ایالات متحده

Page semi-protected
از ویکیپدیا، دانشنامه آزاد
رفتن به ناوبری پرش به جستجو

مختصات : 40 درجه شمالی 100 درجه غربی / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100

ایالات متحده آمریکا
شعار: 
سایر شعارهای سنتی:
سرود: 
مهر بزرگ : [2]
Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svg Great Seal of the United States (reverse).svg
Orthographic map of the U.S. in North America
World map showing the U.S. and its territories
ایالات متحده (با رنگ سبز) و تمام قلمروهایی که متعلق به یک منطقه هستند.
سرمایه، پایتختواشنگتن ، DC 38 ° 53′N 77 ° 01′W
 / 38.883°N 77.017°W / 38.883; -77.017
بزرگترین شهرشهر نیویورک 40 ° 43′N 74 ° 00′W
 / 40.717°N 74.000°W / 40.717; -74.000
زبان های رسمیهیچکدام در سطح فدرال [a]
زبان ملیانگلیسی
گروههای قومی
(2020) [8]
بر اساس قومیت:
دین
(2020) [9]
نام (ها)آمریکایی [c] [10]
دولت جمهوری مشروطه ریاست جمهوری فدرال
جو بایدن ( D )
کامالا هریس ( D )
نانسی پلوسی ( D )
جان رابرتز
قوه مقننهکنگره
مجلس سنا
مجلس نمایندگان
استقلال 
4 ژوئیه 1776
1 مارس 1781
3 سپتامبر 1783
21 ژوئن 1788
25 سپتامبر 1789
21 آگوست 1959
5 مه 1992
حوزه
• مساحت کل
3796742 مایل مربع (9833520 کیلومتر 2 ) [د] [11] ( 3/4 )
• اب (٪)
4.66 (در سال 2015) [12]
• مساحت کل زمین
3531905 مایل مربع (9147590 کیلومتر 2 )
جمعیت
• سرشماری سال 2020
Neutral increase331،449،281 [e] [13] ( سوم )
• تراکم
87/sq mi (33.6/km 2 ) ( 146th )
تولید ناخالص داخلی  ( PPP )برآورد 2021
• جمع
Increase 22.675 تریلیون دلار [14] ( دوم )
• سرانه
Increase68،309 دلار [14] ( هفتم )
تولید ناخالص داخلی  (اسمی)برآورد 2021
• جمع
Increase 22.675 تریلیون دلار [14] ( اول )
• سرانه
Increase68،309 دلار [14] ( پنجم )
جینی  (2020)Negative increase 48.5 [15]
ارتفاع
HDI  (2019)Increase 0.926 [16]
بسیار بالا  ·  هفدهم
واحد پولدلار ایالات متحده ($) ( USD )
منطقه زمانیUTC −4 تا −12 ، +10 ، +11
• تابستان ( DST )
UTC −4 تا −10 [f]
فرمت تاریخ
  • mm / dd / yyyy
  • تاریخ برای ورود yyyy - میلی متر - DD
برق شهری110-120 ولت ، 60 هرتز [17]
سمت رانندگیراست [g]
کد تماس1+
کد ISO 3166آمریکا
اینترنت TLD
دامنه عمومی سطح بالا
.com ، .org ، .net ، .edu ، .gov ، .mil [18]
دامنه سطح بالا کد کشور
[ساعت] .us به ، .pr ، همانطور ، .gu ، .mp ، .vi ، .um [من]

ایالات متحده آمریکا ( USA و یا USA )، معمولا به عنوان شناخته شده ایالات متحده ( آمریکا یا آمریکا ) و یا امریکا ، کشوری است در درجه اول در شمال امریکا واقع شده . این ایالت شامل 50 ایالت ، یک منطقه فدرال ، پنج سرزمین اصلی بدون مشارکت ، 326 منطقه رزرو هند و برخی از املاک جزئی است . [j] با 3.8 میلیون مایل مربع (9.8 میلیون کیلومتر مربع) ، این کشور سومین یا چهارمین کشور بزرگ جهان از نظر مساحت است . [d]ایالات متحده دارای مرزهای زمینی قابل توجهی با کانادا در شمال و مکزیک در جنوب و همچنین مرزهای دریایی محدود با باهاما ، کوبا و روسیه است . [22] با بیش از 331 میلیون نفر جمعیت ، سومین کشور پرجمعیت جهان است. سرمایه های ملی است واشنگتن، دی سی ، و پرجمعیت ترین شهرستان است شهر نیویورک .

سرخپوستان سرخپوست حداقل 12000 سال پیش از سیبری به سرزمین اصلی آمریکای شمالی مهاجرت کردند و استعمار اروپایی ها در قرن 16 آغاز شد. ایالات متحده از سیزده مستعمره بریتانیا که در امتداد ساحل شرقی ایجاد شده بودند بیرون آمد . اختلافات بر سر مالیات و نمایندگی سیاسی با بریتانیای کبیر منجر به جنگ انقلابی آمریکا (1775-1783) شد که استقلال را ایجاد کرد . در اواخر قرن 18 ، ایالات متحده شروع به گسترش در سراسر آمریکای شمالی کرد و به تدریج مناطق جدیدی را به دست آورد ، گاهی اوقات از طریق جنگ، اغلب جابجا کردن بومیان آمریکا و پذیرش ایالت های جدید ؛ تا سال 1848 ، ایالات متحده قاره را در برگرفت. برده داری در جنوب ایالات متحده تا نیمه دوم قرن 19 قانونی بود که جنگ داخلی آمریکا منجر به لغو آن شد . جنگ آمریکا و اسپانیا و جنگ جهانی اول ایالات متحده به عنوان تاسیس قدرت جهانی ، وضعیت تایید شده توسط نتیجه جنگ جهانی دوم .

در طول جنگ سرد ، ایالات متحده در جنگ کره و ویتنام جنگید اما از درگیری مستقیم نظامی با اتحاد جماهیر شوروی اجتناب کرد . این دو ابرقدرت در مسابقه فضایی به رقابت پرداختند و اوج آن پرواز فضایی 1969 بود که برای اولین بار انسان را بر روی ماه فرود آورد. انحلال اتحاد جماهیر شوروی در سال 1991 پایان جنگ سرد، خروج از ایالات متحده به عنوان تنها جهان ابرقدرت .

ایالات متحده یک جمهوری فدرال و یک دموکراسی نماینده است که دارای سه شاخه جداگانه از دولت است ، از جمله قانونگذار دو مجلس . این یکی از اعضای بنیانگذار سازمان ملل متحد ، بانک جهانی ، صندوق بین المللی پول ، سازمان ایالات متحده آمریکا ، ناتو و سایر سازمان های بین المللی است. این است عضو دائم از شورای امنیت سازمان ملل . در نظر گرفته شده برای مخلوط کردن فرهنگ ها و قومیت ها ، جمعیت آن عمیقاً شکل گرفته استقرن ها از مهاجرت . ایالات متحده در اقدامات بین المللی آزادی اقتصادی ، کیفیت زندگی ، تحصیلات و حقوق بشر رتبه بالایی دارد و میزان فساد ادراک شده در آن پایین است . با این حال ، این کشور به دلیل نابرابری مربوط به نژاد ، ثروت و درآمد ، استفاده از مجازات اعدام ، میزان بالای زندان و عدم مراقبت های بهداشتی عمومی مورد انتقاد قرار گرفته است .

ایالات متحده یک کشور بسیار توسعه یافته است ، تقریباً یک چهارم تولید ناخالص داخلی جهان را به خود اختصاص داده است و بزرگترین اقتصاد جهان از نظر تولید ناخالص داخلی با نرخ ارز بازار است . از نظر ارزش ، ایالات متحده بزرگترین واردکننده جهان و دومین صادرکننده بزرگ کالا است. اگرچه جمعیت آن تنها 4.2 درصد از کل جهان است ، اما 29.4 درصد از کل ثروت جهان را در اختیار دارد ، که بیشترین سهم در اختیار هر کشوری است. این کشور بیش از یک سوم هزینه های نظامی جهان را بر عهده دارد و این قدرت نظامی برتر جهان است. و از نظر سیاسی ، فرهنگی و علمی پیشرو استنیروی بین المللی [23]

علم اشتقاق لغات

اولین استفاده شناخته شده از نام " آمریکا " به سال 1507 برمی گردد ، زمانی که بر روی نقشه جهان تهیه شده توسط نقشه بردار آلمانی مارتین والدسیمولر ظاهر شد . در نقشه او ، نام با حروف بزرگ در مورد آنچه در حال حاضر آمریکای جنوبی محسوب می شود ، به افتخار آمریگو وسپوچی نشان داده شده است . کاشف ایتالیایی اولین کسی بود که تصور کرد هند غربی محدوده شرقی آسیا را نشان نمی دهد ، بلکه بخشی از یک خشکی قبلاً ناشناخته است. [24] [25] در سال 1538 ، جراردوس مرکاتور نقشه بردار فلاندری از نام "آمریکا" در نقشه جهان خود استفاده کرد و آن را در کل نیمکره غربی به کار برد . [26]

اولین شواهد مستند از عبارت "ایالات متحده آمریکا" تاریخ از 2، 1776 ژانویه نامه توسط نوشته شده است استفان Moylan به جورج واشنگتن را دستیار د اردوگاه ژوزف رید . مولان آرزوی خود را برای رفتن "با قدرت کامل و وسیع از ایالات متحده آمریکا به اسپانیا" برای درخواست کمک در جنگ انقلابی اعلام کرد. [27] [28] [29] اولین انتشار شناخته شده عبارت "ایالات متحده آمریکا" در مقاله ای ناشناس در روزنامه ویرجینیا گازت در ویلیامزبورگ ، ویرجینیا ، در 6 آوریل 1776 بود . [30]

دومین پیش نویس مواد کنفدراسیون ، که توسط جان دیکنسون تهیه و حداکثر تا 17 ژوئن 1776 تکمیل شد ، اعلام کرد "نام این کنفدراسیون" ایالات متحده آمریکا "خواهد بود. [31] نسخه نهایی مقالات ، که برای تصویب به ایالت ها در اواخر سال 1777 ارسال شد ، اظهار داشت که "ستاد این کنفدراسیون" ایالات متحده آمریکا "خواهد بود." [32] در ژوئن 1776 ، توماس جفرسون عبارت "ایالات متحده آمریکا" را با همه حروف بزرگ در سرفصل "پیش نویس اصلی خشن" اعلامیه استقلال نوشت .[31] این پیش نویس سند تا آن زمان ظاهر نشد21 ژوئن 1776 ، و مشخص نیست که آیا این مقاله قبل یا بعد از استفاده دیکینسون از این اصطلاح در پیش نویس مقالات کنفدراسیون 17 ژوئن نوشته شده است. [31]

فرم کوتاه "ایالات متحده" نیز استاندارد است. سایر اشکال رایج عبارتند از "ایالات متحده" ، "ایالات متحده آمریکا" و "آمریکا". نامهای محاوره ای "US of A" است. و در سطح بین المللی "دولتها". " کلمبیا " ، نامی که در شعرها و ترانه های آمریکایی اواخر قرن 18 رایج است ، منشأ خود را از کریستف کلمب گرفته است . هر دو "کلمبوس" و "کلمبیا" اغلب در مکانهای ایالات متحده ، از جمله کلمبوس ، اوهایو ، کلمبیا ، کارولینای جنوبی و منطقه کلمبیا ظاهر می شوند . اماکن و م institutionsسسات در نیمکره غربی دارای دو نام هستند ، از جمله Colón ، Panama ،کشور کلمبیا ، رودخانه کلمبیاو دانشگاه کلمبیا .

عبارت "ایالات متحده" در ابتدا در کاربردهای آمریکایی جمع بود. این مجموعه ای از ایالات را توصیف کرد - به عنوان مثال ، "ایالات متحده هستند." شکل منحصر به فرد پس از پایان جنگ داخلی محبوب شد و اکنون در ایالات متحده به طور استاندارد استفاده می شود. شهروند ایالات متحده " آمریکایی " است. "ایالات متحده" ، "آمریکایی" و "ایالات متحده" به این کشور به صورت صفتی ("ارزشهای آمریکایی" ، "نیروهای آمریکایی") اشاره می کنند. در انگلیسی ، کلمه " آمریکایی " به ندرت به موضوعات یا موضوعاتی اشاره می کند که مستقیماً با ایالات متحده ارتباط ندارند. [33]

تاریخ

مردم بومی و تاریخ قبل از کلمبیا

Aerial view of the Cliff Palace
کلیف کاخ ، با ساخته شده بومی آمریکا Puebloans بین 1190 میلادی و 1260

به طور کلی پذیرفته شده است که اولین ساکنان آمریکای شمالی از طریق سیاره برینگ از سیبری مهاجرت کرده و حداقل 12000 سال پیش به آنجا رسیده اند. با این حال ، برخی از شواهد نشان می دهد یک تاریخ حتی زودتر از ورود. [34] [35] [36] فرهنگ کلوویس ، که در اطراف 11،000 سال قبل از میلاد ظاهر شد، اعتقاد بر این است که به نمایندگی از موج اول از سکونت انسان از آمریکا. [37] [38] این احتمالاً اولین موج از سه موج اصلی مهاجرت به آمریکای شمالی بود. موجهای بعدی اجداد آتاباسکنهای کنونی ، آلوتها و اسکیموها را به ارمغان آورد. [39]

با گذشت زمان ، فرهنگهای بومی در آمریکای شمالی پیچیدگی فزاینده ای پیدا کردند و برخی مانند فرهنگ میسیسیپی قبل از کلمبیا در جنوب شرقی ، کشاورزی پیشرفته ، معماری و جوامع پیچیده را توسعه دادند. [40] ایالت شهر کاهوکیا بزرگترین و پیچیده ترین سایت باستان شناسی قبل از کلمبیا در ایالات متحده امروزی است. [41] در منطقه Four Corners ، فرهنگ نیاکان پوئبلوان از قرن ها آزمایش کشاورزی توسعه یافت. [42] هادنوساونی ، واقع در جنوب دریاچه های بزرگمنطقه ، در فاصله ای بین قرن دوازدهم و پانزدهم تأسیس شد. [43] قبیله های Algonquian که در امتداد ساحل اقیانوس اطلس برجسته بودند ، شکار و صید را همراه با کشت محدود تمرین می کردند.

برآورد جمعیت بومی آمریکای شمالی در زمان تماس اروپایی دشوار است. [44] [45] داگلاس ا. اوبلکر از موسسه اسمیتسونین برآورد کرد که در ایالات جنوبی آتلانتیک جمعیت 92،916 نفر و در کشورهای خلیج 473،616 نفر [46] وجود دارد ، اما اکثر دانشگاهیان این رقم را بسیار کم می دانند. [44] انسان شناس هنری اف دوبینز معتقد بود جمعیت بسیار بیشتر است ، به طوری که حدود 1.1 میلیون نفر در سواحل خلیج مکزیک ، 2.2 میلیون نفر بین فلوریدا و ماساچوست ، 5.2 میلیون نفر در دره می سی سی پی زندگی می کنند.و شاخه های فرعی ، و حدود 700000 نفر در شبه جزیره فلوریدا . [44] [45]

شهرک های اروپایی

ادعاهای استعمار خیلی زود ساحلی نیوانگلند توسط نورس مورد بحث و مناقشه است. اولین ورود مستند از اروپایی ها در ایالات متحده قاره است که از اسپانیایی فاتحان مانند خوان پونسه د لئون ، که برای اولین بار اکسپدیشن خود را به ساخته شده فلوریدا در 1513. حتی پیش از آن، کریستف کلمب در فرود آمده بود پورتوریکو در خود 1493 سفر ، و سان خوان یک دهه بعد توسط اسپانیایی ها مستقر شد. [47] اسپانیایی ها اولین شهرک ها را در فلوریدا و نیومکزیکو ایجاد کردند ، مانند سنت آگوستین ، که اغلب قدیمی ترین شهر کشور محسوب می شد ، [48]و سانتافه . فرانسوی ها شهرک های خود را در امتداد رودخانه می سی سی پی ، به ویژه نیواورلئان تأسیس کردند . [49] موفق حل و فصل انگلیسی از ساحل شرقی از شمال امریکا با شروع ویرجینیا مستعمره در سال 1607 در جیمز تاون و با زائران ، مستعمره در پلیموت در 1620. [50] [51] این قاره برای اولین بار انتخاب مجلس قانونگذاری، ویرجینیا مجلس Burgesses ، در سال 1619 تاسیس شد. اسنادی مانند Mayflower Compact و The Fundamental Orders of Connecticutنمونه هایی برای خودگردان نمایندگی و مشروطه خواهی ایجاد شد که در کل مستعمرات آمریکا توسعه می یافت. [52] [53] بسیاری از شهرک نشینان مخالف مسیحیانی بودند که به دنبال آزادی مذهبی آمده بودند . در سال 1784 ، روس ها اولین اروپایی هایی بودند که در آلاسکا ، در خلیج سه قدیس ، شهرک ایجاد کردند . آمریکای روسیه زمانی بخش وسیعی از ایالت کنونی آلاسکا را در بر می گرفت . [54]

در روزهای اولیه استعمار ، بسیاری از مهاجران اروپایی در معرض کمبود غذا ، بیماری و حملات بومیان آمریکا بودند. بومیان آمریکایی نیز اغلب با قبایل همسایه و مهاجران اروپایی در جنگ بودند. در بسیاری از موارد ، بومیان و مهاجران به یکدیگر وابسته بودند. شهرک نشینان با غذا و پوست حیوانات معامله می کردند. بومی برای اسلحه ، ابزار و سایر کالاهای اروپایی. [55] بومیان بسیاری از مهاجران را به کشت ذرت ، حبوبات و سایر مواد غذایی آموزش دادند. مبلغان اروپایی و دیگران احساس کردند که "تمدن" بومیان آمریکایی مهم است و آنها را تشویق کردند تا شیوه های کشاورزی و شیوه های زندگی اروپایی را اتخاذ کنند. [56] [57] با این حال ، با افزایش استعمار اروپایی آمریکای شمالی ،آمریکایی های بومی شد آواره و اغلب کشته . [58] جمعیت بومی امریکا کاهش یافته است پس از ورود به اروپا به دلایل مختلف، [59] [60] [61] در درجه اول بیماری هایی مانند آبله و سرخک . [62] [63]

Map of the U.S. showing the original Thirteen Colonies along the eastern seaboard
سیزده مستعمره اصلی (با رنگ قرمز نشان داده شده است) در 1775

مهاجران اروپایی نیز شروع به قاچاق از بردگان آفریقایی به استعمار امریکا از طریق تجارت برده اقیانوس اطلس . [64] به دلیل شیوع کمتر بیماریهای گرمسیری و درمان بهتر ، طول عمر برده ها در آمریکای شمالی بسیار بیشتر از آمریکای جنوبی بود که منجر به افزایش سریع تعداد آنها شد. [65] [66] جامعه استعمار بر سر دلالت های مذهبی و اخلاقی برده داری تا حد زیادی دچار اختلاف شد و چندین مستعمره اقداماتی را علیه و به نفع این عمل انجام دادند. [67] [68] با این حال، به نوبه خود از قرن 18، به بردگان آفریقایی جایگزین بود اروپا نوکران ملزم به عنواننیروی کار نقدی ، به ویژه در جنوب آمریکا. [69]

مستعمرات سیزده ( نیوهمپشایر ، ماساچوست ، کانکتیکات ، رود آیلند ، نیویورک ، نیوجرسی ، پنسیلوانیا ، دلاور ، مریلند ، ویرجینیا ، کارولینای شمالی ، کارولینای جنوبی ، و گرجستان ) که تبدیل به ایالات متحده آمریکا توسط انگلیسی ها اجرا شد به عنوان وابستگی های خارج از کشور [70] با این وجود ، همه دولت های محلی با انتخابات آزاد برای اکثر مردان آزاد داشتند. [71]با نرخ زاد و ولد بسیار بالا ، نرخ مرگ و میر پایین و استقرار مداوم ، جمعیت استعمار به سرعت افزایش یافت و جمعیت بومیان آمریکا را تحت الشعاع قرار داد. [72] احیاگر مسیحی جنبش از 1730s و 1740s شناخته شده به عنوان بیداری بزرگ علاقه هر دو در دین و در آزادی مذهبی دامن زده است. [73]

در طول جنگ هفت ساله (1756-1763) ، که در ایالات متحده به عنوان جنگ فرانسه و هند شناخته می شد ، نیروهای بریتانیایی کانادا را از فرانسوی ها گرفتند. با ایجاد استان کبک ، جمعیت فرانکفون کانادا از وابستگی های استعماری انگلیسی زبان نوا اسکوشیا ، نیوفاندلند و سیزده مستعمره جدا می ماند . به استثنای سرخپوستان آمریکایی که در آنجا زندگی می کردند ، سیزده مستعمره بیش از 2.1 میلیون نفر جمعیت داشتنددر سال 1770 ، تقریباً یک سوم بریتانیا. علیرغم ادامه ورودهای جدید ، میزان افزایش طبیعی به حدی بود که در دهه 1770 تنها اقلیت کوچکی از آمریکایی ها در خارج از کشور متولد شده بودند. [74] فاصله مستعمرات از بریتانیا اجازه توسعه خودگردانی را داده بود ، اما موفقیت بی سابقه آنها باعث شد تا پادشاهان بریتانیایی به طور دوره ای به دنبال تأکید مجدد بر قدرت سلطنتی باشند. [75]

استقلال و گسترش

جنگ انقلاب آمریکا توسط جنگیدند مستعمرات سیزده برابر امپراتوری بریتانیا برای اولین بار موفق شد جنگ استقلال توسط یک نهاد غیر اروپایی در برابر یک قدرت اروپایی در تاریخ مدرن . آمریکایی ها ایدئولوژی " جمهوری خواهی " را توسعه داده بودند و ادعا می کردند که دولت بر اراده مردم متکی است که در قوه مقننه محلی آنها بیان شده است. آنها خواستار " حقوق خود به عنوان انگلیسی " و " بدون مالیات بدون نمایندگی " شدند. انگلیسی ها بر اداره امپراتوری از طریق پارلمان اصرار داشتند و درگیری به جنگ تبدیل شد. [76]

دومین کنگره قاره به اتفاق آرا به تصویب رسید اعلامیه استقلال در 1776 ژوئیه 4 ؛ این روز هر ساله به عنوان روز استقلال جشن گرفته می شود . [77] در 1777 ، مواد کنفدراسیون یک دولت غیر متمرکز ایجاد کرد که تا سال 1789 کار می کرد. [77]

پس از شکست در محاصره یورک تاون در 1781 ، بریتانیا یک پیمان صلح امضا کرد . حاکمیت آمریکا در سطح بین المللی به رسمیت شناخته شد و به این کشور تمام سرزمین های شرقی رودخانه می سی سی پی اعطا شد . با این وجود ، تنش ها با بریتانیا همچنان ادامه داشت و منجر به جنگ 1812 شد که با تساوی به پایان رسید. [78] ملی گرایان کنوانسیون فیلادلفیا 1787 را در نوشتن قانون اساسی ایالات متحده رهبری کردند ، که در کنوانسیون های ایالتی در 1788 تصویب شد. این قانون اساسی که در سال 1789 لازم الاجرا شد ، دولت فدرال را به سه شاخه ، بر اساس ایجاد ایجاد بازرسی ها و موازنه های سالم ، سازماندهی کرد.جورج واشنگتن ، که ارتش قاره را به پیروزی رسانده بود ، اولین رئیس جمهوری بود که بر اساس قانون اساسی جدید انتخاب شد. منشور حقوق ، ممنوع محدودیت فدرال آزادی های فردی و تضمین طیف وسیعی از حمایت های قانونی، در 1791. به تصویب رسید . [79]

اگرچه دولت فدرال در سال 1807 مشارکت آمریکا در تجارت برده های آتلانتیک را غیرقانونی اعلام کرد ، اما پس از 1820 ، کشت محصول پنبه ای بسیار سودآور در ژرفای جنوبی و همراه با آن ، جمعیت برده نیز منفجر شد . [80] [81] [82] دوم بیداری بزرگ ، به ویژه در دوره 1800-1840، میلیون ها نفر به تبدیل انجیلی پروتستان. در شمال ، به جنبش های متعدد اصلاح اجتماعی ، از جمله لغو گرایی ، نیرو بخشید . [83] در جنوب ، متدیست ها و باپتیست ها در میان برده ها تبلیغ کردند. [84]

از اواخر قرن هجدهم ، مهاجران آمریکایی شروع به گسترش به سمت غرب کردند ، [85] مجموعه ای طولانی از جنگهای هند آمریکا را برانگیخت . [86] 1803 خرید لوئیزیانا تقریبا منطقه کشور دو برابر شده، [87] اسپانیا فلوریدا واگذار و دیگر قلمرو ساحل خلیج فارس در سال 1819، [88] جمهوری تگزاس بود ضمیمه در سال 1845 در طول یک دوره از توسعه طلبی، [89] و 1846 پیمان اورگان با بریتانیا منجر به کنترل ایالات متحده بر شمال غربی کنونی آمریکا شد . [90] پیروزی در جنگ مکزیک و آمریکادر سال 1848 در مکزیک از کالیفرنیا و بسیاری از مناطق جنوب غربی آمریکا انجام شد و ایالات متحده قاره آمریکا را در بر گرفت. [85] [91]

کالیفرنیا طلا عجله از 1848-1849 مهاجرت موجب به سواحل اقیانوس آرام، که منجر به قتل عام کالیفرنیا [92] و ایجاد کشورهای دیگر غربی است. [93] واگذاری مقدار زیادی زمین به مهاجران سفیدپوست اروپایی به عنوان بخشی از قوانین خانه داری ، نزدیک به 10 of از کل مساحت ایالات متحده ، و شرکت های خصوصی راه آهن و کالج ها به عنوان بخشی از کمک های زمینی باعث توسعه اقتصادی شد . [94] پس از جنگ داخلی ، راه آهن های جدید بین قاره ای جابجایی را برای مهاجران آسان کرد ، تجارت داخلی را گسترش داد و درگیری ها را با سرخپوستان افزایش داد. [95]در سال 1869 ، یک سیاست صلح جدید وعده داد که بومیان آمریکایی را در برابر سوء استفاده ها محافظت می کند ، از جنگ بیشتر جلوگیری می کند و در نهایت شهروندی ایالات متحده را تأمین می کند. با این وجود ، درگیری های گسترده در سراسر غرب تا دهه 1900 ادامه داشت.

دوران جنگ داخلی و دوران بازسازی

Drawing of the Battle of Gettysburg, depicting soldiers charging forward and firing a cannon
نبرد از Gettysburg ، بین مبارزه اتحادیه و کنفدراسیون نیروهای ژوئیه 1-3، 1863، در اطراف شهر Gettysburg، پنسیلوانیا ، نقطه عطفی در جنگ داخلی آمریکا .

درگیری مقطعی غیر قابل تطبیق در مورد بردگی از آفریقایی و آمریکایی های آفریقایی تبار در نهایت به رهبری جنگ های داخلی آمریکا . [96] با 1860 انتخابات از حزب جمهوری خواه آبراهام لینکلن ، کنوانسیون در سیزده ایالت های برده جدایی اعلام کرد و تشکیل ایالات کنفدراسیون امریکا (از "جنوبی" و یا "کنفدراسیون")، در حالی که دولت فدرال (از " اتحادیه ") داشت که جدایی غیرقانونی بود [97]به منظور ایجاد این جدایی ، اقدام نظامی توسط جدایی طلبان آغاز شد و اتحادیه به همان شکل پاسخ داد. جنگ پس از آن تبدیل به مرگبارترین درگیری نظامی در تاریخ آمریکا می شود که منجر به کشته شدن تقریباً 618000 سرباز و بسیاری از غیرنظامیان می شود. [98] اتحادیه در ابتدا برای حفظ اتحاد کشور مبارزه کرد. با این وجود ، با افزایش تلفات پس از 1863 و اعلام لینکلن اعلامیه آزادی خود ، هدف اصلی جنگ از دیدگاه اتحادیه ، لغو برده داری بود. در واقع ، هنگامی که اتحادیه در نهایت در آوریل 1865 در جنگ پیروز شد ، هر یک از ایالتهای شکست خورده جنوبی ملزم به تصویب متمم سیزدهم شدند ، که برده داری را جز به عنوان کار مجازات ممنوع می کرد.به دو اصلاحیه دیگر نیز تصویب شد و شهروندی سیاهان را تضمین کرد و حداقل از نظر تئوری ، حق رأی برای آنها را نیز تضمین کرد.

بازسازی به طور جدی پس از جنگ آغاز شد. در حالی که پرزیدنت لینکلن تلاش می کرد دوستی و بخشش بین اتحادیه و کنفدراسیون سابق را تقویت کند ، ترور او در 14 آوریل 1865 مجدداً بین شمال و جنوب اختلاف ایجاد کرد. جمهوری خواهان در دولت فدرال هدف خود را نظارت بر بازسازی جنوب و تأمین حقوق آفریقایی تبارهای آمریکایی اعلام کردند. آنها تا مصالحه 1877 ادامه یافتند ، زمانی که جمهوریخواهان موافقت کردند که حمایت از حقوق آفریقایی آمریکایی ها در جنوب را متوقف کنند تا دموکرات ها به انتخابات ریاست جمهوری 1876 تن دهند .

دموکراتهای سفیدپوست جنوبی ، که خود را " رستگاران " می نامیدند ، پس از پایان بازسازی ، کنترل جنوب را در دست گرفتند و نادیر روابط نژادی آمریکا را آغاز کردند . از سال 1890 تا 1910 ، رستگاران قوانین موسوم به جیم کرو را وضع کردند و از حق اکثر سیاه پوستان و برخی سفیدپوستان فقیر در سراسر منطقه محروم شدند . سیاه پوستان در سراسر کشور با جدایی نژادی ، به ویژه در جنوب ، روبرو خواهند شد. [99] آنها همچنین گاهی اوقات با خشونت هوشیارانه ، از جمله لینچ روبرو می شوند . [100]

مهاجرت ، گسترش و صنعتی شدن بیشتر

فیلمی از استودیو ادیسون نشان می دهد که مهاجران در جزیره الیس در بندر نیویورک پیاده می شوند ، که به عنوان نقطه اصلی ورود مهاجران اروپایی به ایالات متحده عمل می کند [101]

در شمال ، شهرنشینی و هجوم بی سابقه مهاجران از اروپای جنوبی و شرقی مازاد نیروی کار برای صنعتی شدن این کشور را فراهم کرد و فرهنگ آن را دگرگون کرد. [102] زیرساخت های ملی ، از جمله راه آهن تلگراف و بین قاره ای ، باعث رشد اقتصادی و استقرار و توسعه بیشتر غرب قدیم آمریکا شد . اختراع بعدی نور برقی و تلفن نیز بر ارتباطات و زندگی شهری تأثیر می گذارد. [103]

ایالات متحده آمریکا مبارزه جنگ هند غرب رودخانه می سی سی پی از 1810 به حداقل 1890. [104] بسیاری از این درگیری به پایان رسید با واگذاری خاک بومی آمریکا و حبس خود را به رزرو هند . علاوه بر این ، رد اشک ها در دهه 1830 نمونه ای از سیاست حذف هند بود که سرخپوستان را به اجبار اسکان داد. این مساحت زیر کشت مکانیکی را بیشتر کرد و مازاد را برای بازارهای بین المللی افزایش داد. [105] گسترش سرزمین اصلی همچنین شامل خرید آلاسکا از روسیه در 1867 بود. [106] در 1893 ، عناصر طرفدار آمریکایی در هاوایی سرنگون شدندسلطنت هاوایی و تشکیل جمهوری هاوایی ، که ایالات متحده ضمیمه در سال 1898. پورتوریکو ، گوام ، و فیلیپین توسط اسپانیا در همان سال واگذار شد، پس از جنگ اسپانیا و آمریکا . [107] ساموآ آمریکایی پس از پایان جنگ داخلی دوم سامو در سال 1900 توسط ایالات متحده خریداری شد . [108] جزایر ویرجین ایالات متحده از دانمارک در سال 1917. خریداری شد [109]

توسعه سریع اقتصادی در اواخر قرن 19 و اوایل قرن 20 باعث ظهور بسیاری از صنعتگران برجسته شد. سرمایه داران بزرگی مانند کرنلیوس واندربیلت ، جان دی راکفلر و اندرو کارنگی پیشرو پیشرفت کشور در صنایع راه آهن ، نفت و فولاد بودند . بانکداری به بخش مهمی از اقتصاد تبدیل شد و JP Morgan نقش قابل توجهی ایفا کرد. اقتصاد آمریکا رونق گرفت و به بزرگترین اقتصاد جهان تبدیل شد. [110] این تغییرات چشمگیر با ناآرامی های اجتماعی و ظهور پوپولیست ، سوسیالیست و آنارشیست همراه بودحرکات [111] این دوره سرانجام با ظهور عصر مترقی پایان یافت ، که شاهد اصلاحات قابل توجهی از جمله حق رأی زنان ، ممنوعیت مصرف الکل ، مقررات کالاهای مصرفی و اقدامات بیشتر ضد تراست برای اطمینان از رقابت و توجه به شرایط کارگران بود. [112] [113] [114]

جنگ جهانی اول ، رکود بزرگ ، و جنگ جهانی دوم

The Empire State Building in the 1940s, towering above its neighbors in Midtown Manhattan
ساختمان امپایر استیت ، بلندترین ساختمان در جهان بود که در سال 1931 به پایان رسید، در طول رکود بزرگ .

ایالات متحده از آغاز جنگ جهانی اول در سال 1914 تا سال 1917 بی طرف بود و به عنوان "قدرت مرتبط" در کنار متحدان جنگ جهانی اول به جنگ ملحق شد و به تغییر جریان در برابر قدرتهای مرکزی کمک کرد . در سال 1919 ، وودرو ویلسون ، رئیس جمهور ، نقش دیپلماتیک پیشرو را در کنفرانس صلح پاریس بر عهده گرفت و به شدت از پیوستن ایالات متحده به لیگ ملل حمایت کرد . با این حال ، سنا از تصویب آن خودداری کرد و معاهده ورسای را که اتحادیه ملل را تأسیس کرد ، تصویب نکرد . [115]

در سال 1920 ، جنبش حقوق زنان با تصویب اصلاحیه قانون اساسی که حق رأی زنان را اعطا می کرد ، پیروز شد . [116] در دهه 1920 و 1930 شاهد ظهور رادیو برای ارتباطات جمعی و اختراع تلویزیون اولیه بود . [117] رفاه بیست و نه ساله خروشان با سقوط وال استریت در سال 1929 و شروع رکود بزرگ به پایان رسید . پس از انتخاب او به عنوان رئیس جمهور در سال 1932 ، فرانکلین دی روزولت با New Deal پاسخ داد . [118] بزرگ مهاجرتمیلیون ها آفریقایی آمریکایی خارج از جنوب آمریکا قبل از جنگ جهانی اول شروع شده و تا دهه 1960 ادامه یافت. [119] در حالی که گرد و غبار در اواسط دهه 1930 بسیاری از جوامع کشاورزی را فقیر کرد و موج جدیدی از مهاجرت غربی ها را برانگیخت. [120]

Four soldiers plant a U.S. flag on a long pole on a bare mountaintop
تفنگداران دریایی آمریکا پرچم آمریکا را در کوه سوریباچی در طول نبرد ایوو جیما در یکی از نمادین ترین تصاویر جنگ برافراشتند .

ایالات متحده در ابتدا در طول جنگ جهانی دوم خنثی بود ، در ماه مارس 1941 از طریق برنامه Lend-Lease تامین مواد مورد نیاز برای متفقین را آغاز کرد. در 1941 دسامبر 7 ، از امپراتوری ژاپن راه اندازی یک شگفتی حمله به پرل هاربر ، باعث ایالات متحده برای پیوستن به نیروهای متفقین علیه متحدین ، و در سال بعد، به کارآموز در مورد 120000 [121] ساکنان ایالات متحده (از جمله شهروندان آمریکایی ) ژاپنی تبار [122] اگرچه ژاپن ابتدا به ایالات متحده حمله کرد ، با این وجود ایالات متحده سیاست دفاعی " اول اروپا " را دنبال کرد.[123] بدین ترتیب ایالات متحده مستعمره وسیع آسیایی خود ، فیلیپین را منزوی کرد و در حال مبارزه با شکست در برابر تهاجم و اشغال ژاپن بود . در طول جنگ ، ایالات متحده یکی از " چهار قدرت " [124] بود که برای برنامه ریزی جهان پس از جنگ ، به همراه انگلیس ، اتحاد جماهیر شوروی و چین ، ملاقات کردند. [125] [126] اگر چه این کشور در حدود 400،000 پرسنل نظامی، از دست داده [127] از آن ظهور نسبتا سالم از جنگ با نفوذ اقتصادی و نظامی و حتی بیشتر. [128]

ایالات متحده نقش اصلی را در کنفرانس های برتون وودز و یالتا ایفا کرد که موافقت نامه هایی را در مورد موسسات مالی بین المللی جدید و سازماندهی مجدد اروپا پس از جنگ امضا کردند. با پیروزی متفقین در اروپا ، کنفرانس بین المللی 1945 در سانفرانسیسکو منشور ملل متحد را تهیه کرد که پس از جنگ فعال شد. [129] ایالات متحده و ژاپن سپس در بزرگترین نبرد دریایی در تاریخ ، نبرد خلیج لیته با یکدیگر جنگیدند . [130] [131] ایالات متحده اولین سلاح های هسته ای را توسعه داد و از آنها در ژاپن استفاده کرددر شهرهای هیروشیما و ناگازاکی در آگوست 1945 ؛ ژاپنی ها در 2 سپتامبر تسلیم شدند و به جنگ جهانی دوم خاتمه دادند. [132] [133]

جنگ سرد و دوران حقوق مدنی

Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev sit in plush chairs in front of a stone fireplace
رئیس جمهور آمریکا رونالد ریگان (چپ) و میخائیل گورباچف ، دبیر کل اتحاد جماهیر شوروی در اجلاس ژنو در 1985

پس از جنگ جهانی دوم ، ایالات متحده و اتحاد جماهیر شوروی برای قدرت ، نفوذ و اعتبار در طول آنچه به عنوان جنگ سرد شناخته شد ، رقابت کردند ، که ناشی از شکاف ایدئولوژیکی بین سرمایه داری و کمونیسم بود . [134] آنها بر امور نظامی اروپا تسلط داشتند و ایالات متحده و متحدانش در ناتو از یک سو و اتحاد جماهیر شوروی و متحدان پیمان ورشو از سوی دیگر. ایالات متحده سیاست مهار نسبت به گسترش نفوذ کمونیستی را ایجاد کرد. در حالی که ایالات متحده و اتحاد جماهیر شوروی درگیر جنگ های نیابتی بودند و زرادخانه های هسته ای قدرتمندی ایجاد کردند ، دو کشور از درگیری مستقیم نظامی اجتناب کردند.[135]

ایالات متحده غالباً با جنبش های جهان سوم که از نظر شوروی حمایت می شد مخالفت می کرد و گهگاه اقدام مستقیمی برای تغییر رژیم علیه دولت های چپ انجام می داد و گهگاه از رژیم های راستگرای اقتدارگرا حمایت می کرد. [136] نیروهای آمریکایی در جنگ کره 1950-1953 با نیروهای کمونیست چین و کره شمالی جنگیدند . [137] پرتاب اولین ماهواره مصنوعی توسط اتحاد جماهیر شوروی در سال 1957 و پرتاب اولین پرواز فضایی توسط خدمه در سال 1961 " مسابقه فضایی " را آغاز کرد که در آن ایالات متحده اولین کشوری بود که یک انسان را بر روی ماه فرود آورد.در سال 1969. [137] ایالات متحده به طور فزاینده ای در جنگ ویتنام (1955-1975) شرکت کرد و نیروهای رزمی را در سال 1965 معرفی کرد. [138]

در داخل ، ایالات متحده پس از جنگ جهانی دوم ، توسعه اقتصادی پایدار و رشد سریع جمعیت و طبقه متوسط خود را تجربه کرده بود . پس از افزایش مشارکت زنان در کار ، به ویژه در دهه 1970 ، تا سال 1985 ، اکثر زنان 16 ساله و بالاتر شاغل بودند. [139] ساخت یک سیستم بزرگراه بین ایالتی زیر ساخت های کشور را در دهه های بعد تغییر داد. میلیون ها نفر از مزارع و شهرهای داخلی به خانه های بزرگ حومه نقل مکان کردند . [140] [141] در سال 1959 ، ایالات متحده رسماً فراتر از ایالات متحده مجاور گسترش یافت ، زمانی که قلمروهایآلاسکا و هاوایی ، به ترتیب ، 49 و 50 ایالت پذیرفته شده در اتحادیه شدند. [142] جنبش حقوق مدنی در حال رشد از عدم خشونت برای مقابله با جدایی طلبی و تبعیض استفاده کرد ، به طوری که مارتین لوتر کینگ جونیور به یک رهبر و چهره برجسته تبدیل شد. [143] ترکیبی از تصمیمات و قوانین دادگاه ، که در قانون حقوق مدنی 1968 به اوج خود رسید ، به دنبال پایان دادن به تبعیض نژادی بود. [144] [145] [146] در همین حال ، یک جنبش ضدفرهنگی رشد کرد ، که با مخالفت با جنگ ویتنام ، جنبش قدرت سیاه تقویت شد.و انقلاب جنسی . [147]

راه اندازی " جنگ علیه فقر " حقوق و هزینه های رفاهی را افزایش داد ، از جمله ایجاد Medicare و Medicaid ، دو برنامه که به ترتیب پوشش سالمت و فقرا را برای سلامتی ارائه می دهد ، و برنامه تمبر غذا و کمک به خانواده ها با وسایل آزمایش شده کودکان وابسته . [148]

در دهه 1970 و اوایل دهه 1980 شاهد رکود تورمی بودیم . ایالات متحده در طول جنگ یوم کیپور از اسرائیل حمایت کرد . در پاسخ ، این کشور با تحریم نفت کشورهای اوپک مواجه شد که باعث ایجاد بحران نفتی در سال 1973 شد . در سال 1979 ، جیمی کارتر ، رئیس جمهور آمریکا ، با امضای یک معاهده صلح بین مصر و اسرائیل ، این اولین باری بود که یک کشور عربی وجود اسرائیل را به رسمیت شناخت. [ مربوطه؟ ] پس از انتخاب ، رئیس جمهور رونالد ریگان با اصلاحات بازار آزاد به رکود اقتصادی پاسخ داد . به دنبال فروپاشی دتنتهاو "مهار" را رها کرد و استراتژی تهاجمی تر " بازگشت " به اتحاد جماهیر شوروی را آغاز کرد. [149] [150] در اواخر دهه 1980 " یخ زدگی " در روابط با اتحاد جماهیر شوروی به وجود آمد و فروپاشی آن در سال 1991 سرانجام به جنگ سرد پایان داد. [151] [152] [153] این امر باعث ایجاد تک قطبی شد [154] و ایالات متحده به عنوان ابرقدرت غالب جهان بدون چالش شناخته شد. [155]

تاریخ معاصر

پس از جنگ سرد ، درگیری در خاورمیانه باعث بحران در 1990 شد ، زمانی که عراق به کویت ، متحد ایالات متحده حمله کرد و به آن الحاق کرد . در ترس از گسترش بی ثباتی ، در ماه اوت ، رئیس جمهور جورج دبلیو بوش جنگ خلیج فارس را علیه عراق آغاز و رهبری کرد. که تا ژانویه 1991 توسط نیروهای ائتلاف از 34 کشور انجام شد ، با اخراج نیروهای عراقی از کویت و احیای سلطنت به پایان رسید. [156]

اینترنت که از شبکه های دفاعی ارتش آمریکا سرچشمه گرفته بود ، در دهه 1990 به پلتفرم های بین المللی دانشگاهی و سپس عموم مردم گسترش یافت و بر اقتصاد ، جامعه و فرهنگ جهانی تأثیر زیادی گذاشت. [157] به دلیل رونق dot-com ، سیاست پولی پایدار و کاهش هزینه های رفاه اجتماعی ، دهه 1990 طولانی ترین توسعه اقتصادی را در تاریخ مدرن ایالات متحده شاهد بود. [158] از سال 1994 ، ایالات متحده موافقتنامه تجارت آزاد آمریکای شمالی (NAFTA) را امضا کرد و باعث شد تجارت بین ایالات متحده ، کانادا و مکزیک افزایش یابد. [159]

در 11 سپتامبر 2001 ، ربایندگان تروریست القاعده با هواپیماهای مسافربری به مرکز تجارت جهانی در شهر نیویورک و پنتاگون در نزدیکی واشنگتن رفتند و نزدیک به 3000 نفر را کشتند. [160] در پاسخ، رئیس جمهور جورج دبلیو بوش راه اندازی جنگ علیه ترور ، که شامل نزدیک به 20 سال جنگ در افغانستان 2001-2021 و 2003-2011 جنگ عراق . [161] [162] عملیات نظامی 2011 در پاکستان منجر به مرگ رهبر القاعده شد . [163]

سیاست دولت برای ارتقاء مسکن مقرون به صرفه ، [164] شکست گسترده در حاکمیت شرکتی و نظارتی ، [165] و نرخ های پایین تاریخی نرخ بهره توسط فدرال رزرو [166] که منجر به حباب مسکن در اواسط دهه 2000 شد ، که با مالی 2008 به اوج خود رسید. بحران ، بزرگترین انقباض اقتصادی کشور پس از رکود بزرگ. [167] در طول بحران ، دارایی های متعلق به آمریکایی ها حدود یک چهارم ارزش خود را از دست دادند. [168] باراک اوباما ، اولین چند نژادی [169] رئيس جمهور، با آمریکایی های آفریقایی تبار و نسب [170] در سال 2008 انتخاب شددر بحران ، [171] و متعاقب آن اقدامات محرک و قانون Dodd -Frank در تلاش برای کاهش اثرات منفی آن و اطمینان از تکرار این بحران تصویب شد. در سال 2010 ، پرزیدنت اوباما تلاش ها را برای تصویب قانون مراقبت های مقرون به صرفه ، که گسترده ترین اصلاحات در سیستم مراقبت های بهداشتی کشور در پنج دهه گذشته بود ، رهبری کرد . [172]

در انتخابات ریاست جمهوری 2016 ، دونالد ترامپ جمهوری خواه به عنوان چهل و پنجمین رئیس جمهور ایالات متحده انتخاب شد ، نتیجه ای که یکی از بزرگترین ناآرامی های سیاسی در تاریخ آمریکا محسوب می شود. [173] در انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال 2020 ، جو بایدن دموکرات به عنوان چهل و ششمین رئیس جمهور انتخاب شد. [174] در 6 ژانویه 2021 ، حامیان ترامپ در حال ترک رئیس جمهور آمریکا در تلاش ناموفق برای بر هم زدن شمارش آرای کالج انتخاباتی ریاست جمهوری ، به ساختمان کنگره ایالات متحده حمله کردند . [175]

جغرافیا

See caption
طبقه بندی آب و هوایی کوپن ایالات و مناطق ایالات متحده

48 ایالت به هم پیوسته و ناحیه کلمبیا یک منطقه ترکیبی از 3119885 مایل مربع (8080470 کیلومتر را اشغال 2 ). این منطقه، 2959064 مایل مربع (7663940 کیلومتر 2 ) زمین به هم پیوسته است، آهنگسازی 83.65٪ از مساحت کل ایالات متحده است. [176] [177] هاوایی ، اشغال مجمع الجزایر در مرکز اقیانوس آرام ، از جنوب غربی شمال امریکا، 10931 مایل مربع (28،311 کیلومتر است 2 ) در منطقه است. پنج قلمرو پرجمعیت اما بدون درهم آمیزی پورتوریکو ، ساموآ آمریکایی ، گوام ، جزایر ماریانای شمالی و جزایر ویرجین آمریکابا هم پوشش 9185 مایل مربع (23،789 کیلومتر 2 ). [178] ایالات متحده تنها با مساحت زمین اندازه گیری شده است ، پس از روسیه و چین از نظر وسعت سوم است ، درست جلوتر از کانادا. [179]

ایالات متحده سومین یا چهارمین کشور بزرگ جهان از نظر مساحت (زمین و آب) است که در رتبه دوم روسیه و کانادا قرار گرفته و تقریباً برابر چین است. این رتبه بندی بسته به نحوه شمارش دو منطقه مورد اختلاف چین و هند و نحوه اندازه گیری کل ایالات متحده متفاوت است. [d] [180] [181]

دشت ساحلی از اقیانوس اطلس حاشیه می دهد راه بیشتر داخلی به برگریز جنگل ها و تپه از پیمونت . [182] آپالاچی کوه حاشیه شرقی از تقسیم دریاچه های بزرگ و مراتع از غرب میانه . [183] می سی سی پی - رودخانه میسوری ، جهان چهارم طویلترین رودخانه ، اجرا می شود به طور عمده از شمال به جنوب از طریق قلب کشور است. صاف و بارور دشت از دشت بزرگ در امتداد به غرب، قطع شده توسطمنطقه ای مرتفع در جنوب شرقی [183]

کوه های راکی در غرب دشت های بزرگ، گسترش شمال به جنوب در سراسر کشور بیشینه آن در حدود 14000 فوت (4300 متر) در کلرادو . [184] در غرب غربی حوضه بزرگ صخره ای و بیابان هایی مانند چیوا و موهاو قرار دارند . [185] سیرا نوادا و آبشار رشته کوه اجرا نزدیک به سواحل اقیانوس آرام ، هر دو محدوده رسیدن به ارتفاعات بالاتر از 14000 فوت (4300 متر). پایین ترین و بالاترین نقاط در به هم پیوسته ایالات متحده در ایالت هستند کالیفرنیا ، [186]و تنها حدود 84 مایل (135 کیلومتر) از هم فاصله دارند. [187] دنالی آلاسکا در ارتفاع 20،310 فوت (6،190.5 متر) بلندترین قله در این کشور و در آمریکای شمالی است. [188] آتشفشانهای فعال در سرتاسر جزایر اسکندر و آلوتین آلاسکا رایج هستند و هاوایی از جزایر آتشفشانی تشکیل شده است. ابر آتشفشان زیرین پارک ملی یلواستون در کوه های راکی بزرگترین ویژگی آتشفشانی این قاره است. [189]

The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.[190] The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical, as well as its territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.[191] States bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world's tornadoes occur in the country, mainly in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South.[192] Overall, the United States receives more high-impact extreme weather incidents than any other country in the world.[193]

Wildlife and conservation

A bald eagle
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.[194]

The U.S. is one of 17 megadiverse countries containing a large amount of endemic species: about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and more than 1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland.[195] The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species,[196] as well as about 91,000 insect species.[197]

There are 62 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas.[198] Altogether, the government owns about 28% of the country's land area,[199] mostly in the western states.[200] Most of this land is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching, and about .86% is used for military purposes.[201][202]

Environmental issues include debates on oil and nuclear energy, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation,[203][204] and climate change.[205][206] The most prominent environmental agency is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970.[207] The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act.[208] The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.[209]

The United States is ranked 24th among nations in the Environmental Performance Index.[210] The country joined the Paris Agreement on climate change in 2016 and has many other environmental commitments.[211] It left the Paris Agreement in 2020,[212] and rejoined it in 2021.[213]

Government and politics

The United States Capitol
The United States Capitol,
where Congress meets:
the Senate, left; the House, right
The White House
The White House, residence and workplace of the U.S. President

The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal district, five territories and several uninhabited island possessions.[214][215][216] It is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law."[217] Since 2015, the U.S. has ranked 25th on the Democracy Index, and is described as a "flawed democracy".[218] On Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, its public sector position deteriorated from a score of 76 in 2015 to 69 in 2019.[219]

In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district.

The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document.[220] The Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the writ of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 times;[221] the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review, and any law can be voided if the courts determine that it violates the Constitution. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803)[222] in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.[223]

The federal government comprises three branches:

The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories each have one member of Congress—these members are not allowed to vote.[228]

The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every two years. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories do not have senators.[228] The president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The president is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.[229] The Supreme Court, led by the chief justice of the United States, has nine members, who serve for life.[230]

Political divisions

See caption
Map of the United States showing the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 5 major U.S. territories

The 50 states are the principal political divisions in the country. Each state holds jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, where it shares sovereignty with the federal government. They are subdivided into counties or county equivalents and further divided into municipalities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, the city of Washington.[231] The states and the District of Columbia choose the president of the United States. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their representatives and senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment.[232] Territories of the United States such as Puerto Rico do not have presidential electors, and so people in those territories cannot vote for the president.[228]

The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U.S. citizens and tribal lands are subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.[233] Reservations are usually part of a single state, though 12 reservations cross state boundaries.[234] Indian country jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters is shared by tribes, states, and the federal government.

Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U.S. territories except American Samoa.[k][238][235]

Parties and elections

since January 20, 2021

The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history.[239] For elective offices at most levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 1856, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and the Republican Party, founded in 1854. Since the Civil War, only one third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore Roosevelt, running as a Progressive in 1912—has won as much as 20% of the popular vote. The president and vice president are elected by the Electoral College.[240]

In American political culture, the center-right Republican Party is considered "conservative" and the center-left Democratic Party is considered "liberal".[241][242] The states of the Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as "blue states", are relatively liberal. The "red states" of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative.

Democrat Joe Biden, the winner of the 2020 presidential election and former vice president, is serving as the 46th president of the United States. Leadership in the Senate includes Vice President Kamala Harris, President pro tempore Patrick Leahy, Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, and Minority Leader Mitch McConnell.[243] Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, and Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy.[244]

In the 117th United States Congress, the House of Representatives and the Senate are narrowly controlled by the Democratic Party. The Senate consists of 50 Republicans and 48 Democrats with two Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of 222 Democrats and 211 Republicans.[245] Of state governors, there are 27 Republicans and 23 Democrats. Among the D.C. mayor and the five territorial governors, there are three Democrats, one Republican, and one New Progressive.[246]

Foreign relations

Map depicting the U.S. having diplomatic relations with nearly every country in the world
Diplomatic relations of the United States
  United States
  Countries that have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Countries that do not have diplomatic relations with the United States
  Disputed territories
  Antarctica

The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. However, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the Republic of China (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States (although the U.S. still maintains unofficial relations with Bhutan and Taiwan).[247] It is a member of the G7,[248] G20, and OECD.

The United States has a "Special Relationship" with the United Kingdom[249] and strong ties with Canada,[250] India, Australia,[251] New Zealand,[252] the Philippines,[253] Japan,[254] South Korea,[255] Israel,[256] and several European Union countries, including France, Italy, Germany, Spain and Poland.[257] It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the trilateral United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement. Colombia is traditionally considered by the United States as its most loyal ally in South America.[258][259]

The U.S. exercises full international defense authority and responsibility for Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau through the Compact of Free Association.[260]

Government finance

Chart depicting an increase in U.S. government spending as a percentage of GDP over time, particularly since World War I
U.S. Government spending and revenue from 1792 to 2018

Taxation in the United States is progressive,[261][262] and is levied at the federal, state, and local government levels. This includes taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates, and gifts, as well as various fees. Taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency.[263] Both non-resident citizens and Green Card holders living abroad are taxed on their income irrespective of where they live or where their income is earned. The United States is one of the few countries in the world to do so.[264]

In 2010 taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of GDP.[265] For 2018, the effective tax rate for the wealthiest 400 households was 23%, compared to 24.2% for the bottom half of U.S. households.[266]

During fiscal year 2012, the federal government spent $3.54 trillion on a budget or cash basis. Major categories of fiscal year 2012 spending included: Medicare & Medicaid (23%), Social Security (22%), Defense Department (19%), non-defense discretionary (17%), other mandatory (13%) and interest (6%).[267]

In 2018, the United States had the largest external debt in the world.[268] As a percentage of GDP, it had the 34th largest government debt in the world in 2017; however, more recent estimates vary.[269] The total national debt of the United States was $23.201 trillion, or 107% of GDP, in the fourth quarter of 2019.[270] By 2012, total federal debt had surpassed 100% of U.S. GDP.[271] The U.S. has a credit rating of AA+ from Standard & Poor's, AAA from Fitch, and AAA from Moody's.[272]

Military

The president is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces and appoints its leaders, the secretary of defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Department of Defense administers five of the six service branches, which are made up of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Space Force. The Coast Guard, also a branch of the armed forces, is normally administered by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and can be transferred to the Department of the Navy in wartime.[273] In 2019, all six branches of the U.S. Armed Forces reported 1.4 million personnel on active duty.[274] The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2.3 million.[274] The Department of Defense also employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors.[275]

World map depicting U.S. military presence in many countries around the world
Global presence of the United States military, showing Unified combatant commands

Military service in the United States is voluntary, although conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System.[276] From 1940 until 1973, conscription was mandatory even during peacetime.[277] Today, American forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 11 active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy, and Army's XVIII Airborne Corps and 75th Ranger Regiment deployed by Air Force transport aircraft. The Air Force can strike targets across the globe through its fleet of strategic bombers, maintains the air defense across the United States, and provides close air support to Army and Marine Corps ground forces.[278][279][280] The Space Force operates the Global Positioning System, operates the Eastern and Western Ranges for all space launches, and operates the United States' Space Surveillance and Missile Warning networks.[281][282][283] The military operates about 800 bases and facilities abroad,[284] and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.[285]

The United States spent $649 billion on its military in 2019, 36% of global military spending.[286] At 4.7% of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia.[286] Defense spending plays a major role in science and technology investment, with roughly half of U.S. federal research and development funded by the Department of Defense.[287] Defense's share of the overall U.S. economy has generally declined in recent decades, from early Cold War peaks of 14.2% of GDP in 1953 and 69.5% of federal spending in 1954 to 4.7% of GDP and 18.8% of federal spending in 2011.[288] In total number of personnel, the United States has the third-largest combined armed forces in the world, behind the Chinese People's Liberation Army and Indian Armed Forces.[289]

The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and one of nine countries to possess nuclear weapons.[290] The United States possesses the second-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world, behind Russia.[290] More than 40% of the world's 14,000 nuclear weapons are held by the United States.[290]

Law enforcement and crime

A New York City Police Department cruiser vehicle
The New York City Police Department is the nation's largest municipal law enforcement agency.

Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police departments and sheriff's offices, with state police providing broader services. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal laws.[291] State courts conduct most criminal trials while federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts.

A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 showed that United States homicide rates "were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher."[292] In 2016, the U.S. murder rate was 5.4 per 100,000.[293]

Chart depicting a steep increase in the number of incarcerated Americans from the 1980s to the 2000s
Total incarceration in the United States by year (1920–2014)

The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and largest prison population in the world.[294] As of 2020, the Prison Policy Initiative reported that there were some 2.3 million people incarcerated.[295] According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the majority of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug offenses.[296] The imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities is 478 per 100,000 in 2013.[297] About 9% of prisoners are held in privatized prisons,[295] a practice beginning in the 1980s and a subject of contention.[298]

Although most nations have abolished capital punishment,[299] it is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and at the state level in 28 states, though three states have moratoriums on carrying out the penalty imposed by their governors.[300][301][302] In 2019, the country had the sixth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Egypt.[303] No executions took place from 1967 to 1977, owing in part to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling striking down the practice. Since the decision, however, there have been more than 1,500 executions.[304] In recent years the number of executions and presence of capital punishment statute on whole has trended down nationally, with several states recently abolishing the penalty.[302]

Economy

A large flag is stretched over Roman style columns on the façade of the New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street is the world's largest stock exchange (per market capitalization of its listed companies)[305] at $23.1 trillion as of April 2018.[306]

According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $22.7 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 16% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity.[307][14] The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter,[308] though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2010, the total U.S. trade deficit was $635 billion.[309] Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and the European Union are its top trading partners.[310][311]

From 1983 to 2008, U.S. real compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the rest of the G7.[312] The country ranks fifth in the world in nominal GDP per capita[313] and seventh in GDP per capita at PPP.[14] The U.S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency.[314]

In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the economy.[315] While its economy has reached a post-industrial level of development, the United States remains an industrial power.[316] In August 2010, the American labor force consisted of 154.1 million people (50%). With 21.2 million people, the public sector is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people. It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than most other high-income countries.[317]

The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation[318] and is one of a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right.[319] 74% of full-time American workers get paid sick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, although only 24% of part-time workers get the same benefits.[320] In 2009, the United States had the third-highest workforce productivity per person in the world, behind Luxembourg and Norway.[321][322][needs update]

Science and technology

Buzz Aldrin in a spacesuit poses for a photo on the surface of the Moon
Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, 1969

The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th century. Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by the U.S. War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half of the 19th century. This technology, along with the establishment of a machine tool industry, enabled the U.S. to have large-scale manufacturing of sewing machines, bicycles, and other items in the late 19th century and became known as the American system of manufacturing. Factory electrification in the early 20th century and introduction of the assembly line and other labor-saving techniques created the system of mass production.[323] In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector.[324] The United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor.[325][326]

In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone. Thomas Edison's research laboratory, one of the first of its kind, developed the phonograph, the first long-lasting light bulb, and the first viable movie camera.[327] The latter led to emergence of the worldwide entertainment industry. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford popularized the assembly line. The Wright brothers, in 1903, made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight.[328]

The rise of fascism and Nazism in the 1920s and 30s led many European scientists, including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and John von Neumann, to immigrate to the United States.[329] During World War II, the Manhattan Project developed nuclear weapons, ushering in the Atomic Age, while the Space Race produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science, and aeronautics.[330][331]

The invention of the transistor in the 1950s, a key active component in practically all modern electronics, led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U.S. technology industry.[332] This, in turn, led to the establishment of many new technology companies and regions around the country such as Silicon Valley in California. Advancements by American microprocessor companies such as Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Intel, along with both computer software and hardware companies such as Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems, created and popularized the personal computer. The ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department requirements, and became the first of a series of networks which evolved into the Internet.[333] The United States was ranked third (after Switzerland and Sweden) in the Global Innovation Index in 2019 and 2020.[334][335][336][337]

Income, wealth, and poverty

Accounting for 4.24% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 29.4% of the world's total wealth, the largest percentage of any country.[338][339] The U.S. also ranks first in the number of billionaires and millionaires in the world, with 724 billionaires and 10.5 million millionaires as of 2020.[340][341] Prior to the 2019–2021 global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Credit Suisse listed some 18.6 million U.S. citizens as having a net worth in excess of $1 million.[342] In 2020, the Food Security Index ranked the United States 11th in food security, giving the country a score of 77.5/100.[343] Americans on average have more than twice as much living space per dwelling and per person as EU residents.[344] For 2017 the United Nations Development Programme ranked the United States 13th among 189 countries in its Human Development Index (HDI) and 25th among 151 countries in its inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI).[345]

Chart depicting an increase in wealth inequality in the U.S. over time
Wealth inequality in the U.S. increased between 1989 and 2013.[346]

Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated; the richest 10% of the adult population possess 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom half possess only 2%.[347] According to the Federal Reserve, the top 1% controlled 38.6% of the country's wealth in 2016.[348] In 2017, Forbes found that just three individuals (Jeff Bezos, Warren Buffett and Bill Gates) held more money than the bottom half of the population.[349] According to a 2018 study by the OECD, the United States has a larger percentage of low-income workers than almost any other developed nation, largely because of a weak collective bargaining system and lack of government support for at-risk workers.[350] The top one percent of income-earners accounted for 52 percent of the income gains from 2009 to 2015, where income is defined as market income excluding government transfers.[351]

After years of stagnation, median household income reached a record high in 2016 following two consecutive years of record growth. Income inequality remains at record highs however, with the top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income.[352] The rise in the share of total annual income received by the top one percent, which has more than doubled from nine percent in 1976 to 20 percent in 2011, has significantly affected income inequality,[353] leaving the United States with one of the widest income distributions among OECD members.[354] The extent and relevance of income inequality is a matter of debate.[355][356][357]

There were about 567,715 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U.S. in January 2019, with almost two-thirds staying in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program.[358] In 2011, 16.7 million children lived in food-insecure households, about 35% more than 2007 levels, though only 845,000 U.S. children (1.1%) saw reduced food intake or disrupted eating patterns at some point during the year, and most cases were not chronic.[359] As of June 2018, 40 million people, roughly 12.7% of the U.S. population, were living in poverty, including 13.3 million children. Of those impoverished, 18.5 million live in deep poverty (family income below one-half of the poverty threshold) and over five million live "in 'Third World' conditions".[360] In 2017, the U.S. states or territories with the lowest and highest poverty rates were New Hampshire (7.6%) and American Samoa (65%), respectively.[361][362][363] The economic impact and mass unemployment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic raised fears of a mass eviction crisis,[364] with an analysis by the Aspen Institute indicating that between 30 and 40 million people were at risk for eviction by the end of 2020.[365]

Transportation

All-road transportation

Map of the Interstate Highway System crisscrossing the U.S.
The Interstate Highway System in the contiguous states, which extends 46,876 miles (75,440 km)[366]

Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million kilometers) of public roads.[367] The United States has the world's second-largest automobile market,[368] and has the highest vehicle ownership per capita in the world, with 816.4 vehicles per 1,000 Americans (2014).[369] In 2017, there were 255,009,283 non-two wheel motor vehicles, or about 910 vehicles per 1,000 people.[370]

American aviation

The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1978, while most major airports are publicly owned.[371] The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are U.S.-based; American Airlines is number one after its 2013 acquisition by US Airways.[372] Of the world's 50 busiest passenger airports, 16 are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport.[373]

Rail

The United States has the longest rail network in the world, nearly all standard gauge. The network handles mostly freight, with intercity passenger service provided by the government-subsidized Amtrak to all but four states.[374]

Environmental concerns

Transportation is the largest single source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. The country now ranks as the world's second-highest emitter of greenhouse gases, exceeded only by China.[375] The United States had been the world's largest producer of greenhouse gases, and greenhouse gas emissions per capita remain high.[376]

Energy

The United States energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per year.[377] In 2018, 37% of this energy came from petroleum, 31% from natural gas, and 13% from coal. The remainder was supplied by nuclear and renewable energy sources.[378]

Demographics

Population

Historical population
Census Pop.
17903,929,214
18005,308,48335.1%
18107,239,88136.4%
18209,638,45333.1%
183012,866,02033.5%
184017,069,45332.7%
185023,191,87635.9%
186031,443,32135.6%
187038,558,37122.6%
188050,189,20930.2%
189062,979,76625.5%
190076,212,16821.0%
191092,228,49621.0%
1920106,021,53715.0%
1930123,202,62416.2%
1940132,164,5697.3%
1950151,325,79814.5%
1960179,323,17518.5%
1970203,211,92613.3%
1980226,545,80511.5%
1990248,709,8739.8%
2000281,421,90613.2%
2010308,745,5389.7%
2020331,449,2817.4%
Note that the census numbers do
not include Native Americans until 1860.[379]

The U.S. Census Bureau reported 331,449,281 residents as of April 1, 2020.[380] This figure, like most official data for the United States as a whole, excludes the five unincorporated territories (Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands) and minor island possessions. According to the Bureau's U.S. Population Clock, on January 28, 2021, the U.S. population had a net gain of one person every 100 seconds, or about 864 people per day.[381] The United States is the third most populous nation in the world, after China and India. In 2020 the median age of the United States population was 38.5 years.[382]

In 2018, there were almost 90 million immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants in the United States, accounting for 28% of the overall U.S. population.[383] The United States has a diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members.[384] White Americans of European ancestry, mostly German, Irish, English, Italian, Polish and French,[385] including White Hispanic and Latino Americans from Latin America, form the largest racial group, at 73.1% of the population. African Americans constitute the nation's largest racial minority and third-largest ancestry group, and are around 13% of the total U.S. population.[384] Asian Americans are the country's second-largest racial minority (the three largest Asian ethnic groups are Chinese, Filipino, and Indian).[384]

In 2017, out of the U.S. foreign-born population, some 45% (20.7 million) were naturalized citizens, 27% (12.3 million) were lawful permanent residents, 6% (2.2 million) were temporary lawful residents, and 23% (10.5 million) were unauthorized immigrants.[386] Among current living immigrants to the U.S., the top five countries of birth are Mexico, China, India, the Philippines and El Salvador. Until 2017, the United States led the world in refugee resettlement for decades, admitting more refugees than the rest of the world combined.[387]

About 82% of Americans live in urban areas, including suburbs;[181] about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000.[388] In 2008, 273 incorporated municipalities had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four cities had over two million (namely New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston).[389] Many U.S. metropolitan populations are growing rapidly, particularly in the South and West.[390]

As of 2018, 52% of Americans age 15 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 32% had never been married.[391] As of 2020, the total fertility rate stood at 1.64 children per woman.[392] In 2013, the average age at first birth was 26, and 41% of births were to unmarried women.[393] In 2019, the U.S. had the world's highest rate (23%) of children living in single-parent households; the rates in Canada and Mexico were 15% and 7%, respectively.[394]

Language

English (specifically, American English) is the de facto national language of the United States. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English, and most states have declared English as the official language.[395] Three states and four U.S. territories have recognized local or indigenous languages in addition to English, including Hawaii (Hawaiian),[396] Alaska (twenty Native languages),[l][397] South Dakota (Sioux),[398] American Samoa (Samoan), Puerto Rico (Spanish), Guam (Chamorro), and the Northern Mariana Islands (Carolinian and Chamorro). In Puerto Rico, Spanish is more widely spoken than English.[399]

According to the American Community Survey, in 2010 some 229 million people (out of the total U.S. population of 308 million) spoke only English at home. More than 37 million spoke Spanish at home, making it the second most commonly used language in the United States. Other languages spoken at home by one million people or more include Chinese (2.8 million), Tagalog (1.6 million), Vietnamese (1.4 million), French (1.3 million), Korean (1.1 million), and German (1 million).[400]

The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate education, are Spanish (around 7.2 million students), French (1.5 million), and German (500,000). Other commonly taught languages include Latin, Japanese, American Sign Language, Italian, and Chinese.[401][402] 18% of all Americans claim to speak both English and another language.[403]

Religion

Map of the U.S. depicting greater religiosity in the Southern United States
Percentage of respondents in the United States saying that religion is "very important" or "somewhat important" in their lives (2014).[404]

The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.

The United States has the world's largest Christian population.[405] In a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians;[406] Protestants accounted for 46.5%, while Catholics, at 20.8%, formed the largest single Christian denomination.[407] In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. adult population claimed a non-Christian religion.[408] These include Judaism (1.9%), Islam (0.9%), Hinduism (0.7%), and Buddhism (0.7%).[408] The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no religion—up from 8.2% in 1990.[407][409][410] Membership in a house of worship fell from 70% in 1999 to 47% in 2020, much of the decline related to the number of Americans expressing no religious preference. However, membership also fell among those who identified with a specific religious group.[411][412]

Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at 15.4%,[413] and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination at 5.3% of the U.S. population.[413] Apart from Baptists, other Protestant categories include nondenominational Protestants, Methodists, Pentecostals, unspecified Protestants, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, other Reformed, Episcopalians/Anglicans, Quakers, Adventists, Holiness, Christian fundamentalists, Anabaptists, Pietists, and multiple others.[413]

The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.[414]

Health

The Texas Medical Center, a cluster of contemporary skyscrapers, at night
The Texas Medical Center in downtown Houston is the largest medical complex in the world.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that the United States had an average life expectancy at birth of 78.8 years in 2019 (76.3 years for men and 81.4 years for women), up 0.1 year from 2018.[415] This was the second year that overall U.S. life expectancy rose slightly after three years of overall declines that followed decades of continuous improvement. The recent decline, primarily among the age group 25 to 64, was largely due to record highs in the drug overdose and suicide rates; the country still has one of the highest suicide rates among wealthy countries.[416][417][418] From 1999 to 2019, more than 770,000 Americans died from drug overdoses.[419] Life expectancy was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks.[420][421]

Increasing obesity in the United States and improvements in health and longevity outside the U.S. contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in 1987 to 42nd in 2007. In 2017, the United States had the lowest life expectancy among Japan, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and seven nations in western Europe.[422][423] Obesity rates have more than doubled in the last 30 years and are the highest in the industrialized world.[424][425] Approximately one-third of the adult population is obese and an additional third is overweight.[426] Obesity-related type 2 diabetes is considered epidemic by health care professionals.[427]

In 2010, coronary artery disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.S. Low back pain, depression, musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most harmful risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease, substance use disorders, kidney disease, cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita rates.[428] U.S. teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are substantially higher than in other Western nations, especially among blacks and Hispanics.[429]

Government-funded health care coverage for the poor (Medicaid, established in 1965) and for those age 65 and older (Medicare, begun in 1966) is available to Americans who meet the programs' income or age qualifications. Nonetheless, the United States remains the only developed nation without a system of universal health care.[430] In 2017, 12.2% of the population did not carry health insurance.[431] The subject of uninsured and underinsured Americans is a major political issue.[432][433] The Affordable Care Act (ACA), passed in early 2010 and informally known as "ObamaCare", roughly halved the uninsured share of the population. The bill and its ultimate effect are still issues of controversy in the United States.[434][435] The U.S. health care system far outspends that of any other nation, measured both in per capita spending and as a percentage of GDP.[436] However, the U.S. is a global leader in medical innovation.[437]

Education

The Low Library, a neoclassical building, with fountain
Columbia University, founded in 1754, is one of the colonial colleges and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States.

American public education is operated by state and local governments and regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of five or six (beginning with kindergarten or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17.[438]

About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. 3.4% of children are homeschooled as of 2012.[439] The U.S. spends more on education per student than any nation in the world,[440] spending an average of $12,794 per year on public elementary and secondary school students in the 2016–2017 school year.[441] Some 80% of U.S. college students attend public universities.[442]

Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees.[443] The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%.[181][444] The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world.[445]

The United States has many private and public institutions of higher education. The majority of the world's top universities, as listed by various ranking organizations, are in the U.S.[446][447][448] There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition.

In 2018, U21, a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the United States first in the world for breadth and quality of higher education, and 15th when GDP was a factor.[449] As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. trails some other OECD (Organization for Cooperation and Development) nations but spends more per student than the OECD average, and more than all nations in combined public and private spending.[450][451] As of 2018, student loan debt exceeded 1.5 trillion dollars.[452][453]

Culture

The Statue of Liberty, a large teal bronze sculpture on a stone pedestal
For many immigrants, the Statue of Liberty was their first view of the United States. It signified new opportunities in life, and thus the statue is an iconic symbol of the American Dream as well as its ideals.[454]

The United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values.[455][456] Aside from the Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors immigrated or were imported as slaves within the past five centuries.[457] Mainstream American culture is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of European immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from Africa.[455][458] More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics.[455]

Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism,[459] as well as a unifying belief in an "American creed" emphasizing liberty, equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government.[460] Americans are extremely charitable by global standards: according to a 2006 British study, Americans gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, more than any other nation studied.[461][462][463]

The American Dream, or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants.[464] Whether this perception is accurate has been a topic of debate.[465][466][467] While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless society,[468] scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values.[469] Americans tend to greatly value socioeconomic achievement, but being ordinary or average is also generally seen as a positive attribute.[470]

Literature, philosophy, and visual art

Photograph of Mark Twain
Mark Twain, American author and humorist

In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe, contributing to Western culture. Writers such as Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half; Emily Dickinson, virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now recognized as an essential American poet.[471] A work seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character—such as Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925) and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)—may be dubbed the "Great American Novel."[472]

Thirteen U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature. William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are often named among the most influential writers of the 20th century.[473] Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. The Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as have postmodernist authors such as John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Don DeLillo.[474]

The transcendentalists, led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, established the first major American philosophical movement. After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce and then William James and John Dewey were leaders in the development of pragmatism. In the 20th century, the work of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty, and later Noam Chomsky, brought analytic philosophy to the fore of American philosophical academia. John Rawls and Robert Nozick also led a revival of political philosophy.

In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art scene.[475] Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new, individualistic styles. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then postmodernism has brought fame to American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry.[476] Americans have long been important in the modern artistic medium of photography, with major photographers including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, Edward Weston, and Ansel Adams.[477]

Food

A roasted turkey
Roasted turkey is a traditional menu item of an American Thanksgiving dinner.[478]

Early settlers were introduced by Native Americans to such indigenous, non-European foods as turkey, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup. They and later immigrants combined these with foods they had known, such as wheat flour,[479] beef, and milk to create a distinctive American cuisine.[480][481]

Homegrown foods are part of a shared national menu on one of America's most popular holidays, Thanksgiving, when some Americans make traditional foods to celebrate the occasion.[482]

The American fast food industry, the world's largest,[483] pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s.[484] Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants.[485][486] French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely consumed.[487] Americans drink three times as much coffee as tea.[488] Marketing by U.S. industries is largely responsible for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages.[489][490]

Music

Among America's earliest composers was a man named William Billings who, born in Boston, composed patriotic hymns in the 1770s;[491] Billings was a part of the First New England School, who dominated American music during its earliest stages. Anthony Heinrich was the most prominent composer before the Civil War. From the mid-late 1800s John Philip Sousa of the late Romantic era, composed numerous military songs—particularly marches—and is regarded as one of America's greatest composers.[492] By the late 19th century, the Second New England School (sometimes referred to specifically as the "Boston Six") became prominent representatives of the classical tradition, of whom John Knowles Paine was the leading figure.

Although little known at the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical tradition, while experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created a distinctive American approach to classical composition. Aaron Copland and George Gershwin—eventually furthered by Leonard Bernstein—developed a new synthesis of popular and classical music.

The rhythmic and lyrical styles of African-American music have deeply influenced American music at large, distinguishing it from European and African traditions. Elements from folk idioms such as the blues and what is now known as old-time music were adopted and transformed into popular genres with global audiences. Jazz was developed by innovators such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington early in the 20th century. Country music developed in the 1920s, and rhythm and blues in the 1940s.[493]

Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry were among the mid-1950s pioneers of rock and roll. Rock bands such as Metallica, the Eagles, and Aerosmith are among the highest grossing in worldwide sales.[494][495][496] In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of America's most celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the development of funk.

More recent American creations include hip hop, salsa, techno, and house music. Mid-20th-century American pop stars such as Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra,[497] and Elvis Presley became global celebrities,[493] as have artists of the late 20th century such as Michael Jackson, Prince, Madonna and Whitney Houston.[498][499] Popular artists from the mid-1990s to late 2000s include Mariah Carey, Britney Spears, Justin Timberlake, Christina Aguilera and Beyoncé. Well-known American singers of the 2010s include Katy Perry, Bruno Mars, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift and Ariana Grande.[500][501]

Cinema

The Hollywood Sign, large white block letters on a hillside
The Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California

Hollywood, a northern district of Los Angeles, California, is one of the leaders in motion picture production.[502] The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope.[503] Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization.[504]

Director D. W. Griffith, an American filmmaker during the silent film period, was central to the development of film grammar, and producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising.[505] Directors such as John Ford redefined the image of the American Old West, and, like others such as John Huston, broadened the possibilities of cinema with location shooting. The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Hollywood", from the early sound period until the early 1960s,[506] with screen actors such as John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe becoming iconic figures.[507][508] In the 1970s, "New Hollywood" or the "Hollywood Renaissance"[509] was defined by grittier films influenced by French and Italian realist pictures of the post-war period.[510] In more recent times, directors such as Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and James Cameron have gained renown for their blockbuster films, often characterized by high production costs and earnings.

Notable films topping the American Film Institute's AFI 100 list include Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941), which is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time,[511][512] Casablanca (1942), The Godfather (1972), Gone with the Wind (1939), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), The Wizard of Oz (1939), The Graduate (1967), On the Waterfront (1954), Schindler's List (1993), Singin' in the Rain (1952), It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Sunset Boulevard (1950).[513] The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, have been held annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929,[514] and the Golden Globe Awards have been held annually since January 1944.[515]

Sports

People playing American football
People playing baseball
People playing basketball
The most popular sports in the U.S. are American football, basketball, baseball and ice hockey.[516]

American football is by several measures the most popular spectator sport in the United States;[517] the National Football League (NFL) has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the Super Bowl is watched by tens of millions globally.[518] Even on the collegiate level, college football games receive millions of viewers per television broadcast; most notably the College Football Playoff, which averages 25 million viewers.[519] Baseball has been regarded as the U.S. national sport since the late 19th century, with Major League Baseball (MLB) being the top league. Basketball and ice hockey are the country's next two leading professional team sports, with the top leagues being the National Basketball Association (NBA)[520] and the National Hockey League (NHL). College football and basketball attract large audiences. The NCAA Final Four is one of the most watched sporting events.[521] In soccer (a sport that has gained a footing in the United States since the mid-1990s), the country hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the men's national soccer team qualified for ten World Cups and the women's team has won the FIFA Women's World Cup four times; Major League Soccer is the sport's highest league in the United States (featuring 23 American and three Canadian teams).[522] The market for professional sports in the United States is roughly $69 billion, roughly 50% larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined.[523]

Eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States. The 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri, were the first-ever Olympic Games held outside of Europe.[524] As of 2017, the United States has won 2,522 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, more than any other country, and 305 in the Winter Olympic Games, the second most behind Norway.[525] While most major U.S. sports such as baseball and American football have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboarding, and snowboarding are American inventions, some of which have become popular worldwide.[526] Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western contact.[527] The most-watched individual sports are golf and auto racing, particularly NASCAR and IndyCar.[528][529]

Mass media

Rockefeller Plaza, an art deco skyscraper
The headquarters of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City

The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), American Broadcasting Company (ABC), and Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX). The four major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. Cable television offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches.[530] Americans listen to radio programming, also largely commercial, on average just over two and a half hours a day.[531]

In 1998, the number of U.S. commercial radio stations had grown to 4,793 AM stations and 5,662 FM stations. In addition, there are 1,460 public radio stations. Most of these stations are run by universities and public authorities for educational purposes and are financed by public or private funds, subscriptions, and corporate underwriting. Much public radio broadcasting is supplied by NPR.[532] NPR was incorporated in February 1970 under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967; its television counterpart, PBS, was created by the same legislation. As of September 30, 2014, there are 15,433 licensed full-power radio stations in the U.S. according to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC).[533]

Well-known newspapers include The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and USA Today.[534] Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage.[535] With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily papers, such as New York City's The Village Voice or Los Angeles' LA Weekly. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups. The five most popular websites used in the U.S. are Google, YouTube, Amazon, Yahoo, and Facebook.[536]

More than 800 publications are produced in Spanish, the second most commonly used language in the United States behind English.[537][538]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ English is the official language of 32 states; English and Hawaiian are both official languages in Hawaii, and English and 20 Indigenous languages are official in Alaska. Algonquian, Cherokee, and Sioux are among many other official languages in Native-controlled lands throughout the country. French is a de facto, but unofficial, language in Maine and Louisiana, while New Mexico law grants Spanish a special status. In five territories, English as well as one or more indigenous languages are official: Spanish in Puerto Rico, Samoan in American Samoa, and Chamorro in both Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Carolinian is also an official language in the Northern Mariana Islands.[6][7]
  2. ^ Current results are not directly comparable to past results, due to changes in methodology.
  3. ^ The historical and informal demonym Yankee has been applied to Americans, New Englanders, or northeasterners since the 18th century.
  4. ^ a b c The United States is the third-largest country, after Canada, if coastal and territorial waters are included. If excluded, it is the fourth-largest, after China. Coastal/territorial waters included: 3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,517 km2)[20] Coastal/territorial waters excluded: 3,696,100 sq mi (9,572,900 km2)[21]
  5. ^ Excludes Puerto Rico and the other unincorporated islands because they are counted separately in U.S. census statistics.
  6. ^ See Time in the United States for details about laws governing time zones in the United States.
  7. ^ A single jurisdiction, the U.S. Virgin Islands, uses left-hand traffic.
  8. ^ Country code top-level domains are generally not used in the U.S.[citation needed]
  9. ^ .um was removed by ICANN in 2008, but is still recognized by the U.S. government as a country code top-level domain.[citation needed]
  10. ^ The five major territories are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. There are eleven smaller island areas without permanent populations: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, and Palmyra Atoll. U.S. sovereignty over Bajo Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, and Wake Island is disputed.[19]
  11. ^ People born in American Samoa are non-citizen U.S. nationals, unless one of their parents is a U.S. citizen.[235] In 2019, a court ruled that American Samoans are U.S. citizens, but the litigation is onging.[236][237]
  12. ^ Inupiaq, Siberian Yupik, Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Alutiiq, Unanga (Aleut), Denaʼina, Deg Xinag, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Upper Kuskokwim, Gwichʼin, Tanana, Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Hän, Ahtna, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian.

References

  1. ^ 36 U.S.C. § 302
  2. ^ a b c d "The Great Seal of the United States" (PDF). U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  3. ^ "An Act To make The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem of the United States of America". H.R. 14, Act of March 3, 1931. 71st United States Congress.
  4. ^ Kidder & Oppenheim 2007, p. 91.
  5. ^ "uscode.house.gov". Public Law 105-225. uscode.house.gov. August 12, 1999. pp. 112 Stat. 1263. Retrieved September 10, 2017. Section 304. "The composition by John Philip Sousa entitled 'The Stars and Stripes Forever' is the national march."
  6. ^ Cobarrubias 1983, p. 195.
  7. ^ García 2011, p. 167.
  8. ^ "2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country". United States Census. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  9. ^ "Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel". Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel | Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. January 14, 2021. Archived from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  10. ^ Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and Fact-index: Ohio. 1963. p. 336.
  11. ^ Areas of the 50 states and the District of Columbia but not Puerto Rico nor other island territories per "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Census.gov. August 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2020. reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.
  12. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  13. ^ "Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count". United States Census. Retrieved April 26, 2021. The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  14. ^ a b c d e f "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  15. ^ "Income inequality in America is the highest it's been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  16. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  17. ^ "Electricity 101". United States Department of Energy. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  18. ^ OECD (2004), "Generic Top Level Domain Names: Market Development and Allocation Issues", OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 84, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/232630011251.
  19. ^ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
  20. ^ "China". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  21. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
  22. ^ Simpson, Victoria (May 6, 2020). "Countries with Which the US Shares Maritime Borders". WorldAtlas.
  23. ^ Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower
    BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America
    "Geographical trends of research output". Research Trends. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
    "The top 20 countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
    "Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
  24. ^ Sider 2007, p. 226.
  25. ^ Szalay, Jessie (September 20, 2017). "Amerigo Vespucci: Facts, Biography & Naming of America". Live Science. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  26. ^ Jonathan Cohen. "The Naming of America: Fragments We've Shored Against Ourselves". Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  27. ^ DeLear, Byron (July 4, 2013) Who coined 'United States of America'? Mystery might have intriguing answer. "Historians have long tried to pinpoint exactly when the name 'United States of America' was first used and by whom ... This latest find comes in a letter that Stephen Moylan, Esq., wrote to Col. Joseph Reed from the Continental Army Headquarters in Cambridge, Mass., during the Siege of Boston. The two men lived with Washington in Cambridge, with Reed serving as Washington's favorite military secretary and Moylan fulfilling the role during Reed's absence." Christian Science Monitor (Boston, MA).
  28. ^ Touba, Mariam (November 5, 2014) Who Coined the Phrase 'United States of America'? You May Never Guess "Here, on January 2, 1776, seven months before the Declaration of Independence and a week before the publication of Paine's Common Sense, Stephen Moylan, an acting secretary to General George Washington, spells it out, 'I should like vastly to go with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain' to seek foreign assistance for the cause." New-York Historical Society Museum & Library
  29. ^ Fay, John (July 15, 2016) The forgotten Irishman who named the 'United States of America' "According to the NY Historical Society, Stephen Moylan was the man responsible for the earliest documented use of the phrase 'United States of America'. But who was Stephen Moylan?" IrishCentral.com
  30. ^ ""To the inhabitants of Virginia", by A PLANTER. Dixon and Hunter's. April 6, 1776, Williamsburg, Virginia. Letter is also included in Peter Force's American Archives". The Virginia Gazette. 5 (1287). Archived from the original on December 19, 2014.
  31. ^ a b c Safire 2003, p. 199.
  32. ^ Mostert 2005, p. 18.
  33. ^ Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia guide to standard American English. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-231-06989-2.
  34. ^ Erlandson, Rick & Vellanoweth 2008, p. 19.
  35. ^ Savage 2011, p. 55.
  36. ^ Haviland, Walrath & Prins 2013, p. 219.
  37. ^ Waters & Stafford 2007, pp. 1122–1126.
  38. ^ Flannery 2015, pp. 173–185.
  39. ^ Gelo 2018, pp. 79–80.
  40. ^ Lockard 2010, p. 315.
  41. ^ Martinez, Sage & Ono 2016, p. 4.
  42. ^ Fagan 2016, p. 390.
  43. ^ Dean R. Snow (1994). The Iroquois. Blackwell Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-55786-938-8. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
  44. ^ a b c Perdue & Green 2005, p. 40.
  45. ^ a b Haines, Haines & Steckel 2000, p. 12.
  46. ^ Thornton 1998, p. 34.
  47. ^ Fernando Operé (2008). Indian Captivity in Spanish America: Frontier Narratives. University of Virginia Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-8139-2587-5.
  48. ^ "Not So Fast, Jamestown: St. Augustine Was Here First". NPR.org. February 28, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  49. ^ Christine Marie Petto (2007). When France Was King of Cartography: The Patronage and Production of Maps in Early Modern France. Lexington Books. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-7391-6247-7.
  50. ^ James E. Seelye Jr.; Shawn Selby (2018). Shaping North America: From Exploration to the American Revolution [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-4408-3669-5.
  51. ^ Robert Neelly Bellah; Richard Madsen; William M. Sullivan; Ann Swidler; Steven M. Tipton (1985). Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. University of California Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-520-05388-5. OL 7708974M.
  52. ^ Remini 2007, pp. 2–3
  53. ^ Johnson 1997, pp. 26–30
  54. ^ "Russians settle Alaska". History. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  55. ^ Ripper, 2008 p. 6
  56. ^ Ripper, 2008 p. 5
  57. ^ Calloway, 1998, p. 55
  58. ^ Joseph 2016, p. 590.
  59. ^ Cook, Noble (1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6.
  60. ^ Treuer, David. "The new book 'The Other Slavery' will make you rethink American history". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
  61. ^ Stannard, 1993 p. xii
  62. ^ "The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology Archived February 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine". Arthur C. Aufderheide, Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-521-55203-5
  63. ^ Bianchine, Russo, 1992 pp. 225–232
  64. ^ Jackson, L. P. (1924). "Elizabethan Seamen and the African Slave Trade". The Journal of Negro History. 9 (1): 1–17. doi:10.2307/2713432. JSTOR 2713432. S2CID 150232893.
  65. ^ Tadman, 2000, p. 1534
  66. ^ Schneider, 2007, p. 484
  67. ^ Lien, 1913, p. 522
  68. ^ Davis, 1996, p. 7
  69. ^ Quirk, 2011, p. 195
  70. ^ Bilhartz, Terry D.; Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1817-7.
  71. ^ Wood, Gordon S. (1998). The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. UNC Press Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8078-4723-7.
  72. ^ Walton, 2009, pp. 38–39
  73. ^ Foner, Eric (1998). The Story of American Freedom (1st ed.). W.W. Norton. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-393-04665-6. story of American freedom.
  74. ^ Walton, 2009, p. 35
  75. ^ Otis, James (1763). The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved. ISBN 9780665526787.
  76. ^ Humphrey, Carol Sue (2003). The Revolutionary Era: Primary Documents on Events from 1776 To 1800. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-0-313-32083-5.
  77. ^ a b Fabian Young, Alfred; Nash, Gary B.; Raphael, Ray (2011). Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation. Random House Digital. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-0-307-27110-5.
  78. ^ Wait, Eugene M. (1999). America and the War of 1812. Nova Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-56072-644-9.
  79. ^ Boyer, 2007, pp. 192–193
  80. ^ Cogliano, Francis D. (2008). Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy. University of Virginia Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-8139-2733-6.
  81. ^ Walton, 2009, p. 43
  82. ^ Gordon, 2004, pp. 27,29
  83. ^ Clark, Mary Ann (May 2012). Then We'll Sing a New Song: African Influences on America's Religious Landscape. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4422-0881-0.
  84. ^ Heinemann, Ronald L., et al., Old Dominion, New Commonwealth: a history of Virginia 1607–2007, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8139-2609-4, p. 197
  85. ^ a b Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America. Turning Points in History Series. ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-833-0.
  86. ^ Billington, Ray Allen; Ridge, Martin (2001). Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. UNM Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8263-1981-4.
  87. ^ "Louisiana Purchase" (PDF). National Park Services. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  88. ^ Klose, Nelson; Jones, Robert F. (1994). United States History to 1877. Barron's Educational Series. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-8120-1834-9.
  89. ^ Morrison, Michael A. (April 28, 1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 13–21. ISBN 978-0-8078-4796-1.
  90. ^ Kemp, Roger L. (2010). Documents of American Democracy: A Collection of Essential Works. McFarland. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7864-4210-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  91. ^ McIlwraith, Thomas F.; Muller, Edward K. (2001). North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7425-0019-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  92. ^ Wolf, Jessica. "Revealing the history of genocide against California's Native Americans". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  93. ^ Rawls, James J. (1999). A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-520-21771-3.
  94. ^ Paul Frymer, "Building an American Empire: The Era of Territorial and Political Expansion," (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017)
  95. ^ Black, Jeremy (2011). Fighting for America: The Struggle for Mastery in North America, 1519–1871. Indiana University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-253-35660-4.
  96. ^ Stuart Murray (2004). Atlas of American Military History. Infobase Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4381-3025-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    Harold T. Lewis (2001). Christian Social Witness. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56101-188-9.
  97. ^ O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Atlas of World History (Concise ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-19-521921-0.
  98. ^ Vinovskis, Maris (1990). Toward A Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-39559-5.
  99. ^ Shearer Davis Bowman (1993). Masters and Lords: Mid-19th-Century U.S. Planters and Prussian Junkers. Oxford UP. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-19-536394-4.
  100. ^ Jason E. Pierce (2016). Making the White Man's West: Whiteness and the Creation of the American West. University Press of Colorado. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-60732-396-9.
  101. ^ Marie Price; Lisa Benton-Short (2008). Migrants to the Metropolis: The Rise of Immigrant Gateway Cities. Syracuse University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8156-3186-6.
  102. ^ John Powell (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  103. ^ Winchester, pp. 351, 385
  104. ^ Michno, Gregory (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850–1890. Mountain Press Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87842-468-9.
  105. ^ "Toward a Market Economy". CliffsNotes. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
  106. ^ "Purchase of Alaska, 1867". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
  107. ^ "The Spanish–American War, 1898". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  108. ^ Ryden, George Herbert. The Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975.
  109. ^ "Virgin Islands History". Vinow.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  110. ^ Kirkland, Edward. Industry Comes of Age: Business, Labor, and Public Policy (1961 ed.). pp. 400–405.
  111. ^ Zinn, 2005, pp. 321–357
  112. ^ Paige Meltzer, "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General Federation and Women's Citizenship, 1945–1960," Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (2009), Vol. 30 Issue 3, pp. 52–76.
  113. ^ James Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900–1920 (Harvard UP, 1963)
  114. ^ George B. Tindall, "Business Progressivism: Southern Politics in the Twenties," South Atlantic Quarterly 62 (Winter 1963): 92–106.
  115. ^ McDuffie, Jerome; Piggrem, Gary Wayne; Woodworth, Steven E. (2005). U.S. History Super Review. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education Association. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-7386-0070-3.
  116. ^ Voris, Jacqueline Van (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. Women and Peace Series. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-55861-139-9. Carrie Chapmann Catt led an army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920. ... Catt was one of the best-known women in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century and was on all lists of famous American women.
  117. ^ Winchester pp. 410–411
  118. ^ Axinn, June; Stern, Mark J. (2007). Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-52215-6.
  119. ^ Lemann, Nicholas (1991). The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-394-56004-5.
  120. ^ James Noble Gregory (1991). American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507136-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    "Mass Exodus From the Plains". American Experience. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
    Fanslow, Robin A. (April 6, 1997). "The Migrant Experience". American Folklore Center. Library of Congress. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
    Walter J. Stein (1973). California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-8371-6267-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  121. ^ The official WRA record from 1946 state it was 120,000 people. See War Relocation Authority (1946). The Evacuated People: A Quantitative Study. p. 8.. This number does not include people held in other camps such as those run by the DoJ or U.S. Army. Other sources may give numbers slightly more or less than 120,000.
  122. ^ Yamasaki, Mitch. "Pearl Harbor and America's Entry into World War II: A Documentary History" (PDF). World War II Internment in Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 13, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  123. ^ Stoler, Mark A. "George C. Marshall and the "Europe-First" Strategy, 1939–1951: A Study in Diplomatic as well as Military History" (PDF). Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  124. ^ Kelly, Brian. "The Four Policemen and. Postwar Planning, 1943–1945: The Collision of Realist and. Idealist Perspectives". Retrieved June 21, 2014.
  125. ^ Hoopes & Brinkley 1997, p. 100.
  126. ^ Gaddis 1972, p. 25.
  127. ^ Leland, Anne; Oboroceanu, Mari–Jana (February 26, 2010). "American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved February 18, 2011. p. 2.
  128. ^ Kennedy, Paul (1989). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Vintage. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-679-72019-5
  129. ^ "The United States and the Founding of the United Nations, August 1941 – October 1945". U.S. Dept. of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, Office of the Historian. October 2005. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
  130. ^ Woodward, C. Vann (1947). The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-60239-194-9.
  131. ^ "The Largest Naval Battles in Military History: A Closer Look at the Largest and Most Influential Naval Battles in World History". Military History. Norwich University. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  132. ^ "Why did Japan surrender in World War II? | The Japan Times". The Japan Times. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  133. ^ Pacific War Research Society (2006). Japan's Longest Day. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-4-7700-2887-7.
  134. ^ Wagg, Stephen; Andrews, David (2012). East Plays West: Sport and the Cold War. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-134-24167-5.
  135. ^ Blakemore, Erin (March 22, 2019). "What was the Cold War?". National Geographic. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  136. ^ Blakeley, 2009, p. 92
  137. ^ a b Collins, Michael (1988). Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 9780802110114.
  138. ^ Chapman, Jessica M. (August 5, 2016), "Origins of the Vietnam War", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.013.353, ISBN 978-0-19-932917-5, retrieved August 28, 2020
  139. ^ "Women in the Labor Force: A Databook" (PDF). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2013. p. 11. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  140. ^ Winchester, pp. 305–308
  141. ^ Blas, Elisheva. "The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways" (PDF). societyforhistoryeducation.org. Society for History Education. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  142. ^ Richard Lightner (2004). Hawaiian History: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-313-28233-1.
  143. ^ "The Civil Rights Movement". PBS.org. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  144. ^ Dallek, Robert (2004). Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President. Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-19-515920-2.
  145. ^ "Our Documents—Civil Rights Act (1964)". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  146. ^ "Remarks at the Signing of the Immigration Bill, Liberty Island, New York". October 3, 1965. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  147. ^ Levy, Daniel (January 19, 2018). "Behind the Protests Against the Vietnam War in 1968". Time Magazine. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
  148. ^ "Social Security". ssa.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  149. ^ Soss, 2010, p. 277
  150. ^ Fraser, 1989
  151. ^ Howell, Buddy Wayne (2006). The Rhetoric of Presidential Summit Diplomacy: Ronald Reagan and the U.S.-Soviet Summits, 1985–1988. Texas A&M University. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-549-41658-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  152. ^ Kissinger, Henry (2011). Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster. pp. 781–784. ISBN 978-1-4391-2631-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    Mann, James (2009). The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of the End of the Cold War. Penguin. p. 432. ISBN 978-1-4406-8639-9.
  153. ^ Hayes, 2009
  154. ^ Charles Krauthammer, "The Unipolar Moment", Foreign Affairs, 70/1, (Winter 1990/1), 23–33.
  155. ^ Judt, Tony; Lacorne, Denis (2005). With Us Or Against Us: Studies in Global Anti-Americanism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4039-8085-4.
    Richard J. Samuels (2005). Encyclopedia of United States National Security. Sage Publications. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-4522-6535-3.
    Paul R. Pillar (2001). Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8157-0004-3.
    Gabe T. Wang (2006). China and the Taiwan Issue: Impending War at Taiwan Strait. University Press of America. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7618-3434-2.
    Understanding the "Victory Disease", From the Little Bighorn to Mogadishu and Beyond. Diane Publishing. 2004. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-1052-2.
    Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-313-38375-5.
  156. ^ "Persian Gulf War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  157. ^ Winchester, pp. 420–423
  158. ^ Dale, Reginald (February 18, 2000). "Did Clinton Do It, or Was He Lucky?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
    Mankiw, N. Gregory (2008). Macroeconomics. Cengage Learning. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-324-58999-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  159. ^ "North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) | United States Trade Representative". www.ustr.gov. Archived from the original on March 17, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
    Thakur; Manab Thakur Gene E Burton B N Srivastava (1997). International Management: Concepts and Cases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 334–335. ISBN 978-0-07-463395-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-313-38376-2.
  160. ^ Flashback 9/11: As It Happened. Fox News. September 9, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
    "America remembers Sept. 11 attacks 11 years later". CBS News. Associated Press. September 11, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
    "Day of Terror Video Archive". CNN. 2005. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  161. ^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (December 9, 2008). "The 'War on Terror' Is Critical to President George W. Bush's Legacy". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
    Atkins, Stephen E. (2011). The 9/11 Encyclopedia: Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 872. ISBN 978-1-59884-921-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  162. ^ Wong, Edward (February 15, 2008). "Overview: The Iraq War". The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
    Johnson, James Turner (2005). The War to Oust Saddam Hussein: Just War and the New Face of Conflict. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7425-4956-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    Durando, Jessica; Green, Shannon Rae (December 21, 2011). "Timeline: Key moments in the Iraq War". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  163. ^ Cooper, Helene (May 1, 2011). "Obama Announces Killing of Osama bin Laden". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2011.
  164. ^ Wallison, Peter (2015). Hidden in Plain Sight: What Really Caused the World's Worst Financial Crisis and Why It Could Happen Again. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-978-59407-7-0.
  165. ^ Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (2011). Financial Crisis Inquiry Report (PDF). ISBN 978-1-60796-348-6.
  166. ^ Taylor, John B. (January 2009). "The Financial Crisis and the Policy Responses: An Empirical Analysis of What Went Wrong" (PDF). Hoover Institution Economics Paper Series. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  167. ^ Hilsenrath, Jon; Ng, Serena; Paletta, Damian (September 18, 2008). "Worst Crisis Since '30s, With No End Yet in Sight". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
  168. ^ Altman, Roger C. "The Great Crash, 2008". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
  169. ^ "Barack Obama: Face Of New Multiracial Movement?". NPR. November 12, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
  170. ^ "Barack Obama elected as America's first black president". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. October 31, 2019. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
  171. ^ Washington, Jesse; Rugaber, Chris (September 9, 2011). "African-American Economic Gains Reversed By Great Recession". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
  172. ^ Oberlander, Jonathan (June 1, 2010). "Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed". Health Affairs. 29 (6): 1112–1116. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447. ISSN 0278-2715. PMID 20530339.
  173. ^ Smith, Harrison (November 9, 2016). "Donald Trump is elected president of the United States". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2020.
  174. ^ Lemire, Jonathan (November 7, 2020). "Biden defeats Trump for White House, Say's time to heal". Associated Press. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  175. ^ Peñaloza, Marisa (January 6, 2021). "Trump Supporters Storm U.S. Capitol, Clash with Police". npr.org. NPR. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  176. ^ "Field Listing: Area". The World Factbook. cia.gov.
  177. ^ "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates—Geography—U.S. Census Bureau". State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
  178. ^ "2010 Census Area" (PDF). census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. p. 41. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  179. ^ "Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  180. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 8, 2018. (given in square miles, excluding)
  181. ^ a b c "United States". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. January 3, 2018. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  182. ^ "Geographic Regions of Georgia". Georgia Info. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  183. ^ a b Lew, Alan. "PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE US". GSP 220—Geography of the United States. North Arizona University. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  184. ^ Harms, Nicole. "Facts About the Rocky Mountain Range". Travel Tips. USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  185. ^ "Great Basin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  186. ^ "Mount Whitney, California". Peakbagger. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  187. ^ "Find Distance and Azimuths Between 2 Sets of Coordinates (Badwater 36-15-01-N, 116-49-33-W and Mount Whitney 36-34-43-N, 118-17-31-W)". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  188. ^ Poppick, Laura (August 28, 2013). "US Tallest Mountain's Surprising Location Explained". LiveScience. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
  189. ^ O'Hanlon, Larry (March 14, 2005). "America's Explosive Park". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on March 14, 2005. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  190. ^ Boyden, Jennifer. "Climate Regions of the United States". Travel Tips. USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  191. ^ "World Map of Köppen–Geiger Climate Classification" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  192. ^ Perkins, Sid (May 11, 2002). "Tornado Alley, USA". Science News. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2006.
  193. ^ Rice, Doyle. "USA has the world's most extreme weather". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  194. ^ Len McDougall (2004). The Encyclopedia of Tracks and Scats: A Comprehensive Guide to the Trackable Animals of the United States and Canada. Lyons Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-59228-070-4.
  195. ^ Morin, Nancy. "Vascular Plants of the United States" (PDF). Plants. National Biological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
  196. ^ Osborn, Liz. "Number of Native Species in United States". Current Results Nexus. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  197. ^ "Numbers of Insects (Species and Individuals)". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
  198. ^ "National Park Service Announces Addition of Two New Units" (Press release). National Park Service. February 28, 2006. Archived from the original on October 1, 2006. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  199. ^ Lipton, Eric; Krauss, Clifford (August 23, 2012). "Giving Reins to the States Over Drilling". New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  200. ^ Vincent, Carol H.; Hanson, Laura A.; Argueta, Carla N. (March 3, 2017). Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data (Report). Congressional Research Service. p. 2. Retrieved June 18, 2020.
  201. ^ Gorte, Ross W.; Vincent, Carol Hardy.; Hanson, Laura A.; Marc R., Rosenblum. "Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data" (PDF). fas.org. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  202. ^ "Chapter 6: Federal Programs to Promote Resource Use, Extraction, and Development". doi.gov. U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
  203. ^ The National Atlas of the United States of America (January 14, 2013). "Forest Resources of the United States". Nationalatlas.gov. Archived from the original on May 7, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  204. ^ "Land Use Changes Involving Forestry in the United States: 1952 to 1997, With Projections to 2050" (PDF). 2003. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  205. ^ Daynes & Sussman, 2010, pp. 3, 72, 74–76, 78
  206. ^ Hays, Samuel P. (2000). A History of Environmental Politics since 1945.
  207. ^ Collin, Robert W. (2006). The Environmental Protection Agency: Cleaning Up America's Act. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-33341-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  208. ^ Turner, James Morton (2012). The Promise of Wilderness
  209. ^ Endangered species Fish and Wildlife Service. General Accounting Office, Diane Publishing. 2003. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-3997-4. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  210. ^ "What Is the Greenest Country in the World?". Atlas & Boots. Environmental Performance Index. June 6, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  211. ^ "United States of America". Global Climate Action – NAZCA. United Nations. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  212. ^ Nugent, Ciara (November 4, 2020). "The U.S. Just Officially Left the Paris Agreement. Can it Be a Leader in the Climate Fight Again?". Times. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  213. ^ "Biden announces return to global climate accord, new curbs on U.S. oil industry". Money News. Reuters. January 20, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  214. ^ "Common Core Document of the United States of America". U.S. Department of State. December 30, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  215. ^ The New York Times 2007, p. 670.
  216. ^ Onuf 2010, p. xvii.
  217. ^ Scheb, John M.; Scheb, John M. II (2002). An Introduction to the American Legal System. Florence, KY: Delmar, p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7668-2759-2.
  218. ^ "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?". EIU.com. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  219. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2019" (PDF). transparency.org. Transparency International. p. 12 & 13. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
  220. ^ Killian, Johnny H. "Constitution of the United States". The Office of the Secretary of the Senate. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
  221. ^ Feldstein, Fabozzi, 2011, p. 9
  222. ^ Schultz, 2009, pp. 164, 453, 503
  223. ^ Schultz, 2009, p. 38
  224. ^ "The Legislative Branch". United States Diplomatic Mission to Germany. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
  225. ^ "The Process for impeachment". ThinkQuest. Archived from the original on April 8, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
  226. ^ "The Executive Branch". The White House. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
  227. ^ Kermit L. Hall; Kevin T. McGuire (2005). Institutions of American Democracy: The Judicial Branch. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-988374-5.
    U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (2013). Learn about the United States: Quick Civics Lessons for the Naturalization Test. Government Printing Office. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-16-091708-0.
    Bryon Giddens-White (2005). The Supreme Court and the Judicial Branch. Heinemann Library. ISBN 978-1-4034-6608-2.
    Charles L. Zelden (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    "Federal Courts". United States Courts. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
  228. ^ a b c Locker, Melissa (March 9, 2015). "Watch John Oliver Cast His Ballot for Voting Rights for U.S. Territories". Time. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
  229. ^ "What is the Electoral College". National Archives. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
  230. ^ Cossack, Roger (July 13, 2000). "Beyond politics: Why Supreme Court justices are appointed for life". CNN. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012.
  231. ^ 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(36) and 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(38) U.S. Federal Code, Immigration and Nationality Act. 8 U.S.C. § 1101a
  232. ^ "Electoral College Fast Facts | U.S. House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  233. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  234. ^ Tribal Geography in Relation to State Boundaries
  235. ^ a b "American Samoa and the Citizenship Clause: A Study in Insular Cases Revisionism". harvardlawreview.org. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  236. ^ Alvarez, Priscilla (December 12, 2019). "Federal judge rules American Samoans are US citizens by birth". CNN.com. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  237. ^ Romboy, Dennis (December 13, 2019). "Judge puts citizenship ruling for American Samoans on hold". KSL.com. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  238. ^ Keating, Joshua (June 5, 2015). "How Come American Samoans Still Don't Have U.S. Citizenship at Birth?" – via Slate.
  239. ^ Etheridge, Eric; Deleith, Asger (August 19, 2009). "A Republic or a Democracy?". New York Times blogs. Retrieved November 7, 2010. The US system seems essentially a two-party system. ...
  240. ^ Avaliktos, Neal (2004). The Election Process Revisited. Nova Publishers. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-59454-054-7.
  241. ^ David Mosler; Robert Catley (1998). America and Americans in Australia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-275-96252-4. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
  242. ^ Grigsby, Ellen (2008). Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Cengage Learning. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-0-495-50112-1.
  243. ^ "U.S. Senate: Leadership & Officers". www.senate.gov. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  244. ^ "Leadership | House.gov". www.house.gov. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  245. ^ "Congressional Profile". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives.
  246. ^ "U.S. Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  247. ^ Kan, Shirley A. (August 29, 2014). "Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990" (PDF). Federation of American Scientist. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
    "Taiwan's Force Modernization: The American Side". Defense Industry Daily. September 11, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
  248. ^ "What is the G8?". University of Toronto. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
  249. ^ Dumbrell, John; Schäfer, Axel (2009). America's 'Special Relationships': Foreign and Domestic Aspects of the Politics of Alliance. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-203-87270-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  250. ^ Ek, Carl & Ian F. Fergusson (September 3, 2010). "Canada–U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  251. ^ Vaughn, Bruce (August 8, 2008). Australia: Background and U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service. OCLC 70208969.
  252. ^ Vaughn, Bruce (May 27, 2011). "New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with the United States" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  253. ^ Lum, Thomas (January 3, 2011). "The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
  254. ^ Chanlett-Avery, Emma; et al. (June 8, 2011). "Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  255. ^ Mark E. Manyin; Emma Chanlett-Avery; Mary Beth Nikitin (July 8, 2011). "U.S.–South Korea Relations: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  256. ^ Zanotti, Jim (July 31, 2014). "Israel: Background and U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
  257. ^ "U.S. Relations With Poland".
  258. ^ "The Untapped Potential of the US-Colombia Partnership". Atlantic Council. September 26, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  259. ^ "U.S. Relations With Colombia". United States Department of State. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  260. ^ Charles L. Zelden (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
    Loren Yager; Emil Friberg; Leslie Holen (2003). Foreign Relations: Migration from Micronesian Nations Has Had Significant Impact on Guam, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Diane Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7567-3394-0.
  261. ^ Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel (2007). "How Progressive is the U.S. Federal Tax System? A Historical and International Perspective" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives. 21: 11. doi:10.1257/jep.21.1.3. S2CID 5160267.
  262. ^ Lowrey, Annie (January 4, 2013). "Tax Code May Be the Most Progressive Since 1979". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  263. ^ Konish, Lorie (June 30, 2018). "More Americans are considering cutting their ties with the US—here's why". CNBC. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  264. ^ Power, Julie (March 3, 2018). "Tax fears: US-Aussie dual citizens provide IRS with details of $184 billion". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
  265. ^ Porter, Eduardo (August 14, 2012). "America's Aversion to Taxes". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2012. In 1965, taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.7 percent of the nation's output. In 2010, they amounted to 24.8 percent. Excluding Chile and Mexico, the United States raises less tax revenue, as a share of the economy, than every other industrial country.
  266. ^ Ingraham, Christopher (October 8, 2019). "For the first time in history, U.S. billionaires paid a lower tax rate than the working class last year". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9, 2019.
  267. ^ "CBO Historical Tables-February 2013". Congressional Budget Office. February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  268. ^ "America Owes the Largest Share of Global Debt". U.S. News. October 23, 2018.
  269. ^ "Country Comparison: Public Debt – The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  270. ^ "FRED Graph". fred.stlouisfed.org. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. September 21, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  271. ^ Thornton, Daniel L. (November–December 2012). "The U.S. Deficit/Debt Problem: A Longer–Run Perspective" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  272. ^ "Fitch revises U.S. outlook to negative; affirms AAA rating". reuters.com. Reuters. July 31, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  273. ^ "United States Coast Guard | History & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  274. ^ a b The Military Balance 2019. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies. 2019. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-85743-988-5. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020.
  275. ^ "READ: James Mattis' resignation letter". CNN. December 21, 2018. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
  276. ^ "What does Selective Service provide for America?". Selective Service System. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
  277. ^ "First Peacetime Draft Enacted Just Before World War II". Department of Defense. April 7, 2020. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  278. ^ "With 'historic' bomber flights on opposite sides of the planet, the US Air Force is sending a message to friends and foes". Retrieved March 22, 2021.
  279. ^ "Noble Eagle Without End". Retrieved February 1, 2005.
  280. ^ "The Ups and Downs of Close Air Support". Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  281. ^ "Building the Space Range of the Future". Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  282. ^ "Global Positioning System". www.schriever.spaceforce.mil.
  283. ^ "Space surveillance technologies a top need for U.S. military". November 22, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  284. ^ Harris, Johnny (May 18, 2015). "Why does the US have 800 military bases around the world?". vox.com. Vox Media. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  285. ^ "Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by Country (309A)" (PDF). Department of Defense. March 31, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
  286. ^ a b "World military expenditure grows to $1.8 trillion in 2018". sipri.org. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. April 19, 2019. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  287. ^ "Federal R&D Budget Dashboard". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  288. ^ "Fiscal Year 2013 Historical Tables" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved November 24, 2012 – via National Archives.
  289. ^ IISS 2020, pp. 46
  290. ^ a b c Reichmann, Kelsey (June 16, 2019). "Here's how many nuclear warheads exist, and which countries own them". defensenews.com. Sightline Media Group. Archived from the original on September 23, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  291. ^ "U.S. Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Who Governs & What They Do". Chiff.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
  292. ^ Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 226–273. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  293. ^ Rawlinson, Kevin (December 7, 2017). "Global homicide rate rises for first time in more than a decade". The Guardian. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  294. ^ Haymes et al., 2014, p. 389
  295. ^ a b Sawyer, Wendy; Wagner, Peter (March 24, 2020). Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2020 (Report). Prison Policy Initiative. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  296. ^ "Federal Bureau of Prisons: Statistics". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  297. ^ Carson, Elizabeth Ann (September 2014). Prisoners in 2013 (PDF) (Report). Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 247282. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  298. ^ Donna, Selman; Leighton, Paul (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. New York City: Rowman & Littlefield. p. xi. ISBN 978-1-4422-0173-6.
    Harcourt, Bernard (2012). The Illusion of Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order. Harvard University Press. pp. 235 & 236. ISBN 978-0-674-06616-8.
    Gottschalk, Marie (2014). Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-691-16405-2.
  299. ^ Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur (2020). Law and Justice around the World: A Comparative Approach. Univ of California Press. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-0-520-30001-9.
  300. ^ Connor, Tracy; Chuck, Elizabeth (May 28, 2015). "Nebraska's Death Penalty Repealed With Veto Override". NBC News. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  301. ^ Simpson, Ian (May 2, 2013). "Maryland becomes latest U.S. state to abolish death penalty". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  302. ^ a b "State by State". Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  303. ^ "Death Sentences and Executions 2019". Amnesty International USA. 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  304. ^ "Searchable Execution Database". Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  305. ^ "The NYSE Makes Stock Exchanges Around The World Look Tiny". Retrieved March 26, 2017.
  306. ^ "Largest stock exchange operators worldwide as of April 2018, by market capitalization of listed companies (in trillion U.S. dollars)". Statista. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  307. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
  308. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA.gov. Central Intelligence Agency.
  309. ^ "Trade Statistics". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
  310. ^ "Top Ten Countries with which the U.S. Trades". U.S. Census Bureau. August 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
  311. ^ "U.S. trade in goods with World, Seasonally Adjusted" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. June 1, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.
  312. ^ Hagopian, Kip; Ohanian, Lee (August 1, 2012). "The Mismeasure of Inequality". Policy Review (174). Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
  313. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division—National Accounts". unstats.un.org. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  314. ^ "Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  315. ^ "GDP by Industry". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  316. ^ "USA Economy in Brief". U.S. Dept. of State, International Information Programs. Archived from the original on March 12, 2008.
  317. ^ Isabelle Joumard; Mauro Pisu; Debbie Bloch (2012). "Tackling income inequality The role of taxes and transfers" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
  318. ^ Ray, Rebecca; Sanes, Milla; Schmitt, John (May 2013). "No-Vacation Nation Revisited" (PDF). Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  319. ^ Bernard, Tara Siegel (February 22, 2013). "In Paid Family Leave, U.S. Trails Most of the Globe". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
  320. ^ Vasel, Kathryn (January 20, 2015). "Who doesn't get paid sick leave?". CNN. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  321. ^ "U.S. Workers World's Most Productive". CBS News. Associated Press. September 3, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  322. ^ "Total Economy Database, Summary Statistics, 1995–2010". Total Economy Database. The Conference Board. September 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2009.
  323. ^ Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass Production, 1800–1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269, OCLC 1104810110
  324. ^ "Research and Development (R&D) Expenditures by Source and Objective: 1970 to 2004". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 10, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
  325. ^ MacLeod, Donald (March 21, 2006). "Britain Second in World Research Rankings". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 14, 2006.
  326. ^ Allen, Gregory (February 6, 2019). "Understanding China's AI Strategy". Center for a New American Security.
  327. ^ "Thomas Edison's Most Famous Inventions". Thomas A Edison Innovation Foundation. Archived from the original on March 16, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
  328. ^ Benedetti, François (December 17, 2003). "100 Years Ago, the Dream of Icarus Became Reality". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
  329. ^ Fraser, Gordon (2012). The Quantum Exodus: Jewish Fugitives, the Atomic Bomb, and the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959215-9.
  330. ^ 10 Little Americans. ISBN 978-0-615-14052-0. Retrieved September 15, 2014 – via Google Books.
  331. ^ "NASA's Apollo technology has changed the history". Sharon Gaudin. July 20, 2009. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
  332. ^ Goodheart, Adam (July 2, 2006). "Celebrating July 2: 10 Days That Changed History". The New York Times.
  333. ^ Sawyer, Robert Keith (2012). Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation. Oxford University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-19-973757-4.
  334. ^ "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". www.wipo.int. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  335. ^ "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  336. ^ "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  337. ^ "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. October 28, 2013. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  338. ^ "Population Clock". U.S. and World Population Clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. May 16, 2020. Retrieved May 24, 2020. The United States population on May 23, 2020 was: 329,686,270
  339. ^ "Global Wealth Report". Credit Suisse. October 2018. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  340. ^ "Forbes Billionaires 2021: The Richest People in the World". Forbes. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  341. ^ "Coronavirus Reduces Millionaire Count". spectrem.com. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  342. ^ (PDF). October 23, 2019 https://web.archive.org/web/20191023104250/https://www.credit-suisse.com/media/assets/corporate/docs/about-us/research/publications/global-wealth-databook-2019.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2021. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  343. ^ "Global Food Security Index". London: The Economist Intelligence Unit. September 20, 2021. Retrieved September 20, 2021.
  344. ^ Rector, Robert; Sheffield, Rachel (September 13, 2011). "Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts About America's Poor". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
  345. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI) | Human Development Reports". UNHDP. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  346. ^ "Trends in Family Wealth, 1989 to 2013". Congressional Budget Office. August 18, 2016.
  347. ^ Piketty, Thomas (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Belknap Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-674-43000-6
  348. ^ Egan, Matt (September 27, 2017). "Record inequality: The top 1% controls 38.6% of America's wealth". CNN Money. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  349. ^ Kirsch, Noah. "The 3 Richest Americans Hold More Wealth Than Bottom 50% Of The Country, Study Finds". Forbes.
  350. ^ Van Dam, Andrew (July 4, 2018). "Is it great to be a worker in the U.S.? Not compared with the rest of the developed world". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2018.