Church was somewhat weakened by the Reformation, portions of Europe were no longer under its sway and kings in the remaining Catholic countries began to take control of the church institutions within their kingdoms.

Unlike many European countries, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Hungary were more tolerant. While still enforcing the predominance of Catholicism, they continued to allow the large religious minorities to maintain their faiths, traditions and customs. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became divided among Catholics, Protestants, Orthodox, Jews and a small Muslim population.

Another development was the idea of 'European superiority'. The ideal of civilization was taken over from the ancient Greeks and Romans: Discipline, education and living in the city were required to make people civilized; Europeans and non-Europeans were judged for their civility, and Europe regarded itself as superior to other continents. There was a movement by some such as Montaigne that regarded the non-Europeans as a better, more natural and primitive people. Post services were founded all over Europe, which allowed a humanistic interconnected network of intellectuals across Europe, despite religious divisions. However, the Roman Catholic Church banned many leading scientific works; this led to an intellectual advantage for Protestant countries, where the banning of books was regionally organised. Francis Bacon and other advocates of science tried to create unity in Europe by focusing on the unity in nature.1 In the 15th century, at the end of the Middle Ages, powerful sovereign states were appearing, built by the New Monarchs who were centralising power in France, England, and Spain. On the other hand, the Parliament in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth grew in power, taking legislative rights from the Polish king. The new state power was contested by parliaments in other countries especially England. New kinds of states emerged which were co-operation agreements among territorial rulers, cities, farmer republics and knights.

Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law.

Mercantilism and colonial expansion

Animated map showing the evolution of Colonial empires from 1492 to the present

The Iberian states (Spain and Portugal) were able to dominate colonial activity in the 16th century. The Portuguese forged the first global empire in the 15th and 16th century, whilst during the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century, the Spanish under the crown of Castile became the most powerful global empire in the world. This dominance was increasingly challenged by British, French, and the short-lived Dutch and Swedish colonial efforts of the 17th and 18th centuries. New forms of trade and expanding horizons made new forms of government, law and economics necessary.

Colonial expansion continued in the following centuries (with some setbacks, such as successful wars of independence in the British American colonies and then later Haiti, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and others amid European turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars). Spain had control of a large part of North America, all of Central America and a great part of South America, the Caribbean and the Philippines; Britain took the whole of Australia and New Zealand, most of India, and large parts of Africa and North America; France held parts of Canada and India (nearly all of which was lost to Britain in 1763), Indochina, large parts of Africa and the Caribbean islands; the Netherlands gained the East Indies (now Indonesia) and islands in the Caribbean; Portugal obtained Brazil and several territories in Africa and Asia; and later, powers such as Germany, Belgium, Italy and Russia acquired further colonies.[citation needed]

This expansion helped the economy of the countries owning them. Trade flourished, because of the minor stability of the empires. By the late 16th century, American silver accounted for one-fifth of Spain's total budget.[61][62] The French colony of Saint-Domingue was one of richest European colonies in the 18th century, operating on a plantation economy fueled by slave labor. During the period of French rule, cash crops produced in Saint-Domingue comprised thirty percent of total French trade while its sugar exports represented forty percent of the Atlantic market.[63][64]

Crisis of the 17th century

Contemporary woodcut depicting the Second Defenestration of Prague (1618), which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt, which began the first part of the Thirty Years' War.

The 17th century was an era of crisis.[65][66] Many historians have rejected the idea, while others promote it as an invaluable insight into the warfare, politics, economics,[67] and even art.[68] The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) focused attention on the massive horrors that wars could bring to entire populations.[69] The 1640s in particular saw more state breakdowns around the world than any previous or subsequent period.[65][66] The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the largest state in Europe, temporarily disappeared. In addition, there were secessions and upheavals in several parts of the Spanish empire, the world's first global empire. In Britain the entire Stuart monarchy (England, Scotland, Ireland, and its North American colonies) rebelled. Political insurgency and a spate of popular revolts seldom equalled shook the foundations of most states in Europe and Asia. More wars took place around the world in the mid-17th century than in almost any other period of recorded history. The crises spread far beyond Europe – for example Ming China, the most populous state in the world, collapsed. Across the Northern Hemisphere, the mid-17th century experienced almost unprecedented death rates. Geoffrey Parker, a British historian, suggests that environmental factors may have been in part to blame, especially global cooling.[70][71]

Age of Absolutism

Maria Theresa being crowned Queen of Hungary in the St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg (Bratislava)

The "absolute" rule of powerful monarchs such as Louis XIV (ruled France 1643–1715),[72] Peter the Great (ruled Russia 1682–1725),[73] Maria Theresa (ruled Habsburg lands 1740–1780) and Frederick the Great (ruled Prussia 1740–86),[74] produced powerful centralized states, with strong armies and powerful bureaucracies, all under the control of the king.[75]

Throughout the early part of this period, capitalism (through mercantilism) was replacing feudalism as the principal form of economic organisation, at least in the western half of Europe. The expanding colonial frontiers resulted in a Commercial Revolution. The period is noted for the rise of modern science and the application of its findings to technological improvements, which animated the Industrial Revolution after 1750.

The Reformation had profound effects on the unity of Europe. Not only were nations divided one from another by their religious orientation, but some states were torn apart internally by religious strife, avidly fostered by their external enemies. France suffered this fate in the 16th century in the series of conflicts known as the French Wars of Religion, which ended in the triumph of the Bourbon Dynasty. England avoided this fate for a while and settled down under Elizabeth I to a moderate Anglicanism. Much of modern-day Germany was made up of numerous small sovereign states under the theoretical framework of the Holy Roman Empire, which was further divided along internally drawn sectarian lines. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is notable in this time for its religious indifference and a general immunity to the horrors of European religious strife.

Thirty Years' War 1618–1648

The Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, across Germany and neighbouring areas, and involved most of the major European powers except England and Russia.[76] Beginning as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Bohemia, it quickly developed into a general war involving Catholics versus Protestants for the most part. The major impact of the war, in which mercenary armies were extensively used, was the devastation of entire regions scavenged bare by the foraging armies. Episodes of widespread famine and disease, and the breakup of family life, devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries, the Crown of Bohemia and northern parts of Italy, while bankrupting many of the regional powers involved. Between one-fourth and one-third of the German population perished from direct military causes or from disease and starvation, as well as postponed births.[77]

After the Peace of Westphalia, Europe's borders were still stable in 1708

After the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the war in favour of nations deciding their own religious allegiance, absolutism became the norm of the continent, while parts of Europe experimented with constitutions foreshadowed by the English Civil War and particularly the Glorious Revolution. European military conflict did not cease, but had less disruptive effects on the lives of Europeans. In the advanced northwest, the Enlightenment gave a philosophical underpinning to the new outlook, and the continued spread of literacy, made possible by the printing press, created new secular forces in thought.

From the Union of Krewo (see above) central and eastern Europe was dominated by Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the 16th and 17th centuries Central and Eastern Europe was an arena of conflict for domination of the continent between Sweden, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (involved in series of wars, like Khmelnytsky uprising, Russo-Polish War, the Deluge, etc.) and the Ottoman Empire. This period saw a gradual decline of these three powers which were eventually replaced by new enlightened absolutist monarchies: Russia, Prussia and Austria (the Habsburg Monarchy). By the turn of the 19th century they had become new powers, having divided Poland between themselves, with Sweden and Turkey having experienced substantial territorial losses to Russia and Austria respectively as well as pauperisation.

War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1715) was a major war with France opposed by a coalition of England, the Netherlands, the Habsburg Monarchy, and Prussia. Duke of Marlborough commanded the English and Dutch victory at the Battle of Blenheim in 1704. The main issue was whether France under King Louis XIV would take control of Spain's very extensive possessions and thereby become by far the dominant power, or be forced to share power with other major nations. After initial allied successes, the long war produced a military stalemate and ended with the Treaty of Utrecht, which was based on a balance of power in Europe. Historian Russell Weigley argues that the many wars almost never accomplished more than they cost.[78] British historian G. M. Trevelyan argues:

That Treaty [of Utrecht], which ushered in the stable and characteristic period of Eighteenth-Century civilization, marked the end of danger to Europe from the old French monarchy, and it marked a change of no less significance to the world at large – the maritime, commercial and financial supremacy of Great Britain.[79]

Prussia

Frederick the Great, king of Prussia 1740–86, modernized the Prussian army, introduced new tactical and strategic concepts, fought mostly successful wars (Silesian Wars, Seven Years' War) and doubled the size of Prussia. Frederick had a rationale based on Enlightenment thought: he fought total wars for limited objectives. The goal was to convince rival kings that it was better to negotiate and make peace than to fight him.[80][81]

Expansion of Russia (1300–1945)

Russia

Russia fought numerous wars to achieve rapid expansion toward the east – i.e. Siberia, Far East, south, to the Black Sea, and south-east and to central Asia. Russia boasted a large and powerful army, a very large and complex internal bureaucracy, and a splendid court that rivaled Paris and London. However the government was living far beyond its means and seized Church lands, leaving organized religion in a weak condition. Throughout the 18th century Russia remained "a poor, backward, overwhelmingly agricultural, and illiterate country."[82]

Enlightenment

The Enlightenment was a powerful, widespread cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th-century Europe emphasizing the power of reason rather than tradition; it was especially favourable to science (especially Isaac Newton's physics) and hostile to religious orthodoxy (especially of the Catholic Church).[83] It sought to analyze and reform society using reason, to challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and to advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and intellectual interchange.[84] The Enlightenment was a revolution in human thought. This new way of thinking was that rational thought begins with clearly stated principles, uses correct logic to arrive at conclusions, tests the conclusions against evidence, and then revises the principles in light of the evidence.[84]

Enlightenment thinkers opposed superstition. Some Enlightenment thinkers collaborated with Enlightened despots, absolutist rulers who attempted to forcibly impose some of the new ideas about government into practice. The ideas of the Enlightenment exerted significant influence on the culture, politics, and governments of Europe.[85]

Originating in the 17th century, it was sparked by philosophers Francis Bacon (1562–1626), Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), Voltaire (1694–1778), Francis Hutcheson (1694–1746), David Hume (1711–1776) and physicist Isaac Newton (1643–1727).[86] Ruling princes often endorsed and fostered these figures and even attempted to apply their ideas of government in what was known as enlightened absolutism. The Scientific Revolution is closely tied to the Enlightenment, as its discoveries overturned many traditional concepts and introduced new perspectives on nature and man's place within it. The Enlightenment flourished until about 1790–1800, at which point the Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason, gave way to Romanticism, which placed a new emphasis on emotion; a Counter-Enlightenment began to increase in prominence. The Romantics argued that the Enlightenment was reductionistic insofar as it had largely ignored the forces of imagination, mystery, and sentiment.[87]

In France, Enlightenment was based in the salons and culminated in the great Encyclopédie (1751–72) edited by Denis Diderot (1713–1784) and (until 1759) Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717–1783) with contributions by hundreds of leading intellectuals who were called philosophes, notably Voltaire (1694–1778), Rousseau (1712–1778) and Montesquieu (1689–1755). Some 25,000 copies of the 35 volume encyclopedia were sold, half of them outside France. These new intellectual strains would spread to urban centres across Europe, notably England, Scotland, the German states, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Italy, Austria, and Spain, as well as Britain's American colonies.

The political ideals of the Enlightenment influenced the American Declaration of Independence, the United States Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, and the Polish–Lithuanian Constitution of 3 May 1791.[88]

Taking a long-term historical perspective, Norman Davies has argued that Freemasonry was a powerful force on behalf of Liberalism and Enlightenment ideas in Europe, from about 1700 to the 20th century. It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment, reaching practically every country in Europe.[89] Prominent members included Montesquieu, Voltaire, Sir Robert Walpole, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Benjamin Franklin, and George Washington. Steven C. Bullock notes that in the late 18th century, English lodges were headed by the Prince of Wales, Prussian lodges by king Frederick the Great, and French lodges by royal princes. Emperor Napoleon selected as Grand Master of France his own brother.[90]

The great enemy of Freemasonry was the Roman Catholic Church, so that in countries with a large Catholic element, such as France, Italy, Austria, Spain and Mexico, much of the ferocity of the political battles involve the confrontation between supporters of the Church versus active Masons.[91][92] 20th-century totalitarian and revolutionary movements, especially the Fascists and Communists, crushed the Freemasons.[93]

From revolution to imperialism (1789–1914)

The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

The "long 19th century", from 1789 to 1914 saw the drastic social, political and economic changes initiated by the Industrial Revolution, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Following the reorganisation of the political map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Europe experienced the rise of Nationalism, the rise of the Russian Empire and the peak of the British Empire, as well as the decline of the Ottoman Empire. Finally, the rise of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire initiated the course of events that culminated in the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.

Industrial Revolution

London's chimney sky in 1870, by Gustave Doré

The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th century and early 19th century when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transport impacted Britain and subsequently spread to the United States and Western Europe, a process that continues as industrialisation. Technological advancements, most notably the utilization of the steam engine, were major catalysts in the industrialisation process. It started in England and Scotland in the mid-18th century with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of coal as the main fuel. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.[94] The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous.[95]

Era of the French Revolution

Historians R.R. Palmer and Joel Colton argue:

In 1789 France fell into revolution, and the world has never since been the same. The French Revolution was by far the most momentous upheaval of the whole revolutionary age. It replaced the "old regime" with "modern society," and at its extreme phase became very radical, so much so that all later revolutionary movements have looked back to it as a predecessor to themselves.... From the 1760s to 1848, the role of France was decisive.[96]

The era of the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic wars was a difficult time for monarchs. Tsar Paul I of Russia was assassinated; King Louis XVI of France was executed, as was his queen Marie Antoinette. Furthermore, kings Charles IV of Spain, Ferdinand VII of Spain and Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden were deposed as were ultimately the Emperor Napoleon and all of the relatives he had installed on various European thrones. King Frederick William III of Prussia and Emperor Francis II of Austria barely clung to their thrones. King George III of Great Britain lost the better part of the First British Empire.[97]

The American Revolution (1775–1783) was the first successful revolt of a colony against a European power. It proclaimed, in the words of Thomas Jefferson, that "all men are created equal," a position based on the principles of the Enlightenment. It rejected aristocracy and established a republican form of government under George Washington that attracted worldwide attention.[98]

The French Revolution (1789–1804) was a product of the same democratic forces in the Atlantic World and had an even greater impact.[99] French historian François Aulard says:

From the social point of view, the Revolution consisted in the suppression of what was called the feudal system, in the emancipation of the individual, in greater division of landed property, the abolition of the privileges of noble birth, the establishment of equality, the simplification of life.... The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity."[100]
The storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution of 1789

French intervention in the American Revolutionary War had nearly bankrupted the state. After repeated failed attempts at financial reform, King Louis XVI had to convene the Estates-General, a representative body of the country made up of three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The third estate, joined by members of the other two, declared itself to be a National Assembly and swore an oath not to dissolve until France had a constitution and created, in July, the National Constituent Assembly. At the same time the people of Paris revolted, famously storming the Bastille prison on 14 July 1789.

At the time the assembly wanted to create a constitutional monarchy, and over the following two years passed various laws including the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, the abolition of feudalism, and a fundamental change in the relationship between France and Rome. At first the king agreed with these changes and enjoyed reasonable popularity with the people. As anti-royalism increased along with threat of foreign invasion, the king tried to flee and join France's enemies. He was captured and on 21 January 1793, having been convicted of treason, he was guillotined.

On 20 September 1792 the National Convention abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. Due to the emergency of war, the National Convention created the Committee of Public Safety, controlled by Maximilien de Robespierre of the Jacobin Club, to act as the country's executive. Under Robespierre, the committee initiated the Reign of Terror, during which up to 40,000 people were executed in Paris, mainly nobles and those convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal, often on the flimsiest of evidence. Internal tensions at Paris drove the Committee towards increasing assertions of radicalism and increasing suspicions, fueling new terror: A few months into this phase, more and more prominent revolutionaries were being sent to the guillotine by Robespierre and his faction, for example Madame Roland and Georges Danton. Elsewhere in the country, counter-revolutionary insurrections were brutally suppressed. The regime was overthrown in the coup of 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794) and Robespierre was executed. The regime which followed ended the Terror and relaxed Robespierre's more extreme policies.

Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the world's most famous soldiers and statesmen, leading France to great victories over numerous European enemies. Despite modest origins he became Emperor and restructured much of European diplomacy, politics and law, until he was forced to abdicate in 1814. His 100-day comeback in 1815 failed at the Battle of Waterloo, and he died in exile on a remote island, remembered as a great hero by many Frenchmen and as a great villain by British and other enemies.

Napoleon, despite his youth, was France's most successful general in the Revolutionary wars, having conquered large parts of Italy and forced the Austrians to sue for peace. In 1799 on 18 Brumaire (9 November) he overthrew the feeble government, replacing it with the Consulate, which he dominated. He gained popularity in France by restoring the Church, keeping taxes low, centralizing power in Paris, and winning glory on the battlefield. In 1804 he crowned himself Emperor. In 1805, Napoleon planned to invade Britain, but a renewed British alliance with Russia and Austria (Third Coalition), forced him to turn his attention towards the continent, while at the same time the French fleet was demolished by the British at the Battle of Trafalgar, ending any plan to invade Britain. On 2 December 1805, Napoleon defeated a numerically superior Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz, forcing Austria's withdrawal from the coalition (see Treaty of Pressburg) and dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, a Fourth Coalition was set up. On 14 October Napoleon defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, marched through Germany and defeated the Russians on 14 June 1807 at Friedland. The Treaties of Tilsit divided Europe between France and Russia and created the Duchy of Warsaw.

Napoleon's army at the retreat from Russia at the Berezina river

On 12 June 1812 Napoleon invaded Russia with a Grande Armée of nearly 700,000 troops. After the measured victories at Smolensk and Borodino Napoleon occupied Moscow, only to find it burned by the retreating Russian army. He was forced to withdraw. On the march back his army was harassed by Cossacks, and suffered disease and starvation. Only 20,000 of his men survived the campaign. By 1813 the tide had begun to turn from Napoleon. Having been defeated by a seven nation army at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, he was forced to abdicate after the Six Days' Campaign and the occupation of Paris. Under the Treaty of Fontainebleau he was exiled to the island of Elba. He returned to France on 1 March 1815 (see Hundred Days), raised an army, but was finally defeated by a British and Prussian force at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815 and exiled to a small British island in the South Atlantic.

Impact of the French Revolution

Roberts finds that the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, from 1793 to 1815, caused 4 million deaths (of whom 1 million were civilians); 1.4 million were French deaths.[101]

Outside France the Revolution had a major impact. Its ideas became widespread. Roberts argues that Napoleon was responsible for key ideas of the modern world, so that, "meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on-were protected, consolidated, codified, and geographically extended by Napoleon during his 16 years of power."[102]

Furthermore, the French armies in the 1790s and 1800s directly overthrew feudal remains in much of western Europe. They liberalised property laws, ended seigneurial dues, abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalised divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else. The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men.[103]

In foreign affairs, the French Army down to 1812 was quite successful. Roberts says that Napoleon fought 60 battles, losing only seven.[104] France conquered Belgium and turned it into another province of France. It conquered the Netherlands, and made it a puppet state. It took control of the German areas on the left bank of the Rhine River and set up a puppet regime. It conquered Switzerland and most of Italy, setting up a series of puppet states. The result was glory for France, and an infusion of much needed money from the conquered lands, which also provided direct support to the French Army. However the enemies of France, led by Britain and funded by the inexhaustible British Treasury, formed a Second Coalition in 1799 (with Britain joined by Russia, the Ottoman Empire and Austria). It scored a series of victories that rolled back French successes, and trapped the French Army in Egypt. Napoleon himself slipped through the British blockade in October 1799, returning to Paris, where he overthrew the government and made himself the ruler.[105][106]

Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in 1797–99. He consolidated old units and split up Austria's holdings. He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges. Napoleon's Cisalpine Republic was centered on Milan; Genoa became a republic; the Roman Republic was formed as well as the small Ligurian Republic around Genoa. The Neapolitan Republic was formed around Naples, but it lasted only five months. He later formed the Kingdom of Italy, with his brother as King. In addition, France turned the Netherlands into the Batavian Republic, and Switzerland into the Helvetic Republic. All these new countries were satellites of France, and had to pay large subsidies to Paris, as well as provide military support for Napoleon's wars. Their political and administrative systems were modernized, the metric system introduced, and trade barriers reduced. Jewish ghettos were abolished. Belgium and Piedmont became integral parts of France.[107]

Most of the new nations were abolished and returned to prewar owners in 1814. However, Artz emphasizes the benefits the Italians gained from the French Revolution:

For nearly two decades the Italians had excellent codes of law, a fair system of taxation, a better economic situation, and more religious and intellectual toleration than they had known for centuries.... Everywhere old physical, economic, and intellectual barriers had been thrown down and the Italians had begun to be aware of a common nationality.[108]

Likewise in Switzerland the long-term impact of the French Revolution has been assessed by Martin:

It proclaimed the equality of citizens before the law, equality of languages, freedom of thought and faith; it created a Swiss citizenship, basis of our modern nationality, and the separation of powers, of which the old regime had no conception; it suppressed internal tariffs and other economic restraints; it unified weights and measures, reformed civil and penal law, authorized mixed marriages (between Catholics and Protestants), suppressed torture and improved justice; it developed education and public works.[109]

The greatest impact came of course in France itself. In addition to effects similar to those in Italy and Switzerland, France saw the introduction of the principle of legal equality, and the downgrading of the once powerful and rich Catholic Church to just a bureau controlled by the government. Power became centralized in Paris, with its strong bureaucracy and an army supplied by conscripting all young men. French politics were permanently polarized – new names were given, "left" and "right" for the supporters and opponents of the principles of the Revolution.

British historian Max Hastings says there is no question that as a military genius Napoleon ranks with Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar in greatness. However, in the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe or, instead, a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler".[110]

Religion

By the 19th century, governments increasingly took over traditional religious roles, paying much more attention to efficiency and uniformity than to religiosity. Secular bodies took control of education away from the churches, abolished taxes and tithes for the support of established religions, and excluded bishops from the upper houses. Secular laws increasingly regulated marriage and divorce, and maintaining birth and death registers became the duty of local officials. Although the numerous religious denominations in the United States founded many colleges and universities, that was almost exclusively a state function across Europe. Imperial powers protected Christian missionaries in African and Asian colonies.[111] In France and other largely Catholic nations, anti-clerical political movements tried to reduce the role of the Catholic Church. Likewise briefly in Germany in the 1870s there was a fierce Kulturkampf (culture war) against Catholics, but the Catholics successfully fought back. The Catholic Church concentrated more power in the papacy and fought against secularism and socialism. It sponsored devotional reforms that gained wide support among the churchgoers.[112]

Protestantism

Historian Kenneth Scott Latourette argues that the outlook for Protestantism at the start of the 19th century was discouraging. It was a regional religion based in northwestern Europe, with an outpost in the sparsely settled United States. It was closely allied with government, as in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Prussia, and especially Great Britain. The alliance came at the expense of independence, as the government made the basic policy decisions, down to such details as the salaries of ministers and location of new churches. The dominant intellectual currents of the Enlightenment promoted rationalism, and most Protestant leaders preached a sort of deism. Intellectually, the new methods of historical and anthropological study undermine automatic acceptance of biblical stories, as did the sciences of geology and biology. Industrialization was a strongly negative factor, as workers who moved to the city seldom joined churches. The gap between the church and the unchurched grew rapidly, and secular forces, based both in socialism and liberalism undermine the prestige of religion. Despite the negative forces, Protestantism demonstrated a striking vitality by 1900. Shrugging off Enlightenment rationalism, Protestants embraced romanticism, with the stress on the personal and the invisible. Entirely fresh ideas as expressed by Friedrich Schleiermacher, Soren Kierkegaard, Albrecht Ritschl and Adolf von Harnack restored the intellectual power of theology. There was more attention to historic creeds such as the Augsburg, the Heidelberg, and the Westminster confessions. In England, Anglicans emphasize the historically Catholic components of their heritage, as the High Church element reintroduced vestments and incense into their rituals. The stirrings of pietism on the Continent, and evangelicalism in Britain expanded enormously, leading the devout away from an emphasis on formality and ritual and toward an inner sensibility toward personal relationship to Christ. Social activities, in education and in opposition to social vices such as slavery, alcoholism and poverty provided new opportunities for social service. Above all, worldwide missionary activity became a highly prized goal, proving quite successful in close cooperation with European colonialists, particularly during the New Imperialism period.[113]

Nations rising

Cheering the Revolutions of 1848 in Berlin

Emerging nationalism

The political development of nationalism and the push for popular sovereignty culminated with the ethnic/national revolutions of Europe. During the 19th century nationalism became one of the most significant political and social forces in history; it is typically listed among the top causes of World War I.[114][115]

Napoleon's conquests of the German and Italian states around 1800–1806 played a major role in stimulating nationalism and the demands for national unity.[116]

Germany

In the German states east of Prussia Napoleon abolished many of the old or medieval relics, such as dissolving the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.[117] He imposed rational legal systems and demonstrated how dramatic changes were possible. For example, his organization of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806 promoted a feeling of nationalism. Nationalists sought to encompass masculinity in their quest for strength and unity.[118] In the 1860s it was Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck who achieved German unification in 1870 after the many smaller states followed Prussia's leadership in wars against Denmark, Austria and France.[119]

Italy

Italian nationalism emerged in the 19th century and was the driving force for Italian unification or the "Risorgimento" (meaning the Resurgence or revival). It was the political and intellectual movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. The memory of the Risorgimento is central to both Italian nationalism and Italian historiography.[120]

Beginning in 1821, the Greek War of Independence began as a rebellion by Greek revolutionaries against the ruling Ottoman Empire.

Serbia

Breakup of Yugoslavia

For centuries the Orthodox Christian Serbs were ruled by the Muslim-controlled Ottoman Empire. The success of the Serbian revolution (1804–1817) against Ottoman rule in 1817 marked the foundation of modern Principality of Serbia. It achieved de facto independence in 1867 and finally gained recognition by the Great Powers in the Berlin Congress of 1878. The Serbs developed a larger vision for nationalism in Pan-Slavism and with Russian support sought to pull the other Slavs out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[121][122] Austria, with German backing, tried to crush Serbia in 1914 but Russia intervened, thus igniting the First World War in which Austria dissolved into nation states.[123]

In 1918, the region of Vojvodina proclaimed its secession from Austria-Hungary to unite with the pan-Slavic State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs; the Kingdom of Serbia joined the union on 1 December 1918, and the country was named Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. It was renamed Yugoslavia, which was never able to tame the multiple nationalities and religions and it flew apart in civil war in the 1990s.

Greece

The Greek drive for independence from the Ottoman Empire inspired supporters across Christian Europe, especially in Britain. France, Russia and Britain intervened to make this nationalist dream become reality with the Greek War of Independence (1821-1829/1830).[124]

Bulgaria

Bulgarian modern nationalism emerged under Ottoman rule in the late 18th and early 19th century, under the influence of western ideas such as liberalism and nationalism, which trickled into the country after the French revolution, mostly via Greece, although there were stirrings in the 18th century. Russia, as a World Great Power of fellow Orthodox Slavs, could appeal to the Bulgarians in a way that Austria could not. An autonomous Bulgarian Exarchate was established in 1870/1872 for the diocese of Bulgaria as well as for those, wherein at least two-thirds of Orthodox Christians were willing to join it. The April Uprising in 1876 indirectly resulted in the re-establishment of Bulgaria in 1878.

Poland

The cause of Polish nationalism was repeatedly frustrated before 1918. In the 1790s, Germany, Russia and Austria partitioned Poland. Napoleon set up the Duchy of Warsaw, a new Polish state that ignited a spirit of nationalism. Russia took it over in 1815 as Congress Poland with the tsar as King of Poland. Large-scale nationalist revolts erupted in 1830 and 1863–64 but were harshly crushed by Russia, which tried to Russify the Polish language, culture and religion. The collapse of the Russian Empire in the First World War enabled the major powers to reestablish an independent Poland, which survived until 1939. Meanwhile, Poles in areas controlled by Germany moved into heavy industry but their religion came under attack by Bismarck in the Kulturkampf of the 1870s. The Poles joined German Catholics in a well-organized new Centre Party, and defeated Bismarck politically. He responded by stopping the harassment and cooperating with the Centre Party.[125][126]

Education

An important component of nationalism was the study of the nation's heritage, emphasizing the national language and literary culture. This stimulated, and was in turn strongly supported by, the emergence of national educational systems reaching the general population. Latin gave way to the national language, and compulsory education, with strong support from modernizers and the media, became standard in Germany and eventually the other West European nations. Voting reforms extended the franchise to the previously excluded elements. A strong sentiment among the elites was the necessity for compulsory public education, so that the new electorate could understand and handle its duties. Every country developed a sense of national origins – the historical accuracy was less important than the motivation toward patriotism. Universal compulsory education was extended as well to girls, at least at the elementary level. By the 1890s, strong movements emerged in some countries, including France, Germany and the United States, to extend compulsory education to the secondary level.[127][128]

Ideological coalitions

After the defeat of revolutionary France, the great powers tried to restore the situation which existed before 1789. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, the major powers of Europe managed to produce a peaceful balance of power among the various European empires. This was known as the Metternich system. The powerbase of their support was the aristocracy, with its great landed wealth and control of the government, the church, and the military in most countries.[129] However, their reactionary efforts were unable to stop the spread of revolutionary movements: the middle classes had been deeply influenced by the ideals of the French revolution, and the Industrial Revolution brought important economical and social changes.[130]

Radical intellectuals looked to the working classes for a base for socialist, communist and anarchistic ideas. Widely influential was the 1848 pamphlet by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels The Communist Manifesto.[131]

The middle classes and businessmen promoted liberalism, free trade and capitalism. Aristocratic elements concentrated in government service, the military and the established churches. Nationalist movements (in Germany, Italy, Poland, Hungary, and elsewhere) called upon the "racial" unity (which usually meant a common language and an imagined common ethnicity) to seek national unification and/or liberation from foreign rule. As a result, the period between 1815 and 1871 saw a large number of revolutionary attempts and independence wars. Greece successfully revolted against Ottoman rule in the 1820s. European diplomats and intellectuals saw the Greek struggle for independence, with its accounts of Turkish atrocities, in a romantic light.[132]

France under Napoleon III

Napoleon III, nephew of Napoleon I, parlayed his famous name and to widespread popularity across France . He returned from exile in 1848, promising to stabilize the chaotic political situation.[133] He was elected president and maneuvered successfully to name himself Emperor, a move approved later by a large majority of the French electorate. The first part of his Imperial term brought many important reforms, facilitated by Napoleon's control of the lawmaking body, the government, and the Army. Hundreds of old Republican leaders were arrested and deported. Napoleon controlled the media and censored the news. In compensation for the loss of freedom, Napoleon gave the people new hospitals and asylums, beautified and modernized Paris, and built a modern railroad and transportation system that dramatically improved commerce, and helped the many small farmers as well. The economy grew, but industrialization was not as rapid as Britain, and France depended largely on small family-oriented firms as opposed to the large companies that were emerging in the United States and Germany. France was on the winning side in the Crimean war (1854–56), but after 1858 Napoleon's foreign-policy was less and less successful. He antagonized Great Britain and failed to appreciate the danger of war with Prussia. Foreign-policy blunders finally destroyed his reign in 1870–71. He gained worldwide attention for his aggressive foreign policy in Europe, Mexico, and worldwide. He helped in the unification of Italy by fighting the Austrian Empire and joined the Crimean War on the side of Great Britain to defend the Ottoman Empire against Russia. His empire collapsed after being defeated in the Franco-Prussian War.[134][135]

France became a republic, but until the 1880s there was a strong popular demand for return to monarchy. That never happened because of the blunders made by the available monarchs. Hostility to the Catholic Church became a major issue, as France battle between secular and religious forces well into the 20th century, with the secular elements usually more successful. The French Third Republic emerged in 1871, was on the winning side of the first world war, and was finally overthrown when it was defeated in 1940 in World War II.[136]

Giuseppe Garibaldi's redshirts during the Battle of Calatafimi, part of the Italian Unification.

Major powers

Country Population in millions (year)
Russia 71.8 (1870)
Germany 42.7 (1875)
Austria-Hungary 37.3 (1876)
France 36.9 (1876)
Great Britain 33.7 (1877)
Italy 26.8 (1876)
Source: Appleton Annual Cyclopedia: 1877 (1878) p. 281

Most European states had become constitutional (rather than absolute) monarchies by 1871, and Germany and Italy merged many small city-states to become united nation-states. Germany in particular increasingly dominated the continent in terms of economics and political power. Meanwhile, on a global scale, Great Britain, with its far-flung British Empire, unmatched Royal Navy, and powerful bankers, became the world's first global power. The sun never set on its territories, while an informal empire operated through British financiers, entrepreneurs, traders and engineers who established operations in many countries, and largely dominated Latin America. The British were especially famous for financing and constructing railways around the world.[137]

Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany

Bismarck's Germany

From his base in Prussia, Otto von Bismarck in the 1860s engineered a series of short, decisive wars, that unified most of the German states (excluding Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. He humiliated France in the process, but kept on good terms with Austria-Hungary. With that accomplished by 1871 he then skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to preserve Germany's new role and keep Europe at peace. The new German Empire industrialized rapidly and challenged Britain for economic leadership. Bismarck disliked colonies but public and elite opinion forced him to build an overseas empire. He was removed from office in 1890 by an aggressive young Kaiser Wilhelm II, who pursued a disruptive foreign policy that polarized Europe into rival camps. These rival camps went to war with each other in 1914.[138][139]

Austrian and Russian empires

The power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, and the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism. Austria-Hungary had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalisms. It had a large army with good forts, but its industrial base was thin. Its naval resources were so minimal that it did not attempt to build an overseas empire. It did have the advantage of good diplomats, typified by Metternich (Foreign Minister 1809–1848, Prime Minister, 1821–1848)). They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, and kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great, Napoleon and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War. The Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on ethnic nationalism and the principle of self-determination.[140]

The Russian Empire likewise brought together a multitude of languages and cultures, so that its military defeat in the First World War led to multiple splits that created independent Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Poland, and for a brief spell, independent Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.[141]

Growth of European armies 1871 to 1904

Table: European armies on active duty in 1871, 1904[142]

Country Armies 1871 Armies 1904
Germany 403,000 606,000
France 380,000 598,000
Austria-Hungary 247,000 392,000
Russia 700,000 1,100,000
Italy 334,000 278,000

Imperialism

The Berlin Conference (1884) headed by Otto von Bismarck that regulated European colonization in Africa during the New Imperialism period

Colonial empires were the product of the European Age of Discovery from the 15th century. The initial impulse behind these dispersed maritime empires and those that followed was trade, driven by the new ideas and the capitalism that grew out of the Renaissance. Both the Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire quickly grew into the first global political and economic systems with territories spread around the world.

Subsequent major European colonial empires included the French, Dutch, and British empires. The latter, consolidated during the period of British maritime hegemony in the 19th century, became the largest empire in history because of the improved ocean transportation technologies of the time as well as electronic communication through the telegraph, cable, and radio. At its height in 1920, the British Empire covered a quarter of the Earth's land area and comprised a quarter of its population. Other European countries, such as Belgium, Germany, and Italy, pursued colonial empires as well (mostly in Africa), but they were smaller. Ignoring the oceans, Russia built its Russian Empire through conquest by land in Eastern Europe, and Asia.

By the mid-19th century, the Ottoman Empire had declined enough to become a target for other global powers (see History of the Balkans). This instigated the Crimean War in 1854 and began a tenser period of minor clashes among the globe-spanning empires of Europe that eventually set the stage for the First World War. In the second half of the 19th century, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Prussia carried out a series of wars that resulted in the creation of Italy and Germany as nation-states, significantly changing the balance of power in Europe. From 1870, Otto von Bismarck engineered a German hegemony of Europe that put France in a critical situation. It slowly rebuilt its relationships, seeking alliances with Russia and Britain to control the growing power of Germany. In this way, two opposing sides – the Triple Alliance of 1882 (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) and the Triple Entente of 1907 (Britain, France and Russia) – formed in Europe, improving their military forces and alliances year-by-year.

1914–1945: Two World wars

Europe in 1916

German-American historian Konrad Jarausch, asked if he agreed that "the European record of the past century [was] just one gigantic catastrophe", argues:

It is true that the first half of the 20th century was full of internecine warfare, economic depression, ethnic cleansing and racist genocide that killed tens of millions of people, more than any other period in human history. But looking only at the disasters creates an incomplete perception, because the second half of the century witnessed a much more positive development in spite of the Cold War. After the defeat of Fascism in 1945, the peaceful revolution of 1989/90 also liberated the East from Communist control in a quite unexpected fashion. As a result, Europeans generally live more free, prosperous and healthy lives than ever before.[143]

The "short twentieth century", from 1914 to 1991, included the First World War, the Second World War and the Cold War. The First World War used modern technology to kill millions of soldiers. Victory by Britain, France, the United States and other allies drastically changed the map of Europe, ending four major land empires (the Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires) and leading to the creation of nation-states across Central and Eastern Europe. The October Revolution in Russia led to the creation of the Soviet Union (1917–1991) and the rise of the international communist movement. Widespread economic prosperity was typical of the period before 1914, and 1920–1929. After the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, however, democracy collapsed in most of Europe. Fascists took control in Italy, and the even more aggressive Nazi movement led by Adolf Hitler took control of Germany, 1933–45. The Second World War was fought on an even larger scale than the First war, killing many more people, and using even more advanced technology. It ended with the division of Europe between East and West, with the East under the control of the Soviet Union and the West dominated by NATO. The two sides engaged in the Cold War, with actual conflict taking place not in Europe but in Asia in the Korean War and the Vietnam War. The Imperial system collapsed. The remaining colonial empires ended through the decolonisation of European rule in Africa and Asia. The fall of Soviet Communism (1989–1991) left the West dominant and enabled the reunification of Germany. It accelerated the process of a European integration to include Eastern Europe. The European Union continues today, but with German economic dominance. Since the worldwide Great Recession of 2008, European growth has been slow, and financial crises have hit Greece and other countries. Modern-day Russia is weaker by military might, compared to when it was a superpower as a part of the Soviet Union, but has retained its historical status as both a great power and a regional power, confronting Ukraine and other post-Soviet states.

World War I

Trenches and sand bags were defences against machine guns and artillery on the Western Front, 1914–1918

After the relative peace of most of the 19th century, the rivalry between European powers, compounded by a rising nationalism among ethnic groups, exploded in August 1914, when the First World War started.[144] Over 65 million European soldiers were mobilised from 1914 to 1918; 20 million soldiers and civilians died, and 21 million were seriously wounded.[145] On one side were Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria (the Central Powers/Triple Alliance), while on the other side stood Serbia and the Triple Entente – the coalition of France, Britain and Russia, which were joined by Italy in 1915, Romania in 1916 and by the United States in 1917. The Western Front involved especially brutal combat without any territorial gains by either side. Single battles like Verdun and the Somme killed hundreds of thousands of men while leaving the stalemate unchanged. Heavy artillery and machine guns caused most of the casualties, supplemented by poison gas. Czarist Russia collapsed in the February Revolution of 1917 and Germany claimed victory on the Eastern Front. After eight months of liberal rule, the October Revolution brought Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks to power, leading to the creation of the Soviet Union in place of the disintegrated Russian Empire. With American entry into the war in 1917 on the Allied side, and the failure of Germany's spring 1918 offensive, Germany had run out of manpower, while an average of 10,000 American troops were arriving in France every day in the summer of 1918. Germany's allies, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, surrendered and dissolved, followed by Germany on 11 November 1918.[146][147] The victors forced Germany to assume responsibility for the conflict and pay war reparations.

One factor in determining the outcome of the war was that the Allies had significantly more economic resources they could spend on the war. One estimate (using 1913 US dollars) is that the Allies spent $58 billion on the war and the Central Powers only $25 billion. Among the Allies, Britain spent $21 billion and the U.S. $17 billion; among the Central Powers Germany spent $20 billion.[148]

Paris Peace Conference

Detail from William Orpen's painting The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, showing the signing of the peace treaty by a minor German official opposite to the representatives of the winning powers.

The world war was settled by the victors at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Two dozen nations sent delegations, and there were many nongovernmental groups, but the defeated powers were not invited.[149]

The "Big Four" were President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, and, of least importance, Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando. Each has a large staff of experts. They met together informally 145 times and made all the major decisions, which in turn were ratified by the others.[150]

The major decisions were the creation of the League of Nations; the six peace treaties with defeated enemies, most notable the Treaty of Versailles with Germany; the awarding of German and Ottoman overseas possessions as "mandates", chiefly to Britain and France; and the drawing of new national boundaries (sometimes with plebiscites) to better reflect the forces of nationalism.[151][152]

The Big Four implemented sweeping changes to the political geography of the world. Most famously, the Treaty of Versailles itself weakened Germany's military power and placed full blame for the war and costly reparations on its shoulders – the humiliation and resentment in Germany was probably one of the causes of Nazi success and indirectly a cause of World War II.

At the insistence of President Wilson, the Big Four required Poland to sign a treaty on 28 June 1919 that guaranteed minority rights in the new nation. Poland signed under protest, and made little effort to enforce the specified rights for Germans, Jews, Ukrainians, and other minorities. Similar treaties were signed by Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, Greece, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and later by Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. Finland and Germany were not asked to sign a minority rights treaty.[153]

Interwar

Interwar Europe in 1923
People gathered at sport event in 1938 (Sweden).
Europeans from various countries relaxing in wave pool in Hungary in 1939 just before the Second World War. Visible inscriptions in numerous languages.

In the Treaty of Versailles (1919) the winners recognised the new states (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) created in central Europe from the defunct German, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires, based on national (ethnic) self-determination. It was a peaceful era with a few small wars before 1922 such as the Ukrainian–Soviet War (1917–1921) and the Polish–Soviet War (1919–1921). Prosperity was widespread, and the major cities sponsored a youth culture called the "Roaring Twenties" or "Jazz Age" that was often featured in the cinema, which attracted very large audiences.[154]

The Allied victory in the First World War seemed to mark the triumph of liberalism, not just in the Allied countries themselves, but also in Germany and in the new states of Eastern Europe, as well as Japan. Authoritarian militarism as typified by Germany had been defeated and discredited. Historian Martin Blinkhorn argues that the liberal themes were ascendant in terms of "cultural pluralism, religious and ethnic toleration, national self-determination, free-market economics, representative and responsible government, free trade, unionism, and the peaceful settlement of international disputes through a new body, the League of Nations."[155] However, as early as 1917, the emerging liberal order was being challenged by the new communist movement taking inspiration from the Russian Revolution. Communist revolts were beaten back everywhere else, but they did succeed in Russia.[156]

Fascism and authoritarianism

Italy adopted an authoritarian dictatorship known as Fascism in 1922; it became a model for Hitler in Germany and for right wing elements in other countries. Historian Stanley G. Payne says Fascism in Italy was:

A primarily political dictatorship....The Fascist Party itself had become almost completely bureaucratized and subservient to, not dominant over, the state itself. Big business, industry, and finance retained extensive autonomy, particularly in the early years. The armed forces also enjoyed considerable autonomy....The Fascist militia was placed under military control....The judicial system was left largely intact and relatively autonomous as well. The police continued to be directed by state officials and were not taken over by party leaders...nor was a major new police elite created....There was never any question of bringing the Church under overall subservience.... Sizable sectors of Italian cultural life retained extensive autonomy, and no major state propaganda-and-culture ministry existed....The Mussolini regime was neither especially sanguinary nor particularly repressive.[157]

Authoritarian regimes replaced democracy in the 1930s in Nazi Germany, Portugal, Austria, Poland, Greece, the Baltic countries and Francoist Spain. By 1940, there were only four liberal democracies left on the European continent: France, Finland, Switzerland and Sweden.[158]

Great Depression: 1929–1939

After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, nearly the whole world sank into a Great Depression, as money stopped flowing from New York to Europe, prices fell, profits fell, and unemployment soared. The worst hit sectors included heavy industry, export-oriented agriculture, mining and lumbering, and construction. World trade fell by two-thirds.[159][160]

Liberalism and democracy were discredited. In most of Europe, as well as in Japan and most of Latin America, nation after nation turned to dictators and authoritarian regimes. The most momentous change of government came when Hitler and his Nazis took power in Germany in 1933. The main institution that was meant to bring stability was the League of Nations, created in 1919. However the League failed to resolve any major crises and by 1938 it was no longer a major player. The League was undermined by the bellicosity of Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, the Soviet Union, and Mussolini's Italy, and by the non-participation of the United States. By 1937 it was largely ignored.[161]

A major civil war took place in Spain, with the nationalists winning. The League of Nations was helpless as Italy conquered Ethiopia and Japan seized Manchuria in 1931 and took over most of China starting in 1937.[162]

The Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) was marked by numerous small battles and sieges, and many atrocities, until the rebels (the Nationalists), led by Francisco Franco, won in 1939. There was military intervention as Italy sent land forces, and Germany sent smaller elite air force and armoured units to the Nationalists. The Soviet Union sold armaments to the leftist Republicans on the other side, while the Communist parties in numerous countries sent soldiers to the "International Brigades." The civil war did not escalate into a larger conflict, but did become a worldwide ideological battleground that pitted the left, the communist movement and many liberals against Catholics, conservatives, and fascists. Britain, France and the US remained neutral and refused to sell military supplies to either side. Worldwide there was a decline in pacifism and a growing sense that another world war was imminent, and that it would be worth fighting for.[163]

World War II

In the Munich Agreement of 1938, Britain and France adopted a policy of appeasement as they gave Hitler what he wanted out of Czechoslovakia in the hope that it would bring peace. It did not. In 1939 Germany took over the rest of Czechoslovakia and appeasement policies gave way to hurried rearmament as Hitler next turned his attention to Poland.

Starving Jewish children in Warsaw Ghetto (1940–1943).
The fight against German Nazis during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
American and Soviet troops meet in April 1945, east of the Elbe River.

After allying with Japan in the Anti-Comintern Pact and then also with Benito Mussolini's Italy in the "Pact of Steel", and finally signing a non-aggression treaty with the Soviet Union in August 1939, Hitler launched the Second World War on 1 September 1939 by attacking Poland. To his surprise Britain and France declared war on Germany, but there was little fighting during the "Phoney War" period. War began in earnest in spring 1940 with the successful Blitzkrieg conquests of Denmark, Norway, the Low Countries, and France. Britain remained alone but refused to negotiate, and defeated Germany's air attacks in the Battle of Britain. Hitler's goal was to control Eastern Europe but because of his failure to defeat Britain and the Italian failures in North Africa and the Balkans, the great attack on the Soviet Union was delayed until June 1941. Despite initial successes, the German army was stopped close to Moscow in December 1941.[164]

Over the next year the tide was turned and the Germans started to suffer a series of defeats, for example in the siege of Stalingrad and at Kursk. Meanwhile, Japan (allied to Germany and Italy since September 1940) attacked Britain and the United States on 7 December 1941; Germany then completed its over-extension by declaring war on the United States. War raged between the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allied Forces (British Empire, Soviet Union, and the United States). The Allied Forces won in North Africa, invaded Italy in 1943, and recaptured France in 1944. In the spring of 1945 Germany itself was invaded from the east by the Soviet Union and from the west by the other Allies. As the Red Army conquered the Reichstag in Berlin, Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered in early May.[165] World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, causing between 50 and 80 million deaths, the majority of whom were civilians (approximately 38 to 55 million).[166]

This period was also marked by systematic genocide. In 1942–45, separately from the war-related deaths, the Nazis killed an additional number of over 11 million civilians identified through IBM-enabled censuses, including the majority of the Jews and Gypsies of Europe, millions of Polish and Soviet Slavs, and also homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, misfits, disabled, and political enemies. Meanwhile, in the 1930s the Soviet system of forced labour, expulsions and allegedly engineered famine had a similar death toll. During and after the war millions of civilians were affected by forced population transfers.[167]

Western European colonial empires in Asia and Africa disintegrated after World War II

Cold War Era

East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961
Remains of the "Iron curtain" in Devínska Nová Ves, Bratislava (Slovakia).

The world wars ended the pre-eminent position of Britain, France and Germany in Europe and the world.[168] At the Yalta Conference, Europe was divided into spheres of influence between the victors of World War II, and soon became the principal zone of contention in the Cold War between the two power blocs, the Western countries and the Communist bloc. The United States and the majority of European liberal democracies at the time (United Kingdom, France, Italy, Netherlands, West Germany etc.) established the NATO military alliance. Later, the Soviet Union and its satellites (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania) in 1955 established the Warsaw Pact as a counterpoint to NATO. The Warsaw Pact had a much larger ground force, but the American-French-British nuclear umbrellas protected NATO.

Communist states were imposed by the Red Army in the East, while parliamentary democracy became the dominant form of government in the West. Most historians point to its success as the product of exhaustion with war and dictatorship, and the promise of continued economic prosperity. Martin Conway also adds that an important impetus came from the anti-Nazi wartime political coalitions.[169]

Economic recovery

The United States gave away about $20 billion in Marshall Plan grants and other grants and low-interest long-term loans to Western Europe, 1945 to 1951. Historian Michael J. Hogan argues that American aid was critical in stabilizing the economy and politics of Western Europe. It brought in modern management that dramatically increased productivity, and encouraged cooperation between labor and management, and among the member states. Local Communist parties were opposed, and they lost prestige and influence and a role in government. In strategic terms, says Hogan, the Marshall Plan strengthened the West against The possibility of a Communist invasion or political takeover.[170] However, the Marshall Plan's role in the rapid recovery has been debated. Most reject the idea that it only miraculously revived Europe, since the evidence shows that a general recovery was already under way thanks to other aid programs from the United States. Economic historians Bradford De Long and Barry Eichengreen conclude it was, " History's Most Successful Structural Adjustment Program." They state:

It was not large enough to have significantly accelerated recovery by financing investment, aiding the reconstruction of damaged infrastructure, or easing commodity bottlenecks. We argue, however, that the Marshall Plan did play a major role in setting the stage for post-World War II Western Europe's rapid growth. The conditions attached to Marshall Plan aid pushed European political economy in a direction that left its post World War II "mixed economies" with more "market" and less "controls" in the mix.[171]
Marshall Plan dollar amounts

The Soviet Union concentrated on its own recovery. It seized and transferred most of Germany's industrial plants and it exacted war reparations from East Germany, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, using Soviet-dominated joint enterprises. It used trading arrangements deliberately designed to favor the Soviet Union. Moscow controlled the Communist parties that ruled the satellite states, and they followed orders from the Kremlin. Historian Mark Kramer concludes:

The net outflow of resources from eastern Europe to the Soviet Union was approximately $15 billion to $20 billion in the first decade after World War II, an amount roughly equal to the total aid provided by the United States to western Europe under the Marshall Plan.[172]

Western Europe began economic and then political integration, with the aim to unite the region and defend it. This process included organisations such as the European Coal and Steel Community, which grew and evolved into the European Union, and the Council of Europe. The Solidarność movement in the 1980s weakened the Communist government in Poland. At the time the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev initiated perestroika and glasnost, which weakened Soviet influence in Europe, particularly in the USSR. In 1989 after the Pan-European Picnic the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall came down and Communist governments outside the Soviet Union were deposed. In 1990 the Federal Republic of Germany absorbed East Germany, after making large cash payments to the USSR. In 1991 the Communist Party in Moscow collapsed, ending the USSR, which split into fifteen independent states. The largest, Russia, took the Soviet Union's seat on the United Nations Security Council. The most violent dissolution happened in Yugoslavia, in the Balkans. Four (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia) out of six Yugoslav republics declared independence and for most of them a violent war ensued, in some parts lasting until 1995. In 2006 Montenegro seceded and became an independent state. In the post–Cold War era, NATO and the EU have been gradually admitting most of the former members of the Warsaw Pact.

Looking at the half century after the war historian Walter Lacquer concluded:

"The postwar generations of European elites aimed to create more democratic societies. They wanted to reduce the extremes of wealth and poverty and provide essential social services in a way that prewar generations had not. They had had quite enough of unrest and conflict. For decades many Continental societies had more or less achieved these aims and had every reason to be proud of their progress. Europe was quiet and civilized. Europe's success was based on recent painful experience: the horrors of two world wars; the lessons of dictatorship; the experiences of fascism and communism. Above all, it was based on a feeling of European identity and common values – or so it appeared at the time."[173]

The post-war period also witnessed a significant rise in the standard of living of the Western European working class. As noted by one historical text, "within a single generation, the working classes of Western Europe came to enjoy the multiple pleasures of the consumer society."[174]

Western Europe's industrial nations in the 1970s were hit by a global economic crisis. They had obsolescent heavy industry, and suddenly had to pay very high energy prices which caused sharp inflation. Some of them also had inefficient nationalized railways and heavy industries. In the important field of computer technology, European nations lagged behind the United States. They also faced high government deficits and growing unrest led by militant labour unions. There was an urgent need for new economic directions. Germany and Sweden sought to create a social consensus behind a gradual restructuring. Germany's efforts proved highly successful. In Britain under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher, the solution was shock therapy, high interest rates, austerity, and selling off inefficient corporations as well as the public housing, which was sold off to the tenants. One result was escalating social tensions in Britain, led by the militant coal miners. Thatcher eventually defeated her opponents and radically changed the British economy, but the controversy never went away as shown by the hostile demonstrations at the time of her death in 2013.[175]

Recent history

Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate, November 1989; it would begin to be torn apart in the following days.
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

The end of the Cold War came in a series of events from 1979 to 1991, mainly in Eastern Europe. In the end, these brought the fall of the Iron Curtain, the German reunification and the end of Soviet control over their Eastern European satellites and their worldwide network of communist parties in a friendly chain reaction from the Pan-European Picnic in 1989. The finals brought the division of the Soviet Union into 15 non-communist states in 1991.[176] Italian historian Federico Romero reports that observers at the time emphasized that,:

The systemic and ideological confrontation between capitalism and communism had faded away. The geopolitical partition of Europe was no more. Nuclear deterrence was morphing into a less armed, almost hypothetical version of its previous self. Superpower rivalry was rapidly wound up with cascading effects in various areas of the world.[177]

Following the end of the Cold War, the European Economic Community pushed for closer integration, co-operation in foreign and home affairs, and started to increase its membership into the neutral and former communist countries. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union, succeeding the EEC and furthering political co-operation. The neutral countries of Austria, Finland and Sweden acceded to the EU, and those that didn't join were tied into the EU's economic market via the European Economic Area. These countries also entered the Schengen Agreement which lifted border controls between member states.[178]

The Maastricht Treaty created a single currency for most EU members. The euro was created in 1999 and replaced all previous currencies in participating states in 2002. The most notable exception to the currency union, or eurozone, was the United Kingdom, which also did not sign the Schengen Agreement.

EU did not participate in the Yugoslav Wars, and was divided on supporting the United States in the 2003–2011 Iraq War. NATO has been part of the war in Afghanistan, but at a much lower level of involvement than the United States.

In 2004, the EU gained 10 new members. (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, which had been part of the Soviet Union; Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, five former-communist countries; Malta, and the divided island of Cyprus.) These were followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007. Russia's regime had interpreted these expansions as violations against NATO's promise to not expand "one inch to the east" in 1990.[179] Russia engaged in a number of bilateral disputes about gas supplies with Belarus and Ukraine which endangered gas supplies to Europe. Russia also engaged in a minor war with Georgia in 2008.

Supported by the United States and some European countries, Kosovo's government unilaterally declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008.

Public opinion in the EU turned against enlargement, partially due to what was seen as over-eager expansion including Turkey gaining candidate status. The European Constitution was rejected in France and the Netherlands, and then (as the Treaty of Lisbon) in Ireland, although a second vote passed in Ireland in 2009.

The financial crisis of 2007–08 affected Europe, and government responded with austerity measures. Limited ability of the smaller EU nations (most notably Greece) to handle their debts led to social unrest, government liquidation, and financial insolvency. In May 2010, the German parliament agreed to loan 22.4 billion euros to Greece over three years, with the stipulation that Greece follow strict austerity measures. See European sovereign-debt crisis.

Beginning in 2014, Ukraine has been in a state of revolution and unrest with two breakaway regions (Donetsk and Lugansk) attempting to join Russia as full federal subjects. (See War in Donbass.) On 16 March, a referendum was held in Crimea leading to the de facto secession of Crimea and its largely internationally unrecognized annexation to the Russian Federation as the Republic of Crimea.

In June 2016, in a referendum in the United Kingdom on the country's membership in the European Union, 52% of voters voted to leave the EU, leading to the complex Brexit separation process and negotiations, which led to political and economic changes for both the UK and the remaining European Union countries. The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020. Later that year, Europe was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

According to the Wall Street Journal in 2021 as Angela Merkel stepped down as the highly popular Chancellort of Germany after 16 years:

Ms. Merkel leaves in her wake a weakened Europe, a region whose aspirations to act as a third superpower have come to seem ever more unrealistic. When she became chancellor in 2005, the EU was at a high point: It had adopted the euro, which was meant to rival the dollar as a global currency, and had just expanded by absorbing former members of the Soviet bloc. Today’s EU, by contrast, is geographically and economically diminished. Having lost the U.K. because of Brexit, it faces deep political and cultural divisions, lags behind in the global race for innovation and technology and is increasingly squeezed by the mounting U.S.-China strategic rivalry. Europe has endured thanks in part to Ms. Merkel’s pragmatic stewardship, but it has been battered by crises during her entire time in office.[180]

Chronology

AD

See also

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  146. ^ Overviews include David Stevenson, Cataclysm: The First World War as Political Tragedy (2005) and Ian F. W. Beckett, The Great War: 1914–1918 (2nd ed. 2007)
  147. ^ For reference see Martin Gilbert, Atlas of World War I (1995) and Spencer Tucker, ed., The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1996)
  148. ^ Gerd Hardach, The First World War, 1914–1918 (1977) p. 153, using estimated made by H. Menderhausen, The Economics of War (1941) p. 305
  149. ^ Margaret Macmillan, Peacemakers: The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and Its Attempt to End War (2002)
  150. ^ by Rene Albrecht-Carrie, Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958) p. 363
  151. ^ Sally Marks, The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe 1918–1933 (2nd ed. 2003)
  152. ^ Zara Steiner, The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919–1933 (2007)
  153. ^ Carole Fink, "The Paris Peace Conference and the Question of Minority Rights," Peace and Change: A journal of peace research (1996) 21#3 pp. 273–88
  154. ^ Raymond James Sontag, . A broken world, 1919–1939 (1972) online free to borrow; wide-ranging survey of European history.
  155. ^ Nicholas Atkin; Michael Biddiss (2008). Themes in Modern European History, 1890–1945. Routledge. pp. 243–44. ISBN 978-1-134-22257-5.
  156. ^ Gregory M. Luebbert, Liberalism, fascism, or social democracy: Social classes and the political origins of regimes in interwar Europe (Oxford UP, 1991).
  157. ^ Stanley G. Payne (1996). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. U of Wisconsin Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-299-14873-7.
  158. ^ Martin Blinkhorn, The Fascist Challenge in Gordon Martel, ed. A Companion to Europe: 1900–1945 (2011) p. 313
  159. ^ Charles Kindleberger, The World in Depression, 1929–1939 (2nd ed. 1986) provides a broad survey by an economist,
  160. ^ Piers Brendon, The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s (2000) 816pp covers far more details by a political historian.
  161. ^ F.P. Walters, A History of the League of Nations (Oxford UP, 1965). online free.
  162. ^ David Clay Large, Between Two Fires: Europe's Path in the 1930s (1991)
  163. ^ Stanley G. Payne, The Spanish Revolution (1970) pp. 262–76
  164. ^ I.C.B. Dear and M.R.D. Foot, eds., The Oxford Companion to World War II (1995) covers every country and major campaign.
  165. ^ Norman Davies, No Simple Victory: World War II in Europe, 1939–1945 (2008)
  166. ^ "SecondSecond Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  167. ^ Dinah Shelton, ed., Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity (3 vol. 2004)
  168. ^ John Wheeler-Bennett, The Semblance Of Peace: The Political Settlement After The Second World War (1972) thorough diplomatic coverage 1939–1952.
  169. ^ Martin Conway, "The Rise and Fall of Western Europe's Democratic Age, 1945––1973," Contemporary European History (2004) 13#1 pp. 67–88.
  170. ^ Michael J. Hogan, The Marshall Plan: America, Britain and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947–1952 (1989) pp. 26–28, 430–43.
  171. ^ DeLong, J. Bradford; Eichengreen, Barry (1993). "The Marshall Plan: History's Most Successful Structural Adjustment Program". In Dornbusch, Rudiger; Nolling, Wilhelm; Layard, Richard (eds.). Postwar Economic Reconstruction and Lessons for the East Today. MIT Press. pp. 189–230. ISBN 978-0-262-04136-2.
  172. ^ Mark Kramer, "The Soviet Bloc and the Cold War in Europe," Klaus Larresm ed. (2014). A Companion to Europe Since 1945. Wiley. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-118-89024-0.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  173. ^ Walter Laqueur, "The Slow Death of Europe", The National Interest 16 August 2011 online
  174. ^ Hay, W.A.; Sicherman, H. (2007). Is There Still a West?: The Future of the Atlantic Alliance. University of Missouri Press, Queen Elizabeth also had a major breakdown causing her to die cause of the stress overload. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-8262-6549-4. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  175. ^ David Priestland, "Margaret Thatcher?" ‘’BBC History Magazine’’ 1 May 2013
  176. ^ Andreas Rödder: Deutschland einig Vaterland – Die Geschichte der Wiedervereinigung (2009).
  177. ^ Federico Romero, "Cold War historiography at the crossroads", Cold War History (2014), 14:4, 685–703, doi:10.1080/14682745.2014.950249
  178. ^ "A Europe without frontiers". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 25 June 2007.
  179. ^ Spiegel Online, Hamburg (26 November 2009). "NATO's Eastward Expansion: Calming Russian Fears". Der Spiegel.
  180. ^ Bojan Pancevski, "Merkel Says Auf Wiedersehen to a Diminished Europe: The long-serving German chancellor helped the EU survive a string of crises, but her caution and focus on her own country’s interests have undermined the continent’s once-grand aspirations" Wall Street Journal Sept 24. 2021

Bibliography

Surveys

  • Blum, Jerome et al. The European World (2 vol. 2nd ed. 1970) university textbook; online
  • Davies, Norman. Europe: A History (1998), advanced university textbook
  • Gay, Peter and R.K. Webb Modern Europe: To 1815 (1973) online, university textbook
    • Gay, Peter and R.K. Webb Modern Europe: Since 1815 (1973), university textbook
  • Gooch, Brison D. ed. Interpreting European history. 1: From the renaissance to Napoleon (1967) online and Interpreting European history 2: from Metternich to Present (1967). online; readings by scholars
  • McKay, John P. et al. A History of Western Society (13th ed.; 2 vol 2020) 1300 pp; university textbook
  • Moncure, James A. ed. Research Guide to European Historical Biography: 1450–Present (4 vol 1992); 2140 pp; historiographical guide to 200 major political and military leaders
  • Roberts, J.M. The Penguin History of Europe (1998), survey; excerpt
  • Simms, Brendan. Europe: The Struggle for Supremacy, from 1453 to the Present (2013), survey, with emphasis on Germany
  • Stearns, Peter, ed. The Encyclopedia of World History (2001); comprehensive global coverage

Geography and atlases

  • Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912) online free. 141 maps
  • Catchpole, Brian. Map History of the Modern World (1982)
  • Darby, H. C., and H. Fullard, eds. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas (1970)
  • East, W. Gordon. An Historical Geography of Europe (4th ed. 1950)
  • Haywood, John. Atlas of world history (1997) online free
  • Horrabin, J.F. An Atlas History of the Second Great War (9 vol 1941–45) 7 vol online free
  • Kinder, Hermann and Werner Hilgemann. Anchor Atlas of World History (2 vol. 1978); advanced analytical maps, mostly of Europe
  • O'Brian, Patrick K. Atlas of World History (2007) Online free
  • Pounds, Norman J. G. (1990). An Historical Geography of Europe. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511572265. ISBN 9780521311090.
  • Rand McNally Atlas of World History (1983), maps #76-81. Published in Britain as the Hamlyn Historical Atlas online free
  • Robertson, Charles Grant. An historical atlas of modern Europe from 1789 to 1922 with an historical and explanatory text (1922) online free
  • Schenk, Frithjof Benjamin, Mental Maps: The Cognitive Mapping of the Continent as an Object of Research of European History, EGO – European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2013, retrieved: March 4, 2020
  • Talbert, Richard J.A. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World for iPad (Princeton UP 2014) ISBN 978-1-4008-4876-8; 102 interactive color maps from archaic Greece to the Late Roman Empire.
  • Historical Atlas Wikipedia maps; no copyright
  • Atlas of Germany Wikipedia maps; no copyright

Major nations

  • Black, Jeremy (1996). A History of the British Isles. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-24974-9. ISBN 978-1-349-24976-3.
  • Carr, Raymond, ed. Spain: A history (2000)
  • Clark, Christopher M. Iron kingdom: the rise and downfall of Prussia, 1600-1947 (2006)
  • Davies, Norman. The Isles: A History (2001), Britain and Ireland
  • Duggan, Christopher (2013). A Concise History of Italy. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139019330. ISBN 9781139019330.
  • Fraser, Rebecca. The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History (2006)
  • Holborn, Hajo. vol 1: A History of Modern Germany: The Reformation; vol 2: A History of Modern Germany: 1648-1840; vol 3: A history of modern Germany: 1840–1945 (1959). a standard scholarly survey.
  • Kamen, Henry. A concise history of Spain ( 1973)
  • Helle, Knut (2003). "Introduction". The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. pp. 1–12. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521472999.002. ISBN 9781139053570.
  • Holmes, George, ed. The Oxford illustrated history of medieval Europe (2001).
  • Holmes, George, ed. The Oxford illustrated history of Italy (1997)
  • Jones, Colin. The Cambridge Illustrated History of France (1999)
  • Kitchen, Martin The Cambridge Illustrated History of Germany (1996).
  • Morgan, Kenneth O., ed. The Oxford illustrated history of Britain (1984)
  • Price, Roger (2013). A Concise History of France. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139084710. ISBN 9781139084710.
  • Riasanovsky, Nicholas V., and Mark D. Steinberg. A History of Russia (2 vol. 2010)
  • Sagarra, Eda. A social history of Germany (2003)
  • Tombs, Robert, The English and their History (2014) advanced history; online review
  • Wilson, Peter H. (2016). Heart of Europe. doi:10.4159/9780674915909. ISBN 9780674915909.

Classical

  • Boardman, John, et al. eds. The Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic World (2nd ed. 2002) 520 pp
  • Boardman, John, et al. eds. The Oxford History of the Roman World (2001)
  • Cartledge, Paul. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Ancient Greece (2002)

Late Roman

  • Heather, Peter. Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe (Oxford University Press; 2010); 734 pages; Examines the migrations, trade, and other phenomena that shaped a recognizable entity of Europe in the first millennium.
  • Jones, A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey (2 Vol. 1964)
  • Mitchell, Stephen. A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD 284–641: The Transformation of the Ancient World (2006)

Medieval

  • Davis, R.H.C. A History of Medieval Europe (2nd ed. 2000)
  • Ferguson, Wallace K. Europe in Transition, 1300–1520 (1962)
  • Hanawalt, Barbara. The Middle Ages: An Illustrated History (1999)
  • Holmes, George, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe (2001)
  • Koenigsberger, H.G. Medieval Europe 400–1500 (1987)
  • Riddle, John M. A history of the Middle Ages, 300–1500 (2008)

Early modern

  • Blanning, T. C. W. (2002). "The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture". doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198227458.001.0001. ISBN 9780198227458. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Cameron, Euan. Early Modern Europe: An Oxford History (2001)
  • Friedrich, Carl J. The Age of the Baroque, 1610-1660 (1962); Despite the title, this is a wide-ranging Social, cultural, political and diplomatic history of Europe; 14-day borrowing copy
  • Hesmyr, Atle. Scandinavia in the Early Modern Era; From Peasant Revolts and Witch Hunts to Constitution Drafting Yeomen (2014)
  • McKay, Derek (2014). The Rise of the Great Powers 1648 - 1815. doi:10.4324/9781315837093. ISBN 9781315837093.
  • Rice, Eugene F. The Foundations of Early Modern Europe, 1460-1559 (2nd ed. 1994) 240 pp
  • Merriman, John. A History of Modern Europe: From the Renaissance to the Present (3rd ed. 2010, 2 vol), 1412 pp online
  • Scott, Hamish, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern European History, 1350–1750: Volume I: Peoples and Place (2015).
  • Stoye, John. Europe Unfolding, 1648-1688 (2nd ed. 2000).
  • Treasure, Geoffrey (2003). The Making of Modern Europe, 1648-1780. doi:10.4324/9780203425985. ISBN 9780203425985.
  • Wiesner, Merry E. Early Modern Europe, 1450-1789 (Cambridge History of Europe) (2006)

19th century

  • Anderson, M.S. The Ascendancy of Europe: 1815-1914 (3rd ed. 2003)
  • Berger, Stefan, ed. A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Europe, 1789–1914 (2006), 545pp; emphasis on historiography of 32 topics; online
  • Blanning, T.C.W. ed. The Nineteenth Century: Europe 1789–1914 (Short Oxford History of Europe) (2000) 320 pp
  • Brinton, Crane. A Decade of Revolution, 1789–1799 (1934) online in Langer series on history of Europe.
  • Bruun, Geoffrey. Europe and the French Imperium, 1799–1814 (1938) online.
  • Cameron, Rondo. France and the Economic Development of Europe, 1800–1914: Conquests of Peace and Seeds of War (1961), wide-ranging economic and business history. online
  • Evans, Richard J. The Pursuit of Power: Europe 1815–1914 (2016), 934 pp; scholarly survey
  • Gildea, Robert. Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800–1914 (Short Oxford History of the Modern World) (3rd ed. 2003) 544 p
  • Gooch, Brison D. Europe in the nineteenth century; a history (1970) online
  • Grab, Alexander (2003). Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. doi:10.1007/978-1-4039-3757-5. ISBN 978-0-333-68275-3.
  • Kertesz, G.A. ed Documents in the Political History of the European Continent 1815-1939 (1968), 507 pp; several hundred short documents; primary sources
  • Mason, David S. A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity (2011), since 1700
  • Merriman, John, and J.M. Winter, eds. Europe 1789 to 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire (5 vol. 2006)
  • Ramm, Agatha. Europe in the Nineteenth Century 1789–1905 (1984). 1950 edition online
  • Richardson, Hubert N.B. A Dictionary of Napoleon and His Times (1921) online free 489 pp
  • Steinberg, Jonathan. Bismarck: A Life (2011)
  • Salmi, Hannu. 19th Century Europe: A Cultural History (2008).
  • Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848-1918 (1954) online free; Advanced diplomatic history online
  • Thomson, David. Europe Since Napoleon (1923) 524 pp online

Since 1900

  • Brose, Eric Dorn. A History of Europe in the Twentieth Century (2004) 548 pp
  • Brown, Archie. The Rise and Fall of Communism (2009), global
  • Buchanan, Tom. Europe's Troubled Peace: 1945 to the Present (Blackwell History of Europe) (2012)
  • Cook, Bernard A. Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia (2 vol; 2001), 1465 pp
  • Davies, Norman. Europe at War 1939-1945: No Simple Victory (2008)
  • Dear, I.C.B. and M.R.D. Foot, eds. The Oxford Companion to World War II (2006)
  • Frank, Matthew. Making Minorities History: Population Transfer in Twentieth-Century Europe (Oxford UP, 2017). 464 pp. online review
  • Grenville, J.A.S. A History of the World in the Twentieth Century (1994). online free
  • Hallock, Stephanie A. The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach (2012)
  • Jarausch, Konrad H. (2015). Out of Ashes. doi:10.1515/9781400865598. ISBN 9781400865598.
  • Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (2006)
  • Martel, Gordon, ed. A Companion to Europe, 1900-1950 (2011) 32 essays by scholars; emphasis on historiography
  • Mazower, Mark. Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century (2000) 512 pp
  • Merriman, John, and Jay Winter, eds. Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age War and Reconstruction (5 vol. 2006)
  • Payne, Stanley G. (2011). Civil War in Europe, 1905–1949. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511820465. ISBN 9780511820465.
  • Paxton, Robert O., and Julie Hessler. Europe in the twentieth century (5th edition 2011.
  • Pollard, Sidney, ed. Wealth and Poverty: an Economic History of the 20th Century (1990), 260 pp; global perspective online free
  • Sontag, Raymond James. A broken world, 1919–1939 (1972), wide-ranging history of interwar Europe; online free to borrow
  • Stone, Dan, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History (2015).
  • Ther, Philipp. Europe since 1989: A History (Princeton UP, 2016) excerpt, 440 pp
  • Toynbee, Arnold, ed. Survey Of International Affairs: Hitler's Europe 1939–1946 (1954) online
  • Wasserstein, Bernard. Barbarism and civilization: A history of Europe in our time (2007), since 1914 online
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). A World at Arms. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511818639. ISBN 9780511818639., on World War II

Agriculture and economy

  • Bakels, Corrie C. (2009). The Western European Loess Belt. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9840-6. ISBN 978-1-4020-9839-0.
  • Berend, Iván T. An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe (2013)
  • Berend, Ivan T. (2010). Europe. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511844867. ISBN 9780511844867. S2CID 152558617.
  • Broadberry, Stephen; Orourke, Kevin H, eds. (2010). The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511794841. ISBN 9780511794841.
  • Dovring, Folke; Dovring, Karin (1965). Land and Labor in Europe in the Twentieth Century. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-6137-6. ISBN 978-94-017-5756-0.
  • Gras, Norman. A history of agriculture in Europe and America (1925). free online edition
  • Milward, Alan S. and S.B. Saul. The Development of the Economies of Continental Europe: 1850–1914 (1977)
  • Murray, Jacqueline. The First European Agriculture (1970)
  • Pollard, Sidney, ed. Wealth and Poverty: an Economic History of the 20th Century (1990), 260 pp; global perspective online free
  • Pounds, N.J.G. An Economic History of Medieval Europe (1994)
  • Slicher van Bath, B.H. The agrarian history of Western Europe, AD 500–1850 (1966)
  • Thorp, William Long. Business Annals: United States, England, France, Germany, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Netherlands, Italy, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Australia, India, Japan, China (1926) capsule summary of conditions in each country for each quarter-year 1790–1925

Diplomacy

  • Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958), 736pp; a basic introduction, 1815–1955 online free to borrow
  • Black, Jeremy. A History of Diplomacy (2011)
  • Black, Jeremy (2002). European International Relations 1648–1815. doi:10.1007/978-1-137-09934-1. ISBN 978-0-333-96451-4.
  • Kertesz, G.A. ed Documents in the Political History of the European Continent 1815-1939 (1968), 507 pp; several hundred short documents
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973), very detailed outline
  • Macmillan, Margaret. The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 (2013) cover 1890s to 1914
  • Mowat, R.B. History of European Diplomacy, 1451–1789 (1928) 324 pages
  • Petrie, Charles. Earlier diplomatic history, 1492–1713 (1949), covers all of Europe; online
  • Petrie, Charles. Diplomatic History, 1713–1933 (1946), broad summary online free
  • Schroeder, Paul. The Transformation of European Politics 1763–1848 (1994) online; advanced diplomatic history
  • Sontag, Raymond James. European Diplomatic History 1871–1932 (1933) online free
  • Steiner, Zara. The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919–1933 (2007)
  • Steiner, Zara. The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933–1939 (2011)
  • Taylor, A.J.P The struggle for mastery in Europe, 1848–1918 (1954)

Empires and interactions

  • Bayly, C.A. ed. Atlas of the British Empire (1989). survey by scholars; heavily illustrated
  • Brendon, Piers. The Decline and Fall of the British Empire, 1781–1997 (2008), wide-ranging survey
  • Cotterell, Arthur. Western Power in Asia: Its Slow Rise and Swift Fall, 1415 – 1999 (2009) popular history; excerpt
  • Darwin, John. After Tamerlane: The Rise and Fall of Global Empires, 1400–2000 (2008).
  • James, Lawrence. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (1997)
  • Poddar, Prem, and Lars Jensen, eds., A historical companion to postcolonial literatures: Continental Europe and Its Empires (Edinburgh UP, 2008), excerpt also entire text online
  • Tolan, John; Laurens, Henry; Veinstein, Gilles; Esposito, John L. (2012). Europe and the Islamic World. doi:10.23943/princeton/9780691147055.001.0001. ISBN 9780691147055.

Ideas and science

  • Heilbron, John L., ed. The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science (2003)
  • Outhwaite, William (2002). "The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought". In Outhwaite, William (ed.). pp. vi. doi:10.1111/b.9780631221647.2002.00001.x. ISBN 9780631221647. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Wiener, Philip P. Dictionary of the History of Ideas (5 vol 1973)

Religion

  • Forlenza, Rosario. "New Perspectives on Twentieth-Century Catholicism." Contemporary European History 28.4 (2019): 581–595 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0960777319000146
  • Latourette, Kenneth Scott. Christianity in a Revolutionary Age: A History of Christianity in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (5 vol. 1958–69) vol 1, 2, and 4 for detailed country-by-country coverage
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid. Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years (2011)

Social

Warfare

  • Archer, Christon I.; John R. Ferris, Holger H. Herwig. World History of Warfare (2002)
  • The Cambridge History of the First World War (3 vol 2014) online
  • The Cambridge History of the Second World War (3 vol 2015) online
  • Cruttwell, C. R. M. F. A History of the Great War, 1914–1918 (1934), general military history online free
  • Dear, I.C.B.; Foot, M.R.D., eds. (2001) [1995]. The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860446-4.
  • Dupuy, R. Ernest, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 BC to the Present (1993)
  • Gerwarth, Robert, and Erez Manela. "The Great War as a Global War: Imperial Conflict and the Reconfiguration of World Order, 1911–1923." Diplomatic History 38.4 (2014): 786–800. online
  • Gerwarth, Robert, and Erez Manela, eds. Empires at War: 1911–1923 (2014), 12 very wide-ranging essays by scholars. excerpt
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian, and John Keegan. Roman Warfare (2000)
  • Horne, John, ed. A Companion to World War I (2012)
  • Keegan, John. A History of Warfare (1994) online
  • Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (1989) online
  • Muehlbauer, Matthew S., and David J. Ulbrich, eds. The Routledge History of Global War and Society (Routledge, 2018)
  • Paret, Peter, ed. Makers of Modern Strategy (1986), ideas of warfare
  • Rapport, Mike (2013). "The Napoleonic Wars". doi:10.1093/actrade/9780199590964.001.0001. ISBN 9780199590964. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Sharman, Jason C. "Myths of military revolution: European expansion and Eurocentrism." European Journal of International Relations 24.3 (2018): 491-513 online
  • Stevenson, David. Cataclysm: The First World War As Political Tragedy (2004) major reinterpretation, 560pp
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004): a major scholarly synthesis. Thorough coverage of 1914–16; 1245pp
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (2nd ed.).; comprehensive overview with emphasis on diplomacy
  • Winter, J. M. The Experience of World War I (2nd ed 2005), topical essays;
  • Winter, Jay, and Antoine Prost (2nd ed 2020). The Great War in History: Debates and Controversies, 1914 to the Present. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52161-633-1
  • Winter, Jay. Remembering War: The Great War Between Memory and History in the Twentieth Century. (Yale University Press, 2006)
  • Winter, Jay, ed. (2014). The Cambridge History of the First World War (2 vol. Cambridge University Press, 2014)
  • Zeiler, Thomas W. and Daniel M. DuBois, eds. A Companion to World War II (2 vol 2013), 1030 pp; comprehensive overview by scholars

Women and gender

External links