هلند

از ویکیپدیا، دانشنامه آزاد
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هلند

هلند   ( هلندی )
شعار:  " Je maintenanceiendrai "   (فرانسوی)
"من حفظ خواهم کرد"
سرود:  " ویلهلموس "   (هلندی)
"ویلیام ناسائو"
Location of the European part of the Netherlands (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
موقعیت قسمت اروپایی هلند (سبز تیره)

- در اروپا  (سبز و خاکستری تیره)
- در اتحادیه اروپا  (سبز)

Location of the Caribbean municipalities (green)
موقعیت  شهرداری های کارائیب  (سبز)
سرمایه، پایتخت
و بزرگترین شهر
آمستردام [a]
52 ° 22′N 4 ° 53′E / 52.367°N 4.883°E / 52.367; 4.883
کرسی دولتیلاهه [a]
زبان های رسمیهلندی
منطقه ای [b]
به رسمیت شناخته شده [c]
گروههای قومی
(2020) [3]
دین
(2019) [4]
نام (ها)هلندی
دولت مستقلپادشاهی هلند
دولت سلطنت مشروطه پارلمانی متحد
ویلم اسکندر
مارک روته
تام د گراف
قوه مقننهایالات عمومی
سنا
مجلس نمایندگان
استقلال از امپراتوری اسپانیا
26 ژوئیه 1581
30 ژانویه 1648
• پادشاهی تأسیس شد
16 مارس 1815
5 مه 1945
•  منشور
15 دسامبر 1954
10 اکتبر 2010
حوزه
• جمع
41،865 [5] [6]  کیلومتر 2 (16،164 مایل مربع) ( 131 )
• اب (٪)
18.41 [7]
جمعیت
• برآورد 2021
Neutral increase17،629،200 [8] ( 67 )
• سرشماری سال 2011
16،655،799 [9]
• تراکم
423 / کیلومتر 2 (1،095.6 / مایل مربع) ( 16 )
تولید ناخالص داخلی  ( PPP )برآورد 2021
• جمع
Increase1.055 تریلیون دلار [10] ( بیست و هفتم )
• سرانه
60،461 دلار [10] ( یازدهم )
تولید ناخالص داخلی  (اسمی)برآورد 2021
• جمع
Increase1.012 تریلیون دلار [10] ( هفدهم )
• سرانه
58،003 دلار [10] ( دوازدهم )
جینی  (2020)Negative increase 27.5 [11]
کم
HDI  (2019)Increase 0.944 [12]
بسیار بالا  ·  هشتم
واحد پول
منطقه زمانی
• تابستان ( DST )
توجه: اگرچه هلند اروپایی در طول جغرافیایی UTC ± 0 قرار دارد ، این کشور UTC +01: 00 ( زمان اروپای مرکزی ) را به عنوان زمان استاندارد تحت اشغال آلمان در 2 نوامبر 1942 ، با جبران +0: 40: 28 تصویب کرد. (+1: 40: 28 در طول DST ) از LMT آمستردام (UTC+0: 19: 32). [14]
فرمت تاریخdd-mm-yyyy
برق شهری230 V -50 هرتز
سمت رانندگیدرست
کد تماس+31 ، +599 [گرم]
کد ISO 3166NL
اینترنت TLD.nl ، .bq [h]
Location of Netherlands

هلند ( هلندی : هلند [ˈneːdərlɑnt] ( گوش دادن )About this sound ) ، غیر رسمی هلند ، [15] [16] کشوری است که در اروپای غربی واقع شده ودارای سرزمینی در حوزه کارائیب است . این بزرگترین از چهار است کشور تشکیل دهنده از پادشاهی هلند . [17] [18] [19] در اروپا ، هلند از دوازده استان تشکیل شده است که از شرق با آلمان ، از جنوب با بلژیک و از شمال غرب بادریای شمال همسایه است ودارای مرزهای دریایی در دریای شمال با این کشورها و انگلستان. [20]در کارائیب ، از سه شهرداری ویژه تشکیل شده است : جزایر Bonaire ، Sint Eustatius و Saba . [i] زبان رسمی این کشور هلندی است و فریزی غربی به عنوان زبان رسمی ثانویه در استان فریسلند و انگلیسی و پاپیامنتو به عنوان زبانهای رسمی ثانویه در کارائیب هلند هستند. [1] زبان هلندی نازاکسون و لیمبورگ زبانهای منطقه ای شناخته شده هستند (به ترتیب در شرق و جنوب شرقی صحبت می شود) ، در حالی که زبان اشاره هلندی ، Sinte Romani وییدیش زبانهای غیر سرزمینی شناخته شده است. [1] [2]

چهار شهر بزرگ هلند عبارتند از آمستردام ، روتردام ، لاهه و اوترخت . [22] آمستردام پرجمعیت ترین شهر و پایتخت اسمی کشور است ، [23] در حالی که لاهه کرسی ایالت های عمومی ، کابینه و دیوان عالی را در اختیار دارد . [24] بندر روتردام شلوغ ترین است بندر در اروپا، و شلوغ ترین در هر کشور خارج شرق آسیا و آسیای جنوب شرقی ، در پشت تنها چین و سنگاپور. [25] فرودگاه آمستردام Schiphol شلوغ ترین فرودگاه هلند و سومین شلوغ ترین فرودگاه در اروپا است. این کشور یکی از اعضای بنیانگذار اتحادیه اروپا ، منطقه یورو ، G10 ، ناتو ، OECD و WTO و همچنین بخشی از منطقه شنگن و اتحادیه سه جانبه بنلوکس است. این کشور میزبان چندین سازمان بین دولتی و دادگاه های بین المللی است که بسیاری از آنها در لاهه قرار دارد ، که در نتیجه به عنوان "پایتخت قانونی جهان" لقب گرفته است. [26]

هلند به معنای واقعی کلمه به معنی "کشورهای پایین تر" با توجه به ارتفاع کم و توپوگرافی مسطح آن است ، تنها 50٪ از سرزمین آن از 1 متر (3.3 فوت) بالاتر از سطح دریا و نزدیک به 26٪ از سطح دریا پایین تر است. [27] بیشتر مناطق زیر سطح دریا ، معروف به پلدرز ، نتیجه احیای زمینی است که در قرن 14 آغاز شد . [28] گهگاه یا غیر رسمی از هلند توسط pars pro toto هلند یاد می شود . [15] با جمعیت 17.4 میلیون نفر، همه زندگی در یک منطقه کل تقریبا 41800 کیلومتر 2 (16100 مایل مربع) استون که مساحت زمین 33500 کیلومتر است 2(12،900 مایل مربع)-هلند با تراکم 521 نفر در کیلومتر مربع (1350 نفر در مایل مربع) شانزدهمین کشور پرجمعیت جهان و دومین کشور پرجمعیت در اتحادیه اروپا است. با این وجود ، این کشور به دلیل خاک حاصلخیز ، آب و هوای معتدل ، کشاورزی فشرده و ابداع ، دومین صادرکننده بزرگ مواد غذایی و محصولات کشاورزی در جهان است . [29] [30] [31]

هلند از سال 1848 یک سلطنت مشروطه پارلمانی با ساختار واحدی بوده است. این کشور دارای سنت ستون بندی و سابقه طولانی تحمل اجتماعی است ، زیرا سقط جنین ، روسپیگری و اتانازی انسان را مجاز کرده است ، همراه با حفظ سیاست لیبرال مواد مخدر . هلند مجازات اعدام را در قانون مدنی در سال 1870 لغو کرد ، اگرچه تا زمان تصویب قانون اساسی جدید در سال 1983 به طور کامل لغو نشد. هلند حق رأی زنان را در سال 1919 ، قبل از تبدیل شدن به اولین کشور جهان برای قانونی شدن ، مجاز کرد.ازدواج همجنسگرایان در سال 2001. اقتصاد پیشرفته بازار مختلط آن دارای یازدهمین درآمد سرانه در سطح جهانی بود. [32] هلند در شاخص های بین المللی آزادی مطبوعات ، [33] آزادی اقتصادی ، [34] توسعه انسانی و کیفیت زندگی ، و همچنین شادی در ردیف بالاترین رتبه ها قرار دارد . [35] [j] در سال 2020 ، رتبه هشتم را در شاخص توسعه انسانی و پنجم را در شاخص شادی جهانی 2021 کسب کرد . [37] [38]

علم اشتقاق لغات

تاریخ آشفته هلند و تغییر قدرت منجر به اسامی فوق العاده زیاد و بسیار متفاوتی در زبان های مختلف شد. حتی در زبانها نیز تنوع وجود دارد. در زبان انگلیسی ، هلند را هلند یا (بخشی از) کشورهای پایین نیز می نامند ، در حالی که اصطلاح " هلندی " به عنوان شکل مخرب و صفت استفاده می شود.

هلند و کشورهای پایین

منطقه ای به نام کشورهای پست (شامل بلژیک ، هلند و لوکزامبورگ ) دارای توپونیمی یکسانی هستند . نام مکانها با ندر ، نیدر ، ندر ، هلند ، لاژ (r) یا Low (er) (در زبانهای ژرمانی ) و Bas یا Inferior (در زبانهای عاشقانه ) در مکانهای کم ارتفاع در سراسر اروپا استفاده می شود. آنها گاهی اوقات در رابطه ای غیرقابل تصور با یک مکان بالاتر استفاده می شوند که پیاپی به صورت Super (ior) ، Up (per) نشان داده می شود.، Op (per) ، Ober ، Boven ، High ، Haut یا Hoch . در مورد کشورهای پست / هلند ، موقعیت جغرافیایی منطقه تحتانی کم و بیش پایین دست و نزدیک دریا بوده است. اما موقعیت جغرافیایی منطقه فوقانی ، بسته به موقعیت قدرت اقتصادی و نظامی حاکم بر منطقه کشورهای پایین ، در طول زمان بسیار تغییر کرد. رومیان تمایزی بین استان رومی پایین دست Germania به تحتانی (امروزه بخشی از بلژیک و هلند) و بالادست Germania به برتر(امروزه بخشی از آلمان است). نام "Low" برای اشاره به این منطقه دوباره در دوکیه قرن دهم لورن سفلی برمی گردد ، که بسیاری از کشورهای پست را در بر می گرفت. [39] [40] اما این بار منطقه فوقانی مربوط به لورن علیا است ، امروزه در شمال فرانسه.

آمیلیا کبود ، که از محل اقامت خود را در کشورهای کم در قرن 15 حکومت، با استفاده از اصطلاح له می پردازد دکا همتراز د ( "سرزمین بیش از اینجا") برای کشورهای کم، به عنوان مخالف له د دلا پر می پردازد ( " سرزمینهای آنجا ") برای سرزمین اصلی خود: بورگوندی در شرق مرکزی فرانسه کنونی. [41] تحت حاکمیت هابسبورگ ، Les pays de par deçà توسعه یافته در pays d'embas ("سرزمین های پایین اینجا") ، [42] یک عبارت نادرست در رابطه با سایر املاک هابسبورگ مانند مجارستان و اتریش. این مقاله در اسناد رسمی معاصر هلندی به عنوان ندرلاندن ترجمه شده است.[43] از دیدگاه منطقه ای ، نیدرلنت همچنین منطقه ای بین میوز و راین پاییندر اواخر قرون وسطی بود. ناحیه معروف به اوبرلند (کشور مرتفع) در این زمینه غیر منطقی در نظر گرفته شد که تقریباً در نزدیکترین کلن واقع در نزدیکی آغاز می شود.

از اواسط قرن شانزدهم به بعد ، "کشورهای پست" و "هلند" معنای اصلی خود را از دست دادند. آنها احتمالاً متداول ترین نام ها بودند ، علاوه بر فلاندرز ، pars pro toto برای کشورهای پایین ، به ویژه در اروپای زبان رومانی زبان. جنگ هشتادساله (1568-1648) کشورهای پایین را به یک مستقل شمال تقسیم هلندی جمهوری (یا Latinised بلگیکا Foederata ، "فدرال هلند"، دولت پیش از هلند) و یک اسپانیایی کنترل هلند جنوبی (Latinised بلگیکا گردو، "رویال هلند" ، ایالت پیش ساز بلژیک). کشورهای پایین امروزه نامی است که شامل کشورهای هلند ، بلژیک و لوکزامبورگ می شود ، اگرچه در اکثر زبانهای عاشقانه ، اصطلاح "کشورهای کم" به عنوان نام مخصوص هلند استفاده می شود. این واژه مترادف با واژه خنثی تر و ژئوپلیتیک بنلوکس استفاده می شود .

هلند

هلند همچنین در زبانهای مختلف از جمله انگلیسی به عنوان هلند نامیده می شود . با این حال ، هلند فقط منطقه ای در داخل کشور است که شامل هلند شمالی و جنوبی ، دو استان از دوازده استان این کشور است. در گذشته آنها یک استان واحد بودند ، و قبلاً شهرستان هلند ، بازمانده ای از پادشاهی فریزی منحل شده که شامل بخشهایی از اوترخت کنونی نیز بود . به دنبال انحطاط دوک برابانت و شهرستان فلاندر ، هلند از نظر اقتصادی و سیاسی مهمترین شهرستان در کشورهای پست شد.منطقه تاکید بر هلند در طول شکل گیری هلندی جمهوری ، در جنگ هشت ساله و جنگ انگلیس و هلند در 16، 17، و قرن 18، ساخته شده هلند به عنوان یک خدمت پارس هم رفته طرفدار برای کل کشور، که در حال حاضر غیر رسمی [44] یا نادرست تلقی می شود. [45] [46] با این وجود ، نام "هلند" هنوز به طور گسترده برای تیم ملی فوتبال هلند ، از جمله در هلند ، [47] استفاده می شود ، و وب سایت های بین المللی دولت هلند برای گردشگری و تجارت "holland.com" و " hollandtradeandinvest.com ". [48] [49]در سال 2020 ، دولت هلند اعلام کرد که در آینده فقط تحت عنوان "هلند" ارتباط و تبلیغ خواهد کرد. [50]

هلندی

اصطلاح هلندی در زبان انگلیسی به عنوان شکل ناسازگار و صفت هلند استفاده می شود. ریشه این کلمه به Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz برمی گردد ، که به لاتین شده به Theodiscus ، به معنی "محبوب" یا "مردم". شبیه به Old Dutch Dietsch ، Old German High duitsch و Old English þeodisc، همه به معنی "(از) مردم (ژرمن) ​​معمولی". در ابتدا ، زبان انگلیسی (شکل معاصر) هلندی را برای اشاره به همه یا همه گویشوران زبان های ژرمن غربی (به عنوان مثال هلندی ، فریزیایی ها و آلمانی ها) استفاده می کرد. به تدریج معنای آن به مردمان ژرمن غربی که بیشترین تماس را داشتند ، معطوف شد ، به دلیل نزدیکی جغرافیایی و رقابت در تجارت و سرزمین های خارج از کشور. مشتق از کلمه پروتو ژرمانی *þiudiskaz در هلندی مدرن ، رژیم ها، می تواند در ادبیات هلندی به عنوان نامی شاعرانه برای مردم یا زبان هلندی یافت شود ، اما بسیار باستانی تلقی می شود. اگرچه پس از جنگ جهانی دوم برای جلوگیری از اشاره به آلمان تجدید حیات کوتاهی داشت. هنوز در عبارت "diets maken" استفاده می شود - برای بیان مستقیم آن (به عنوان تهدید) یا خنثی تر ، برای واضح ، قابل فهم ، توضیح ، به زبان مردم (نک: Vulgate) (کتاب مقدس نه به یونانی یا عبری ، بلکه لاتین ؛ زبان مردم) به معنای مبتذل ، هر چند نه به معنای تحقیرآمیز).

اصطلاحات به زبان هلندی و سایر زبانها

در زبان هلندی ، نام هلند ، زبان هلندی و شهروند هلندی به ترتیب Nederland ، Nederlands و Nederlander است. به طور عامیانه این کشور توسط هلندی ها اغلب به عنوان هلند نیز نامیده می شود ، هرچند به میزان کمتر در خارج از دو استان هلند شمالی و جنوبی ، جایی که حتی ممکن است به عنوان یک واژه تحقیرآمیز نیز مورد استفاده قرار گیرد ، به عنوان مثال هولندر (گویش) در ماستریخت . [51]

جمع Nederlanden در گذشته در بسیاری از دلالت های مختلف استفاده می شده است ، [52] [ مرجع دایره ای ] اما از سال 1815 ، فقط در نام رسمی Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (" پادشاهی هلند ") استفاده می شود. در بسیاری از زبانهای دیگر جمع جمع شده است ، برای مثال Niederlande ( آلمانی ) ، Pays-Bas ( فرانسوی ) و Países Bajos ( اسپانیایی ). در اندونزی (مستعمره سابق) این کشور بلاندا نامیده می شود ، نامی که از "هلند" گرفته شده است.

تاریخ

ماقبل تاریخ (قبل از 800 قبل از میلاد)

کشف مجسمه بلوط در ویلمستاد (4500 سال قبل از میلاد)

ماقبل تاریخ منطقه ای که امروزه هلند است ، عمدتاً توسط دریا و رودهایی شکل گرفت که دائماً جغرافیای کم ارتفاع را تغییر می دادند. قدیمی ترین آثار بشر ( نئاندرتال ) در خاکهای بالاتر ، نزدیک ماستریخت ، از آنچه در حدود 250،000 سال پیش تصور می شد ، یافت شد. [53] در پایان عصر یخبندان ، فرهنگ کوچ نشین اواخر دوران پارینه سنگی بالا هامبورگ (حدود 13.000-10.000 قبل از میلاد) در این منطقه گوزن شمالی را با استفاده از نیزه شکار می کرد ، اما فرهنگ بعدی Ahrensburg (حدود 11.200-9500 قبل از میلاد) از کمان استفاده کرد. و فلش . از میانسنگی Maglemosian مانند قبایل (ج. 8000 قبل از میلاد)قدیمی ترین قایق رانی جهان در درنته پیدا شد . [54]

بومی اواخر میانسنگی شکارچی-گردآورنده از فرهنگ Swifterbant (ج. 5600 سال قبل از میلاد) مربوط به جنوب اسکاندیناوی فرهنگ Ertebølle و به شدت به رودخانه ها و آب باز در ارتباط بودند. [55] بین 4800 تا 4500 قبل از میلاد ، مردم Swifterbant شروع به کپی کردن از فرهنگ سفالی خطی همسایه ، شیوه دامداری و بین 4300 تا 4000 قبل از میلاد ، کشاورزی کردند . [56] Funnelbeaker فرهنگ (ج. 4300-2800 قبل از میلاد) است، که مربوط به فرهنگ Swifterbant، بنا دلمن، آثار گور سنگی بزرگ در Drenthe پیدا شده است. یک سریع وجود دارد و صاف گذار از Funnelbeaker کشاورزی فرهنگ به پان اروپایی طناب دار افزارهای گله داری فرهنگ (ج. 2950 سال قبل از میلاد). در جنوب غربی ، فرهنگ سن-اویز-مارن- که مربوط به فرهنگ ولاردینگن (حدود 2600 قبل از میلاد) بود ، ظاهراً فرهنگ ابتدایی بیشتر شکارچیان-جمع آوری شده-در دوره نوسنگی به خوبی باقی ماند ، تا زمانی که این فرهنگ نیز موفق شد. فرهنگ Corded Ware.

هلند در 5500 سال قبل از میلاد
فرهنگهای عصر برنز در هلند

از فرهنگ بعدی بیل بیکر (2700 تا 2100 قبل از میلاد) چندین منطقه مبدأ فرض شده است ، به ویژه شبه جزیره ایبری ، هلند و اروپای مرکزی. [57] آنها فلزکاری را در مس ، طلا و بعداً برنز معرفی کردند و مسیرهای تجاری بین المللی را باز کردند که قبلاً دیده نشده بود ، در کشفیات مصنوعات مس منعکس شد ، زیرا این فلز به طور معمول در خاک هلند یافت نمی شود. یافته های فراوان در درنته از اشیاء نادر برنزی نشان می دهد که این شهر حتی یک مرکز تجاری در عصر برنز (2000 تا 800 قبل از میلاد) بوده است. فرهنگ بیکر بیل به صورت محلی در فرهنگ بوته خاردار (2100-1800 قبل از میلاد) و بعداً فرهنگ الپ (حدود 1800-800 قبل از میلاد) توسعه یافت ، [58]فرهنگ باستان شناسی عصر برنز میانه که دارای سفال سفالی با کیفیت پایین به عنوان نشانگر است. فاز اولیه از فرهنگ به Elp توسط مشخص شد tumuli (1800-1200 قبل از میلاد) که به شدت به tumuli معاصر در شمال آلمان و اسکاندیناوی بسته بود و ظاهرا به مربوط فرهنگ تپه در مرکز اروپا. مرحله بعدی سوزاندن مردگان و قرار دادن خاکستر آنها در گلدان هایی بود که پس از آداب و رسوم فرهنگ اورنفیلد (1200 تا 800 قبل از میلاد) در مزارع دفن شدند . منطقه جنوبی تحت سلطه فرهنگ هیلورسوم مرتبط (1800-800 قبل از میلاد) قرار گرفت ، که ظاهراً از فرهنگ قبلی فرهنگ لیوان خاردار با سیم خاردار با بریتانیا به ارث برده بود.

سلت ها ، قبایل آلمانی و رومیان (800 قبل از میلاد - 410 بعد از میلاد)

  توزیع مزمن سلت ها از 500 قبل از میلاد
  توسعه آن در جنوب کشورهای پایین توسط 270 قبل از میلاد

از سال 800 قبل از میلاد به بعد ، فرهنگ سلتی هالستات عصر آهن تأثیرگذار شد و جایگزین فرهنگ هیلورسوم شد . سنگ آهن میزان رفاه را به ارمغان آورد و در سراسر کشور از جمله آهن باتلاقی موجود بود . اسمیتس با استفاده از برنز و آهن از محلاتی به شهرک های دیگر سفر می کرد و ابزارهای مورد نیاز را می ساخت. قبر پادشاه از Oss به (700 پیش از میلاد) در یک تپه دفن بزرگترین در نوع خود در غرب اروپا پیدا شد، و حاوی یک شمشیر آهن با منبت طلا و مرجان.

وخامت آب و هوا در اسکاندیناوی در حدود 850 قبل از میلاد در حدود 650 قبل از میلاد بدتر شد و ممکن است باعث مهاجرت قبایل ژرمن از شمال شود. در زمان کامل شدن این مهاجرت ، حدود 250 سال قبل از میلاد ، چند گروه کلی فرهنگی و زبانی پدیدار شده بودند. [59] [60] دریای شمال ژرمن Ingaevones بخش شمالی از ساکنان کشورهای پایین . آنها بعداً به فریزی و ساکسونهای اولیه تبدیل شدند . [60] گروه دوم ، Weser-Rhine Germanic (یا Istvaeones ) ، در امتداد راین میانی و وسر گسترش یافت.و ساکن کشورهای پست در جنوب رودخانه های بزرگ. این گروه شامل قبایلی بود که سرانجام به فرانکهای سالی تبدیل شدند . [60] همچنین فرهنگ سلتیک La Tène (حدود 450 قبل از میلاد تا فتح روم) در طیف وسیعی از جمله منطقه جنوبی کشورهای پست گسترش یافته بود . برخی از محققان پیش بینی کرده اند که حتی یک هویت سوم قومی و زبانی، نه آلمانی و نه سلتیک، تا زمانی که دوره روم جان سالم به در هلند، عصر آهن Nordwestblock فرهنگ، [61] [62] که در نهایت توسط جذب شد سلت به جنوب و مردمان ژرمن از شرق

مرز راین در حدود 70 میلادی

اولین نویسنده برای توصیف سواحل هلند و فلاندر بود یونانی جغرافی Pytheas ، که در ج اشاره کرد. 325 قبل از میلاد که در این مناطق ، "تعداد بیشتری از مردم در مبارزه با آب کشته شدند تا در مبارزه با مردان." [63] در طول جنگهای گالیک ، منطقه جنوب و غرب راین توسط نیروهای رومی تحت فرمان ژولیوس سزار از 57 قبل از میلاد تا 53 قبل از میلاد فتح شد. [62] سزار دو قبیله اصلی سلتی را که در جنوب هلند کنونی زندگی می کردند ، توصیف می کند: Menapii و Eburonesبه حدود 12 سال بعد از میلاد ، راین به عنوان مرز شمالی رم ثابت شد. شهرهای قابل توجهی در امتداد Limes Germanicus پدیدار می شوند : نایمگن و فوربورگ . در بخش اول از Gallia به بلگیکا ، جنوب منطقه از لیمو بخشی از شد استان رومی از Germania به تحتانی . منطقه در شمال راین، ساکنان توسط Frisii، باقی مانده خارج حکومت روم (اما نه حضور و کنترل آن)، در حالی که قبایل مرزی ژرمن از Batavi و Cananefates در خدمت سواره نظام روم . [64] باتوی در شورش باتاویان علیه رومی ها قیام کرددر سال 69 میلادی اما سرانجام شکست خورد. بعداً باتوی با اقوام دیگر در کنفدراسیون فرانکهای سالی ادغام شد ، هویت آنها در نیمه اول قرن سوم ظاهر شد. [65] فرانک های سالیان در متون رومی به عنوان متحد و دشمن ظاهر می شوند. آنها توسط کنفدراسیون ساکسونها از شرق مجبور شدند در قرن چهارم بر فراز راین وارد قلمرو روم شوند. آنها از پایگاه جدید خود در غرب فلاندر و جنوب غربی هلند به کانال انگلیسی حمله کردند . نیروهای رومی منطقه را آرام کردند ، اما فرانک ها را اخراج نکردند ، زیرا حداقل تا زمان جولیان مرتد (358) هنگامی که فرانک های سالیان اجازه یافتند در فدراساتی مستقر شوند ، از آنها می ترسیدند.Texandria . [65] فرض شده است که پس از بدتر شدن شرایط آب و هوایی و عقب نشینی رومی ها ، فریسی ها به عنوان laeti در c. 296 ، سرزمین های ساحلی را تا دو قرن آینده عمدتا بدون جمعیت رها کرد. [66] با این حال ، حفاری های اخیر در کنمرلند نشان می دهد که یک سکونت دائمی وجود دارد. [67] [68]

قرون وسطی اولیه (411-1000)

فرانک ها ، فریزها و ساکسون ها (710 میلادی) با Traiecturm و Dorestad در وسط

پس از فروپاشی دولت روم در این منطقه ، فرانک ها قلمرو خود را در پادشاهی های متعدد گسترش دادند. تا دهه 490 ، كلوویس اول تمام این مناطق در جنوب هلند را در یك پادشاهی فرانكی فتح و متحد كرده بود و از آنجا فتوحات خود را در غول ادامه داد . در طول این گسترش ، فرانک ها که به جنوب مهاجرت کردند سرانجام لاتین مبتذل مردم محلی را به کار گرفتند. [60] با باقی ماندن فرانک ها در سرزمین اصلی خود در شمال (یعنی جنوب هلند و فلاندر) ، شکاف فرهنگی وسیع تری ایجاد شد ، که همچنان به زبان فرانسوی قدیمی صحبت می کردند ، که در قرن نهم به فرانسوی قدیمی تبدیل شده بود.و یا قدیمی هلندی . [60] مرز زبان هلندی-فرانسوی از این رو به وجود آمد. [60] [69]

گسترش فرانکی ها (481 تا 870 میلادی)

در شمال فرانک ها ، شرایط آب و هوایی بهبود یافت و در دوران مهاجرت ساکسون ها ، زوایای نزدیک ، جوتس و فریزی سرزمین ساحلی را مستقر کردند. [70] بسیاری از خود را به سوی انگلستان و به عنوان شناخته شده باشد آنگلوساکسون ، اما کسانی که در آنجا ماند می شود به عنوان هلندی اولیه و زبان خود را به عنوان فریزی ، پس از زمین که یک بار توسط Frisii مسکونی بود نام برد. [70]فریزی در سراسر سواحل جنوبی دریای شمالی صحبت می شد و هنوز در بین زبان های زنده قاره اروپا بیشترین ارتباط را با زبان انگلیسی دارد. در قرن هفتم فریزی پادشاهی (650-734) تحت پادشاه Aldegisel و پادشاه Redbad با ظهور Traiectum ( اوترخت ) به عنوان مرکز آن از قدرت، [70] [71] در حالی که Dorestad محل تجارت شکوفایی بود. [72] [73] بین 600 تا حدود 719 شهرها اغلب بین فریزها و فرانک ها درگیر می شدند. در 734 ، در نبرد بورن ، فریزها پس از یک سری جنگ ها شکست خوردندبه با تأیید فرانک ها ، مبلغ آنگلوساکسون ویلیبرورد مردم فریزین را به مسیحیت تبدیل کرد . او اسقف اعظم اوترخت را تأسیس کرد و اسقف فریزها شد. با این حال ، جانشین او بونیفیس در سال 754 در دوکوم توسط فریزها کشته شد .

روریک دورستاد ، فرمانروای وایکینگ فریسلند (تصویر عاشقانه 1912)

امپراتوری کارولینگی فرانکی خود را از امپراتوری روم الگو گرفت و بخش اعظم اروپای غربی را تحت کنترل داشت. با این حال ، در سال 843 ، آن را به سه قسمت - شرق ، میانه و غرب فرانسه تقسیم کرد . بیشتر هلندهای امروزی بخشی از فرانسیای میانه شدند که پادشاهی ضعیفی بود و مورد تجزیه و الحاق بیشمار همسایگان قوی قرار گرفت. این کشور شامل سرزمینی از فریزیا در شمال تا پادشاهی ایتالیا در جنوب بود. در حدود سال 850 ، لوتیر اول فرانسوی میانه ووریک روریک دورستاد را به عنوان حاکم اکثر مناطق فریزیا به رسمیت شناخت . [74]هنگامی که پادشاهی فرانسیای میانه در 855 تقسیم شد ، سرزمینهای شمال آلپ به لوتیر دوم منتقل شد و متعاقباً لوتارنگینا نامگذاری شد . پس از مرگ وی در سال 869 ، لوتارنگیا به Lotharingia بالا و پایین تقسیم شد ، قسمت دوم شامل کشورهای پایین بود که از لحاظ فنی در 870 بخشی از فرانسیس شرقی شد ، اگرچه تحت کنترل وایکینگ ها بود ، که به فریسیان و بی دفاع بسیار حمله کردند. شهرهای فرانکی واقع در ساحل فریزین و در امتداد رودخانه ها. در حدود سال 879 ، یک سفر دیگر وایکینگ ها به رهبری گودفرید ، دوک فریزیا، به سرزمین های فریزین حمله کرد. حملات وایکینگ ها باعث شد که قدرت لردهای فرانسوی و آلمانی در این منطقه ضعیف شود. مقاومت در برابر وایکینگ ها ، در صورت وجود ، از نجیب زادگان محلی بود که در نتیجه قد و قامت خود را به دست آوردند و این اساس تجزیه لوتارنگینای سفلی به کشورهای نیمه مستقل را ایجاد کرد. یکی از این اشراف محلی گرولف هلندی بود که پس از کمک به ترور گودفرید در فریسیا سلطنت کرد و حکومت وایکینگ ها به پایان رسید.

قرون وسطی بالا (1000-1384)

تومبای قرون وسطایی شوالیه برابانی آرنولد وان در اسلوئیس

امپراتوری مقدس روم (دولت جانشین شرق Francia از و سپس لوتارنژی) بسیاری از کشورهای در 10th و 11th قرن حکومت اما قادر به حفظ وحدت سیاسی نیست. اشراف محلی قدرتمند شهرها ، شهرستانها و مستبدان خود را به پادشاهی های خصوصی تبدیل کردند که نسبت به امپراتور احساس تعهد چندانی نمی کردند. هلند ، هینوت ، فلاندر ، گلر ، برابانت و اوترخت در وضعیت تقریباً مداوم جنگ قرار داشتند یا در اتحادیه های شخصی متناقض شکل گرفته بودند. زبان و فرهنگ اکثر افرادی که در شهرستان هلند زندگی می کردند در اصل فریزی بودندبه با پیشرفت شهرک فرانکی از فلاندر و برابانت ، این منطقه به سرعت تبدیل به فرانکونی قدیمی (یا هلندی قدیمی ) شد. بقیه مناطق Frisia در شمال (امروزه Friesland و Groningen ) همچنان به حفظ استقلال خود ادامه دادند و دارای نهادهای خاص خود بودند (که در مجموع " آزادی فریزی " نامیده می شد) ، که از تحمیل سیستم فئودالی ناراضی بودند.

در حدود 1000 سال بعد از میلاد مسیح ، به دلیل چندین پیشرفت کشاورزی ، اقتصاد با سرعت زیادی شروع به توسعه کرد و بهره وری بیشتر به کارگران اجازه داد تا زمین بیشتری را کشاورزی کنند یا تاجر شوند. شهرها در اطراف صومعه ها و قلعه ها رشد کردند و طبقه متوسط ​​تجاری در این مناطق شهری ، به ویژه در فلاندر و بعداً برابانت ، توسعه یافت. شهرهای ثروتمند شروع به خرید امتیازات خاصی برای خود از حاکمیت کردند . در عمل ، این بدان معنا بود که بروژ و آنتورپ به خودی خود به جمهوری های شبه مستقل تبدیل شدند و بعداً به برخی از مهمترین شهرها و بنادر اروپا تبدیل شدند.

در حدود 1100 بعد از میلاد ، کشاورزان فلاندر و اوترخت شروع به تخلیه و کشت زمین های مردمی مردمی در غرب هلند کردند و ظهور شهرستان هلند به عنوان مرکز قدرت ممکن شد. عنوان کنت هلند در جنگهای هوک و کود (بین هلندی : Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten ) بین سالهای 1350 تا 1490 به مبارزه پرداخت. جناح کد شامل شهرهای مترقی تر ، در حالی که جناح هوک متشکل از اشراف محافظه کار بود. این اشراف از دوک فیلیپ خوب بورگوندی - که کنت فلاندر نیز بود - دعوت کردند تا هلند را فتح کند.

بورگوندی ، هابسبورگ و اسپانیایی هابسبورگ هلند (1384–1581)

هلند اسپانیایی
کشورهای پست در اواخر قرن 14
ویلیام اول ، شاهزاده نارنجی ، رهبر شورش هلند ، توسط آدرین توماس. کلید

بسیاری از امپریال و فرانسه fiefs در آنچه در حال حاضر هلند و بلژیک در یک متحد شدند اتحادیه شخصی توسط فیلیپ خوب، دوک بورگوندی ، در 1433. دودمان والواها کبود و خود هابسبورگ وارثان به کشورهای کم در حکومت دوره بین 1384 تا 1581. قبل از اتحادیه بورگوندی ، هلندی ها خود را بر اساس شهری که در آن زندگی می کردند یا دوکا یا شهرستان محلی خود شناسایی کردند. دوره بورگوندی زمانی است که راه ملی شدن آغاز شد. حاکمان جدید از منافع تجاری هلند دفاع کردند ، که سپس به سرعت توسعه یافت. ناوگان های شهرستان هلند چندین بار ناوگان لیگ Hanseatic را شکست دادند .آمستردام رشد کرد و در قرن پانزدهم به بندر اصلی تجاری اروپا برای غلات از منطقه بالتیک تبدیل شد . آمستردام غلات را به شهرهای بزرگ بلژیک ، شمال فرانسه و انگلستان توزیع کرد. این تجارت بسیار حیاتی بود زیرا هلند دیگر نمی توانست غلات کافی برای تغذیه خود تولید کند. زهکشی زمین باعث شده بود که ذغال سنگ نارس تالاب های قبلی به حدی برسد که برای حفظ زهکشی بسیار پایین باشد.

تحت سلطه هابسبورگ چارلز پنجم ، فرمانروای امپراتوری مقدس روم و پادشاه اسپانیا ، همه فایوها در منطقه کنونی هلند در هفده استان ، که شامل بیشتر بلژیک کنونی ، لوکزامبورگ و برخی از سرزمین های مجاور آن در منطقه کنونی بود ، ادغام شدند. فرانسه و آلمان. در سال 1568 ، تحت حکومت فیلیپ دوم ، جنگ هشتاد ساله بین استانها و حاکم اسپانیایی آنها آغاز شد. میزان وحشیگری که از طرف هر دو طرف به نمایش گذاشته می شود را می توان از گزارش یک نگارنده هلندی دریافت: [75]

در بیش از یک بار مردان برادران خود را که در صفوف دشمن اسیر شده بودند ، به دار آویختند ... یک اسپانیایی از نظر آنها دیگر انسانی نبود. در یک مورد ، یک جراح در Veer قلب یک زندانی اسپانیایی را بریده ، آن را روی چوب کشتی میخ کوبید و از شهرنشینان دعوت کرد تا بیایند و دندانهای خود را در آن محکم کنند ، که بسیاری با رضایت وحشیانه این کار را کردند.

دوک آلبا بی رحمانه اقدام به سرکوب جنبش پروتستان در هلند. هلندی ها توسط " شورای خون " وی و سربازان اسپانیایی "سوزانده ، خفه ، ​​سر بریده یا زنده دفن شدند" . سرهای بریده و اجساد سر بریده در امتداد خیابان ها و جاده ها به نمایش گذاشته شد تا مردم را به وحشت انداخت تا تسلیم شوند. آلبا مفتخر بود که 18600 نفر را اعدام کرده است ، [76] [77] اما این رقم شامل کسانی نمی شود که در جنگ و قحطی جان خود را از دست داده اند.

اولین محاصره بزرگ تلاش آلبا برای تصرف هارلم و بدین وسیله هلند را به نصف رساند. این کار از دسامبر 1572 تا تابستان بعدی ادامه یافت ، هنگامی که هارلمرز سرانجام در 13 ژوئیه تسلیم شد و قول داد که شهر از غارت شدن در امان خواهد بود. این شرط بود دان Fadrique قادر به افتخار، زمانی که سربازان خود mutinied، خشم بیش از پرداخت بدهکار و شرایط نامساعد آنها در طول ماه های طولانی، سرد از مبارزات انتخاباتی را تحمل کردند. [78] در 4 نوامبر 1576 ، tercios اسپانیایی آنتورپ را تصرف کردندو آن را در معرض بدترین غارت تاریخ هلند قرار داد. شهروندان مقاومت کردند ، اما بر آنها غلبه کردند. هفت هزار نفر از آنها بریده شدند. هزار ساختمان به آتش کشیده شد. مردان ، زنان و کودکان در هذیان خون توسط سربازانی که فریاد می زدند "Santiago! España! Sangre ، carne ، fuego ، sacco!" (سنت جیمز! اسپانیا! به خون ، به بدن ، به آتش ، به گونی!) [79]

نقشه قلمروهای هابسبورگ . از سال 1556 زمینهای سلسله در کشورهای پست توسط هابسبورگهای اسپانیایی حفظ شد .

پس از غارت آنتورپ ، نمایندگان کاتولیک برابانت ، هلند پروتستان و زیلاند ، در گنت ، موافقت کردند تا با اوترخت و ویلیام خاموش در بیرون راندن تمام نیروهای اسپانیایی و تشکیل دولت جدید برای هلند همراه شوند. دون خوان اتریشی ، فرماندار جدید اسپانیا ، در ابتدا مجبور به تسلیم شدن شد ، اما در عرض چند ماه به خصومت های فعال بازگشت. با شروع مجدد نبرد ، هلندی ها به دنبال کمک از ملکه انگلیس بودند ، اما او در ابتدا به تعهدات خود نسبت به اسپانیایی ها در پیمان بریستول 1574 پایبند بود. نتیجه این بود که وقتی نبرد بزرگ بعدی در Gembloux در سال 1578 ، نیروهای اسپانیایی به راحتی در آن روز پیروز شدند و دست کم 10 هزار شورشی را کشتند ، و اسپانیایی ها متحمل تلفات کمی شدند.[80] با توجه به شکست در Gembloux ، ایالت های جنوبی هفده استان (امروزه در شمال فرانسه و بلژیک) با اتحاد 1579 Arras ، که وفاداری خود را به فیلیپ دوم اسپانیا ابراز کردند ،از شورشیان در شمال فاصله گرفتند.به در مخالفت با آنها ، نیمه شمالی هفده استان اتحادیه اوترخت (همچنین 1579) را تشکیل دادند که در آن آنها متعهد شدند در دفاع در برابر ارتش اسپانیا از یکدیگر حمایت کنند. [81] اتحادیه اوترخت به عنوان پایه و اساس هلند مدرن تلقی می شود.

سربازان اسپانیایی در سال 1579 ماستریخت را غارت کردند و بیش از 10 هزار غیرنظامی را کشتند و بدین ترتیب اطمینان یافتند که شورش ادامه دارد. [82] در سال 1581 ، استانهای شمالی قانون تجدید حیات را تصویب کردند ، اعلام استقلال که در آن استانها فیلیپ دوم را به عنوان پادشاه فرمانروای شمالی رسماً برکنار کردند. [83] فیلیپ در برابر شورشیان می تواند از منابع اسپانیا ، آمریکای اسپانیایی ، ایتالیا اسپانیایی و هلند اسپانیایی استفاده کند. پروتستان ملکه الیزابت اول انگلستان با مبارزه هلندی برابر اسپانیا همدردی و ارتش از 7600 سرباز برای کمک به هلندی در جنگ خود با کاتولیک اسپانیایی ارسال می شود. [84]نیروهای انگلیسی تحت ارل لستر و سپس لرد ویلوبی در هلند تحت فرمان دوک پارما با اسپانیایی ها در یک سری اقدامات عمدتاً بلاتکلیف روبرو شدند که تعداد قابل توجهی از نیروهای اسپانیایی را محدود کرده و برای هلندی ها وقت گذاشتند تا دفاع خود را سازماندهی کنند. [85] جنگ تا سال 1648 ادامه داشت ، زمانی که اسپانیا تحت فرمان فیلیپ چهارم سرانجام استقلال هفت استان شمال غربی را در صلح مونستر به رسمیت شناخت . بخشهایی از استانهای جنوبی عملاً مستعمرات امپراتوری جمهوری-تجاری جدید شدند.

جمهوری هلند (1581-1795)

کارخانه شرکت هند شرقی هلندی در هوگلی چوچورا ، مغول بنگال توسط هندریک ون شویلنبرگ ، 1665

پس از اعلام استقلال ، استانهای هلند ، زیلاند ، گرونینگن ، فریزلند ، اوترخت ، اوریسسل و گلدرلند یک کنفدراسیون تشکیل دادند . همه این پادشاهی ها ، لردها و شهرستانها خودمختار بودند و دولت خود را داشتند ، ایالتهای ایالتی . ایالات عمومی ، دولت confederal، در نشسته بودند لاهه و متشکل از نمایندگان از هر یک از هفت استان. منطقه کم جمعیت درنتههمچنین بخشی از جمهوری بود ، اگرچه یکی از استانها محسوب نمی شد. علاوه بر این ، جمهوری در طول جنگ هشتاد ساله تعدادی از سرزمین های اصطلاحاً عمومی در فلاندرز ، برابانت و لیمبورگ را اشغال کرده بود . جمعیت آنها عمدتاً کاتولیک رومی بود و این مناطق ساختار دولتی خود را نداشتند و به عنوان منطقه حائل بین جمهوری و هلند جنوبی تحت کنترل اسپانیا استفاده می شد . [86]

چشم انداز زمستانی با اسکیت باز در نزدیکی شهر کامپن توسط هندریک آورکامپ (دهه 1620)
آمستردام را سد میدان در سال 1656

در عصر طلایی هلند ، که قسمت اعظم قرن هفدهم را شامل می شد ، امپراتوری هلند در کنار پرتغال ، اسپانیا ، فرانسه و انگلیس به یکی از قدرتهای اصلی دریانوردی و اقتصادی تبدیل شد. علم ، ارتش و هنر (به ویژه نقاشی ) از جمله تحسین شده ترین در جهان بودند. تا سال 1650 هلندی ها مالک 16000 کشتی تجاری بودند. [87] هلندی شرکت شرق هند و شرکت هلندی غرب هند تاسیس مستعمرات و پست تجارت در سراسر جهان، از جمله حاکم بر مناطق شمال تایوان بین 1624-1662 و 1664-1667 . حل و فصل هلندی در شمال امریکابا تاسیس آمستردام جدید در قسمت جنوبی منهتن در سال 1614 آغاز شد. در آفریقای جنوبی ، هلندی ها مستعمره کیپ را در 1652 مستقر کردند . مستعمرات هلند در آمریکای جنوبی در امتداد رودخانه های متعدد در دشت های حاصلخیز گویان ، از جمله مستعمره سورینام (اکنون سورینام ). در آسیا ، هلندی ها هند شرقی هلند ( اندونزی کنونی ) و تنها پست تجاری غربی در ژاپن ، دژیما را تاسیس کردند .

در طول دوره صنعتی شدن اولیه ، امپراتوری 50 iles منسوجات و 80 sil ابریشم را از امپراتوری مغول هند ، عمدتا از توسعه یافته ترین منطقه خود به نام بنگال سوباح ، دریافت می کرد . [88] [89] [90] [91]

بسیاری از مورخان اقتصادی هلند را اولین کشور کاملاً سرمایه داری در جهان می دانند . در اروپای مدرن اولیه ، دارای ثروتمندترین شهر تجاری ( آمستردام ) و اولین بورس اوراق بهادار تمام وقت بود . ابداع معامله گران منجر به صندوق های بیمه و بازنشستگی و همچنین پدیده هایی مانند چرخه رونق ، رکود ، اولین حباب تورم دارایی ها در جهان ، شیدایی لاله های 1636-1637 و اولین مهاجم خرس در جهان ، ایزاک لو میر ، شد. که قیمت ها را با دامپینگ سهام کاهش داد و سپس آن را با تخفیف خرید. [92] در سال 1672 - در تاریخ هلند با نام رامپجار شناخته شد(سال فاجعه) - جمهوری هلند همزمان با فرانسه ، انگلیس و سه اسقف اعظم آلمان در جنگ بود. در دریا ، می تواند با موفقیت مانع از ورود نیروی دریایی انگلیس و فرانسه به سواحل غربی شود. با این حال ، در خشکی ، تقریباً توسط ارتش های پیشرو فرانسوی و آلمانی که از شرق می آمدند ، به طور داخلی تصرف شد. با غرق شدن بخش هایی از هلند ، اوضاع را برطرف کرد ، اما هرگز نتوانست دوباره به شکوه قبلی خود برسد و با رقابت اقتصادی از انگلستان و رقابت های دیرینه بین دو جناح اصلی در قرن هجدهم ، به حالت افول عمومی درآمد. جامعه هلندی، از حزب جمهوری خواه Staatsgezinden و حامیان stadtholder Prinsgezinden عنوان اصلیجناح های سیاسی . [93]

جمهوری و پادشاهی باتاویان (1795-1890)

با حمایت مسلح فرانسه انقلابی ، جمهوری خواهان هلندی اعلام کرد جمهوری باتاویان ، پس از مدل جمهوری فرانسه و ارائه هلند دولت واحد در 19 ژانویه 1795. stadtholder ویلیام V از نارنجی به انگلستان فرار کرده بودند. اما از سال 1806 تا 1810 ، پادشاهی هلند توسط ناپلئون بناپارت به عنوان پادشاهی دست نشانده توسط برادرش لویی بناپارت اداره شد.برای کنترل موثرتر هلند با این حال ، پادشاه لوئیس بناپارت سعی کرد به جای برادرش به منافع هلند خدمت کند ، و او مجبور شد در 1 ژوئیه 1810 از سلطنت کناره گیری کند. امپراتور ارتش را اعزام کرد و هلند تا پاییز 1813 با شکست ناپلئون بخشی از امپراتوری فرانسه شد. در نبرد لایپزیگ .

نقشه امپراتوری استعمار هلند . سبز روشن: سرزمین هایی که تحت کنترل یا منشأ مناطق تحت مدیریت شرکت هند شرقی هلند هستند . سبز تیره: شرکت هلندی غرب هند . مناطق زرد بعداً ، در طول قرن نوزدهم ، با رنگ زرد نشان داده شده است.

ویلیام فردریک ، پسر آخرین نگهبان ، در سال 1813 به هلند بازگشت و خود را شاهزاده حاکم هلند اعلام کرد . دو سال بعد ، کنگره وین جنوب هلند را به شمال اضافه کرد تا کشوری قوی در مرز شمالی فرانسه ایجاد شود. ویلیام فردریک این هلند متحد را به مقام پادشاهی رساند و خود را در سال 1815 به عنوان پادشاه ویلیام اول اعلام کرد. علاوه بر این ، ویلیام در ازای دارایی های آلمانی خود ، دوک بزرگ ارثی لوکزامبورگ شد. با این حال ، هلند جنوبی از سال 1581 از نظر فرهنگی از شمال جدا شده بود و شورش کردبه جنوب در سال 1830 به عنوان بلژیک استقلال یافت (در سال 1839 توسط هلند شمالی به رسمیت شناخته شد زیرا پادشاهی هلند با فرمان ایجاد شد) ، در حالی که اتحادیه شخصی بین لوکزامبورگ و هلند در سال 1890 ، هنگامی که ویلیام سوم مرد و هیچ مرد زنده ای درگذشت ، قطع شد. وارثان قوانین متعالی مانع از این شد که دخترش ملکه ویلهلمینا دوشس بزرگ بعدی شود.

تسلیم دیپونگورو به ژنرال دکاک در پایان جنگ جاوا در سال 1830. نقاشی توسط نیکلاس پینمن

انقلاب بلژیک در داخل و جنگ جاوا در هند شرقی هلند ، هلند را در آستانه ورشکستگی قرار داد. با این حال ، سیستم کشت در سال 1830 معرفی شد. در هند شرقی هلند ، 20 درصد از زمین های روستا باید برای صادرات به محصولات دولتی اختصاص داده شود. این سیاست ثروت هنگفتی را برای هلندی ها به ارمغان آورد و مستعمره را به خودکفایی رساند.

هلند برده داری در مستعمرات خود را در سال 1863 لغو کرد. [94] برده ها در سورینام تنها در سال 1873 کاملاً آزاد خواهند بود ، زیرا قانون تصریح کرده بود که باید یک انتقال اجباری 10 ساله وجود داشته باشد. [95]

جنگهای جهانی و فراتر از آن (1890 تا کنون)

هلند توانست در طول جنگ جهانی اول بی طرف بماند ، تا حدی به این دلیل که واردات کالا از طریق هلند برای بقای آلمان تا محاصره نیروی دریایی سلطنتی بریتانیا در سال 1916 ضروری بود. [96] در جنگ جهانی دوم ، زمانی که نازی ها تغییر کرد. آلمان به هلند حمله در 10 ماه مه 1940. روتردام حمله رعد اسا عنصر اصلی ارتش هلندی به تسلیم مجبور چهار روز بعد. در زمان اشغال ، بیش از 100000 یهودی هلندی [97] جمع آوری و به اردوگاه های نابودی نازی ها منتقل شدند . تنها تعداد کمی از آنها زنده ماندند. کارگران هلندی برای کار اجباری در آلمان استخدام شدند ،غیرنظامیانی که مقاومت می کردند در تلافی حملات به سربازان آلمانی کشته شدند و حومه شهر برای غذا غارت شد. اگرچه هزاران هلندی بودند که با مخفی کردن یهودیان از آلمان جان خود را به خطر انداختند ، اما بیش از 20000 فاشیست هلندی به SS Waffen پیوستند ، [98] در جبهه شرقی جنگیدند . [99] همکاران سیاسی اعضای NSB فاشیست ، تنها حزب سیاسی قانونی در هلند اشغالی بودند. در 8 دسامبر 1941 ، دولت تبعیدی هلند در لندن به ژاپن اعلام جنگ کرد ، [100] اما نتوانست مانع اشغال ژاپن از هند شرقی هلند (اندونزی) شود.به [101] در سالهای 1944-45 ، اولین ارتش کانادا ، که شامل نیروهای کانادایی ، انگلیسی و لهستانی بود ، مسئول آزادسازی بیشتر هلند بود. [102] بلافاصله پس از روز VE ، هلندی ها در جنگ استعماری علیه جمهوری جدید اندونزی جنگیدند .

نخست وزیران سابق ویم کوک ، دریس ون آگت ، پیت دی یونگ ، رود لوبرز و یان پیتر بالکننده با نخست وزیر مارک روته ، در سال 2011

در سال 1954 ، منشور پادشاهی هلند ساختار سیاسی هلند را که در نتیجه فشار بین المللی برای انجام استعمارزدایی بود ، اصلاح کرد . مستعمرات هلندی سورینام و کوراسائو و وابستگی ها و کشور اروپایی همگی بر اساس برابری به کشورهای داخل پادشاهی تبدیل شدند. اندونزی در آگوست 1945 استقلال خود را اعلام کرده بود (در 1949 به رسمیت شناخته شد) ، و بنابراین هرگز بخشی از پادشاهی اصلاح شده نبود. سورینام در سال 1975 دنبال شد. پس از جنگ ، هلند دوران بی طرفی را پشت سر گذاشت و روابط نزدیکتری با کشورهای همسایه برقرار کرد. هلند یکی از اعضای موسس بود بنلوکس از ناتو، اوراتوم و انجمن ذغال سنگ و فولاد اروپا ، که به EEC ( بازار مشترک ) و بعداً به اتحادیه اروپا تبدیل می شود .

تلاشهای مهاجرتی با تشویق دولت برای کاهش تراکم جمعیت باعث شد حدود 500000 هلندی پس از جنگ این کشور را ترک کنند. [103] دهه 1960 و 1970 زمان تغییرات اجتماعی و فرهنگی بزرگی بود ، مانند تثبیت سریع ، که با انحطاط تقسیمات قدیمی در خطوط سیاسی و مذهبی مشخص می شد. جوانان و به ویژه دانش آموزان ، آداب و رسوم سنتی را رد کردند و خواستار تغییر موضوعاتی مانند حقوق زنان ، جنسیت ، خلع سلاح و مسائل زیست محیطی شدند . در سال 2002 یورو به عنوان پول فیات معرفی شد و در سال 2010 پولآنتیل هلند شد حل . همه پرسی در هر جزیره برای تعیین وضعیت آینده آنها برگزار شد. در نتیجه ، جزایر Bonaire ، Sint Eustatius و Saba (جزایر BES) باید روابط نزدیکتری با هلند به دست آورند. این منجر به ادغام این سه جزیره در کشور هلند به عنوان شهرداری های ویژه پس از انحلال آنتیل هلند شد. شهرداری های ویژه در مجموع به عنوان هلند کارائیب شناخته می شوند .

جغرافیا

نقشه امدادی هلند اروپایی

به گزارش اداره مرکزی آمار، هلند اروپا به مساحت 41545 کیلومتر 2 (16041 مایل مربع)، از جمله آب بدن؛ و زمینی به مساحت 33481 کیلومتر 2 (12927 مایل مربع). جزایر کارائیب هلند به مساحت 328 کیلومتر 2 (127 مایل مربع) [104] این بین نهفته است عرض های جغرافیایی 50 درجه و 54 درجه شمالی و طول جغرافیایی 3 درجه و 8 ° E .

هلند از نظر جغرافیایی نسبت به سطح دریا بسیار پایین است و کشوری مسطح محسوب می شود ، زیرا حدود 26 درصد مساحت آن [27] و 21 درصد از جمعیت آن [105] زیر سطح دریا واقع شده است و تنها حدود 50 درصد از سرزمین آن بیش از یک متر بالاتر از سطح دریا . [106] بخش اروپایی این کشور در بیشتر قسمتها مسطح است ، به استثنای کوهپایه هایی در جنوب شرقی دور ، تا ارتفاع بیش از 321 متر ، و برخی از دامنه های تپه ای کم در قسمتهای مرکزی. بیشتر مناطق زیر سطح دریا ساخته دست بشر است ، ناشی از استخراج ذغال سنگ نارس یا از طریق احیای زمین به دست آمده است . از اواخر قرن 16 ، پولدر بزرگمناطق از طریق سیستم های زهکشی پیچیده که شامل دایک ها ، کانال ها و ایستگاه های پمپاژ است ، حفظ می شوند. نزدیک به 17 درصد مساحت کشور از دریا و دریاچه ها بازیابی می شود.

بسیاری از کشور در اصل توسط تشکیل شد مصب ها: از سه رودخانه بزرگ اروپایی راین ( ریجن ) از میوس ( ماس ) و شلده ( Schelde )، و همچنین خود شاخه . قسمت جنوب غربی هلند تا به امروز دلتای رودخانه ای از این سه رود ، دلتای راین-موز-شلد است .

هلند اروپایی توسط راین ، وال ، شاخه اصلی شاخه آن و Meuse به دو قسمت شمالی و جنوبی تقسیم می شود . در گذشته ، این رودها به عنوان یک سد طبیعی بین استیلاک عمل می کردند و از این رو به لحاظ تاریخی یک شکاف فرهنگی ایجاد کردند ، همانطور که در برخی از ویژگیهای آوایی که در هردو طرف آنچه هلندی ها آنها را "رودخانه های بزرگ" می نامند قابل تشخیص است ( de Grote Rivieren ). یکی دیگر از شاخه های مهم رودخانه راین ، رودخانه IJssel ، به دریاچه IJssel ، Zuiderzee سابق ("دریای جنوبی") می ریزد . درست مانند رودخانه قبلی ، این رودخانه شکاف زبانی ایجاد می کند: مردم شمال شرقی این رود هلندی ناز ساکسونی صحبت می کنندگویش ها (به جز استان Friesland ، که زبان خاص خود را دارد). [107]

زمين شناسي

هلند مدرن در نتیجه اثر متقابل چهار رودخانه اصلی ( راین ، میوز ، شلد و IJssel ) و تأثیر دریای شمال شکل گرفت . هلند عمدتا از رسوبات مشتق شده از دلتا ، ساحلی و ائولی در طول دوره های یخبندان و بین یخبندان پلیستوسن تشکیل شده است.

تقریباً کل غرب هلند از خور رودخانه راین - میوس تشکیل شده است ، اما مداخله انسان فرایندهای طبیعی کار را تا حد زیادی تغییر داد. اکثر مناطق غربی هلند به دلیل فرایند انسان در تبدیل آبهای ایستاده به سرزمین قابل استفاده ، یک پلدر ، زیر سطح دریا قرار دارند .

در شرق هلند بقایای آخرین عصر یخبندان یافت می شود که تقریباً ده هزار سال پیش به پایان رسید. هنگامی که ورق یخ قاره از شمال حرکت می کرد ، مورین را به جلو هل می داد. ورق یخ متوقف شد زیرا نیمه شرقی هلند را پوشانده بود. پس از پایان عصر یخبندان ، مورین به شکل یک خط بلند تپه باقی ماند. شهرهای آرنهم و نایمخن بر روی این تپه ها ساخته شده اند. [108]

سیل

سیل کریسمس 1717 در نتیجه یک طوفان شمال غرب که منجر به مرگ هزاران نفر شد.

در طول قرنها ، خط ساحلی هلند در نتیجه بلایای طبیعی و دخالت انسانها بطور قابل توجهی تغییر کرده است.

در 14 دسامبر 1287 ، سیل سنت لوسیا هلند و آلمان را تحت تأثیر قرار داد و در یکی از مخرب ترین سیل های تاریخ ثبت شده ، بیش از 50،000 نفر کشته شدند. [109] سنت الیزابت سیل از 1421 و سوء مدیریت در حوادث پس از آن نابود تازه اصلاح مزروع ، جایگزین کردن آن با 72 کیلومتر 2 (28 مایل مربع) Biesbosch دشت های سیلابی جزر و مدی در جنوب مرکز. سیل عظیم دریای شمال در اوایل فوریه 1953 باعث فرو ریختن چند دایک در جنوب غربی هلند شد. بیش از 1800 نفر در سیل غرق شدند. دولت هلند متعاقباً برنامه ای در مقیاس بزرگ با عنوان " دلتا کار می کند " ایجاد کرد"، برای محافظت از کشور در برابر سیل های آینده ، که طی بیش از سی سال تکمیل شد.

نقشه ای که مناطق هلند را زیر سطح دریا نشان می دهد

تأثیر بلایا ، تا حدی از طریق فعالیت های انسانی افزایش یافت. نسبتا بالا ارتفاع مرداب خشک شد به عنوان زمین های کشاورزی استفاده شود. زهکشی باعث انقباض ذغال سنگ نارس و کاهش سطح زمین شد ، که سطح آبهای زیرزمینی برای جبران افت سطح زمین کاهش یافت و باعث شد تا ذغال سنگ نارس بیشتر منقبض شود. علاوه بر این ، تا زمانی که ذغال سنگ نارس قرن 19 استخراج ، خشک شده و برای سوخت استفاده می شد ، این مشکل را بیشتر تشدید می کرد. قرن ها استحصال وسیع و ضعیف کنترل شده از ذغال سنگ نارس سطح زمین در حال حاضر کم را چندین متر کاهش داد. حتی در مناطق سیل زده ، استخراج ذغال سنگ نارس از طریق لایروبی چمن ادامه یافت.

به دلیل جاری شدن سیل ، کشاورزی دشوار بود ، که تجارت خارجی را تشویق می کرد ، نتیجه آن این بود که هلندی ها از اوایل قرن 14th/15 درگیر امور جهانی بودند. [110]

پلدری در 5.53 متر زیر سطح دریا

برای محافظت در برابر سیل ، یک سری دفاع در برابر آب انجام شد. در هزاره اول پس از میلاد ، روستاها و خانه های مزرعه بر روی تپه های ساخته شده توسط انسان به نام ترپس ساخته شد . بعداً ، این ترپ ها توسط دایک ها متصل شدند. در قرن دوازدهم ، آژانس های دولتی محلی به نام " Waterchappen " ("تخته های آب") یا " hoogheemraadschappen " ("شوراهای عالی خانگی") ظاهر شدند ، که وظیفه آنها حفظ سطح آب و محافظت از یک منطقه در برابر سیل بود. این نمایندگی ها به حیات خود ادامه می دهند. با پایین آمدن سطح زمین ، دایک ها به ضرورت رشد کرده و در یک سیستم یکپارچه ادغام شدند. توسط آسیاب های بادی قرن سیزدهمبرای پمپاژ آب از مناطق زیر سطح دریا مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. آسیاب های بادی بعد به دریاچه تخلیه مورد استفاده قرار گرفت، ایجاد معروف polders . [111]

در سال 1932 ، Afsluitdijk ("غواصی بستن") تکمیل شد ، Zuiderzee سابق (دریای جنوبی) را از دریای شمال مسدود کرد و در نتیجه IJsselmeer ( دریاچه IJssel ) ایجاد شد. این بخشی از آثار بزرگتر Zuiderzee شد که در آن چهار پلدر به مساحت 2500 کیلومتر مربع (965 مایل مربع) از دریا بازیابی شد. [112] [113]

هلند یکی از کشورهایی است که ممکن است بیشتر از تغییرات آب و هوایی آسیب ببیند . بالا آمدن دریا نه تنها یک مشکل است ، بلکه الگوهای نامنظم آب و هوا ممکن است باعث طغیان رودخانه ها شود. [114] [115] [116]

دلتا کار می کند

دلتا آثار در استان واقع هلند جنوبی و زیلند .

پس از فاجعه 1953 ، Delta Works ساخته شد ، که مجموعه ای جامع از کارهای عمرانی در سراسر سواحل هلند است. این پروژه در سال 1958 آغاز شد و در سال 1997 با اتمام Maeslantkering به پایان رسید . از آن زمان ، پروژه های جدیدی به طور دوره ای برای بازسازی و تجدید آثار دلتا آغاز شده است. هدف اصلی پروژه دلتا کاهش خطر وقوع سیل در هلند جنوبی و زلند به 10 هزار سال یکبار (در مقایسه با یکبار در 4000 سال برای بقیه کشور) بود. این امر با بالا بردن 3000 کیلومتر (1900 مایل) دایک های بیرونی دریا و 10 هزار کیلومتر (6200 مایل) از دایک های داخلی ، کانال و رودخانه و با بستن خور خورها به دست آمد.از استان زیلند ارزیابی های جدید ریسک گهگاه مشکلاتی را نشان می دهد که نیاز به تقویت پروژه های دلتا اضافی دارد. پروژه دلتا توسط انجمن مهندسان عمران آمریکا به عنوان یکی از عجایب هفتگانه دنیای مدرن در نظر گرفته شده است . [117]

پیش بینی می شود که گرم شدن کره زمین در قرن 21 منجر به افزایش سطح دریا شود . هلند به طور فعال خود را برای افزایش سطح دریا آماده می کند. کمیسیون دلتا از نظر سیاسی یک برنامه عملی برای مقابله با افزایش سطح دریا 1.10 متر (4 فوت) و کاهش همزمان ارتفاع زمین 10 سانتی متر (4 اینچ) تدوین کرده است. این طرح شامل تقویت دفاع های ساحلی موجود مانند دایک ها و تپه های شنی با 1.30 متر (4.3 فوت) حفاظت اضافی از سیل است. تغییرات آب و هوایی نه تنها هلند را از ساحل تهدید می کند بلکه می تواند الگوهای بارندگی و رواناب رودخانه ها را نیز تغییر دهد. برای محافظت از کشور در برابر طغیان رودخانه ها ، برنامه دیگری در حال اجرا است. طرح اتاق برای رودخانهفضای بیشتری به رودخانه ها می دهد ، از مناطق پرجمعیت محافظت می کند و امکان سیل دوره ای زمین های غیر قابل دفاع را فراهم می کند. معدود ساکنانی که در این مناطق به اصطلاح "سرریز" زندگی می کردند ، به مناطق مرتفع منتقل شده اند ، برخی از آنها از سطح سیلاب پیش بینی شده بالاتر رفته است. [118]

اقلیم

جهت غالب باد در هلند اروپایی جنوب غربی است که باعث ایجاد آب و هوای دریایی معتدل ، تابستانهای نسبتاً گرم و زمستانهای سرد و نوعاً رطوبت زیاد می شود. این امر به ویژه در نزدیکی خط ساحلی هلند صادق است ، جایی که تفاوت درجه حرارت بین تابستان و زمستان ، و همچنین بین روز و شب به میزان قابل توجهی کمتر از جنوب شرقی کشور است.

روزهای یخ - حداکثر دمای زیر 0 درجه سانتی گراد (32 درجه فارنهایت) - معمولاً از دسامبر تا فوریه رخ می دهد ، و گاهی اوقات روز یخ نادر قبل یا بعد از آن دوره رخ می دهد. روزهای یخبندان-حداقل دمای زیر 0 درجه سانتی گراد (32 درجه فارنهایت)-بسیار بیشتر اتفاق می افتد ، معمولاً از اواسط نوامبر تا اواخر مارس متغیر است ، اما به ندرت در اواسط اکتبر و اواسط ماه مه اندازه گیری نمی شود. اگر فرد ارتفاع اندازه گیری را 10 سانتی متر (4 اینچ) از سطح زمین به جای 150 سانتی متر (59 اینچ) انتخاب کند ، حتی ممکن است چنین دمایی را در اواسط تابستان پیدا کند. به طور متوسط ​​، برف می تواند از نوامبر تا آوریل رخ دهد ، اما گاهی اوقات در ماه مه یا اکتبر نیز رخ می دهد.

روزهای گرم - حداکثر دمای بالای 20 درجه سانتی گراد (68 درجه فارنهایت) - معمولاً در آوریل تا اکتبر یافت می شود ، اما در برخی از مناطق کشور این روزهای گرم نیز می تواند در ماه مارس یا حتی گاهی در نوامبر یا فوریه (معمولاً در با این حال ، دی بیلت). روزهای تابستان - حداکثر دمای بالای 25 درجه سانتیگراد (77 درجه فارنهایت) - معمولاً از ماه مه تا سپتامبر در دی بلت اندازه گیری می شود ، روزهای گرمسیری - حداکثر دمای بالای 30 درجه سانتی گراد (86 درجه فارنهایت) - نادر هستند و معمولاً فقط در ماه ژوئن رخ می دهد اوت

بارندگی در طول سال نسبتاً مساوی در هر ماه توزیع می شود. ماه های تابستان و پاییز تمایل به بارندگی کمی بیشتر از ماه های دیگر دارند ، عمدتا به دلیل شدت بارندگی و نه فراوانی روزهای بارندگی (این امر به ویژه در تابستان هنگامی که رعد و برق نیز بسیار بیشتر است) بیشتر است.

تعداد ساعات آفتابی تحت تأثیر این واقعیت است که به دلیل عرض جغرافیایی ، طول روزها بین هشت ساعت در ماه دسامبر و نزدیک به 17 ساعت در ماه ژوئن متغیر است.

جدول زیر بر اساس میانگین اندازه گیری های ایستگاه هواشناسی KNMI در De Bilt بین 1991 تا 2020 است. بالاترین دمای ثبت شده در 25 ژوئیه 2019 در Gilze-Rijen به دست آمد . [119]

داده های آب و هوایی برای De Bilt (میانگین 1991-2020) ، همه مکانهای KNMI (افراطی 1901-2021) ، روزهای برفی: (میانگین 2003-20020).
ماه جان فوریه مارس آوریل ممکن است جون ژوئیه اوت سپتامبر اکتبر نوامبر دسامبر سال
ضبط درجه حرارت بالا (درجه فارنهایت) 17.2
(63.0)
20.5
(68.9)
25.6
(78.1)
32.2
(90.0)
35.6
(96.1)
38.4
(101.1)
40.7
(105.3)
38.6
(101.5)
35.1
(95.2)
30.1
(86.2)
22.0
(71.6)
17.8
(64.0)
40.7
(105.3)
میانگین درجه حرارت بالا (درجه فارنهایت) 6.1
(43.0)
7.0
(44.6)
10.5
(50.9)
14.8
(58.6)
18.3
(64.9)
20.9
(69.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.9
(73.2)
19.5
(67.1)
14.8
(58.6)
9.9
(49.8)
6.7
(44.1)
14.5
(58.1)
میانگین روزانه ° C (° F) 3.6
(38.5)
3.9
(39.0)
6.5
(43.7)
9.8
(49.6)
13.4
(56.1)
16.2
(61.2)
18.3
(64.9)
17.9
(64.2)
14.7
(58.5)
10.9
(51.6)
7.0
(44.6)
4.2
(39.6)
10.5
(50.9)
میانگین کم درجه سانتی گراد (درجه فارنهایت) 0.9
(33.6)
0.7
(33.3)
2.4
(36.3)
4.5
(40.1)
8.0
(46.4)
10.8
(51.4)
13.0
(55.4)
12.5
(54.5)
10.0
(50.0)
7.1
(44.8)
3.9
(39.0)
1.6
(34.9)
6.0
(42.8)
ضبط کم درجه سانتی گراد (درجه فارنهایت) 27.4 پوند
(17.3 پوند)
26.8 پوند
(16.2 پوند)
.7 20.7
( .3 5.3 )
.49.4
(15.1)
.45.4
(22.3)
.21.2
(29.8)
0.7
(33.3)
1.3
(34.3)
.73.7
(25.3)
.58.5
(16.7)
.414.4
(6.1)
.3 22.3
( .18.1 )
27.4 پوند
(17.3 پوند)
میانگین بارش میلی متر (اینچ) 70.8
(2.79)
63.1
(2.48)
57.8
(2.28)
41.6
(1.64)
59.3
(2.33)
70.5
(2.78)
85.2
(3.35)
83.6
(3.29)
77.9
(3.07)
81.1
(3.19)
80.0
(3.15)
83.8
(3.30)
854.7
(33.65)
میانگین روزهای بارندگی (≥ 0.1 میلی متر) 18 16 15 12 14 14 15 15 14 16 19 19 186
میانگین روزهای برفی (≥ 0 سانتی متر) 5 6 3 0 - - - - - 0 1 4 19
Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 79 74 74 75 77 79 83 86 89 89 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.6 89.6 139.4 189.2 217.5 207.1 213.9 196.3 152.8 119.3 67.4 55.5 1,714.6
Source: KNMI.nl[120]

Climate change

Co2 emissions per capita in the European Union. (Our World in Data)

Climate change in the Netherlands is already affecting the country. The average temperature in the Netherlands rose by almost 2 degrees Celsius from 1906 to 2017.[121]

The Netherlands has the fourth largest CO
2
emissions per capita of the European Union.[122] These changes have resulted in increased frequency of droughts and heatwaves. Because significant portions of the Netherlands have been reclaimed from the sea or otherwise are very near sea level, the Netherlands is very vulnerable to sea level rise. The Dutch government has set goals to lower emissions in the next few decades. The Dutch response to climate change is driven by a number of unique factors, including larger green recovery plans by the European Union in the face of the COVID-19 and a climate change litigation case, State of the Netherlands v. Urgenda Foundation, which created mandatory climate change mitigation through emissions reductions 25% below 1990 levels.[123][124] At the end of 2018 CO2 emissions were down 15% compared to 1990 levels.[125] The goal of the Dutch government is to reduce emissions in 2030 by 49%.

Nature

The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes, heathland, woods, dunes, and other habitats. Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer, the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten (literally 'Natures monuments'), a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves. The Dutch part of the Wadden Sea in the north, with its tidal flats and wetlands, is rich in biological diversity, and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Nature Site in 2009.

The Oosterschelde, formerly the northeast estuary of the river Scheldt was designated a national park in 2002, thereby making it the largest national park in the Netherlands at an area of 370 km2 (140 sq mi). It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde but also includes mudflats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers. Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching.

Phytogeographically, the European Netherlands is shared between the Atlantic European and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests.[126] In 1871, the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.[citation needed] These woods were planted on anthropogenic heaths and sand-drifts (overgrazed heaths) (Veluwe). The Netherlands had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 0.6/10, ranking it 169th globally out of 172 countries.[127]

Caribbean islands

While Curaçao, Aruba and Sint Maarten have a constituent country status, the Caribbean Netherlands are three islands designated as special municipalities of the Netherlands. The islands are part of the Lesser Antilles and have land borders with France (Saint Martin) and maritime borders with Anguilla, Curaçao, France (Saint Barthélemy), Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sint Maarten, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Venezuela.[21]

Underwater life of Klein Bonaire

Within this island group:

The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands. In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes.

Government and politics

The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet

The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since 1815, and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke[128] became a parliamentary democracy in 1848. The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole. In 2017, The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world.

The monarch is the head of state, at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs. Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands.

The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers, the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet. The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries. One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition. The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares, with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October 2010; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party of the governing coalition continuously since 1973.

The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament, the States General, which also has legislative powers. The 150 members of the House of Representatives, the lower house, are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation. These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls (for example: when one of the chambers carries a motion of no confidence, the cabinet offers its resignation to the monarch). The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate, the upper house, which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them. Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament, a consultative council.

Political culture

De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffee shops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.

Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas. They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily.

The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance.[129] In the 18th century, while the Dutch Reformed Church was the state religion, Catholicism, other forms of Protestantism, such as Baptists and Lutherans, as well as Judaism were tolerated but discriminated against.[citation needed]

In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation, in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government. This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs, prostitution, LGBT rights, euthanasia, and abortion, which are among the most liberal in the world.

Political parties

The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010

Because of the multi-party system, no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, as a result, coalition cabinets had to be formed. Since suffrage became universal in 1917, the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: the strongest of which were the Christian Democrats, currently represented by the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA); second were the Social Democrats, represented by the Labour Party (PvdA); and third were the Liberals, of which the right-wing People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) is the main representative.

These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: so either a centre-left coalition of the Christian Democrats and Social Democrats was ruling or a centre-right coalition of Christian Democrats and Liberals. In the 1970s, the party system became more volatile: the Christian Democratic parties lost seats, while new parties became successful, such as the radical democrat and progressive liberal Democrats 66 (D66) or the ecologist party GroenLinks (GL).

In the 1994 election, the CDA lost its dominant position. A "purple" cabinet was formed by the VVD, D66, and PvdA. In the 2002 elections, this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right-wing LPF, a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn, who was assassinated a week before the elections. A short-lived cabinet was formed by CDA, VVD, and LPF, which was led by the CDA Leader Jan Peter Balkenende. After the 2003 elections, in which the LPF lost most of its seats, a cabinet was formed by the CDA, VVD, and D66. The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state, the healthcare system, and immigration policy.

In June 2006, the cabinet fell after D66 voted in favour of a motion of no confidence against the Minister of Immigration and Integration, Rita Verdonk, who had instigated an investigation of the asylum procedure of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a VVD MP. A caretaker cabinet was formed by the CDA and VVD, and general elections were held on 22 November 2006. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains. The formation of a new cabinet took three months, resulting in a coalition of CDA, PvdA, and Christian Union.

On 20 February 2010, the cabinet fell when the PvdA refused to prolong the involvement of the Dutch Army in Uruzgan, Afghanistan.[130] Snap elections were held on 9 June 2010, with devastating results for the previously largest party, the CDA, which lost about half of its seats, resulting in 21 seats. The VVD became the largest party with 31 seats, closely followed by the PvdA with 30 seats. The big winner of the 2010 elections was Geert Wilders, whose right wing PVV,[131][132] the ideological successor to the LPF, more than doubled its number of seats.[133] Negotiation talks for a new government resulted in a minority government, led by VVD (a first) in coalition with CDA, which was sworn in on 14 October 2010. This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable,[134] when on 21 April 2012, Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections.[135][136][137]

VVD and PvdA won a majority in the House of Representatives during the 2012 general election. On 5 November 2012 they formed the second Rutte cabinet. After the 2017 general election, VVD, Christian Democratic Appeal, Democrats 66 and ChristenUnie formed the third Rutte cabinet. This cabinet resigned in January 2021, two months before the general election, after a child welfare fraud scandal.[138] In March 2021, centre-right VVD of Prime Minister Mark Rutte was the winner of the elections, securing 35 out of 150 seats. The second biggest party was the centre-left D66 with 24 seats. Geert Wilders' far-right party lost its support. Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in power since 2010, formed his fourth coalition government.[139]

Government

Administrative divisions

Provinces and territories of the Netherlands

The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner (Commissaris van de Koning). Informally in Limburg province this position is named Governor (Gouverneur). All provinces are divided into municipalities (gemeenten), of which there are 352 (2021).[140][141]

The country is also subdivided into 21 water districts, governed by a water board (waterschap or hoogheemraadschap), each having authority in matters concerning water management.[142][143] The creation of water boards actually pre-dates that of the nation itself, the first appearing in 1196. The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every four years.

The administrative structure on the three BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands, is outside the twelve provinces. These islands have the status of openbare lichamen (public bodies).[144] In the Netherlands these administrative units are often referred to as special municipalities.

The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves[145] and within those even several enclaves which are part of the province of North Brabant. Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Benelux, and more recently in the Schengen Area, citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves without controls.

Flag Province Capital Largest city Total area[5] Land area Population[146]
(November 2019)
Density
Drenthe Drenthe Assen Emmen 2,680 km2 (1,030 sq mi) 2,634 km2 (1,017 sq mi) 493,449 188/km2 (490/sq mi)
Flevoland Flevoland Lelystad Almere 2,413 km2 (932 sq mi) 1,413 km2 (546 sq mi) 422,202 299/km2 (770/sq mi)
Friesland Friesland Leeuwarden 5,749 km2 (2,220 sq mi) 3,324 km2 (1,283 sq mi) 649,988 196/km2 (510/sq mi)
Gelderland Gelderland Arnhem Nijmegen 5,136 km2 (1,983 sq mi) 4,967 km2 (1,918 sq mi) 2,084,478 420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Groningen (province) Groningen Groningen 2,960 km2 (1,140 sq mi) 2,325 km2 (898 sq mi) 585,881 252/km2 (650/sq mi)
Limburg (Netherlands) Limburg Maastricht 2,210 km2 (850 sq mi) 2,148 km2 (829 sq mi) 1,118,223 521/km2 (1,350/sq mi)
North Brabant North Brabant 's-Hertogenbosch Eindhoven 5,082 km2 (1,962 sq mi) 4,908 km2 (1,895 sq mi) 2,562,566 523/km2 (1,350/sq mi)
North Holland North Holland Haarlem Amsterdam 4,092 km2 (1,580 sq mi) 2,662 km2 (1,028 sq mi) 2,877,909 1,082/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
Overijssel Overijssel Zwolle Enschede 3,421 km2 (1,321 sq mi) 3,323 km2 (1,283 sq mi) 1,162,215 350/km2 (910/sq mi)
South Holland South Holland The Hague Rotterdam 3,419 km2 (1,320 sq mi) 2,814 km2 (1,086 sq mi) 3,705,625 1,317/km2 (3,410/sq mi)
Utrecht (province) Utrecht Utrecht 1,449 km2 (559 sq mi) 1,380 km2 (530 sq mi) 1,353,596 981/km2 (2,540/sq mi)
Zeeland Zeeland Middelburg 2,934 km2 (1,133 sq mi) 1,783 km2 (688 sq mi) 383,689 216/km2 (560/sq mi)
Total Amsterdam 41,545 km2 (16,041 sq mi) 33,481 km2 (12,927 sq mi) 17,399,821 521/km2 (1,350/sq mi)
Flag Name Capital Area[147] Population[147]
(January 2019)
Density
Bonaire Bonaire Kralendijk 294 km2 (114 sq mi) 20,104 69/km2 (180/sq mi)
Saba Saba The Bottom 13 km2 (5.0 sq mi) 1,915 148/km2 (380/sq mi)
Sint Eustatius Sint Eustatius Oranjestad 21 km2 (8.1 sq mi) 3,138 150/km2 (390/sq mi)
Total 328 km2 (127 sq mi) 25,157 77/km2 (200/sq mi)

Foreign relations

The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague

The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. Since World War II, the Netherlands has become a member of a large number of international organisations, most prominently the UN, NATO and the EU. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade.

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs.

During and after the Dutch Golden Age, the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia. Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the 1940s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions. Suriname became independent in 1975. The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands. In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands.

Military

Lieutenant admiral Rob Bauer is the current Chief of Defence.

The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late 1500s. The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army. The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in 1830. After 1830, it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars (including the First World War), until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and defeated by the Wehrmacht in May 1940.

The Netherlands abandoned its neutrality in 1948 when it signed the Treaty of Brussels, and became a founding member of NATO in 1949. The Dutch military was therefore part of the NATO strength in Cold War Europe, deploying its army to several bases in Germany. More than 3,000 Dutch soldiers were assigned to the 2nd Infantry Division of the United States Army during the Korean War. In 1996 conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army. Since the 1990s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War, it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein, and it was engaged in Afghanistan.

The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke (Royal):

The submarine service opened to women on 1 January 2017. The Korps Commandotroepen, the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando.[148] The Dutch Ministry of Defence employs more than 70,000 personnel, including over 20,000 civilians and over 50,000 military personnel.[149] In April 2011 the government announced a major reduction in its military because of a cut in government expenditure, including a decrease in the number of tanks, fighter aircraft, naval ships and senior officials.[150]

The Netherlands has ratified many international conventions concerning war law. The Netherlands decided not to sign the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[151]

Economy

A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Port of Rotterdam is Europe's largest port.

The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries. Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy. The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom. The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report (2nd in 2016), and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in 2017.[152] In addition, the country was ranked the second most innovative nation in the world in the 2018 Global Innovation Index.[153]

The Netherlands is a heavily developed country. Shown here is a motorway passing by a polder with a drainage windmill, and two wind turbines in the background.

As of 2020, the key trading partners of the Netherlands were Germany, Belgium, the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, China and Russia.[154] The Netherlands is one of the world's 10 leading exporting countries. Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector. Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism. Examples of international Dutch companies operating in Netherlands include Randstad, Unilever, Heineken, KLM, financial services (ING, ABN AMRO, Rabobank), chemicals (DSM, AKZO), petroleum refining (Royal Dutch Shell), electronical machinery (Philips, ASML), and satellite navigation (TomTom).

The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world, and ranks 11th in GDP (nominal) per capita. Between 1997 and 2000 annual economic growth (GDP) averaged nearly 4%, well above the European average. Growth slowed considerably from 2001 to 2005 with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4.1% in the third quarter of 2007. In May 2013, inflation was at 2.8% per year.[155] In April 2013, unemployment was at 8.2% (or 6.7% following the ILO definition) of the labour force.[156] In February 2019, this was reduced to 3.4%.[157]

In Q3 and Q4 2011, the Dutch economy contracted by 0.4% and 0.7%, respectively, because of European Debt Crisis, while in Q4 the Eurozone economy shrunk by 0.3%.[158] The Netherlands also has a relatively low GINI coefficient of 0.326. Despite ranking 11th in GDP per capita, UNICEF ranked the Netherlands 1st in child well-being in rich countries, both in 2007 and in 2013.[159][160][161] On the Index of Economic Freedom Netherlands is the 14th most free market capitalist economy out of 180 surveyed countries.

Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.[162] The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (AEX), part of Euronext, is the world's oldest stock exchange and is one of Europe's largest bourses. It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. As a founding member of the euro, the Netherlands replaced (for accounting purposes) its former currency, the "gulden" (guilder), on 1 January 1999, along with 15 other adopters of the euro. Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January 2002. One euro was equivalent to 2.20371 Dutch guilders. In the Caribbean Netherlands, the United States dollar is used instead of the euro.

The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.

The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe. Other important parts of the economy are international trade (Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company), banking and transport. The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners. Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4.2 million international visitors.[163] Since the enlargement of the EU large numbers of migrant workers have arrived in the Netherlands from Central and Eastern Europe.[164]

The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States. The economy experienced a slowdown in 2005, but in 2006 recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment. The pace of job growth reached 10-year highs in 2007. The Netherlands is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report.[165]

Natural gas

Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.

Beginning in the 1950s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues for the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget.[166] However, the unforeseen consequences of the country's huge energy wealth impacted the competitiveness of other sectors of the economy, leading to the theory of Dutch disease.[166]

The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.

Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources. The last coal mine was closed in 1974. The Groningen gas field, one of the largest natural-gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren. The exploitation of this field has resulted in €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.[167] The field is operated by government-owned Gasunie and output is jointly exploited by the government, Royal Dutch Shell, and Exxon Mobil through NAM (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij). "Gas extraction has resulted in increasingly strong earth tremors, some measuring as much as 3.6 on the Richter magnitude scale. The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at €6.5 billion. Around 35,000 homes are said to be affected."[168] The Netherlands has an estimated 25% of natural gas reserves in the EU.[169] The energy sector accounted for almost 11% of the GDP in 2014.[170] Netherlands' economy, mainly due to the large shares of natural gas reserves, is considered to have "very high" energy intensity rating.[171]

The Netherlands is faced with future challenges as the energy supply is forecasted to fall short of the demand by the year 2025 in the gas sector. This is attributed to the depletion of the Netherlands' major gas field, Groningen, and the earthquakes that have hit the Groningen region.[172] In addition, there is ambiguity surrounding the feasibility of producing unconventional gas. The Netherlands relies heavily on natural gas to provide energy. Gas is the main source of heating for households in the Netherlands[169] and represented 35% of the energy mix in 2014.[173] Furthermore, The European Union 2020 package (20% reduction in GHG emissions, 20% renewables in the energy mix and 20% improvement in energy efficiency) enacted in 2009 has influenced the domestic energy politics of Netherlands and pressured non-state actors to give consent to more aggressive energy reforms that would reduce reliance on natural resources as a source of income to the economy.[174] Therefore, a transition towards renewable energy has been a key objective by Netherlands in order to safeguard the energy security of the country from natural resources depletion, mainly gas.[169] Netherlands has set a 14% renewable energy target of the total energy mix by the year 2020.[175] However, the continuation of providing tax breaks to electricity generated by coal and gas, and to the exploration and extraction of gas from fields that are "insufficiently" profitable,[176] renders a successful transition towards renewable energy more difficult to achieve due to inconsistencies in the policy mix. In 2011, it was estimated that the renewable energy sector received 31% (EUR 743MM), while the conventional energy sector received 69% (EUR 1.6B), of the total energy subsidies by the government.[176] Furthermore, the energy market in the Netherlands remains to be dominated by few major corporations Nuon, RWE, E.ON, Eneco, and Delta that have significant influence over the energy policy.[177] Renewable energy share in the energy mix is estimated to reach 12.4% by the year 2020, falling 1.6% short of the 14% target.[175][needs update]

Agriculture and natural resources

Cows near the city of Arnhem

From a biological resource perspective, the Netherlands has a low endowment: the Netherlands’ biocapacity adds up to only 0.8 global hectares in 2016, 0.2 of which are dedicated to agriculture.[178] The Dutch biocapacity per person is just about half of the 1.6 global hectares of biocapacity per person available worldwide.[179] In contrast, in 2016, the Dutch used on average 4.8 global hectares of biocapacity - their ecological footprint of consumption. This means the Dutch required nearly six times as much biocapacity as the Netherlands contains. As a result, the Netherlands was running a biocapacity deficit of 4.0 global hectares per person in 2016.[178]

The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports. It employs about 4% of the Dutch labour force but produces large surpluses in the food-processing industry and accounts for 21% of the Dutch total export value.[180] The Dutch rank first in the European Union and second worldwide in value of agricultural exports, behind only the United States,[181] with agricultural exports earning €80.7 billion in 2014,[182] up from €75.4 billion in 2012.[30] In 2019 agricultural exports were worth €94.5 billion.[183]

One-third of the world's exports of chilis, tomatoes, and cucumbers goes through the country. The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples.[184]

Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total.[184]

Demographics

Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000

The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,493,969 as of 30 April 2021.[146] It is the 5th most densely populated country in Europe, and except for the very small city-states like Monaco, Vatican City and San Marino it is the most densely populated country in Europe. And it is the 16th most densely populated country in the world with a density of 424 per square kilometre (1,100/sq mi). It is the 67th most populous country in the world. Between 1900 and 1950, the country's population almost doubled from 5.1 to 10 million. From 1950 to 2000, the population further increased, to 15.9 million, though this represented a lower rate of population growth.[185] The estimated growth rate in 2013 is 0.44%.[186]

Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017

The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1.78 children per woman (2018 estimate),[186] which is high compared with many other European countries, but below the rate of 2.1 children per woman required for natural population replacement, it remains considerably below the high of 5.39 children born per woman in 1879.[187] Netherlands subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 42.7 years.[186] Life expectancy is high in the Netherlands: 84.3 years for newborn girls and 79.7 for boys (2020 estimate).[186] The country has a migration rate of 1.9 migrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year.[186] The majority of the population of the Netherlands is ethnically Dutch. According to a 2005 estimate, the population was 80.9% Dutch, 2.4% Indonesian, 2.4% German, 2.2% Turkish, 2.0% Surinamese, 1.9% Moroccan, 0.8% Antillean and Aruban, and 7.4% others.[188] Some 150,000 to 200,000 people living in the Netherlands are expatriates, mostly concentrated in and around Amsterdam and The Hague, now constituting almost 10% of the population of these cities.[189][190]

The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, by nationality,[191] with an average height of 1.81 metres (5 ft 11.3 in) for adult males and 1.67 metres (5 ft 5.7 in) for adult females in 2009.[192] People in the south are on average about 2 cm (0.8 inches) shorter than those in the north.

In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.

According to Eurostat, in 2010 there were 1.8 million foreign-born residents in the Netherlands, corresponding to 11.1% of the total population. Of these, 1.4 million (8.5%) were born outside the EU and 0.43 million (2.6%) were born in another EU Member State.[193] On 21 November 2016, there were 3.8 million residents in the Netherlands with at least one foreign-born parent ("migration background").[194] Over half the young people in Amsterdam and Rotterdam have a non-western background.[195] Dutch people, or descendants of Dutch people, are also found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Canada, Australia, South Africa and the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau (2006), more than 5 million Americans claim total or partial Dutch ancestry.[196] There are close to 3 million Dutch-descended Afrikaners living in South Africa.[197] In 1940, there were 290,000 Europeans and Eurasians in Indonesia,[198] but most have since left the country.[199]

The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: Amsterdam in the province North Holland, Rotterdam and The Hague in the province South Holland, and Utrecht in the province Utrecht. The Randstad has a population of about 8.2 million inhabitants[200] and is the 5th largest metropolitan area in Europe. According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in 2015, 28 per cent of the Dutch population had a spendable income above 45,000 euros (which does not include spending on health care or education).[201]


Functional urban areas

Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Functional urban areas[203] Population
(November 2019)
Amsterdam 2,500,000
Rotterdam 1,500,000
The Hague 850,000
Utrecht 770,000
Eindhoven 695,000
Groningen 482,000
Enschede 402,000

Language

Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, 2006[204]

The official language is Dutch, which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. Besides Dutch, West Frisian is recognised as a second official language in the northern province of Friesland (Fryslân in West Frisian).[205] West Frisian has a formal status for government correspondence in that province. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[206]

The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon (Nedersaksisch in Dutch). Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Tweants in the region of Twente, and Drents in the province of Drenthe. Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg.[107] The dialects most spoken in the Netherlands are the Brabantian-Hollandic dialects.[207]

Ripuarian language, which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect[208][209] are legally treated as Limburgish as well - see Southeast Limburgish dialect.

English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius. It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in 1996 as non-territorial languages.[210] The Netherlands has a tradition of learning foreign languages, formalised in Dutch education laws. Some 90% of the total population indicate they are able to converse in English, 70% in German, and 29% in French.[211] English is a mandatory course in all secondary schools.[212] In most lower level secondary school educations (vmbo), one additional modern foreign language is mandatory during the first two years.[213]

In higher level secondary schools (HAVO and VWO), the acquisition of two additional modern foreign language skills is mandatory during the first three years. Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German, although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Chinese, Spanish, Russian, Italian, Turkish or Arabic.[214] Additionally, schools in Friesland teach and have exams in West Frisian, and schools across the country teach and have exams in Ancient Greek and Latin for secondary school (called Gymnasium or VWO+).

Religion

Religious identification in the Netherlands (2019)[4]

  Irreligious (54.1%)
  Catholic (20.1%)
  Protestant (14.8%)
  Muslim (5.0%)
  Other (5.9%)

The population of the Netherlands was predominantly Christian until the late 20th century, divided into a number of denominations. Although significant religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence. The Netherlands is now one of the most secular societies in the world.

In 2019, Statistics Netherlands found that 54.1% of the total population declared itself to be non-religious. Groups that represent the non-religious in the Netherlands include Humanistisch Verbond. Catholics comprised 20.1% of the total population, Protestants (14.8%). Muslims comprised 5.0% of the total population and followers of other Christian denominations and other religions (like Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism) comprised the remaining 5.9%.[4] A 2015 survey from another source found that Protestants outnumbered Catholics.[215]

The southern provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Catholic, and some residents consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity. Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. The largest of these is the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (PKN), a united church which is Calvinist and Lutheran in orientation.[216] It was formed in 2004 as a merger of the Dutch Reformed Church, the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and a smaller Lutheran Church. Several orthodox Calvinist and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN. Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijssel, in which Protestant (particularly Calvinist) beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils.

Islam is the second largest religion in the state. In 2012, there were about 825,000 Muslims in the Netherlands (5% of the population).[217] The Muslim population increased from the 1960 as a result of large numbers of migrant workers. This included migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco, as well as migrants from former Dutch colonies, such as Surinam and Indonesia. During the 1990s, Muslim refugees arrived from countries like Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Afghanistan.[218]

Another religion practised is Hinduism, with around 215,000 adherents (slightly over 1% of the population). Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka, and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas. The Netherlands has an estimated 250,000 Buddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people. In addition, there are about 45,000 Jews in the Netherlands.

The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding. This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups (especially Catholic and various Protestant). Three political parties in the Dutch parliament, (CDA, and two small parties, ChristianUnion and SGP) are based upon the Christian belief. Several Christian religious holidays are national holidays (Christmas, Easter, Pentecost and the Ascension of Jesus).[219]

Upon the country's independence, Protestants were predominant in most of the country, while Roman Catholics were dominant in the south, especially North Brabant and Limburg. In the late 19th century, secularism, atheism and pillarisation gained adherents. By 1960, Catholics equalled Protestants in number; thereafter, both Christian branches began to decline. Conversely, Islam grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since 2000 there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism.[220]

The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism, specifically the Dutch Reformed Church, which has merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. The Dutch Reformed Church was the only major Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Reformation until the 19th century. Denominational splits in 1834 and in 1886 diversified Dutch Calvinism. In 2013, a Catholic became Queen consort.

A survey in December 2014 concluded that for the first time there were more atheists (25%) than theists (17%) in the Netherlands, while the remainder of the population was agnostic (31%) or ietsistic (27%).[221] In 2015, a vast majority of the inhabitants of the Netherlands (82%) said they had never or almost never visited a church, and 59% stated that they had never been to a church of any kind. Of all the people questioned, 24% saw themselves as atheist, an increase of 11% compared to the previous study done in 2006.[222] The expected rise of spirituality (ietsism) has come to a halt according to research in 2015. In 2006, 40% of respondents considered themselves spiritual; in 2015 this has dropped to 31%. The number who believed in the existence of a higher power fell from 36% to 28% over the same period.[223]

Education

An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.

Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16. If a child does not have a "starting qualification" (HAVO, VWO or MBO 2+ degree) they are still forced to attend classes until they achieve such a qualification or reach the age of 18.[224]

All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from (on average) ages 4 to 12. It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative. Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education. After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream.

The VMBO has four grades and is subdivided over several levels. Successfully completing the VMBO results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO. The MBO (middle-level applied education) is a form of education that primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade or a vocational degree. With the MBO certification, a student can apply for the HBO. The HAVO has 5 grades and allows for admission to the HBO. The HBO (higher professional education) are universities of professional education (applied sciences) that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees. An HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO (comprising atheneum and gymnasium) has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university. Universities offer a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two-year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree programme.

Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not managed by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised. Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2,000 euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the European Union. The amount is about 10,000 euros for non-EU students.

Healthcare

Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort

In 2016, the Netherlands maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index (EHCI), which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring 916 of a maximum 1,000 points. The Netherlands has been among the top three countries in each report published since 2005. On 48 indicators such as patient rights and information, accessibility, prevention and outcomes, the Netherlands secured its top position among 37 European countries for six years in a row.[225] The Netherlands was ranked first in a study in 2009 comparing the health care systems of the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany and New Zealand.[226][227]

Ever since a major reform of the health care system in 2006, the Dutch system received more points in the Index each year. According to the HCP (Health Consumer Powerhouse), the Netherlands has 'a chaos system', meaning patients have a great degree of freedom from where to buy their health insurance, to where they get their healthcare service. The difference between the Netherlands and other countries is that the chaos is managed. Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare professionals.[228]

Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:

  • Zorgverzekeringswet (ZVW), often called "basic insurance", covers common medical care.
  • Algemene Wet Bijzondere Ziektekosten (AWBZ) covers long-term nursing and care.

While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance (basisverzekering), except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium. If a person decides not to carry out an insurance coverage, the person may be fined. Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health – it's illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions. In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management.

Healthcare in the Netherlands can be divided in several ways: three echelons, in somatic and mental health care and in 'cure' (short term) and 'care' (long term). Home doctors (huisartsen, comparable to general practitioners) form the largest part of the first echelon. Being referenced by a member of the first echelon is mandatory for access to the second and third echelon.[229] The health care system is in comparison to other Western countries quite effective but not the most cost-effective.[230]

Healthcare in the Netherlands is financed by a dual system that came into effect in January 2006. Long-term treatments, especially those that involve semi-permanent hospitalisation, and also disability costs such as wheelchairs, are covered by a state-controlled mandatory insurance. This is laid down in the Algemene Wet Bijzondere Ziektekosten ("General Law on Exceptional Healthcare Costs") which first came into effect in 1968. In 2009 this insurance covered 27% of all health care expenses.[231]

For all regular (short-term) medical treatment, there is a system of obligatory health insurance, with private health insurance companies. These insurance companies are obliged to provide a package with a defined set of insured treatments.[232] This insurance covers 41% of all health care expenses.[231]

Other sources of health care payment are taxes (14%), out of pocket payments (9%), additional optional health insurance packages (4%) and a range of other sources (4%).[231] Affordability is guaranteed through a system of income-related allowances and individual and employer-paid income-related premiums.

A key feature of the Dutch system is that premiums may not be related to health status or age. Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders are compensated through risk equalisation and a common risk pool. The funding burden for all short-term health care coverage is carried 50% by employers, 45% by the insured person and 5% by the government. Children under 18 are covered for free. Those on low incomes receive compensation to help them pay their insurance. Premiums paid by the insured are about €100 per month (about US$127 in August 2010 and €150 or US$196 in 2012), with variation of about 5% between the various competing insurers, and a yearly deductible of €220 (US$288).

Transport

Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the 1950s and now exceeds 200 billion km travelled per year,[233] three quarters of which are done by car.[234] Around half of all trips in the Netherlands are made by car, 25% by bicycle, 20% walking, and 5% by public transport.[234]

Road transport

With a total road network of 139,295 km, which includes 2,758 km of expressways,[235] the Netherlands has one of the densest road networks in the world—much denser than Germany and France, but still not as dense as Belgium.[236]

As part of its commitment to environmental sustainability, the Government of the Netherlands initiated a plan to establish over 200 recharging stations for electric vehicles across the country. The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned, and will aim to provide at least one station within a 50-kilometre radius (30 miles) from every home in the Netherlands.[237] Currently, the Netherlands alone hosts more than a quarter of all recharging stations in the European Union.[238] This share rises to 30% if Brexit is taken into account. Moreover, newly sold cars in the Netherlands have on average the lowest CO2 emissions in the EU.[239]

Public transport

A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)

About 13% of all distance is travelled by public transport, the majority of which by train.[234] Like in many other European countries, the Dutch rail network of 3,013 km route is also rather dense.[240] The network is mostly focused on passenger rail services and connects all major towns and cities, with over 400 stations. Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines,[k] two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines.[241] The Dutch national train network also includes the HSL-Zuid, a high-speed line between the Amsterdam metropolitan area and the Belgian border for trains running from Paris and London to the Netherlands.

Cycling

Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train.[234] The Dutch are estimated to have at least 18 million bicycles,[242][243] which makes more than one per capita, and twice as many as the circa 9 million motor vehicles on the road.[244] In 2013, the European Cyclists' Federation ranked both the Netherlands and Denmark as the most bike-friendly countries in Europe,[245] but more of the Dutch (36%) than of the Danes (23%) list the bike as their most frequent mode of transport on a typical day.[246][l] Cycling infrastructure is comprehensive. Busy roads have received some 35,000 km of dedicated cycle tracks, physically segregated from motorised traffic.[249] Busy junctions are often equipped with bicycle-specific traffic lights. There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations.

Water transport

Until the introduction of trains, ships were the primary mode of transport in the Netherlands. And shipping has remained crucial afterwards. The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and the largest port in the world outside East-Asia, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland, and into Germany and France. As of 2013, Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling 440.5 million metric tonnes of cargo annually.[250] The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. The Volkeraksluizen between Rotterdam and Antwerp are the biggest sluices for inland navigation in the world in terms of tonnage passing through them. In 2007, the Betuweroute, a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed. The Netherlands also hosts Europe's 4th largest port in Amsterdam. The inland shipping fleet of the Netherlands is the largest in Europe.[251] The Netherlands also has the largest fleet of active historical ships in the world.[252] Boats are used for passenger travel as well, such as the Watertaxies in Rotterdam. The ferry network in Amsterdam and the Waterbus network in Rotterdam are part of the public transport system.

Air transport

Schiphol Airport, just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers. Schiphol is the main hub for KLM, the nation's flag carrier and the world's oldest airline.[253] In 2016, the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers.[254] All air traffic is international and Schiphol Airport is connected to over 300 destinations worldwide, more than any other European airport.[255] The airport is a major freight hub as well, processing 1.44 million tonnes of cargo in 2020.[256] Smaller international airports in the country include Eindhoven Airport, Rotterdam The Hague Airport, Maastricht Aachen Airport and Groningen Airport Eelde. Air transport is of vital significance for the Caribbean part of the Netherlands, with all islands having their own airport. This includes the shortest runway in the world on Saba.[257]

Culture

Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture

Art, architecture and philosophy

The Netherlands has had many well-known painters. In the Middle Ages Hieronymus Bosch, Petrus Christus, Lucas Gassel and Pieter Bruegel the Elder were leading Dutch pioneers.

During the Dutch Golden Age, spanning much of the 17th century, the Dutch Republic was prosperous and witnessed a flourishing artistic movement. This was the age of the "Dutch Masters", such as Rembrandt van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer, Jan Steen, Jacob van Ruisdael, Gerard van Honthorst, Theodoor van Thulden and many others.

Famous Dutch painters of the 19th and 20th century were Vincent van Gogh and the luminists Jan Sluijters, Leo Gestel, and Piet Mondrian. M. C. Escher is a well-known graphic artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam, although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist.

Literature flourished as well during the Dutch Golden Age, with Joost van den Vondel and P. C. Hooft as the two most famous writers. In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the poor treatment of the natives in the Dutch colony, the current Indonesia. Important 20th century authors include Godfried Bomans, Harry Mulisch, Jan Wolkers, Simon Vestdijk, Hella S. Haasse, Cees Nooteboom, Gerard Reve and Willem Frederik Hermans. Anne Frank's Diary of a Young Girl was published after she was murdered in the Holocaust and translated from Dutch to all major languages.

Various architectural styles can be distinguished in the Netherlands. Over the years, various styles have been built and preserved.

The Romanesque architecture was built between the years 950 and 1250. This architectural style is most concentrated in the provinces of Gelderland and Limburg. Limburg, in particular, differs greatly in architectural style from the rest of the Netherlands.

The Gothic architecture came to in the Netherlands from about 1230. Gothic buildings often had large windows, pointed arches and were richly decorated. Brabantine Gothic originated with the rise of the Duchy of Brabant and spread throughout the Burgundian provinces. This architectural style is most concentrated in the province of North Brabant, such as St. John's Cathedral in 's-Hertogenbosch, The Church of Our Lady in Breda and the Margraves Palace in Bergen op Zoom.

What many know as traditional Dutch architecture is the Dutch Baroque architecture (1525 – 1630) and classicism (1630 – 1700). These style of architecture is especially in evidence in the cities of North Holland, South Holland and Zeeland.

Other architectural styles that are common in the Netherlands are Style Louis XIV, Art Nouveau, Rationalism, Neoclassicism Expressionism, De Stijl, Traditionalism and Brutalism.

The Netherlands is the country of philosophers Erasmus, Rudolf Agricola and Spinoza. Much of Descartes' major work was done in the Netherlands, where he studied at Leiden University — as did geologist James Hutton, British Prime Minister John Stuart, U.S. President John Quincy Adams, Physics Nobel Prize laureate Hendrik Lorentz and Enrico Fermi. The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695) discovered Saturn's moon Titan, argued that light travelled as waves, invented the pendulum clock and was the first physicist to use mathematical formulae. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope.

Replicas of Dutch buildings can be found in Huis Ten Bosch, Nagasaki, Japan. A similar Holland Village is being built in Shenyang, China. Windmills, tulips, wooden shoes, cheese, Delftware pottery, and cannabis are among the items associated with the Netherlands by tourists.

Southern Netherlands

Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg

In the south of the Netherlands there are some festivals that rarely or never occur in the rest of the Netherlands. These celebrations grew out of Catholic traditions, including Carnival, lantern parades during the celebration of Three Kings, Brabantian Day and huge Bloemencorso. Bloemencorsos used to occur in many places in the Netherlands, but in the 21st century, Zundert and Valkenswaard in North Brabant have taken the lead.

Dutch value system

Dutch society is egalitarian and modern. The Dutch have an aversion to the non-essential.[258] Ostentatious behaviour is to be avoided. The Dutch are proud of their cultural heritage, rich history in art and involvement in international affairs.[258]

Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017

Dutch manners are open and direct with a no-nonsense attitude—informality combined with adherence to basic behaviour. According to a humorous source on Dutch culture, "Their directness gives many the impression that they are rude and crude—attributes they prefer to call openness."[258] A well known more serious source on Dutch etiquette is "Dealing with the Dutch" by Jacob Vossestein: "Dutch egalitarianism is the idea that people are equal, especially from a moral point of view, and accordingly, causes the somewhat ambiguous stance the Dutch have towards hierarchy and status."[259] As always, manners differ between groups. Asking about basic rules will not be considered impolite. "What may strike you as being blatantly blunt topics and comments are no more embarrassing or unusual to the Dutch than discussing the weather."[258]

The Netherlands is one of the most secular countries of Europe, and religion in the Netherlands is generally considered as a personal matter which is not supposed to be propagated in public, although it often remains a discussion subject. For only 17% of the population religion is important and 14% goes to church weekly.[260]

The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and today is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia. On 1 April 2001, the Netherlands became the first nation to legalise same-sex marriage.[261]

Dutch people and ecology

As of 2018 the Netherlands had one of the highest rates of carbon dioxide emissions per capita in the European Union, above those of Germany, France and Belgium.[262] In addition, the Dutch waste more food than any other EU citizen, at over three times the EU average [263]

Despite this, the Netherlands has nonetheless the reputation of the leader country in environmental and population management.[264] In 2015, Amsterdam and Rotterdam were ranked fourth and fifth, respectively, on the Arcadis Sustainable Cities Index.[265][266]

Sustainability is a concept important for the Dutch. The goal of the Dutch Government is to have a sustainable, reliable and affordable energy system, by 2050, in which CO
2
emissions
have been halved and 40 per cent of electricity is derived from sustainable sources.[267]

The government is investing billions of euros in energy efficiency, sustainable energy and CO
2
reduction
. The Kingdom also encourages Dutch companies to build sustainable business/projects/facilities, with financial aids from the state to the companies or individuals who are active in making the country more sustainable.[267]

Music

Pop singer Anouk in 2013

The Netherlands has multiple music traditions. Traditional Dutch music is a genre known as "Levenslied", meaning Song of life, to an extent comparable to a French Chanson or a German Schlager. These songs typically have a simple melody and rhythm, and a straightforward structure of verses and choruses. Themes can be light, but are often sentimental and include love, death and loneliness. Traditional musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are a staple of levenslied music, though in recent years many artists also use synthesisers and guitars. Artists in this genre include Jan Smit, Frans Bauer and André Hazes.

Contemporary Dutch rock and pop music (Nederpop) originated in the 1960s, heavily influenced by popular music from the United States and Britain. In the 1960s and 1970s the lyrics were mostly in English, and some tracks were instrumental. Bands such as Shocking Blue, Golden Earring, Tee Set, George Baker Selection and Focus enjoyed international success. As of the 1980s, more and more pop musicians started working in the Dutch language, partly inspired by the huge success of the band Doe Maar. Today Dutch rock and pop music thrives in both languages, with some artists recording in both.

Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue

Current symphonic metal bands Epica, Delain, ReVamp, The Gathering, Asrai, Autumn, Ayreon and Within Temptation as well as jazz and pop singer Caro Emerald are having international success. Also, metal bands like Hail of Bullets, God Dethroned, Izegrim, Asphyx, Textures, Present Danger, Heidevolk and Slechtvalk are popular guests at the biggest metal festivals in Europe. Contemporary local stars include pop singer Anouk, country pop singer Ilse DeLange, South Guelderish and Limburgish dialect singing folk band Rowwen Hèze, rock band BLØF and duo Nick & Simon. Trijntje Oosterhuis, one of the country's most well known and versatile singers, has made multiple albums with famous American composers Vince Mendoza and Burt Bacharach.

Early 1990s Dutch and Belgian house music came together in Eurodance project 2 Unlimited. Selling 18 million records,[268] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day. Tracks like "Get Ready for This" are still popular themes of U.S. sports events, like the NHL. In the mid 1990s Dutch language rap and hip hop (Nederhop) also came to fruition and has become popular in the Netherlands and Belgium. Artists with North African, Caribbean or Middle Eastern origins have strongly influenced this genre.

Since the 1990s, Dutch electronic dance music (EDM) gained widespread popularity in the world in many forms, from trance, techno and gabber to hardstyle. Some of the world's best known dance music DJs hail from the Netherlands, including Armin van Buuren, Tiësto, Hardwell, Martin Garrix, Dash Berlin, Julian Jordan, Nicky Romero, W&W, Don Diablo and Afrojack; the first four of which have been ranked as best in the world by DJ Mag Top 100 DJs. The Amsterdam Dance Event (ADE) is the world's leading electronic music conference and the biggest club festival for the many electronic subgenres on the planet.[269][270] These DJs also contribute to the world's mainstream pop music, as they frequently collaborate and produce for high-profile international artists.

The Netherlands have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since its first edition in 1956, and have won five times. Their most recent win was in 2019.

In classical music, Jan Sweelinck ranks as the Dutch most famous composer, with Louis Andriessen amongst the best known living Dutch classical composers. Ton Koopman is a Dutch conductor, organist and harpsichordist. He is also professor at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague. Notable violinists are Janine Jansen and André Rieu. The latter, together with his Johann Strauss Orchestra, has taken classical and waltz music on worldwide concert tours, the size and revenue of which are otherwise only seen from the world's biggest rock and pop music acts. The most famous Dutch classical composition is "Canto Ostinato" by Simeon ten Holt, a minimalistic composition for multiple instruments.[271][272][273] Acclaimed harpist Lavinia Meijer in 2012 released an album with works from Philip Glass that she transcribed for harp, with approval of Glass himself.[274] The Concertgebouw (completed in 1888) in Amsterdam is home to the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, considered one of the world's finest orchestras.[275]

Film and television

Some Dutch films – mainly by director Paul Verhoeven – have received international distribution and recognition, such as Turkish Delight ("Turks Fruit", 1973), Soldier of Orange ("Soldaat van Oranje", 1977), Spetters (1980) and The Fourth Man ("De Vierde Man", 1983). Verhoeven then went on to direct big Hollywood movies like RoboCop (1987), Total Recall (1990) and Basic Instinct (1992), and returned with Dutch film Black Book ("Zwartboek", 2006).

Other well-known Dutch film directors are Jan de Bont (Speed), Anton Corbijn (A Most wanted Man), Dick Maas (De Lift), Fons Rademakers (The Assault), and documentary makers Bert Haanstra and Joris Ivens. Film director Theo van Gogh achieved international notoriety in 2004 when he was murdered by Mohammed Bouyeri in the streets of Amsterdam after directing the short film Submission.

Internationally, successful directors of photography from the Netherlands are Hoyte van Hoytema (Interstellar, Spectre, Dunkirk) and Theo van de Sande (Wayne's World and Blade). Van Hoytema went to the National Film School in Łódź (Poland) and Van de Sande went to the Netherlands Film Academy. Internationally successful Dutch actors include Famke Janssen (X-Men), Carice van Houten (Game of Thrones), Michiel Huisman (Game of Thrones), Rutger Hauer (Blade Runner), Jeroen Krabbé (The Living Daylights) and Derek de Lint (Three Men and a Baby).

The Netherlands has a well developed television market, with both multiple commercial and public broadcasters. Imported TV programmes, as well as interviews with responses in a foreign language, are virtually always shown with the original sound and subtitled. Only foreign shows for children are dubbed.[276]

TV exports from the Netherlands mostly take the form of specific formats and franchises, most notably through internationally active TV production conglomerate Endemol, founded by Dutch media tycoons John de Mol and Joop van den Ende. Headquartered in Amsterdam, Endemol has around 90 companies in over 30 countries. Endemol and its subsidiaries create and run reality, talent, and game show franchises worldwide, including Big Brother and Deal or No Deal. John de Mol later started his own company Talpa which created show franchises like The Voice and Utopia.

Sports

Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012

Approximately 4.5 million of the 16.8 million people in the Netherlands are registered to one of the 35,000 sports clubs in the country. About two-thirds of the population between 15 and 75 participates in sports weekly.[277] Football is the most popular participant sport in the Netherlands, before field hockey and volleyball as the second and third most popular team sports. The Netherlands national football team is one of the most popular aspects of Dutch sports; especially since the 1970s when one of the greatest footballers of all time, Johan Cruyff, developed Total Football with coach Rinus Michels. Tennis, gymnastics and golf are the three most widely engaged in individual sports.[278]

Organisation of sports began at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Federations for sports were established (such as the speed skating federation in 1882), rules were unified and sports clubs came into existence. A Dutch National Olympic Committee was established in 1912. Thus far, the nation has won 266 medals at the Summer Olympic Games and another 110 medals at the Winter Olympic Games. In international competition, Dutch national teams and athletes are dominant in several fields of sport. The Netherlands women's field hockey team is the most successful team in World Cup history. The Netherlands baseball team have won the European championship 20 times out of 32 events. Dutch K-1 kickboxers have won the K-1 World Grand Prix 15 times out of 19 tournaments. The Netherlands Women's handball team holds the record of the only team in the world that consecutively reached all six semifinals of major international tournaments since 2015, winning silver and bronze at the European Women's Handball Championship and silver, bronze and gold at the World Women's Handball Championship. They finished fourth at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

The Dutch speed skaters' performance at the 2014 Winter Olympics, where they won 8 out of 12 events, 23 out of 36 medals, including 4 clean sweeps, is the most dominant performance in a single sport in Olympic history. Motorcycle racing at the TT Circuit Assen has a long history. Assen is the only venue to have held a round of the Motorcycle World Championship every year since its creation in 1949. The circuit was purpose-built for the Dutch TT in 1954, with previous events having been held on public roads.

The Dutch have also had success in all three of cyclings Grand Tours with Jan Janssen winning the 1968 Tour de France, more recently with Tom Dumoulin winning the 2017 Giro d'Italia and legendary rider Joop Zoetemelk was the 1985 UCI World Champion, the winner of the 1979 Vuelta a Espana, the 1980 Tour de France and still holds or shares numerous Tour de France records including most Tours finished and most kilometres ridden.

Max Verstappen currently races in Formula One, and was the first Dutchman to win a Grand Prix. He was also the youngest driver to make his debut at the age of 17, and became the youngest race winner at the age of 18. The coastal resort of Zandvoort hosted the Dutch Grand Prix from 1958 to 1985, and has been announced to return in 2020.[279] The volleyball national men's team has also been successful, winning the silver medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics and the gold medal four years later in Atlanta. The biggest success of the women's national team was winning the European Championship in 1995 and the World Grand Prix in 2007.

Recently cricket has made a remarkable progress in the Netherlands. Netherlands have participated in 1996, 2003, 2007 and 2011 ODI cricket World Cup. They have also qualified for 2009 and 2014 T20 World Cup. In the 2009 T20 World Cup, Netherlands defeated England, the current World Champions and inventor of the game.[280] Ryan ten Doeschate is the only Dutch player to have played in the IPL on the team Kolkata Knight Riders.

Cuisine

Stroopwafels (syrup waffles) are a treat consisting of waffles with caramel-like syrup filling in the middle.
Bossche Bol is a pastry from the south of the Netherlands. It is filled with fresh cream and dipped in dark chocolate
Poffertjes are made in a special, so-called, poffertjespan.
The Gouda cheese market in Gouda City
Hutspot with klapstuk (beef)
Oliebollen, a Dutch pastry eaten on New Year's Eve
Bitterballen are usually served with mustard.

Originally, the country's cuisine was shaped by the practices of fishing and farming, including the cultivation of the soil for growing crops and raising domesticated animals. Dutch cuisine is simple and straightforward, and contains many dairy products. Breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings, with cereal for breakfast as an alternative. Traditionally, dinner consists of potatoes, a portion of meat, and (seasonal) vegetables. The Dutch diet was relatively high in carbohydrates and fat, reflecting the dietary needs of the labourers whose culture moulded the country. Without many refinements, it is best described as rustic, though many holidays are still celebrated with special foods. In the course of the twentieth century this diet changed and became much more cosmopolitan, with most global cuisines being represented in the major cities.

Modern culinary writers distinguish between three general regional forms of Dutch cuisine. The regions in the northeast of the Netherlands, roughly the provinces of Groningen, Friesland, Drenthe, Overijssel and Gelderland north of the great rivers are the least populated areas of the Netherlands. The late (18th century) introduction of large scale agriculture means that the cuisine is generally known for its many kinds of meats. The relative lack of farms allowed for an abundance of game and husbandry, though dishes near the coastal regions of Friesland, Groningen and the parts of Overijssel bordering the IJsselmeer also include a large amount of fish. The various dried sausages, belonging to the metworst-family of Dutch sausages are found throughout this region and are highly prized for their often very strong taste. Also smoked sausages are common, of which (Gelderse) rookworst is the most renowned. The sausage contains a lot of fat and is very juicy. Larger sausages are often eaten alongside stamppot, hutspot or zuurkool (sauerkraut); whereas smaller ones are often eaten as a street food. The provinces are also home to hard textured rye bread, pastries and cookies, the latter heavily spiced with ginger or succade or containing small bits of meat. Various kinds of Kruidkoek (such as Groninger koek), Fryske dúmkes and spekdikken (small savoury pancakes cooked in a waffle iron) are considered typical. A notable characteristic of Fries roggebrood (Frisian rye bread) is its long baking time (up to 20 hours), resulting in a sweet taste and a deep dark colour.[281] In terms of alcoholic beverages, the region is renowned for its many bitters (such as Beerenburg) and other high-proof liquors rather than beer, which is, apart from Jenever, typical for the rest of the country. As a coastal region, Friesland is home to low-lying grasslands, and thus has a cheese production in common with the Western cuisine. Friese Nagelkaas (Friesian Clove) is a notable example.

The provinces of North Holland, South Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht and the Gelderlandic area of Betuwe make up the region in which western Dutch cuisine is found. Because of the abundance of water and flat grasslands that are found here, the area is known for its many dairy products, which include prominent cheeses such as Gouda, Leyden (spiced cheese with cumin), and Edam (traditionally in small spheres) as well as Leerdammer and Beemster, while the adjacent Zaanstreek in North Holland has since the 16th century been known for its mayonnaise, typical whole-grain mustards,[282] and chocolate industry. Zeeland and South Holland produce a lot of butter, which contains a larger amount of milkfat than most other European butter varieties. A by-product of the butter-making process, karnemelk (buttermilk), is also considered typical for this region. Seafood such as soused herring, mussels (called Zeeuwse Mossels, since all Dutch mussels for consumption are cleaned in Zeeland's Oosterschelde), eels, oysters and shrimps are widely available and typical for the region. Kibbeling, once a local delicacy consisting of small chunks of battered white fish, has become a national fast food, just as lekkerbek. Pastries in this area tend to be quite doughy, and often contain large amounts of sugar; either caramelised, powdered or crystallised. The oliebol (in its modern form) and Zeeuwse bolus are good examples. Cookies are also produced in great number and tend to contain a lot of butter and sugar, like stroopwafel, as well as a filling of some kind, mostly almond, like gevulde koek. The traditional alcoholic beverages of this region are beer (strong pale lager) and Jenever, a high proof juniper-flavoured spirit, that came to be known in England as gin. A noted exception within the traditional Dutch alcoholic landscape, Advocaat, a rich and creamy liqueur made from eggs, sugar and brandy, is also native to this region.

The Southern Dutch cuisine consists of the cuisines of the Dutch provinces of North Brabant and Limburg and the Flemish Region in Belgium. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stews and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries in the Middle Ages, renowned for its splendor and great feasts. It is the only Dutch culinary region that developed an haute cuisine. Pastries are abundant, often with rich fillings of cream, custard or fruits. Cakes, such as the Vlaai from Limburg and the Moorkop and Bossche Bol from Brabant, are typical pastries. Savoury pastries also occur, with the worstenbroodje (a roll with a sausage of ground beef, literally translates into sausage bread) being the most popular. The traditional alcoholic beverage of the region is beer. There are many local brands, ranging from Trappist to Kriek. 5 of the 10 International Trappist Association recognised breweries in the world, are located in the Southern Dutch cultural area. Beer, like wine in French cuisine, is also used in cooking; often in stews.

In early 2014, Oxfam ranked the Netherlands as the country with the most nutritious, plentiful and healthy food, in a comparison of 125 countries.[283][284]

Colonial heritage

New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.

From the exploitations in the Mughal Empire in the 17th century, to the colonisations in the 19th century, Dutch imperial possessions continued to expand, reaching their greatest extent by establishing a hegemony of the Dutch East Indies in the early 20th century. The Dutch East Indies, which later formed modern-day Indonesia, was one of the most valuable European colonies in the world and the most important one for the Netherlands.[285] Over 350 years of mutual heritage has left a significant cultural mark on the Netherlands.

In the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, the Netherlands urbanised considerably, mostly financed by corporate revenue from the Asian trade monopolies. Social status was based on merchants' income, which reduced feudalism and considerably changed the dynamics of Dutch society. When the Dutch royal family was established in 1815, much of its wealth came from Colonial trade.[286]

By the 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established their base in parts of Ceylon (modern-day Sri Lanka). Afterward, they established ports in Dutch occupied Malabar, leading to Dutch settlements and trading posts in India. However, their expansion into India was halted, after their defeat in the Battle of Colachel by the Kingdom of Travancore, during the Travancore-Dutch War. The Dutch never recovered from the defeat and no longer posed a large colonial threat to Bengal Subah.[287][288]

Universities such as the Leiden University, founded in the 16th century, have developed into leading knowledge centres for Southeast Asian and Indonesian studies.[m] Leiden University has produced leading academics such as Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, and still has academics who specialise in Indonesian languages and cultures. Leiden University and in particular KITLV are educational and scientific institutions that to this day share both an intellectual and historical interest in Indonesian studies. Other scientific institutions in the Netherlands include the Amsterdam Tropenmuseum, an anthropological museum with massive collections of Indonesian art, culture, ethnography and anthropology.

A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

The traditions of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army (KNIL) are maintained by the Regiment Van Heutsz of the modern Royal Netherlands Army. A dedicated Bronbeek Museum, a former home for retired KNIL soldiers, exists in Arnhem to this day.

A specific segment of Dutch literature called Dutch Indies literature still exists and includes established authors, such as Louis Couperus, the writer of "The Hidden Force", taking the colonial era as an important source of inspiration.[289] One of the great masterpieces of Dutch literature is the book "Max Havelaar", written by Multatuli in 1860.[290]

The majority of Dutchmen that repatriated to the Netherlands after and during the Indonesian revolution are Indo (Eurasian), native to the islands of the Dutch East Indies. This relatively large Eurasian population had developed over a period of 400 years and were classified by colonial law as belonging to the European legal community.[291] In Dutch they are referred to as Indische Nederlanders or as Indo (short for Indo-European).[292]

Including their second generation descendants, Indos are currently the largest foreign-born group in the Netherlands. In 2008, the Dutch Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS)[293] registered 387,000 first- and second-generation Indos living in the Netherlands.[294] Although considered fully assimilated into Dutch society, as the main ethnic minority in the Netherlands, these 'repatriants' have played a pivotal role in introducing elements of Indonesian culture into Dutch mainstream culture.

Many Indonesian dishes and foodstuffs have become commonplace in the Netherlands. Rijsttafel, a colonial culinary concept, and dishes such as Nasi goreng and satay are very popular in the country.[295] Practically any town of any size in the Netherlands has a "toko" (a Dutch Indonesian Shop) or a Chinese-Indonesian restaurant,[296] and many 'Pasar Malam' (Night market in Malay/Indonesian) fairs are organised throughout the year.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Amsterdam is the constitutional capital, while the government and the royal family are seated in The Hague.
  2. ^ Apart from Dutch, English is an official language in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius, Papiamentu is an official language in the special municipality of Bonaire, and Frisian is an official language in the province of Friesland.[1]
  3. ^ Having ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 1996, the Dutch government recognises Dutch Low Saxon, Limburgish, Sinte Romani and Yiddish as regional or non-territorial minority languages.[1] On 1 July 2021, Dutch Sign Language received the status of recognised language.[2]
  4. ^ Excluding people with a Turkish background, who are included separately in this table.
  5. ^ The euro is used in the European part of the Netherlands and replaced the Dutch guilder in 2002. The United States dollar is used in the Caribbean Netherlands and replaced the Netherlands Antillean guilder in 2011.[13]
  6. ^ CET and CEST are used in the European Netherlands, and AST is used in the Caribbean Netherlands.
  7. ^ +599 was the country code designated for the now dissolved Netherlands Antilles. The Caribbean Netherlands still use +599 7 (for Bonaire), +599 3 (for Sint Eustatius), and +599 4 (for Saba).
  8. ^ .nl is the common internet top level domain name for the Netherlands. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. .bq is designated, but not in use, for the Caribbean Netherlands.
  9. ^ In the Caribbean Sea, the country has maritime borders with Anguilla, Curaçao, France (Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy), Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sint Maarten, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Venezuela.[21]
  10. ^ Up one place from previous rankings.[36]
  11. ^ Only 11 stations are served less than twice an hour during weekdays.
  12. ^ Up from 31% vs. 19% naming the bike their main mode of transport for daily activities in 2011.[247][248]
  13. ^ Some of the university faculties still include: Indonesian Languages and Cultures; South-east Asia and Oceania Languages and Cultures; Cultural Anthropology.

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