From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Coordinates: 27°25′01″N 90°26′06″E / 27.417°N 90.435°E / 27.417; 90.435

Kingdom of Bhutan
  • འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ (Dzongkha)
  • Druk Gyal Khap
Anthem: Druk tsendhen  (Dzongkha)
"The Thunder Dragon Kingdom"
Bhutan (orthographic projection).svg
and largest city
27°28.0′N 89°38.5′E / 27.4667°N 89.6417°E / 27.4667; 89.6417
Official languagesDzongkha
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck
Lotay Tshering
National Council
National Assembly
• Unification of Bhutan
17 December 1907
8 August 1949
21 September 1971
18 July 2008
• Total
38,394 km2 (14,824 sq mi)[2][3] (133rd)
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
754,388[4][5] (165th)
• 2017 census
• Density
19.3/km2 (50.0/sq mi) (162nd)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$7.701 billion[7]
• Per capita
$9,426[7] (115th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.547 billion[7]
• Per capita
$3,117[7] (130th)
Gini (2017)37.4[8]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.654[9]
medium · 129th
CurrencyNgultrum (BTN)
Indian rupee (₹) (INR)
Time zoneUTC+06 (BTT)
Date formatYYYY-MM-DD
Driving sideleft
Calling code+975
ISO 3166 codeBT
  1. The population of Bhutan had been estimated based on the reported figure of about 1 million in the 1970s when the country had joined the United Nations and precise statistics were lacking.[10] Thus, using the annual increase rate of 2–3%, the most population estimates were around 2 million in 2000. A national census was carried out in 2005 and it turned out that the population was 672,425. Consequently, United Nations Population Division reduced its estimation of the country's population in the 2006 revision[11] for the whole period from 1950 to 2000.

Bhutan (/bˈtɑːn/ (audio speaker iconlisten); Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, romanizedDruk Yul [ʈuk̚˩.yː˩]), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, romanizedDruk Gyal Khap),[12] is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas, located between China and India. Bhutan is known as "Druk Yul," or "Land of the Thunder Dragon". Nepal and Bangladesh are located in close proximity to Bhutan but do not share a land border. The country has a population of over 754,000[13] and a territory of 38,394 square kilometers (14,824 sq mi) which ranks 133rd in terms of land area and 160th in population. Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy with Vajrayana Buddhism as the state religion.

The subalpine Himalayan mountains in the north rise from the country's lush subtropical plains in the south.[14] In the Bhutanese Himalayas, there are peaks higher than 7,000 meters (23,000 ft) above sea level. Gangkhar Puensum is Bhutan's highest peak and may also be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world.[15] The wildlife of Bhutan is notable for its diversity,[16] including the Himalayan takin. The capital and largest city is Thimphu.

Bhutan and neighboring Tibet experienced the spread of Buddhism which originated in the Indian subcontinent during the lifetime of Gautama Buddha. In the first millennium, the Vajrayana school of Buddhism spread to Bhutan from the southern Pala Empire of Bengal. Tibet, Bhutan, Sikkim and parts of Nepal became the vestiges of the Mahayana schools amid the decline of Buddhism in India. Bhutan also came under the influence of the Tibetan Empire. During the 16th century, Ngawang Namgyal unified the valleys of Bhutan into a single state. Namgyal defeated three Tibetan invasions, subjugated rival religious schools, codified the Tsa Yig legal system, and established a government of theocratic and civil administrators. Namgyal became the first Zhabdrung Rinpoche and his successors acted as the spiritual leaders of Bhutan like the Dalai Lama in Tibet. During the 17th century, Bhutan controlled large parts of northeast India, Sikkim and Nepal; it also wielded significant influence in Cooch Behar State.[17] Bhutan ceded the Bengal Duars to British India during the Bhutan War in the 19th century. The House of Wangchuck emerged as the monarchy and pursued closer ties with the British in the subcontinent. In 1910, a treaty guaranteed British advice in foreign policy in exchange for internal autonomy in Bhutan. The arrangement continued under a new treaty with India in 1949 in which both countries recognized each other's sovereignty. Bhutan joined the United Nations in 1971. It has since expanded relations with 55 countries, including Bangladesh,[18] Israel,[19] Kuwait,[20] Brazil,[21] Japan,[22] Thailand,[23] and Turkey;[24] as well as the European Union. While dependent on the Indian military, Bhutan maintains its own military units.

The 2008 Constitution establishes a parliamentary government with an elected National Assembly and a National Council. Bhutan is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). In 2020, Bhutan ranked third in South Asia after Sri Lanka and the Maldives in the Human Development Index.[25] Bhutan is also a member of the Climate Vulnerable Forum, the Non-Aligned Movement, BIMSTEC, the IMF, the World Bank, UNESCO and the World Health Organization (WHO). Bhutan ranked first in SAARC in economic freedom, ease of doing business, peace and lack of corruption in 2016. Bhutan has one of the largest water reserves for hydropower in the world.[26][27] Melting glaciers caused by climate change are a growing concern in Bhutan.[28]


The precise etymology of "Bhutan" is unknown, although it is likely to derive from the Tibetan endonym "Böd" for Tibet. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the Sanskrit Bhoṭa-anta "end of Tibet", a reference to Bhutan's position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau and culture.[29][30][31]

Since the 17th century, Bhutan's official name has been Druk yul (literally, "country of the Drukpa Lineage" or "the Land of the Thunder Dragon," a reference to the country's dominant Buddhist sect); "Bhutan" appears only in English-language official correspondence.[31] The terms for the Kings of Bhutan, Druk Gyalpo ("Dragon King"), and the Bhutanese endonym Drukpa, "Dragon people," are similarly derived.[32]

Names similar to Bhutan—including Bohtan, Buhtan, Bottanthis, Bottan and Bottanter—began to appear in Europe around the 1580s. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan. However, these names seem to have referred not to modern Bhutan but to the Kingdom of Tibet. The modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into the Scottish explorer George Bogle's 1774 expedition. Realizing the differences between the two regions, cultures, and states, his final report to the East India Company formally proposed calling the Druk Desi's kingdom "Boutan" and the Panchen Lama's kingdom "Tibet". The EIC's surveyor general James Rennell first anglicized the French name as "Bootan," and then popularized the distinction between it and Greater Tibet.[33]

The first time a separate Kingdom of Bhutan appeared on a western map, it did so under its local name "Broukpa".[33] Others include Lho Mon ("Dark Southland"), Lho Tsendenjong ("Southland of the Cypress"), Lhomen Khazhi ("Southland of the Four Approaches") and Lho Menjong ("Southland of the Herbs").[34][35]


Bhutan, shaded in green in the center of three Himalayan regions, shown on a 1912 map of Western Asia

Stone tools, weapons, elephants, and remnants of large stone structures provide evidence that Bhutan was inhabited as early as 2000 BC, although there are no existing records from that time. Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon (literally, "southern darkness"), or Monyul ("Dark Land", a reference to the Monpa, an ethnic group in Bhutan & Arunachal Pradesh) may have existed between 500 BC and AD 600. The names Lhomon Tsendenjong (Sandalwood Country), and Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon (country of four approaches), have been found in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles.[36][37]

The dzong in the Paro valley, built in 1646.

Buddhism was first introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD. Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo[38] (reigned 627–649), a convert to Buddhism, who actually had extended the Tibetan Empire into Sikkim and Bhutan,[39] ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu (near Paro) in the Paro Valley.[40] Buddhism was propagated in earnest[38] in 746[41] under King Sindhu Rāja (also Künjom;[42] Sendha Gyab; Chakhar Gyalpo), an exiled Indian king who had established a government in Bumthang at Chakhar Gutho Palace.[43]: 35 [44]: 13 

Trashigang Dzong, built in 1659.

Much of early Bhutanese history is unclear because most of the records were destroyed when fire ravaged the ancient capital, Punakha, in 1827. By the 10th century, Bhutan's political development was heavily influenced by its religious history. Various subsects of Buddhism emerged that were patronized by the various Mongol warlords.

Bhutan may have been influenced by the Yuan dynasty with which it shares various cultural and religious similarities.

After the decline of the Yuan dynasty in the 14th century, these subsects vied with each other for supremacy in the political and religious landscape, eventually leading to the ascendancy of the Drukpa Lineage by the 16th century.[40][45]

Sketch of Bhutan's interior, 1783
Painting of Bhutan, 1813
British envoys in Bhutan's royal court in 1905
A thrikhep (throne cover) from the 19th century. Throne covers were placed atop the temple cushions used by high lamas. The central circular swirling quadrune is the gankyil in its mode as the "Four Joys".

Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. The earliest Western record of Bhutan, the 1627 Relação of the Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral,[46] records its name variously as Cambirasi (among the Koch Biharis[47]), Potente, and Mon (an endonym for southern Tibet).[33] Until the early 17th century, Bhutan existed as a patchwork of minor warring fiefdoms, when the area was unified by the Tibetan lama and military leader Ngawang Namgyal, who had fled religious persecution in Tibet. To defend the country against intermittent Tibetan forays, Namgyal built a network of impregnable dzongs or fortresses, and promulgated the Tsa Yig, a code of law that helped to bring local lords under centralized control. Many such dzong still exist and are active centers of religion and district administration. Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral were the first recorded Europeans to visit Bhutan in 1627,[48] on their way to Tibet. They met Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, presented him with firearms, gunpowder and a telescope, and offered him their services in the war against Tibet, but the Zhabdrung declined the offer. After a stay of nearly eight months Cacella wrote a long letter from the Chagri Monastery reporting on his travels. This is a rare extant report of the Zhabdrung.[49][50]

When Ngawang Namgyal died in 1651, his passing was kept secret for 54 years. After a period of consolidation, Bhutan lapsed into internal conflict. In 1711 Bhutan went to war against the Raja of the kingdom of Koch Bihar in the south. During the chaos that followed, the Tibetans unsuccessfully attacked Bhutan in 1714.[51]

In the 18th century, the Bhutanese invaded and occupied the kingdom of Koch Bihar. In 1772, the Maharaja of Koch Bihar appealed to the British East India Company which assisted by ousting the Bhutanese and later in attacking Bhutan itself in 1774. A peace treaty was signed in which Bhutan agreed to retreat to its pre-1730 borders. However, the peace was tenuous, and border skirmishes with the British were to continue for the next hundred years. The skirmishes eventually led to the Duar War (1864–65), a confrontation for control of the Bengal Duars. After Bhutan lost the war, the Treaty of Sinchula was signed between British India and Bhutan. As part of the war reparations, the Duars were ceded to the United Kingdom in exchange for a rent of Rs. 50,000. The treaty ended all hostilities between British India and Bhutan.

During the 1870s, power struggles between the rival valleys of Paro and Tongsa led to civil war in Bhutan, eventually leading to the ascendancy of Ugyen Wangchuck, the penlop (governor) of Trongsa. From his power base in central Bhutan, Ugyen Wangchuck defeated his political enemies and united the country following several civil wars and rebellions during 1882–85.[52]

In 1907, an epochal year for the country, Ugyen Wangchuck was unanimously chosen as the hereditary king of the country by the Lhengye Tshog of leading Buddhist monks, government officials, and heads of important families, with the firm petition made by Gongzim Ugyen Dorji. John Claude White, British Political Agent in Bhutan, took photographs of the ceremony.[53] The British government promptly recognized the new monarchy, and in 1910 Bhutan signed the Treaty of Punakha, a subsidiary alliance which gave the British control of Bhutan's foreign affairs and meant that Bhutan was treated as an Indian princely state. This had little real effect, given Bhutan's historical reticence, and also did not appear to affect Bhutan's traditional relations with Tibet. After the new Union of India gained independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, Bhutan became one of the first countries to recognize India's independence. On 8 August 1949, a treaty similar to that of 1910, in which Britain had gained power over Bhutan's foreign relations, was signed with the newly independent India.[36]

In 1953, King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck established the country's legislature – a 130-member National Assembly – to promote a more democratic form of governance. In 1965, he set up a Royal Advisory Council, and in 1968 he formed a Cabinet. In 1971, Bhutan was admitted to the United Nations, having held observer status for three years. In July 1972, Jigme Singye Wangchuck ascended to the throne at the age of sixteen after the death of his father, Dorji Wangchuck.

Leaders of Afghanistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal at the 16th SAARC Summit in Thimphu, 2010

Bhutan's sixth Five-Year Plan (1987–92) included a policy of 'one nation, one people' and introduced a code of traditional Drukpa dress and etiquette called Driglam Namzhag . The dress element of this code required all citizens to wear the gho (a knee-length robe for men) and the kira (an ankle-length dress for women).[54] A central plank of the Bhutanese government's policy since the late 1960s has been to modernize the use of Dzongkha language. This began with abandoning the use of Hindi in 1964; a language that was adopted to help start formal secular education in the country.[1] As a result, at the beginning of the school year in March 1990 the teaching of Nepali language (which share similarities with Hindi) spoken by ethnic Lhotshampas in southern Bhutan was discontinued and all Nepali curricular materials discontinued from Bhutanese schools.[54]

In 1988 Bhutan conducted a census in southern Bhutan to guard against illegal immigration, a constant threat in the south where borders with India are porous.[55] Each family was required to present census workers with a tax receipt from the year 1958—no earlier, no later—or with a certificate of origin, which had to be obtained from one's place of birth, to prove that they were indeed Bhutanese citizens. Previously issued citizenship cards were no longer accepted as proof of citizenship. Alarmed by these measures, many began to protest for civil and cultural rights, and demanded a total change to be brought to the political system that existed since 1907. As protests and related violence swept across southern Bhutan, the government in turn increased its resistance. People present at protests were labeled "anti-national terrorists".[56] After the demonstrations, the Bhutanese army and police began the task of identifying participants and supporters engaged in the violence against the state and people. They were arrested and held for months without trial.[54] Soon the Bhutanese government arbitrarily reported that its census operations had detected the presence in southern Bhutan of over 100,000 "illegal immigrants" although this number is often debated. The census operations, thus, was used as a tool for the identification, eviction and banishment of dissidents who were involved in the uprising against the state. Military and other security forces were deployed for forceful deportations of between 80,000 - 100, 000 Lhotshampas, and were accused of using widespread violence, torture, rape and killing.[57][58][59] The evicted Lhotshampas became refugees in camps in southern Nepal. Since 2008, many Western countries, such as Canada, Norway, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States, have allowed resettlement of majority of the Lhotshampa refugees.[56]

Political reform and modernization

Bhutan's political system has recently changed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. King Jigme Singye Wangchuck transferred most of his administrative powers to the Council of Cabinet Ministers and allowed for impeachment of the King by a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly.[60]

In 1999, the government lifted a ban on television and internet, making Bhutan one of the last countries to introduce television. In his speech, the King said that television was a critical step to the modernization of Bhutan as well as a major contributor to the country's gross national happiness,[61] but warned that the "misuse" of this new technology could erode traditional Bhutanese values.[62]

A new constitution was presented in early 2005. In December 2005, Wangchuck announced that he would abdicate the throne in his son's favor in 2008. On 9 December 2006, he announced that he would be abdicating immediately. This was followed by the first national parliamentary elections in December 2007 and March 2008.

On 6 November 2008, 28-year-old Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck was crowned king.[63]

In July 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic, Bhutan became the first world-leading nation in its role of vaccinating 470,000 out of 770,000 people with a two-dose shot of AstraZeneca vaccines.


A topographic map of Bhutan.

Bhutan is on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas, landlocked between the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and the Indian states of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam to west and south and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh to the east. It lies between latitudes 26°N and 29°N, and longitudes 88°E and 93°E. The land consists mostly of steep and high mountains crisscrossed by a network of swift rivers that form deep valleys before draining into the Indian plains. Elevation rises from 200 m (660 ft) in the southern foothills to more than 7,000 m (23,000 ft). This great geographical diversity combined with equally diverse climate conditions contributes to Bhutan's outstanding range of biodiversity and ecosystems.[3]

Snowfall in Bhutan

Bhutan's northern region consists of an arc of Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows reaching up to glaciated mountain peaks with an extremely cold climate at the highest elevations. Most peaks in the north are over 7,000 m (23,000 ft) above sea level; the highest point is 7,570-meter (24,840 ft)-tall Gangkhar Puensum, which has the distinction of being the highest unclimbed mountain in the world.[64] The lowest point, at 98 m (322 ft), is in the valley of Drangme Chhu, where the river crosses the border with India.[64] Watered by snow-fed rivers, alpine valleys in this region provide pasture for livestock, tended by a sparse population of migratory shepherds.

The Black Mountains in Bhutan's central region form a watershed between two major river systems: the Mo Chhu and the Drangme Chhu. Peaks in the Black Mountains range between 1,500 and 4,925 m (4,921 and 16,158 ft) above sea level, and fast-flowing rivers have carved out deep gorges in the lower mountain areas. The forests of the central Bhutan mountains consist of Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests in higher elevations and Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests in lower elevations. Woodlands of the central region provide most of Bhutan's forest production. The Torsa, Raidak, Sankosh, and Manas are Bhutan's main rivers, flowing through this region. Most of the population lives in the central highlands.

In the south, the Shiwalik Hills are covered with dense Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests, alluvial lowland river valleys, and mountains up to around 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level. The foothills descend into the subtropical Duars Plain, which is the eponymous gateway to strategic mountain passes (also known as dwars or dooars; literally, "doors" in Assamese, Bengali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, and Magahi languages.).[14][65] Most of the Duars is in India, but a 10 to 15 km (6.2 to 9.3 mi)-wide strip extends into Bhutan. The Bhutan Duars is divided into two parts, the northern and southern Duars

The northern Duars, which abut the Himalayan foothills, have rugged, sloping terrain and dry, porous soil with dense vegetation and abundant wildlife. The southern Duars has moderately fertile soil, heavy savanna grass, dense, mixed jungle, and freshwater springs. Mountain rivers, fed by melting snow or monsoon rains, empty into the Brahmaputra River in India. Data released by the Ministry of Agriculture showed that the country had a forest cover of 64% as of October 2005.


Bhutan's climate varies with elevation, from subtropical in the south to temperate in the highlands and polar-type climate with year-round snow in the north. Bhutan experiences five distinct seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. Western Bhutan has the heavier monsoon rains; southern Bhutan has hot humid summers and cool winters; central and eastern Bhutan are temperate and drier than the west with warm summers and cool winters.


The takin is Bhutan's national animal.

Bhutan signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 25 August 1995.[66] It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with two revisions, the most recent of which was received by the convention on 4 February 2010.[67]


Himalayan Marmot at Tshophu Lake, Bhutan

Bhutan has a rich primate life, with rare species such as the golden langur.[68][69] A variant Assamese macaque has also been recorded, which is regarded by some authorities as a new species, Macaca munzala.[70]

The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, hispid hare and the sloth bear live in the tropical lowland and hardwood forests in the south. In the temperate zone, grey langur, tiger, goral and serow are found in mixed conifer, broadleaf and pine forests. Fruit-bearing trees and bamboo provide habitat for the Himalayan black bear, red panda, squirrel, sambar, wild pig and barking deer. The alpine habitats of the great Himalayan range in the north are home to the snow leopard, blue sheep, marmot, Tibetan wolf, antelope, Himalayan musk deer and the takin, Bhutan's national animal. The endangered wild water buffalo occurs in southern Bhutan, although in small numbers.[71]

More than 770 species of bird have been recorded in Bhutan. The globally endangered white-winged duck has been added recently in 2006 to Bhutan's bird list.[72]


More than 5,400 species of plants are found in Bhutan,[73] including Pedicularis cacuminidenta. Fungi form a key part of Bhutanese ecosystems, with mycorrhizal species providing forest trees with mineral nutrients necessary for growth, and with wood decay and litter decomposing species playing an important role in natural recycling.


The Eastern Himalayas have been identified as a global biodiversity hotspot and counted among the 234 globally outstanding ecoregions of the world in a comprehensive analysis of global biodiversity undertaken by WWF between 1995 and 1997.

According to the Swiss-based International Union for Conservation of Nature, Bhutan is viewed as a model for proactive conservation initiatives. The Kingdom has received international acclaim for its commitment to the maintenance of its biodiversity.[74] This is reflected in the decision to maintain at least sixty percent of the land area under forest cover, to designate more than 40%[75][76] of its territory as national parks, reserves and other protected areas, and most recently to identify a further nine percent of land area as biodiversity corridors linking the protected areas. All of Bhutan's protected land is connected to one another through a vast network of biological corridors, allowing animals to migrate freely throughout the country.[77] Environmental conservation has been placed at the core of the nation's development strategy, the middle path. It is not treated as a sector but rather as a set of concerns that must be mainstreamed in Bhutan's overall approach to development planning and to be buttressed by the force of law. The country's constitution mentions environment standards in multiple sections.[78]

Environmental issues

Although Bhutan's natural heritage is still largely intact, the government has said that it cannot be taken for granted and that conservation of the natural environment must be considered one of the challenges that will need to be addressed in the years ahead.[79] Nearly 56.3% of all Bhutanese are involved with agriculture, forestry or conservation.[78] The government aims to promote conservation as part of its plan to target Gross National Happiness. It currently has net negative[77] greenhouse gas emissions because the small amount of pollution it creates is absorbed by the forests that cover most of the country.[80] While the entire country collectively produces 2,200,000 metric tons (2,200,000 long tons; 2,400,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide a year, the immense forest covering 72% of the country acts as a carbon sink, absorbing more than four million tons of carbon dioxide every year.[77] Bhutan had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.85/10, ranking it 16th globally out of 172 countries.[81]

Bhutan has a number of progressive environmental policies that have caused the head of the UNFCCC to call it an "inspiration and role model for the world on how economies and different countries can address climate change while at the same time improving the life of the citizen."[82] For example, electric cars have been pushed in the country and as of 2014 make up a tenth of all cars. Because the country gets most of its energy from hydroelectric power, it does not emit significant greenhouse gases for energy production.[80]

In practice, the overlap of these extensive protected lands with populated areas has led to mutual habitat encroachment. Protected wildlife has entered agricultural areas, trampling crops and killing livestock. In response, Bhutan has implemented an insurance scheme, begun constructing solar powered alarm fences, watch towers, and search lights, and has provided fodder and salt licks outside human settlement areas to encourage animals to stay away.[83]

The huge market value of the Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungus crop collected from the wild has also resulted in unsustainable exploitation which is proving very difficult to regulate.[84]

Bhutan has enforced a plastic ban rule from 1 April 2019, where plastic bags were replaced by alternative bags made of jute and other biodegradable material.[85]

Government and politics

The King and Queen of Bhutan with the Emperor of Japan

Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. The reigning monarch is Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. The current Prime Minister of Bhutan is Lotay Tshering, leader of the Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa Party. Bhutan's democratic transition in 2008 is seen as an evolution of its social contract with the monarchy since 1907.[86] In 2019, Bhutan was classified in the Democracy Index as a hybrid regime alongside regional neighbors Nepal and Bangladesh. Minorities are increasingly represented in Bhutan's government since 2008, including in the cabinet, parliament and local government.[86]

The Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) is the head of state.[87] The political system grants universal suffrage. It consists of the National Council, an upper house with 25 elected members; and the National Assembly with 47 elected lawmakers from political parties.

Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers led by the Prime Minister. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. Judicial power is vested in the courts. The legal system originates from the semi-theocratic Tsa Yig code, and was influenced by English common law during the 20th century. The chief justice is the administrative head of the judiciary.

Political culture

The first general elections for the National Assembly were held on 24 March 2008. The chief contestants were the Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party (DPT) led by Jigme Thinley and the People's Democratic Party (PDP) led by Sangay Ngedup. The DPT won the elections, taking 45 out of 47 seats.[88] Jigme Thinley served as Prime Minister from 2008 to 2013.

The People's Democratic Party came to power in the 2013 elections. It won 32 seats and 54.88% of the vote. PDP leader Tshering Tobgay served as Prime Minister from 2013 to 2018.

Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa won the largest number of seats in the 2018 National Assembly Election, bringing Lotay Tshering to premiership and Druk Nyamrup Tshogpa into the government for the first time.[89]

Foreign relations

The permanent mission of Bhutan to the United Nations in New York City

In the early 20th century, Bhutan became a de facto protectorate of the British Empire under the Treaty of Punakha in 1910. British protection guarded Bhutan from an independent Tibet and Qing China. In the aftermath of the Chinese Communist Revolution, Bhutan signed a friendship treaty with the newly independent Dominion of India in 1949. Its concerns were exacerbated after the Chinese incorporation of Tibet.[91]

Relations with Nepal remained strained due to Bhutanese refugees. Bhutan joined the United Nations in 1971. It was the first country to recognize Bangladesh's independence in 1971. It became a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in 1985.[citation needed] The country is a member of 150 international organizations,[91] including the Bay of Bengal Initiative, BBIN, World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the Group of 77.

Bhutan maintains strong economic, strategic, and military relations with India.[92][93] In February 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was substantially revised, clarifying Bhutan's full control of its foreign relations, as well as its independence and sovereignty. Whereas the Treaty of 1949, Article 2 stated: "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan. On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations," the revised treaty now states "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other." The revised treaty also includes this preamble: "Reaffirming their respect for each other's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity", an element absent in the earlier version. By long-standing agreement, Indian and Bhutanese citizens may travel to each other's countries without a passport or visa, but must still have their national identity cards. Bhutanese citizens may also work in India without legal restriction.

Bhutan does not have formal diplomatic ties with China, but exchanges of visits at various levels between them have significantly increased in recent times. The first bilateral agreement between China and Bhutan was signed in 1998 and Bhutan has also set up honorary consulates in the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.[94]

Bhutan's border with China is not mutually demarcated in some areas because China lays claims to those places. In 2021, after more than 35 years of border negotiations, China signed a memorandum of understanding with Bhutan to expedite those talks.[95] Approximately 269 square kilometers (104 sq mi) remain under discussion between China and Bhutan.[96] On 13 November 2005, Chinese soldiers crossed into the disputed territories between China and Bhutan and began building roads and bridges.[97] Bhutanese Foreign Minister Khandu Wangchuk took up the matter with Chinese authorities after the issue was raised in the Bhutanese parliament. In response, Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang of the People's Republic of China said that the border remains in dispute and that the two sides are continuing to work for a peaceful and cordial resolution of the dispute, denying that the presence of soldiers in the area was an attempt to forcibly occupy it.[98] An Indian intelligence officer said that a Chinese delegation in Bhutan told the Bhutanese they were "overreacting". The Bhutanese newspaper Kuensel said that China might use the roads to further Chinese claims along the border.[97]

Bhutan has very warm relations with Japan, which provides significant development assistance. The Bhutanese royals were hosted by the Japanese imperial family during a state visit in 2011. Japan is also helping Bhutan cope with glacial floods through developing an early warning system. Bhutan enjoys strong political and diplomatic relations with Bangladesh. The Bhutanese king was the guest of honor during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of Bangladesh's independence.[99] A 2014 joint statement by the prime ministers of both countries announced cooperation in areas of hydropower, river management and climate change mitigation.[100] Bangladesh and Bhutan signed a preferential trade agreement in 2020 with provisions for free trade.[101]

Bhutan has diplomatic relations with 53 countries and the European Union and has missions in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Kuwait and Belgium. It has two UN missions, one in New York and one in Geneva. Only India, Bangladesh and Kuwait have residential embassies in Bhutan. Other countries maintain informal diplomatic contact via their embassies in New Delhi and Dhaka. Bhutan maintains formal diplomatic relations with several Asian and European nations, Canada, and Brazil. Other countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, have no formal diplomatic relations with Bhutan but maintain informal contact through their respective embassies in New Delhi and with the United States through Bhutan's permanent mission to the United Nations. The United Kingdom has an honorary consul resident in Thimphu. The latest country Bhutan has established diplomatic relations with is Israel, on 12 December 2020.[102][103][104]

A map of Bhutan showing its borders with China and India as of 2015.

Bhutan opposed the Russian annexation of Crimea in United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262.


A royal guard of Bhutan in 1905
The Royal Bhutan Army Chief of Staff (left) and Indian Army Chief of Staff (right) in 2006

The Royal Bhutan Army is Bhutan's military service and is the weakest armed forces, according to the Global Firepower survey. It includes the royal bodyguard and the Royal Bhutan Police. Membership is voluntary and the minimum age for recruitment is 18. The standing army numbers about 16,000 and is trained by the Indian Army.[105] It has an annual budget of about US$13.7 million (1.8 percent of GDP). As a landlocked country, Bhutan has no navy. It also has no air force or army aviation corps. The Army relies on the Eastern Air Command of the Indian Air Force for air assistance.

Human rights

Women of Bhutan

Bhutan is ranked as "Partly Free" by Freedom House.[106] Bhutan's parliament decriminalized homosexuality in 2020.[107]

Women in Bhutan tend to be less active in politics than men due to customs and aspects of Bhutan's culture that dictate a woman's role in the household.[108] This leads to a limitation of their voices in government. Bhutan has made steps toward gender equality by enrolling more girls in school as well as creating the "National Commission for Women and Children" (NCWC) in 2004.[109] This program was created to promote and protect women's and children's rights. Bhutan also elected its first female Dzongda, equivalent to a District Attorney, in 2012, and its first female minister in 2013.[109] Minister Dorji Choden, chair for the National Commission for Women and Children, believes that the aforementioned program can be used to "promote women into more leadership roles" which can then lead women to take on more active roles in their society.[108] Overall there has also been a gradual increase in women in power with a 68% increase in women representation from 2011 to 2016.[109]

1990s refugee crisis

Starting in the 1980s, a part of Bhutan's minority population groups of Nepali speakers ("Lhotshampa"), in Southern Bhutan, fell victim to perceived political persecution by the Bhutanese government as part of what the Nepali-speaking population viewed as Bhutanization (termed One Nation, One People) policy which was aimed to nationalize the country.[110][111] In 1977 followed by in 1985, Bhutan's government enacted legislations which impacted the Lhotshampa ethnic minority. The review of the national citizenship criteria and provisions for denationalization of illegally present population in the country ensued.[112][113] The government enforced uniformity in dress, culture, tradition, language and literature to create a national identity which was aligned with the majority Drukpa culture of the country.[110][114][115][116] The Lhotshampas started demonstrations in protest of such discriminatory laws, voicing for a change to be brought to the existing political system toward a preferred multi-party democracy and to forcefully gain political control for the Nepali Ethnic minority, most probably encited by the similar political uprising against the established monarchy political system as seen in the neighboring country of Nepal. [2] [117] These demonstrations turned into violence when some ethnic Nepalese representatives were attacked by the government officials (armed forces) when schools in the southern districts were burned by the demonstrators.[118] Consequently, in response to such violent protests, Bhutanese armed forces were immediately mobilized; the members of Bhutanese police and army forces allegedly imprisoned some Nepali descendent ethnic minority who were suspected to be politically active in these demonstrations, under a command of then king Jigme Singye Wangchuck and home minister Dago Tshering to keep peace and open a line of communication.[119] Bhutan Armed forces were alleged to have targeted the Nepali ethnic southerners by burn down the houses, livestocks, and forced hundreds and thousands to be expelled from the country with their property being confiscated where no compensation were reported to be granted to anyone, however, claims to these were neither proved nor documented.[120]

This escalated up until the early 1990s, and was followed by the forceful expulsion of Nepali ethnic minority citizens from the southern part of Bhutan. The main purpose of this was the fear that revolt mirrored images of the Gorkhaland movement stirring up in the neighboring state of West Bengal, and fueled fears of a fate similar to the Kingdom of Sikkim where the immigrant Nepalis population had overwhelmed the small native population of the kingdom, leading to its demise as an independent nation.[121] The Bhutanese security forces were accused of human rights violations including torture and rape of political demonstrators, and some Lhotshampas were accused of staging a violent revolt against the state.[113] According to the UNHCR, an estimate of 107,000 Bhutanese refugees living in seven camps in eastern Nepal have been documented as of 2008.[116] After many years in refugee camps, many inhabitants moved to other host nations such as Canada, Norway, the UK, Australia, and the US as refugees. The US admitted 60,773 refugees from fiscal years 2008 to 2012.[122]

The Nepalese government refused to assimilate the Bhutanese refugees (Lhotshampas) and did not allow a legal path to citizenship, so they were left stateless.[123] Careful scrutiny has been used to review the status of the refugee's relatives in the country, and citizenship identity cards and voting rights for these reviewed people are restricted.[123] Bhutan does not recognize political parties associated with these refugees and see them as a threat to the well-being of the country.[123] Human rights group's rhetoric that the government interfered with individual rights by requiring all citizens, including ethnic minority members, to wear the traditional dress of the ethnic majority in public places was used as political tool for the demonstrations. The Bhutanese government since then enforced the law of national attire to be worn in Buddhist religious buildings, government offices, schools, official functions, and public ceremonies aimed toward preserving and promoting the national identity of Bhutan.[123]

Ethnic Nepalese ("Lhotshampa") migrants that were forcefully expelled from Bhutan, and arrived in Nepal in the early 1990s.

The kingdom has been accused of banning religious proselytizing,[124] which critics deem as a violation of freedom of religion[125] and a policy of ethnic cleansing.[126] Starting in the 1980s, Bhutan adopted a policy of "One Nation One People" to create a unified sense of national identity. This was interpreted as cultural (in language, dress and religion) and political dominance of the majority Drukpa people by the Nepali-speaking people.[127] Inspired by the Gorkhaland Movement and fueled by a sense of injustice, some Lhotshampas began organizing demonstrations against the Bhutanese state. Furthermore, the removal of Nepali language in school curriculum to adopt a more centralized language in Dzongkha coupled with the denial of citizenship to those who were not able to prove officially issued land holding title prior to 1950[128] was perceived as specifically targeting Lhotshampa population estimated to be one-third of the population at the time.[129] This resulted in widespread unrest and political demonstrations.[112][130] In response to this threat, in 1988, the Bhutanese authorities carried out a special census[131] in southern Bhutan to review the status of legal residents from illegal immigrants. This region with high Lhotshampa population had to be legally verified, and the following census led to the deportation these Lhotshampas, estimated to be one-sixth of the total population at the time.[132][60][133] People who had been granted citizenship by the Bhutanese 1958 Nationality Law were also stripped of their citizenship. The state intervened after violence was instigated by some Nepali-speaking citizens in radical form of attacking government officials and burning of schools.[134] Members of Bhutanese police and army were accused of burning Lhotshampa houses, land confiscation and other widespread human rights abuses including arrest, torture and rape of Lhotshampas involved in political protests and violence.[113][135] Following forcible deportation from Bhutan, Lhotshampas spent almost two decades in refugee camps in Nepal and were resettled in various western countries such as the United States between 2007 and 2012.[136]

Political divisions

Bhutan is divided into twenty Dzongkhag (districts), administered by a body called the Dzongkhag Tshogdu. In certain thromdes (urban municipalities), a further municipal administration is directly subordinate to the Dzongkhag administration. In the vast majority of constituencies, rural geog (village blocks) are administered by bodies called the Geog Tshogde.[137]

Thromdes (municipalities) elect Thrompons to lead administration, who in turn represent the Thromde in the Dzongkhag Tshogdu. Likewise, geog elect headmen called gups, vice-headmen called mangmis, who also sit on the Dzongkhag Tshogdu, as well as other members of the Geog Tshogde. The basis of electoral constituencies in Bhutan is the chiwog, a subdivision of gewogs delineated by the Election Commission.[137]

Dzongkhags of the Kingdom of Bhutan
District Dzongkha name District Dzongkha name
1. Bumthang བུམ་ཐང་རྫོང་ཁག་ 11. Samdrup Jongkhar བསམ་གྲུབ་ལྗོངས་མཁར་རྫོང་ཁག་
2. Chukha ཆུ་ཁ་རྫོང་ཁག་ 12. Samtse བསམ་རྩེ་རྫོང་ཁག་
3. Dagana དར་དཀར་ན་རྫོང་ཁག་ 13. Sarpang གསར་སྤང་རྫོང་ཁག་
4. Gasa མགར་ས་རྫོང་ཁག་ 14. Thimphu ཐིམ་ཕུ་རྫོང་ཁག་
5. Haa ཧཱ་རྫོང་ཁག་ 15. Trashigang བཀྲ་ཤིས་སྒང་རྫོང་ཁག་
6. Lhuntse ལྷུན་རྩེ་རྫོང་ཁག་ 16. Trashiyangtse བཀྲ་ཤིས་གཡང་རྩེ་རྫོང་ཁག་
7. Mongar མོང་སྒར་རྫོང་ཁག་ 17. Trongsa ཀྲོང་གསར་རྫོང་ཁག་
8. Paro སྤ་རོ་རྫོང་ཁག་ 18. Tsirang རྩི་རང་རྫོང་ཁག་
9. Pemagatshel པད་མ་དགའ་ཚལ་རྫོང་ཁག་ 19. Wangdue Phodrang དབང་འདུས་ཕོ་བྲང་རྫོང་ཁག་
10. Punakha སྤུ་ན་ཁ་རྫོང་ཁག་ 20. Zhemgang གཞམས་སྒང་རྫོང་ཁག་


A proportional representation of Bhutan exports, 2019
The Bhutan Power Corporation headquarters in Thimphu. Bhutan's principal export is hydroelectricity.

Bhutan's currency is the ngultrum, whose value is fixed to the Indian rupee. The Indian rupee is also accepted as legal tender in the country. Though Bhutan's economy is one of the world's smallest,[139] it has grown rapidly in recent years, by eight percent in 2005 and 14 percent in 2006. In 2007, Bhutan had the second-fastest-growing economy in the world, with an annual economic growth rate of 22.4 percent. This was mainly due to the commissioning of the gigantic Tala Hydroelectric Power Station. As of 2012, Bhutan's per capita income was US$2,420.[140]

Bhutan's economy is based on agriculture, forestry, tourism and the sale of hydroelectric power to India. Agriculture provides the main livelihood for 55.4 percent of the population.[141] Agrarian practices consist largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Handicrafts, particularly weaving and the manufacture of religious art for home altars, are a small cottage industry. A landscape that varies from hilly to ruggedly mountainous has made the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive.

Modern and traditional bridges over a river in Panbang

This, and a lack of access to the sea, has meant that Bhutan has not been able to benefit from significant trading of its produce. Bhutan has no railways, though Indian Railways plans to link southern Bhutan to its vast network under an agreement signed in January 2005.[142] Bhutan and India signed a 'free trade' accord in 2008, which additionally allowed Bhutanese imports and exports from third markets to transit India without tariffs.[143] Bhutan had trade relations with the Tibet Autonomous Region of China until 1960, when it closed its border with China after an influx of refugees.[144]

Access to biocapacity in Bhutan is much higher than world average. In 2016, Bhutan had 5.0 global hectares [145] of biocapacity per person within its territory, much more than the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person.[146] In 2016 Bhutan used 4.5 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they use less biocapacity than Bhutan contains. As a result, Bhutan is running a biocapacity reserve.[145]

The industrial sector is currently in a nascent stage. Although most production comes from cottage industry, larger industries are being encouraged and some industries such as cement, steel, and ferroalloy have been set up. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on contract labor from neighboring India. Agricultural produce includes rice, chilies, dairy (some yak, mostly cow) products, buckwheat, barley, root crops, apples, and citrus and maize at lower elevations. Industries include cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages and calcium carbide.

Bhutan has seen recent growth in the technology sector, in areas such as green tech and consumer Internet/e-commerce.[147] In May 2012, "Thimphu TechPark" was launched in the capital. It incubates startups via the "Bhutan Innovation and Technology Center" (BITC).[148]

GDP per capita development in Bhutan, since 1990.

Incomes of over Nu 100,000 per annum are taxed, but as Bhutan is currently one of the world's least developed countries, very few wage and salary earners qualify. Bhutan's inflation rate was estimated at three percent in 2003. Bhutan has a gross domestic product of around US$5.855 billion (adjusted to purchasing power parity), making it the 158th-largest economy in the world. Per capita income (PPP) is around $7,641,[64] ranked 144th. Government revenues total $407.1 million, though expenditures amount to $614 million. Twenty-five percent of the budget expenditure, however, is financed by India's Ministry of External Affairs.[note 1][149]

Bhutan's exports, principally electricity, cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones and spices, total €128 million (2000 est.). Imports, however, amount to €164 million, leading to a trade deficit. Main items imported include fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery, vehicles, fabrics and rice. Bhutan's main export partner is India, accounting for 58.6 percent of its export goods. Hong Kong (30.1 percent) and Bangladesh (7.3 percent) are the other two top export partners.[64] As its border with Tibet Autonomous Region is closed, trade between Bhutan and China is now almost non-existent. Bhutan's import partners include India (74.5 percent), Japan (7.4 percent) and Sweden (3.2 percent).


Rice terraces in one of Bhutan's fertile valleys.

The share of the agricultural sector in GDP declined from approximately 55% in 1985 to 33% in 2003. In 2013 the government announced the aspiration that Bhutan will become the first country in the world with 100 percent organic farming.[150][151] Bhutanese red rice is the country's most widely known agricultural export, enjoying a market in North America and Europe. Bangladesh is the largest market of Bhutanese apples and oranges.[152]

Fishing in Bhutan is mainly centered on trout and carp.

Office of the SAARC Development Fund in Thimphu


The industrial sector accounts for 22% of the economy. The key manufacturing sectors in Bhutan include production of ferroalloy, cement, metal poles, iron and nonalloy steel products, processed graphite, copper conductors, alcoholic and carbonated beverages, processed fruits, carpets, wood products and furniture.[153]


Bhutan has deposits of numerous minerals. Commercial production includes coal, dolomite, gypsum, and limestone. The country has proven reserves of beryl, copper, graphite, lead, mica, pyrite, tin, tungsten, and zinc. However, the country's mineral deposits remain untapped, as it prefers to conserve the environment, rather than to exploit and destroy it for money.[154]


Bhutan electricity production by year

Bhutan's largest export is hydroelectricity. As of 2015, it generates about 2,000 MW of hydropower from Himalayan river valleys.[155] The country has a potential to generate 30,000 MW of hydropower.[155] Power is supplied to various states in India. Future projects are being planned with Bangladesh.[155] Hydropower has been the primary focus for the country's five-year plans. As of 2015, the Tala Hydroelectric Power Station is its largest power plant, with an installed capacity of 1,020 MW. It has received assistance from India, Austria and the Asian Development Bank in developing hydroelectric projects. Besides hydropower, it is also endowed with significant renewable energy resources such as solar, wind and bioenergy. Technically viable solar energy generation capacity is around 12,000 MW and wind around 760 MW. More than 70% of its land is under forest cover, which is an immense source of bioenergy in the country.[citation needed]

Financial sector

The Le Méridien Thimphu is part of Bhutan's burgeoning tourism industry.

There are Five Commercial Banks in the country and two largest banks are the Bank of Bhutan and the Bhutan National Bank which are based in Thimphu. Other commercial banks are Bhutan Development Bank, T-Bank and Druk Punjab National Bank. The country's financial sector is also supported by other non-banking Financial Institutions. They are Royal Insurance Corporation of Bhutan (RICB), National Pension and Provident Fund (NPPF), and Bhutan Insurance Limited (BIL). The central bank of the country is the Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan (RMA). The Royal Securities Exchange of Bhutan is the main stock exchange.

The SAARC Development Fund is based in Thimphu.[156]


In 2014, Bhutan welcomed 133,480 foreign visitors.[157] Seeking to become a high-value destination, it imposes a daily fee of anywhere between US$180 to US$290 per day (or more) on tourists that covers touring and hotel accommodation.[158][159] The industry employs 21,000 people and accounts for 1.8% of GDP.[160]

The country currently has no UNESCO World Heritage Sites, but it has eight declared tentative sites for UNESCO inclusion since 2012. These sites include: Ancient Ruin of Drukgyel Dzong,[161] Bumdelling Wildlife Sanctuary,[162] Dzongs: the center of temporal and religious authorities (Punakha Dzong, Wangdue Phodrang Dzong, Paro Dzong, Trongsa Dzong and Dagana Dzong),[163] Jigme Dorji National Park (JDNP),[164] Royal Manas National Park (RMNP),[165] Sacred Sites associated with Phajo Drugom Zhigpo and his descendants,[166] Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS),[167] and Tamzhing Monastery.[168] Bhutan also has numerous tourist sites that are not included in its UNESCO tentative list. Bhutan has one element, the Mask dance of the drums from Drametse, registered in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List.[169]

Bhutan is also well known for mountain adventure trekking and hiking. Jhomolhari Base Camp Trek, Snowman Trek, and Masagang trek are some of the popular treks in Bhutan.



Paro Airport is the only international airport in Bhutan. Yongphulla Airport in Trashigang is a small domestic airport that underwent upgrades through 2010.[170] Yongphulla Domestic Airport was scheduled for completion in January 2010 but as of January 2015, the airport remains closed due to ongoing runway repair.[171] National carrier Druk Air operates flights between Paro Airport and airports in Jakar (Bumthang Dzongkhag) and Gelephu (Sarpang Dzongkhag) on a weekly basis.[172]


The Lateral Road is Bhutan's primary east–west corridor, connecting the towns of Phuentsholing in the southwest to Trashigang in the east. Notable settlements that the Lateral Road runs through directly are Wangdue Phodrang and Trongsa. The Lateral Road also has spurs connecting to the capital Thimphu and other population centers such as Paro and Punakha. As with other roads in Bhutan, the Lateral Road presents serious safety concerns due to pavement conditions, sheer drops, hairpin turns, weather, and landslides.[173][174][175]

Since 2014, road widening has been a priority across Bhutan, in particular for the north-east–west highway from Trashigang to Dochula. The widening project is expected to be completed by the end of 2017 and will make road travel across the country substantially faster and more efficient. In addition, it is projected that the improved road conditions will encourage more tourism in the more inaccessible eastern region of Bhutan.[176][177][178] Currently, the road conditions appear to be deterring tourists from visiting Bhutan due to the increased instances of road blocks, landslides, and dust disruption caused by the widening project.[179]


Although Bhutan currently has no railways, it has entered into an agreement with India to link southern Bhutan to India's vast network by constructing an 18-kilometer-long (11 mi), 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) broad gauge rail link between Hashimara in West Bengal and Toribari in Bhutan. The construction of the railway via Satali, Bharna Bari and Dalsingpara by Indian Railways will be funded by India.[180] Bhutan's nearest railway station is Hasimara.


Historical population
1960 224,000—    
1980 413,000+84.4%
1990 536,000+29.8%
1995 509,000−5.0%
2005 650,000+27.7%

Bhutan had a population of 754,388 people in 2018.[4][5] Bhutan has a median age of 24.8 years.[64] There are 1,070 males to every 1,000 females. The literacy rate in Bhutan is 59.5 percent.[182]

Ethnic groups

Bhutanese people in national dress at the Wangdi Phodrang festival.

Bhutanese people primarily consist of the Ngalops and Sharchops, called the Western Bhutanese and Eastern Bhutanese respectively. Although the Sharchops are slightly larger in demographic size, the Ngalops dominate the political sphere, as the King and the political elite belong to this group.[183] The Ngalops primarily consist of Bhutanese living in the western part of the country. Their culture is closely related to that of Tibet. Much the same could be said of the Sharchops, the largest group, who traditionally follow the Nyingmapa rather than the official Drukpa Kagyu form of Tibetan Buddhism. In modern times, with improved transportation infrastructure, there has been much intermarriage between these groups.

The Lhotshampa, meaning "southerner Bhutanese", are a heterogeneous group of mostly Nepalese ancestry who have sought political and cultural recognition including equality in right to abode, language, and dress. Unofficial estimates claimed that they constituted 45% of the population in the 1988 census.[184] Starting in the 1980s, Bhutan adopted a policy of "One Nation One People" to exert cultural (in language, dress and religion) and political dominance of the majority Drukpa people.[127] The policy manifested in banning of teaching of Nepali language in schools and denial of citizenship to those who were not able to prove officially issued land holding title prior to 1950[128] specifically targeting ethnic Nepali-speaking minority groups ("Lhotshampa"), representing one-third of the population at the time.[129] This resulted in widespread unrest and political demonstrations.[112][130] In 1988, the Bhutanese authorities carried out a special census[131] in southern Bhutan, region of high Lhotshampa population, resulting in mass denationalization of Lhotshampas, followed by forcible deportation of 107,000 Lhotshampas, approximately one-sixth of the total population at the time.[132][60][133] Those who had been granted citizenship by the 1958 Nationality Law were stripped of their citizenship. Members of Bhutanese police and army were involved in burning of Lhotshampa houses, land confiscation and other widespread human rights abuses including arrest, torture and rape of Lhotshampas involved in political protests.[113][135] Following forcible deportation from Bhutan, Lhotshampas spent almost two decades in refugee camps in Nepal and were resettled in various western countries such as the United States between 2007 and 2012.[136]

Cities and towns

Largest cities or towns in Bhutan
According to the 2017 Census[185]
Rank Name District Pop.
1 Thimphu Thimphu 114,551 Paro
2 Phuntsholing Chukha 27,658
3 Paro Paro 11,448
4 Gelephu Sarpang 9,858
5 Samdrup Jongkhar Samdrup Jongkhar 9,325
6 Wangdue Phodrang Wangdue Phodrang 8,954
7 Punakha Punakha 6,626
8 Jakar Bumthang 6,243
9 Nganglam Pemagatshel 5,418
10 Samtse Samtse 5,396


Religion in Bhutan (Pew 2010)[1]

  Buddhism (State religion) (74.8%)
  Hinduism (22.6%)
  Bon and other indigenous faith (1.9%)
  Christianity (0.4%)
  Islam (0.1%)
  Other or none (0.1%)

It is estimated that between two-thirds and three-quarters of the Bhutanese population follow Vajrayana Buddhism, which is also the state religion. About one-quarter to one-third are followers of Hinduism. Other religions account for less than 1% of the population.[186] The current legal framework, in principle guarantees freedom of religion; proselytism, however, is forbidden by a royal government decision[186] and by judicial interpretation of the Constitution.[187]

Buddhism was introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD. Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo (reigned 627–649), a convert to Buddhism, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu Lhakhang (near Paro) in the Paro Valley.[40]


The national language is Dzongkha (Bhutanese), one of 53 languages in the Tibetan language family. The script, locally called Chhokey (literally, "Dharma language"), is identical to classical Tibetan. In Bhutan's education system, English is the medium of instruction, while Dzongkha is taught as the national language. Ethnologue lists 24 languages currently spoken in Bhutan, all of them in the Tibeto-Burman family, except Nepali, an Indo-Aryan language.[115]

Until the 1980s, the government sponsored the teaching of Nepali in schools in southern Bhutan. With the adoption of the Driglam Namzhag (Bhutanese code of etiquette) and its expansion into the idea of strengthening the role of Dzongkha, Nepali was dropped from the curriculum. The languages of Bhutan are still not well characterized, and several have yet to be recorded in an in-depth academic grammar. Before the 1980s, the Lhotshampa (Nepali-speaking community), mainly based in southern Bhutan, constituted approximately 30% of the population.[115] However, after a purge of Lhotshaampas from 1990 to 1992 this number might not accurately reflect the current population.

Dzongkha is partially intelligible with Sikkimese and spoken natively by 25% of the population. Tshangla, the language of the Sharchop and the principal pre-Tibetan language of Bhutan, is spoken by a greater number of people. It is not easily classified and may constitute an independent branch of Tibeto-Burman. Nepali speakers constituted some 40% of the population as of 2006. The larger minority languages are Dzala (11%), Limbu (10%), Kheng (8%), and Rai (8%). There are no reliable sources for the ethnic or linguistic composition of Bhutan, so these numbers do not add up to 100%.


Bhutan has a life expectancy of 70.2 years (69.9 for males and 70.5 for females) according to the latest data for 2016 from the World Bank.[188][189]

Basic healthcare in Bhutan is free, as provided by the Constitution of Bhutan.[190]


The ILCS Campus Taktse Bhutan.

Historically, education in Bhutan was monastic, with secular school education for the general population introduced in the 1960s.[191] The mountainous landscape poses barriers to integrated educational services.[191]

Today, Bhutan has two decentralized universities with eleven constituent colleges spread across the kingdom. These are the Royal University of Bhutan and Khesar Gyalpo University of Medical Sciences, respectively. The first five-year plan provided for a central education authority—in the form of a director of education appointed in 1961—and an organized, modern school system with free and universal primary education.

Education programs were given a boost in 1990, when the Asian Development Bank (see Glossary) granted a US$7.13 million loan for staff training and development, specialist services, equipment and furniture purchases, salaries and other recurrent costs, and facility rehabilitation and construction at Royal Bhutan Polytechnic.

Since the beginning of modern education in Bhutan, teachers from India—especially Kerala—have served in some of the most remote villages of Bhutan. Thus, 43 retired teachers who had served for the longest length of time were personally invited to Thimphu, Bhutan during the Teachers' Day celebrations in 2018, where they were honored and individually thanked by His Majesty Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. To celebrate 50 years of diplomatic relations between Bhutan and India, Bhutan's Education Minister, Jai Bir Rai honored 80 retired teachers who served in Bhutan at a special ceremony organized at Kolkata, India on 6 January 2019.[192] Currently, there are 121 teachers from India placed in schools across Bhutan.


Bhutanese thanka of Mt. Meru and the Buddhist universe (19th century, Trongsa Dzong, Trongsa, Bhutan)

Bhutan has a rich and unique cultural heritage that has largely remained intact because of its isolation from the rest of the world until the mid-20th century. One of the main attractions for tourists is the country's culture and traditions. Bhutanese tradition is deeply steeped in its Buddhist heritage.[193][194] Hinduism is the second most dominant religion in Bhutan, being most prevalent in the southern regions.[195] The government is increasingly making efforts to preserve and sustain the current culture and traditions of the country. Because of its largely unspoiled natural environment and cultural heritage, Bhutan has been referred to as The Last Shangri-La.[196]

While Bhutanese citizens are free to travel abroad, Bhutan is viewed as inaccessible by many foreigners. Another reason for it being an unpopular destination is the cost, which is high for tourists on tighter budgets. Entry is free for citizens of India, Bangladesh, and the Maldives, but all other foreigners are required to sign up with a Bhutanese tour operator and pay around US$250 per day that they stay in the country, though this fee covers most travel, lodging and meal expenses.[197] Bhutan received 37,482 visitor arrivals in 2011, of which 25% were for meetings, incentives, conferencing, and exhibitions.[198]

Bhutan was the first nation in the world to ban tobacco. It was illegal to smoke in public or sell tobacco, according to Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan 2010. Violators are fined the equivalent of $232—a month's salary in Bhutan. In 2021, this was reversed with the new Tobacco Control Act 2021 to allow for the import and sale of tobacco products to stamp out cross-border smuggling of tobacco products during the pandemic. [199]


The national dress for Bhutanese men is the gho, a knee-length robe tied at the waist by a cloth belt known as the kera. Women wear an ankle-length dress, the kira, which is clipped at the shoulders with two identical brooches called the koma and tied at the waist with kera. An accompaniment to the kira is a long-sleeved blouse, the "wonju," which is worn underneath the kira. A long-sleeved, jacket-like garment called the "toego" is worn over the kira. The sleeves of the wonju and the tego are folded together at the cuffs, inside out. Social status and class determine the textures, colors, and decorations that embellish the garments.[200]

Jewelry is commonly worn by women, especially during religious festivals ("tsechus") and public gatherings. To strengthen Bhutan's identity as an independent country, Bhutanese law requires all Bhutanese government employees to wear the national dress at work and all citizens to wear the national dress while visiting schools and other government offices though many citizens, particularly adults, choose to wear the customary dress as formal attire.

Varicolored scarves, known as rachu for women and kabney for men, are important indicators of social standing, as Bhutan has traditionally been a feudal society; in particular, red is the most common color worn by women. The "Bura Maap" (Red Scarf) is one of highest honors a Bhutanese civilian can receive. It, as well as the title of Dasho, comes from the throne in recognition of an individual's outstanding service to the nation.[201] On previous occasions, the King himself conferred Bura Maaps to outstanding individuals such as the Director General of Department Hydropower and Power System, Yeshi Wangdi, the Deputy Chairperson of National Council, Dasho Dr. Sonam Kinga, and former National Assembly Speaker, Dasho Ugyen Dorji.[202]


The National Library of Bhutan during snowfall

Bhutanese architecture remains distinctively traditional, employing rammed earth and wattle and daub construction methods, stone masonry, and intricate woodwork around windows and roofs. Traditional architecture uses no nails or iron bars in construction.[49][203][204] Characteristic of the region is a type of castle fortress known as the dzong. Since ancient times, the dzongs have served as the religious and secular administrative centers for their respective districts.[205] The University of Texas at El Paso in the United States has adopted Bhutanese architecture for its buildings on campus, as have the nearby Hilton Garden Inn and other buildings in the city of El Paso.[206]

Public holidays

Bhutan has numerous public holidays, most of which coincide with traditional, seasonal, secular or religious festivals. They include the winter solstice (around 1 January, depending on the lunar calendar),[207] Lunar New Year (February or March),[208] the King's birthday and the anniversary of his coronation, the official end of monsoon season (22 September),[209] National Day (17 December),[210] and various Buddhist and Hindu celebrations.

Film industry

Music and dance

Chaam, sacred masked dances, are annually performed during religious festivals.

Dance dramas and masked dances such as the Cham dance are common traditional features at festivals, usually accompanied by traditional music. At these events, dancers depict heroes, demons, dæmons, death heads, animals, gods, and caricatures of common people by wearing colorful wooden or composition face masks and stylized costumes. The dancers enjoy royal patronage, and preserve ancient folk and religious customs and perpetuate the ancient lore and art of mask-making.

The music of Bhutan can generally be divided into traditional and modern varieties; traditional music comprises religious and folk genres, the latter including zhungdra and boedra.[211] The modern rigsar is played on a mix of traditional instruments and electronic keyboards, and dates back to the early 1990s; it shows the influence of Indian popular music, a hybrid form of traditional and Western popular influences.[212][213]

Family structure

In Bhutanese families, inheritance generally passes matrilineally through the female rather than the male line. Daughters will inherit their parents' house. A man is expected to make his own way in the world and often moves to his wife's home. Love marriages are more common in urban areas, but the tradition of arranged marriages among acquainted families is still prevalent in most of the rural areas. Although uncommon, polygamy is accepted, often being a device to keep property in a contained family unit rather than dispersing it.[214] The previous king, Jigme Singye Wangchuck, who abdicated in 2006, had four queens, all of whom are sisters. The current king, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, wed Jetsun Pema, then 21, a commoner and daughter of a pilot, on 13 October 2011.


Traditional dish with lemon glazed chicken, sauteed spinach and steamed Bhutanese red rice

Rice (red rice), buckwheat, and increasingly maize, are the staples of Bhutanese cuisine. The local diet also includes pork, beef, yak meat, chicken, and lamb. Soups and stews of meat and dried vegetables spiced with chilies and cheese are prepared. Ema datshi, made very spicy with cheese and chilies, might be called the national dish for its ubiquity and the pride that Bhutanese have for it. Dairy foods, particularly butter and cheese from yaks and cows, are also popular, and indeed almost all milk is turned into butter and cheese. Popular beverages include butter tea, black tea, locally brewed ara (rice wine), and beer.[49]


Changlimithang Stadium during a parade.
Taekwondo between Bhutan and Vietnam
A Bhutanese archery competition

Bhutan's national and most popular sport is archery.[215] Competitions are held regularly in most villages. It differs from Olympic standards in technical details such as the placement of the targets and atmosphere. Two targets are placed over 100 meters (330 ft) apart, and teams shoot from one end of the field to the other. Each member of the team shoots two arrows per round. Traditional Bhutanese archery is a social event, and competitions are organized between villages, towns, and amateur teams. There is usually plenty of food and drink complete with singing and dancing. Attempts to distract an opponent include standing around the target and making fun of the shooter's ability. Darts (khuru) is an equally popular outdoor team sport, in which heavy wooden darts pointed with a 10 cm nail are thrown at a paperback-sized target 10 to 20 meters (33 to 66 ft) away.

Another traditional sport is the Digor, which resembles the shot put and horseshoe throwing.

Another popular sport is basketball.[215] In 2002, Bhutan's national football team played Montserrat, in what was billed as The Other Final; the match took place on the same day Brazil played Germany in the World Cup final, but at the time Bhutan and Montserrat were the world's two lowest ranked teams. The match was held in Thimphu's Changlimithang National Stadium, and Bhutan won 4–0. A documentary of the match was made by the Dutch filmmaker Johan Kramer. Bhutan won its first two FIFA World Cup Qualifying matches, beating Sri Lanka 1–0 in Sri Lanka and 2–1 in Bhutan, taking the aggregate at 3–1.[216] Cricket has also gained popularity in Bhutan, particularly since the introduction of television channels from India. The Bhutan national cricket team is one of the most successful affiliate nations in the region.

Women in the workforce

Women have begun to participate more in the work force and their participation is one of the highest in the region.[109] However, the unemployment rates among women are still higher than those of men and women are in more unsecure work fields, such as agriculture.[217] Most of the work that women do outside of the home is in family-based agriculture which is insecure and is one of the reasons why women are falling behind men when it comes to income.[109] Women also, in general, work lower-quality jobs than men and only earn 75% of men's earnings.[218] The unemployment rate among women is also higher than that of men.[217]

Women in the household

Rooted deep in Bhutan culture is the idea of selflessness and the women of Bhutan take on this role in the context of the household.[219] Bhutan culture has shown a tolerance for domestic violence with nearly 1/4 of all women having had experienced some form of violence from their husband or partner.[217] Some Bhutanese communities have what is referred to as matrilineal communities, where the eldest daughter receives the largest share of the land.[218] This is due to the belief that she will stay and take care of her parents while the son will move out and work to get his own land and for his own family.[218] Importantly, land ownership does not necessarily equate to economic benefits - despite the eldest daughter having control of the house, it is the husband that is in charge of making decisions.[218] However, the younger generation has stepped away from this belief, in splitting the land evenly between the children instead of the eldest daughter inheriting the most land.[218]

Women's health

Throughout Bhutan, there has been an improvement in reproductive health services that has led to a drastic drop in maternal mortality rate, dropping from 1,000 in 1990 to 180 in 2010.[218] There has also been an increase in contraceptive use from less than 1/3 in 2003 to 2/3 in 2010.[218]

See also


  1. ^ India's Ministry of External Affairs provides financial aid to its neighbors as "technical and economic cooperation with other countries and advances to foreign governments."


  1. ^ a b "Pew Research Center – Global Religious Landscape 2010 – religious composition by country" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2016.
  2. ^ "9th Five Year Plan (2002–2007)" (PDF). Royal Government of Bhutan. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  3. ^ a b "National Portal of Bhutan". Department of Information Technology, Bhutan. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  4. ^ a b ""World Population prospects – Population division"". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  5. ^ a b ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  6. ^ "Bhutan". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d "Butan". International Monetary Fund.
  8. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  9. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  10. ^ "Treaty Bodies Database – Document – Summary Record – Bhutan". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR). 5 June 2001. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  11. ^ "World Population Prospects". United Nations. 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  12. ^ Driem, George van (1998). Dzongkha = Rdoṅ-kha. Leiden: Research School, CNWS. p. 478. ISBN 978-90-5789-002-4.
  13. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Bhutan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  15. ^ Tsuguyasu Itami (October 2001). "Gankarpunzum & First Ascent Of Liankang Kangri" (PDF). Japanese Alpine News. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  16. ^ "Flora and Fauna of Bhutan - Rich Biodiversity of the Himalayan Kingdom". Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  17. ^ Karthikeyan, Ananth (1 October 2017). "The brief supremacy of a mountain kingdom". DNA India.
  18. ^ "Bhutan was first to recognise Bangladesh". The Daily Star. 9 December 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  19. ^ "Israel establishes diplomatic relations with Bhutan". Haaretz. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  20. ^ ""Bhutan and Kuwait have gained the trust and respect of the entire world" – Kuensel Online". Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  21. ^ "Bhutan establishes diplomatic relations with Brazil". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Royal Government of Bhutan. 23 September 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  22. ^ NEWS, KYODO. "Abe hails Japan's close ties with Bhutan, other royal families". Kyodo News+. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  23. ^ Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "King, Queen of Bhutan arrive". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  24. ^ "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  25. ^ "Human Development Index: Bangladesh moves 2 notches up, remains 5th in South Asia". Dhaka Tribune. 21 December 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  26. ^ "Bhutan". bhutan. Retrieved 2 January 2021. {{cite web}}: Check |url= value (help)[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ Tshering, Sonam; Tamang, Bharat. "Hydropower - Key to sustainable, socio-economic development of Bhutan" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 23 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ "Bhutan | UNDP Climate Change Adaptation". Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  29. ^ Chakravarti, Balaram (1979). A Cultural History of Bhutan. Vol. 1. Hilltop. p. 7. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  30. ^ Taylor, Isaac (1898). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. Gale Research Co. p. 69.
  31. ^ a b Savada, Andrea Matles, ed. (1993). "Origins and Early Settlement, A.D. 600–1600". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. OCLC 27429416. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  32. ^ "Bhutan - Government and society". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  33. ^ a b c "History of Bhutan: How Europe heard about Bhutan". Kuensel. 24 August 2003. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  34. ^ Grange, Kevin (2011). Beneath Blossom Rain: Discovering Bhutan on the Toughest Trek in the World. Outdoor Lives. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-3433-8. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  35. ^ Clements, William M. (2006). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife: Southeast Asia and India, Central and East Asia, Middle East. Vol. 2. Greenwood Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-313-32849-7. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  36. ^ a b "Bhutan". World Institute for Asian Studies. 21 August 2006. Archived from the original on 1 August 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  37. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Worden, Robert L (1991). Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.). Bhutan: A country study. Federal Research Division. Origins and Early Settlement, A.D. 600–1600.
  38. ^ a b Padel, Ruth (2006). Tigers in Red Weather: a Quest for the Last Wild Tigers. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 139–40. ISBN 978-0-8027-1544-9. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  39. ^ Sailen Debnath, Essays on Cultural History of North Bengal, ISBN 978-81-86860-42-7; & Sailen Debnath, The Dooars in Historical Transition, ISBN 978-81-86860-44-1
  40. ^ a b c Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Worden, Robert L (1991). Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.). Bhutan: A country study. Federal Research Division. Arrival of Buddhism.
  41. ^ Hattaway, Paul (2004). Peoples of the Buddhist World: a Christian Prayer Diary. William Carey Library. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-87808-361-9. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  42. ^ Rennie, Frank; Mason, Robin (2008). Bhutan: Ways of Knowing. IAP. pp. 18, 58. ISBN 978-1-59311-734-4. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  43. ^ Dorji, C. T. (1994). History of Bhutan Based on Buddhism. Sangay Xam, Prominent Publishers. ISBN 978-81-86239-01-8. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  44. ^ Harding, Sarah (2003). The Life and Revelations of Pema Lingpa. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 978-1-55939-194-8. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  45. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Worden, Robert L (1991). Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.). Bhutan: A country study. Federal Research Division. Rivalry among the Sects.
  46. ^ "Bengala e o Reino do Dragão – 37". O clarim. 20 July 2018.
  47. ^ Cacella, Estêvão. Trans. by Baillie, Luiza Maria. "Report which Father Estevao Cacella of the Society of Jesus Sent to Father Alberto Laercio, Provincial of the Province of Malabar of East India, about His Journey to Cathay, until He Came to the Kingdom of Bhotanta" Archived 25 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine (1627). Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  48. ^ Karma Phuntsho (2013). The History of Bhutan. Random House India. pp. 224–227. ISBN 9788184003116.
  49. ^ a b c Brown, Lindsay; Armington, Stan (2007). Bhutan. Country Guides (3 ed.). Lonely Planet. pp. 26, 36. ISBN 978-1-74059-529-2. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  50. ^ Pomplun, Trent (2009). Jesuit on the Roof of the World: Ippolito Desideri's Mission to Eighteenth-Century Tibet. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-19-537786-6. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  51. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Worden, Robert L (1991). Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.). Bhutan: A country study. Federal Research Division. Administrative Integration and Conflict with Tibet, 1651–1728.
  52. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Worden, Robert L (1991). Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.). Bhutan: A country study. Federal Research Division. British Intrusion, 1772–1907.
  53. ^ Hannavy, John (2013). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. Routledge. p. 1496. ISBN 978-1-135-87327-1. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  54. ^ a b c Hutt, Michael (December 1996). "Ethnic Nationalism, Refugees and Bhutan". Journal of Refugee Studies. 9 (4): 397–420. doi:10.1093/jrs/9.4.397. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  55. ^ Hutt, Michael (1996). "Ethnic Nationalism, Refugees and Bhutan". Journal of Refugee Studies. 9 (4): 397–420. doi:10.1093/jrs/9.4.397. Retrieved 19 April 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  56. ^ a b Minkow, Anna (April 2011). "An Analysis of Bhutanese Refugees' Experiences in the United States: Understanding the Differences between Urban and Rural Resettlement". BDoctoral Dissertation, Boston College. College of Arts and Sciences. hdl:2345/1956. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  57. ^ Hutt, Michael (January 2005). "THE BHUTANESE REFUGEES: BETWEEN VERIFICATION, REPATRIATION AND ROYAL REALPOLITIK" (PDF). Peace and Democracy in South Asia. 1 (1): 44–55. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  58. ^ Pulla, Venkat (January 2016). "Who Are the Lhotsampa? What Caused Their Flight from Bhutan?". In Pulla, Venkat (ed.). The Lhotsampa People of Bhutan (In: Pulla V. (eds) The Lhotsampa People of Bhutan. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan, New York. p. 1. doi:10.1057/9781137551429_1. ISBN 978-1-137-55142-9. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  59. ^ United States Department of State. "BHUTAN 2019 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT" (PDF). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2019 United States Department of State • Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  60. ^ a b c Hoffman, Klus (1 April 2006). "Democratization from Above: The Case of Bhutan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
  61. ^ Larmer, Brook (March 2008). "Bhutan's Enlightened Experiment". National Geographic. ISSN 0027-9358. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  62. ^ Scott-Clark, Cathy; Levy, Adrian (14 June 2003). "Fast Forward into Trouble". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  63. ^ Kaul, Nitasha (10 November 2008). "Bhutan Crowns a Jewel". UPI Asia. United Press International. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  64. ^ a b c d e "Bhutan – The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
  65. ^ West Bengal Tourism Archived 2013-08-06 at the Wayback Machine
  66. ^ "List of Parties". Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  67. ^ "Biodiversity Action Plan 2009" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  68. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1990). "Primates in Bhutan". Oryx. 24 (3): 125. doi:10.1017/S0030605300033834.
  69. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (1992). "Golden langur – Distribution Confusion". Oryx. 26 (3): 172–173. doi:10.1017/S0030605300023619.
  70. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2008). "Primates of Bhutan and Observations of Hybrid Langurs". Primate Conservation. 23: 65–73. doi:10.1896/052.023.0107. S2CID 85925043.
  71. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2010). The Vanishing Herds: Wild Water Buffalo. Guwahati, India: Gibbon Books & The Rhino Foundation for Nature in North East India. ISBN 978-9380652009.
  72. ^ Choudhury, A.U. (2007). "White-winged duck Cairina (=Asarcornis) scutulata and Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus: two new country records for Bhutan" (PDF). Forktail. 23: 153–155. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
  73. ^ Bisht, Ramesh Chandra (2008). International Encyclopaedia Of Himalayas (5 Vols. Set). Mittal Publications. p. 54. ISBN 9788183242653. Archived from the original on 4 December 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  74. ^ "New IUCN State Members". Switzerland: IUCN Newsletter. January 2012. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  75. ^ "Parks of Bhutan". Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation online. Bhutan Trust Fund. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
  76. ^ "The Organisation". Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation online. Bhutan Trust Fund. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
  77. ^ a b c "Transcript of "This country isn't just carbon neutral – it's carbon negative"". Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  78. ^ a b Kingdom of Bhutan. Royal Government of Bhutan. National Environment Commission. Communication of INDC of the Kingdom of Bhutan. By Yeshay Dorji. Thimphu: NEC, 2015. Print.
  79. ^ "Bhutan-Biodiversity Action Plan 2009" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015.
  80. ^ a b Pashley, Alex (5 August 2015). "Bhutan: climate lessons from a Himalayan kingdom". Climate Home – climate change news. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  81. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  82. ^ "Bhutan must consider long term measure on climate change: UNFCCC's head – BBS". BBS. 2 May 2014. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  83. ^ Wangchuk, Jigme (8 July 2011). "Addressing Human-Wildlife Conflict". Bhutan Observer online. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  84. ^ Cannon, P.F.; Hywel-Jones, N.L.; Maczey, N.; Norbu, L.; Tshitila; Samdup, T. & Lhendup, P. (2009). "Steps towards sustainable harvest of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Bhutan". Biodivers. Conserv. 18 (9): 2263–2281. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9587-5. S2CID 38146891.
  85. ^ "Plastic Ban Is Back". Business Bhutan. 12 February 2019.
  86. ^ a b Xavier, Constantino (8 July 2020). "Bhutan's democratic transition and ties to India". Brookings. Retrieved 23 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  87. ^ "Bhutan 2008". Constitute. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  88. ^ Sharma, Aradhana (25 March 2008). "Royalist Party Wins Election in Bhutan". Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  89. ^ "Bhutan chooses new party to form government". Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  90. ^ Bhutan profile – Timeline – BBC News Archived 15 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine. (20 May 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  91. ^ a b Galay, Karma. "International Politics of Bhutan" (PDF). Journal of Bhutan Studies. 10: 90–107. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  92. ^ Bhutan PM: India is closest ally Archived 24 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine, NDTV, 16 July 2008.
  93. ^ Tshewang, Yeshey (12 July 2012) PM stresses on importance of foreign relations, The Bhutanese.
  94. ^ Bhutan: Cautiously Cultivated Positive Perception, Caroline Brassard in A Resurgent China: South Asian Perspectives, S. D. Muni, Tan Tai Yong, page 74
  95. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Royal Government of Bhutan;". 14 October 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  96. ^ Wangchuk, Samten (13 December 2006). "Indo-Bhutan Border Finalised". Kuensel online. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  97. ^ a b Giri, Pramod (28 October 2005). "Alarm over Chinese Incursion". Archived from the original on 24 August 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  98. ^ 中国不丹同意平等友好协商早日解决边界问题 [China and Bhutan Agree to Equal and Amicable Talks in Order to Resolve the Border Issue Quickly] (in Chinese). 1 December 2005. Archived from the original on 25 September 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  99. ^ Bhutan king arrives in Dhaka Archived 19 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (14 February 2013). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  100. ^ Bangladesh–Bhutan joint statement Archived 18 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (8 December 2014)
  101. ^ "Bangladesh signs preferential trade agreement with Bhutan". Dhaka Tribune. 6 December 2020.
  102. ^ Dorji, Gyalsten K (15 February 2011). "Bhutan establishes ties with Spain". Kuensel. Retrieved 29 March 2011.[permanent dead link]
  103. ^ "Overseas Embassies and Consulates of Bhutan". Go Archived from the original on 9 March 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
  104. ^ "Bhutan Country Specific Information". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 24 March 2008.
  105. ^ Bhattacharjee, Arun (19 December 2003). "Bhutan Army Sees Action at Last". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  106. ^ "Bhutan". Freedom House. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  107. ^ Reuters, Story by. "Bhutan parliament decriminalizes homosexuality, to delight of activists". CNN. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  108. ^ a b Dudman, Jane. "Bhutan's First Female Minister: Engineer, Equality Warrior, Former Civil Servant". Guardian News and Media. Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  109. ^ a b c d e Lhaden, Tenzin. "Moving towards Gender Equality in Bhutan". Archived from the original on 15 December 2018.
  110. ^ a b Human Rights Watch. "History of the Bhutanese Refugee Situation in Nepal". Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  111. ^ Sinha, Awadhesh Coomar (2001). Himalayan kingdom Bhutan: tradition, transition, and transformation. Indus Publishing. pp. 25, 183, 215, 220–221. ISBN 81-7387-119-1.
  112. ^ a b c Schultz, Erika (15 October 2016). "Bhutanese refugee crisis: a brief history". The Seattle Times. Seattle Times staff photographer. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  113. ^ a b c d Human Rights Watch. "History of the Bhutanese Refugee Situation in Nepal". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  114. ^ "Family Portrait of Bhutan Nepalis in USA". The Week Republica. 15 April 2011. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  115. ^ a b c "Assessment for Lhotshampas in Bhutan". Database. Center for International Development and Conflict Management, University of Maryland. Archived from the original on 22 June 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  116. ^ a b "Refugees from Bhutan Poised for New Start". UNHCR. 1 February 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  117. ^ {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  118. ^ Amnesty International (1992). "Bhutan: Human rights violations against the Nepali-speaking population in the south". Retrieved 19 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  119. ^ Human Rights Watch. "History of the Bhutanese Refugee Situation in Nepal". HUman Rights Watch. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  120. ^ Frelick, Bill (3 March 2011) For Bhutan's Refugees, There's no Place Like Home Archived 14 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Human Rights Watch.
  121. ^ Hutt, Michael (1996). "Ethnic Nationalism, Refugees and Bhutan". Journal of Refugee Studies. 9 (4): 397–420. doi:10.1093/jrs/9.4.397.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  122. ^ Refugee Arrival Data Archived 7 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine. US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Refugee Resettlement. 17 July 2012. Web. 25 December 2013.
  123. ^ a b c d 2009 Human Rights Report: Bhutan, U.S. Department of State, 25 February 2009
  124. ^ "Bhutan". U.S. Department of State. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  125. ^ "Bhutan – a 'happy' place, but not for all". World Watch Monitor. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  126. ^ Frelick, Bill (1 February 2008). "Bhutan's ethnic cleansing". New Statesman. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  127. ^ a b Mishra, Vidhyapati (28 June 2013). "Bhutan Is No Shangri-La". The New York times. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  128. ^ a b Schultz, Erika (15 October 2016). "Bhutanese refugee crisis: a brief history". The Seattle Times staff photographer. The Seattle Times. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  129. ^ a b "The Bhutan insurgencies". Public Radio International. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  130. ^ a b "MAR". Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  131. ^ a b Mishra, Vidhyapati (28 June 2013). "Bhutan Is No Shangri-La". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  132. ^ a b Human Rights Watch. "History of the Bhutanese Refugee Situation in Nepal". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  133. ^ a b Frelick, Bill (February 2008). "Director, Refugee and Migrant Rights Division". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  134. ^ Amnesty International (1994). "Bhutan: Human rights violations against the Nepali-speaking population in the south".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  135. ^ a b Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR). "Treatment by authorities of ethnic Nepali's in Bhutan" (PDF). Refworld. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  136. ^ a b Group, Minority Rights. "Lhotshampas". Minority Rights. Minority Rights group. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  137. ^ a b "Local Government Act of Bhutan 2009" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 11 September 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011.
  138. ^ "Delimitation". Election Commission, Government of Bhutan. 2011. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  139. ^ "World development indicators". The World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  140. ^ "World development indicators: size of economy". The World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  141. ^ "GNH Survey 2010" (PDF). The Centre for Bhutan Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  142. ^ Sharma, Rajeev (25 January 2011). "MoUs with Bhutan on Rail Links, Power Projects". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  143. ^ "MEMBER INFORMATION: India and the WTO". World Trade Organization (WTO). Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  144. ^ Balaji, Mohan (12 January 2008). "In Bhutan, China and India Collide". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2010.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  145. ^ a b "Country Trends". Global Footprint Network. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  146. ^ Lin, David; Hanscom, Laurel; Murthy, Adeline; Galli, Alessandro; Evans, Mikel; Neill, Evan; Mancini, MariaSerena; Martindill, Jon; Medouar, FatimeZahra; Huang, Shiyu; Wackernagel, Mathis (2018). "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012-2018". Resources. 7 (3): 58. doi:10.3390/resources7030058.
  147. ^ Chester, Ken (2 September 2013). "A Bhutan tech primer: early signs of startups and e-commerce". Tech in Asia. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
  148. ^ "BITC – Business Incubator". Thimphu TechPark. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013.
  149. ^ "BUDGET". The Tribune (India) online. Archived from the original on 22 July 2005. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  150. ^ "Bhutan set to plough lone furrow as world's first wholly organic country". The Guardian. 11 February 2013. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  151. ^ Paull, John (2017) "Four New Strategies to Grow the Organic Agriculture Sector" Archived 4 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Agrofor International Journal, 2(3):61–70.
  152. ^ "Bangladesh wants to expand trade with Bhutan". Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  153. ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (1 December 2016). "Demonetisation impacts India's border trade with Bhutan". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  154. ^ Ads, Ambo Digital. "Gross National Happiness - an introduction". Ambo Travels. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  155. ^ a b c Bhutan offers Bangladesh cheaper hydel Archived 19 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (1 November 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  156. ^ Governing Council | SAARC Development Fund Secretariat Archived 21 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (2 November 2010). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  157. ^ BHUTAN TOURISM MONITOR. ANNUAL REPORT Archived 14 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Tourism Council of Bhutan (2014).
  158. ^ "How to get Bhutan tourist visa cost and requirement". Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  159. ^ Ledesma, Lester V. (30 November 2017). "5 reasons Bhutan is worth the US$250 daily fee". CNN.
  160. ^ "Bhutan: A model for sustainable tourism development". International Trade Forum. 1 July 2011.
  161. ^ Ancient Ruin of Drukgyel Dzong – UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (9 July 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  162. ^ Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary – UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (9 July 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  163. ^ Dzongs: the center of temporal and religious authorities (Punakha Dzong, Wangdue Phodrang Dzong, Paro Dzong, Trongsa Dzong and Dagana Dzong) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (9 July 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  164. ^ Jigme Dorji National Park (JDNP) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (9 July 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  165. ^ Royal Manas National Park (RMNP) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (9 July 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  166. ^ Sacred Sites associated with Phajo Drugom Zhigpo and his descendants – UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (9 July 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  167. ^ Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (9 July 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  168. ^ Tamzhing Monastery – UNESCO World Heritage Centre Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (9 July 2015). Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  169. ^ Mask dance of the drums from Drametse – intangible heritage – Culture Sector Archived 9 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. UNESCO. Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  170. ^ Palden, Tshering (1 September 2009). "Domestic Air Service to Take Wing Soon". Kuensel online. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  171. ^ Palden, Tshering (30 August 2010). "DYT Approves Quarry Without Community Clearance". Kuensel online. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  172. ^ Dorji, Gyalsten K (2 December 2015). "Drukair to launch scheduled operations to Gelephu". Kuensel online. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  173. ^ Zeppa, Jamie (2000). Beyond the Sky and the Earth: A Journey into Bhutan. Penguin. ISBN 978-1-57322-815-2. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  174. ^ "Icy Roads Claim Lives". Kuensel online. 4 December 2004. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  175. ^ Yeshi, Samten (24 August 2010). "Landslide at Dzong Viewpoint". Kuensel online. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  176. ^ "North-East-West highway widening progressing under pre-financing". KuenselOnline. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  177. ^ "Welcome to Embassy of India Thimphu, Bhutan". Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  178. ^ "East-West highway widening on track". KuenselOnline. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  179. ^ "International tourists bemoan bad road conditions in Bhutan | Asia News Network". 31 May 2016. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  180. ^ Page, Jeremy (30 December 2009). "Isolated Buddhist kingdom of Bhutan to get its first railway link". The Times. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  181. ^ "Population panel". UNPP.
  182. ^ "Report: Data Profile". World Bank. 2008. Archived from the original on 28 April 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  183. ^ GROWup - Geographical Research On War, Unified Platform. "Ethnicity in Bhutan". ETH Zurich. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  184. ^ "People & Population". Bhutan News Service. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  185. ^ "Bhutan". Retrieved 23 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  186. ^ a b "International Religious Freedom Report 2007–Bhutan". U.S. Department of State. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
  187. ^ "Pastor Sentenced to Three Years in Prison". Bhutan News Service online. Bhutan News Service. 12 December 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  188. ^ "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) | Data". Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  189. ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  190. ^ "The Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 18 July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  191. ^ a b Wangdi, Sonam; LeGrand, Cathleen; Norbu, Phuntsho; Rinzin, Sonam (1 January 2020). "What's past is prologue: history, current status and future prospects of library development in Bhutan". Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication. ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print): 339–354. doi:10.1108/GKMC-12-2019-0153. ISSN 2514-9342. S2CID 225114548. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Alt URL
  192. ^ "Indian teachers who served in Bhutan honoured". 8 January 2019. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  193. ^ Kharat, Rajesh (200). "Bhutan's Security Scenario". Contemporary South Asia. 13 (2): 171–185. doi:10.1080/0958493042000242954. S2CID 154802295.
  194. ^ Martin Regg, Cohn. "Lost horizon." Toronto Star (Canada) n.d.: Newspaper Source Plus. Web. 8 December 2011.
  195. ^ Zurick, David (4 November 2019). "Gross National Happiness and Environmental Status in Bhutan". Geographical Review. 96 (4): 657–681. doi:10.1111/j.1931-0846.2006.tb00521.x. S2CID 145412639.
  196. ^ "Bhutan – the Last Shangri La". PBS online. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  197. ^ "Travel Requirements". Tourism Council of Bhutan. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  198. ^ "New MICE hardware on the cards for Bhutan". TTGmice. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  199. ^ "Selling and buying of tobacco products are no longer illegal in Bhutan". DailyBhutan. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  200. ^ Rizal, Dhurba (2015). The Royal Semi-Authoritarian Democracy of Bhutan. Lexington Books. p. 11. ISBN 9781498507486.
  201. ^ "Four individuals conferred Bura Maap - BBS". Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  202. ^ "His Majesty awards red scarf and medals - BBS". Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  203. ^ Rael, Ronald (2008). Earth Architecture. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-56898-767-5. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  204. ^ "Country profile – Bhutan: a land frozen in time". BBC News. 9 February 1998. Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  205. ^ Amundsen, Ingun B (2001). "On Bhutanese and Tibetan Dzongs" (PDF). Journal of Bhutan Studies (Winter ed.). 5: 8–41. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2011. (JBS Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine)
  206. ^ "1.1 University History". UTEP Handbook of Operations. University of Texas, El Paso. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  207. ^ "Bhutan Winter Solstice Reminders for Winter Solstice . Get reminders for Winter Solstice –". Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  208. ^ "Losar Festival Nepal : Tamu, Sherpa, Tibetan, Gyalpo Lhosar". 13 January 2014. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  209. ^ "Public Holidays for the year 2011". Royal Civil Service Commission, Government of Bhutan. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  210. ^ "Bhutan National Day". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  211. ^ Clements, William M. (2006). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife: Southeast Asia and India, Central and East Asia, Middle East. Vol. 2. Greenwood Press. pp. 106–110. ISBN 978-0-313-32849-7. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  212. ^ Penjor, Ugyen (19 January 2003). "From Ngesem Ngesem to Khu Khu Khu ... Rigsar music woos local music fans". Kuensel online. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  213. ^ "Rigsar Dranyen". RAOnline. 17 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  214. ^ Coelho, V.H. (1970). Sikkim and Bhutan. Vikas Publications, Indian Council for Cultural Relations. p. 82. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  215. ^ a b "Bhutan at Play". Impress BHUTAN Travel. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  216. ^ "Bhutan Wins Again! A Match Report from a Deadspin Reader in Bhutan" Archived 20 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 4 December 2015.
  217. ^ a b c "Bhutan Gains Ground on Gender Equality But Challenges Remain in Key Areas". The Asian Development Bank. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018.
  218. ^ a b c d e f g "Bhutan Gender Policy Note | Gender Pay Gap | Gender Role". Scribd.
  219. ^ Dayaram, Kandy; Pick, David (22 June 2012). "Entangled between tradition and modernity: the experiences of Bhutanese working women". Society and Business Review. 7 (2): 134–148. doi:10.1108/17465681211237600.

Further reading




  • Fraser, Neil; Bhattacharya, Anima; Bhattacharya, Bimalendu (2001). Geography of a Himalayan Kingdom: Bhutan. Concept Publishing. ISBN 8170228875.
  • Gansser, Augusto (1983). Geology of the Bhutan Himalaya. Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 3764313714.

External links