بلژیک

از ویکیپدیا، دانشنامه آزاد
رفتن به ناوبری پرش به جستجو

مختصات : 50 ° 50′N 4 ° 00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000

پادشاهی بلژیک
شعار:  "Eendracht maakt macht"  ( هلندی )
"L'union fait la force"  ( فرانسوی )
"Einigkeit macht stark"  ( آلمانی )
سرود: 
" La Brabançonne "
(انگلیسی: "The Brabantian" )
Location of Belgium (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
موقعیت بلژیک (سبز تیره)

- در اروپا  (سبز و خاکستری تیره)
- در اتحادیه اروپا  (سبز)

سرمایه، پایتخت
و بزرگترین شهر
بروکسل 50 ° 51′N 4 ° 21′E
 / 50.850°N 4.350°E / 50.850; 4.350
زبان های رسمیهلندی
فرانسوی
آلمانی
دین
(2019 [1] )
نام (ها)
دولت سلطنت مشروطه پارلمانی فدرال [2]
فیلیپ
الکساندر د کرو
قوه مقننهپارلمان فدرال
مجلس سنا
مجلس نمایندگان
استقلال 
• اعلام شده است
4 اکتبر 1830
19 آوریل 1839
حوزه
• جمع
30،689 [3]  کیلومتر 2 (11،849 مایل مربع) ( 136 ام )
• اب (٪)
0.71 (تا سال 2015) [4]
جمعیت
• برآورد 2020
Neutral increase11،492،641 [5] ( 82 م )
• تراکم
376 / کیلومتر 2 (973.8 / مایل مربع) ( 22 )
تولید ناخالص داخلی  ( PPP )برآورد سال 2020
• جمع
575.808 میلیارد دلار [6] ( رتبه 36 )
• سرانه
50،114 دلار [6] ( هجدهم )
تولید ناخالص داخلی  (اسمی)برآورد سال 2020
• جمع
503.416 میلیارد دلار [6] ( 26 )
• سرانه
43،814 دلار [6] ( شانزدهم )
جینی  (2020)Positive decrease 25.4 [7]
کم
HDI  (2019)Increase 0.919 [8]
بسیار بالا  ·  هفدهم
واحد پولیورو ( ) ( یورو )
منطقه زمانیUTC +1 ( CET )
• تابستان ( DST )
UTC +2 ( CEST )
سمت رانندگیدرست
کد تماس+32
کد ISO 3166بودن
اینترنت TLD.بودن
  1. نسبت رسمی 13:15 پرچم به ندرت دیده می شود. نسبت 2: 3 یا مشابه بیشتر رایج است.
  2. بروکسل منطقه است عملا سرمایه، اما شهر بروکسل شهرداری است به لحاظ قانونی سرمایه است. [9]
  3. .eu به دامنه نیز استفاده می شود، آن را به عنوان با دیگر کشورهای عضو اتحادیه اروپا به اشتراک گذاشته.

بلژیک ، [A] به طور رسمی پادشاهی بلژیک ، [B] کشوری در اروپای غربی است . این کشور از شمال با هلند ، از شرق با آلمان ، از جنوب شرقی با لوکزامبورگ ، از جنوب غربی با فرانسه و از شمال غربی با دریای شمال هم مرز است. این پوشش به مساحت 30،689 کیلومتر از 2 (11849 مایل مربع) و دارای جمعیت بیش از 11.5 میلیون، و آن را 22 پرجمعیت ترین کشور در جهان و 6 پرجمعیت ترینکشوری در اروپا ، با تراکم 376 در کیلومتر مربع (970 در مایل مربع). پایتخت و بزرگترین شهر بروکسل است . دیگر شهرهای مهم آنتورپ ، خنت ، شارلروا ، لیژ ، بروژ ، نامور و لوون هستند .

بلژیک یک کشور مستقل و پادشاهی مشروطه فدرال با سیستم پارلمانی است . سازمان نهادی آن پیچیده است و بر هر دو زمینه منطقه ای و زبانی ساختار یافته است. آن را به سه تقسیم بسیار خودمختار مناطق : [10] فلاندرز منطقه (فلاندر) در شمال، منطقه والون (والونیا) در جنوب، و منطقه بروکسل پایتخت . [11] بروکسل کوچکترین و پرجمعیت ترین منطقه و همچنین ثروتمندترین منطقه از نظر تولید ناخالص داخلی سرانه است .

بلژیک دارای دو جامعه اصلی زبانی است : جامعه فلاندری زبان هلندی که حدود 60 درصد از جمعیت را تشکیل می دهد و جامعه فرانسوی زبان که حدود 40 درصد از جمعیت را تشکیل می دهند. یک اجتماع کوچک آلمانی زبان با حدود یک درصد در مناطق شرقی کانتون وجود دارد . منطقه پایتخت بروکسل به طور رسمی به دو زبان فرانسوی و هلندی است [12] ، اگرچه زبان غالب فرانسوی است. [13] تنوع زبانی بلژیک و کشمکش های سیاسی مرتبط در سیستم پیچیده حکمرانی آن ، متشکل از شش دولت مختلف ، منعکس شده است .

این کشور امروزه پس از انقلاب بلژیک 1830 تاسیس شد ، هنگامی که از هلند جدا شد ، که از سال 1815 وجود داشت. نام انتخاب شده برای ایالت جدید از کلمه لاتین بلژیک گرفته شده است که در ژولیوس سزار استفاده می شود . " جنگهای گالیک " ، برای توصیف منطقه ای در نزدیکی در دوره حدود 55 قبل از میلاد. [14] بلژیک بخشی از منطقه ای است که به کشورهای پایین معروف است ، از لحاظ تاریخی منطقه ای نسبتاً بزرگتر از گروه ایالتهای بنلوکس است ، زیرا بخشهایی از شمال فرانسه را نیز شامل می شد. از قرون وسطی، موقعیت مرکزی آن در نزدیکی چندین رودخانه اصلی به این معنی است که این منطقه نسبتاً مرفه بوده ، از نظر تجاری و سیاسی با همسایگان بزرگتر خود ارتباط دارد. بلژیک همچنین میدان نبرد قدرتهای اروپایی بوده است و نام "میدان نبرد اروپا" را به خود اختصاص داده است ، [15] شهرتی که در قرن بیستم توسط هر دو جنگ جهانی تقویت شد .

بلژیک در انقلاب صنعتی شرکت کرد [16] [17] و در طول قرن بیستم ، تعدادی مستعمره در آفریقا داشت . [18] بین سالهای 1888 و 1908 ، لئوپولد دوم ، پادشاه بلژیک ، یکی از بزرگترین کشتارهای تاریخ بشری را در ایالت آزاد کنگو ، که ملک خصوصی او بود ، انجام داد و هنوز مستعمره بلژیک نبود. برآورد تعداد کشته شدگان مورد اختلاف است اما میلیون ها نفر ، بخش قابل توجهی از مردم ، به دلیل صادرات لاستیک و عاج جان خود را از دست دادند. [19]

نیمه دوم قرن بیستم با افزایش تنش بین شهروندان هلندی زبان و فرانسوی زبان همراه شد که به دلیل تفاوت در زبان و فرهنگ و توسعه نابرابر اقتصادی فلاندرس و والونیا بود. این تضاد مستمر منجر به چندین اصلاحات گسترده شده است که منجر به تغییر از یک نظام واحد به یک فدرال در دوره 1970 تا 1993 شده است. علیرغم اصلاحات ، تنش ها بین گروه ها همچنان افزایش یافته است. جدایی طلبی قابل توجهی به ویژه در میان فلاندرها وجود دارد . قوانین بحث برانگیز زبان مانند شهرداری هایی با امکانات زبان وجود دارد . [20]و تشکیل دولت ائتلافی 18 ماه پس از انتخابات فدرال ژوئن 2010 ، یک رکورد جهانی به طول انجامید . [21] بیکاری در والونیا بیش از دو برابر فلاندرس است که پس از جنگ جهانی دوم رونق گرفت. [22]

بلژیک یکی از شش کشور بنیانگذار اتحادیه اروپا و پایتخت آن ، بروکسل ، میزبان کرسی های رسمی کمیسیون اروپا ، شورای اتحادیه اروپا و شورای اروپا و همچنین یکی از دو کرسی پارلمان اروپا است. (دیگری استراسبورگ ). بلژیک همچنین یکی از اعضای بنیانگذار منطقه یورو ، ناتو ، OECD و WTO و بخشی از اتحادیه سه جانبه بنلوکس و منطقه شنگن است . بروکسل میزبان مقر بسیاری از سازمانهای بین المللی بزرگ مانند ناتو است. [C]

بلژیک کشوری توسعه یافته است که دارای اقتصاد پیشرفته ای با درآمد بالا است . استانداردهای زندگی ، کیفیت زندگی ، [23] مراقبت های بهداشتی ، [24] تحصیلات ، [25] بسیار بالا است و در شاخص توسعه انسانی به عنوان "بسیار بالا" طبقه بندی شده است . [26] همچنین به عنوان یکی از امن ترین یا آرام ترین کشورها در جهان رتبه بندی می شود. [27]

تاریخ

قدمت

گال به سه قسمت تقسیم می شود که یکی از آنها بلگی است ، دیگری آکیتانی ، آنهایی که به زبان خود سلت نامیده می شوند ، و در زبان ما گال ، قسمت سوم.

(...) از بین همه اینها ، بلگی قوی ترین هستند (...).

- ژولیوس سزار ، دی بلو گالیکو ، کتاب اول ، چ. 1

بلژها ساکنان بخش شمالی شد گل ، که بسیار بزرگتر از بلژیک مدرن بود. سزار از کلمه لاتین " بلژیک " برای اشاره به کشور خود در شمال گال ، که منطقه ای در شمال فرانسه بود ، استفاده کرد. [28] بلژیک مدرن مطابق با سرزمین های مورینی ، مناپی ، نروی ، ژرمانی سیشره نانی ، آدواتوچی و در اطراف آرلون ، بخشی از کشور تروری است . همه اینها به جز Treveri یک "منطقه انتقالی" کمتر تحت تأثیر سلتیک ، در شمال منطقه ای که سزار به عنوان "بلژیک" در نظر گرفته بود ، تشکیل دادند.

پس از فتوحات سزار ، گالیا بلژیکا نام لاتین یک استان بزرگ رومی بود که بیشتر گال شمالی ، از جمله Treveri را در بر می گرفت. مناطق نزدیکتر به مرز پایینی راین ، از جمله قسمت شرقی بلژیک مدرن ، سرانجام بخشی از استان مرزی Germania Inferior شد که با قبایل ژرمن در خارج از امپراتوری تعامل داشت. در زمان سقوط دولت مرکزی در امپراتوری روم غربی ، استانهای رومی بلژیکا و ژرمانیا دارای ترکیبی از جمعیت رومی شده و فرانکهای آلمانی زبان بودند که بر طبقه نظامی و سیاسی تسلط یافتند.

قرون وسطی

در طول قرن پنجم ، این منطقه تحت سلطه پادشاهان مروینگ فرانکی قرار گرفت ، که احتمالاً برای اولین بار در شمال فرانسه مستقر شدند. در طول قرن هشتم ، پادشاهی فرانک ها توسط سلسله کارولینگی اداره می شد ، که مرکز قدرت آن در اطراف منطقه ای بود که اکنون شرق بلژیک است. [29] پادشاهی فرانک ها به طرق مختلف تقسیم شده بود ، اما پیمان وردون در 843 امپراتوری کارولینگی را به سه پادشاهی تقسیم کرد که مرزهای آنها تأثیر ماندگاری بر مرزهای سیاسی قرون وسطی داشت. بیشتر بلژیک مدرن در پادشاهی میانه قرار داشت ، بعدها به Lotharingia معروف شد ، اما شهرستان ساحلی فلاندر ، در غربشلد ، بخشی از فرانسیس غربی ، سلف فرانسه شد . در سال 870 در معاهده مرسسن ، سرزمینهای مدرن بلژیک همگی برای مدتی بخشی از پادشاهی غربی شدند ، اما در سال 880 در معاهده ریبمون ، لوتارنگینیا به کنترل پایدار امپراتور روم مقدس بازگشت . سلطنت ها و اسقف اعظم در طول "مارس" (مرز) بین دو پادشاهی بزرگ ارتباطات مهمی را بین یکدیگر حفظ کردند. شهرستان فلاندر بر فراز شلد به امپراتوری گسترش یافت و طی چندین دوره توسط همان اربابان شهرستان هینوت اداره شد .

در قرن های 13 و 14 ، صنعت پارچه و تجارت به ویژه در شهرستان فلاندر رونق گرفت و به یکی از غنی ترین مناطق اروپا تبدیل شد. این رونق در درگیری های بین فلاندر و پادشاه فرانسه نقش داشت. به طور مشهور ، شبه نظامیان فلاندر در نبرد گلدن اسپرز در برابر نیرویی قوی از شوالیه های سوار در سال 1302 یک پیروزی غافلگیر کننده کسب کردند ، اما فرانسه به زودی کنترل این استان سرکش را به دست آورد.

بورگوندی و هابسبورگ هلند

در قرن پانزدهم ، دوک بورگوندی در فرانسه کنترل فلاندر را در دست گرفت و از آنجا به ادامه بخش بزرگی از بنلوکس کنونی ، به اصطلاح هلند بورگوندی ، پرداختند . [30] "بلژیک" و "فلاندر" دو نام رایج اول برای هلند بورگوندی بودند که پیش از هلند اتریش ، سلف بلژیک مدرن بود. [31] اتحادیه ، از نظر فنی بین دو پادشاهی ، به منطقه ثبات اقتصادی و سیاسی بخشید که منجر به شکوفایی بیشتر و ایجاد هنری شد.

امپراتور هابسبورگ چارلز پنجم که در بلژیک متولد شد ، وارث بورگوندی ها ، بلکه خانواده های سلطنتی اتریش ، کاستیل و آراگون نیز بود . با تحریم پراگماتیک 1549 ، وی به هفده استان به عنوان یک نهاد پایدار مشروعیت بیشتری داد ، نه فقط یک اتحادیه شخصی موقت . او همچنین نفوذ این هلندها را بر پرنس اسقف اعظم لیژ افزایش داد ، که به عنوان یک منطقه بزرگ نیمه مستقل به حیات خود ادامه داد. [32]

هلند اسپانیایی و اتریشی

جنگ هشتادساله (1568-1648)، از خط مشی دولت اسپانیا نسبت به باعث شد پروتستان ، که تبدیل شدن به محبوب در کشورهای کم. استانهای سرکش شمالی ایالات متحده ( بلژیک فئودراتا به لاتین ، "هلند فدرال") سرانجام از جنوب هلند جدا شد ( بلژیکا رجیا ، "هلند سلطنتی"). دومی پی توسط اداره می شد اسپانیایی ( اسپانیایی هلند ) و اتریشی هابسبورگ ( هلند اتریش) و بیشتر بلژیک مدرن را شامل می شد. این تئاتر چندین درگیری طولانی مدت در طول قرون 17 و 18 شامل فرانسه بود ، از جمله جنگ فرانسه و هلند (1672-1678) ، جنگ نه ساله (1688-1697) ، جنگ جانشینی اسپانیا ( 1701-1714) ، و بخشی از جنگ جانشینی اتریش (1740-1748).

انقلاب فرانسه و پادشاهی هلند

به دنبال مبارزات 1794 در جنگهای انقلابی فرانسه ، کشورهای پست-شامل سرزمینهایی که هرگز تحت سلطه هابسبورگ نبودند ، مانند شاهزاده-اسقف اعظم لیژ-توسط جمهوری اول فرانسه ضمیمه شدند و به سلطه اتریش در منطقه خاتمه دادند. اتحاد مجدد کشورهای پست به عنوان پادشاهی متحده هلند در انحلال اولین امپراتوری فرانسه در سال 1814 ، پس از کناره گیری ناپلئون رخ داد.

بلژیک مستقل

صحنه انقلاب بلژیک در سال 1830 (1834) ، توسط گوستاف وپپرز

در سال 1830 ، انقلاب بلژیک منجر به جدا شدن استانهای جنوبی از هلند و ایجاد بلژیک مستقل کاتولیک و بورژوایی ، به طور رسمی فرانسوی زبان و بی طرف ، تحت حکومت موقت و کنگره ملی شد . [33] [34] از زمان نصب لئوپولد اول به عنوان پادشاه در 21 ژوئیه 1831 ، که امروزه به عنوان روز ملی بلژیک جشن گرفته می شود ، بلژیک دارای سلطنت مشروطه و دموکراسی پارلمانی بوده است ، با قانون اساسی لائیس بر اساس کد ناپلئون . [35]اگرچه حق رای دادن در ابتدا محدود بود ، اما حق رای عمومی برای مردان پس از اعتصاب عمومی 1893 (با رای گیری جمع تا 1919) و برای زنان در 1949 اعمال شد.

احزاب اصلی سیاسی قرن نوزدهم حزب کاتولیک و حزب لیبرال بودند که حزب کار بلژیک در اواخر قرن نوزدهم ظهور کرد. فرانسوی در اصل تنها زبان رسمی بود که توسط اشراف و بورژوازی پذیرفته شد . هنگامی که هلندی نیز به رسمیت شناخته شد ، اهمیت کلی خود را به تدریج از دست داد. این به رسمیت شناخته شدن در 1898 رسمی شد و در سال 1967 ، پارلمان نسخه هلندی قانون اساسی را پذیرفت . [36]

کنفرانس برلین از 1885 کنترل واگذار کشور آزاد کنگو به پادشاه لئوپولد دوم به عنوان ملک خصوصی خود. از سال 1900 نگرانی بین المللی نسبت به رفتار شدید و وحشیانه مردم کنگو در زمان لئوپولد دوم وجود داشت ، زیرا کنگو در اصل منبع درآمد آنها از تولید عاج و لاستیک بود. [37] بسیاری از مردم کنگو به دلیل عدم رعایت سهمیه تولید عاج و لاستیک توسط عوامل لئوپولد کشته شدند. [38] در سال 1908 ، این اعتراض باعث شد تا دولت بلژیک مسئولیت دولت مستعمره را بر عهده بگیرد ، از این پس کنگو بلژیک نامیده می شود . [39]کمیسیون بلژیک در سال 1919 تخمین زد که جمعیت کنگو نصف جمعیت سال 1879 بود. [38]

جمعیت شادمان به استقبال نیروهای انگلیسی که وارد بروکسل می شوند ، 4 سپتامبر 1944

آلمان در آگوست 1914 به عنوان بخشی از طرح شلیفن برای حمله به فرانسه به بلژیک حمله کرد و بیشتر نبردهای جبهه غربی در جنگ جهانی اول در مناطق غربی کشور رخ داد. ماه های آغازین جنگ به دلیل تجاوز به آلمان به عنوان تجاوز به بلژیک شناخته شد . بلژیک کنترل فرض مستعمرات آلمان از رواندا-اوروندی (مدرن روز رواندا و بروندی ) در طول جنگ و در سال 1924 جامعه ملل آنها را به بلژیک موظف. در پس از جنگ جهانی اول، بلژیک ضمیمه مناطق پروس ازEupen و Malmedy در 1925 ، در نتیجه باعث حضور اقلیت آلمانی زبان شد.

نیروهای آلمان بار دیگر در ماه مه 1940 به این کشور حمله کردند و 40.690 بلژیکی ، که بیش از نیمی از آنها یهودی بودند ، در اشغال بعدی و هولوکاست کشته شدند . از سپتامبر 1944 تا فوریه 1945 متفقین بلژیک را آزاد کردند . پس از جنگ جهانی دوم ، اعتصاب عمومی شاه لئوپولد سوم را مجبور کرد در سال 1951 به نفع پسرش ، شاهزاده بودوین ، از قدرت کناره گیری کند ، زیرا بسیاری از بلژیکی ها احساس می کردند او در طول جنگ با آلمان همکاری کرده است . [40] کنگو بلژیک در سال 1960 در بحران کنگو استقلال یافت . [41]Ruanda-Urundi استقلال خود را دو سال بعد دنبال کرد. بلژیک به عنوان عضو موسس به ناتو پیوست و گروه ملل بنلوکس را با هلند و لوکزامبورگ تشکیل داد.

بلژیک در سال 1951 یکی از شش عضو بنیانگذار اتحادیه ذغال سنگ و فولاد اروپا و جامعه انرژی اتمی اروپا و جامعه اقتصادی اروپا شد که در سال 1957 تأسیس شد. ، از جمله کمیسیون اروپا ، شورای اتحادیه اروپا و جلسات فوق العاده و کمیته پارلمان اروپا .

در اوایل دهه 1990 ، بلژیک شاهد چندین رسوایی فساد بزرگ به ویژه مارک دوترو ، آندره کولز ، ماجرای دیوکسین ، رسوایی آگوستا و قتل کارل فن نوپن بود .

جغرافیا

نقشه امدادی بلژیک

بلژیک با فرانسه ( 620 کیلومتر ) ، آلمان ( 167 کیلومتر ) ، لوکزامبورگ ( 148 کیلومتر ) و هلند ( 450 کیلومتر ) مرز مشترک دارد . سطح کل آن، از جمله منطقه آب، 30689 کیلومتر است 2 (11849 مایل مربع). قبل از سال 2018، مساحت کل آن اعتقاد بر این بود به 30528 کیلومتر 2 (11787 مایل مربع). با این حال ، هنگامی که آمار کشور در سال 2018 اندازه گیری شد ، از روش محاسبه جدیدی استفاده شد. بر خلاف محاسبات قبلی، این یکی شامل منطقه از ساحل به خط کم آب، آشکار این کشور به 160 کیلومتر 2 (62 مایل مربع) بزرگتر در سطح از تصور. [42][43] مساحت آن به تنهایی 30278 کیلومتر است 2 . [44] [ نیاز به بروزرسانی دارد ] بین عرض جغرافیایی 49 درجه 30 اینچ و 51 درجه 30 دقیقه شمال شرقی ، و طول جغرافیایی 2 درجه 33 اینچ و 6 درجه 24 دقیقه E. غربی قرار دارد [45]

بلژیک دارای سه منطقه جغرافیایی اصلی است. دشت ساحلی در شمال غربی و فلات مرکزی هر دو متعلق به حوضه انگلستان و بلژیک و ارتفاعات آردنز در جنوب شرقی تا کمربند کوهزایی Hercynian است . حوضه پاریس یک منطقه چهارم کوچک در نوک جنوبی بلژیک، می رسد بلژیکی لورن . [46]

دشت ساحلی عمدتاً از تپه های شنی و پلدرها تشکیل شده است . بیشتر در داخل کشور چشم انداز صاف و آهسته ای قرار دارد که توسط آبراههای متعدد آبیاری می شود ، با دره های حاصلخیز و دشت شنی شمال شرقی کمپین ( کمپن ). تپه ها و فلاتهای پر جنگل آردن ناهموارتر و صخره ای با غارها و دره های کوچک است . این منطقه که از غرب به فرانسه کشیده شده است ، از طرف شرق با فلات High Fens به ایفل در آلمان متصل است ، که بر روی آن Signal de Botrange با 694 متر (2،277 فوت) بلندترین نقطه کشور را تشکیل می دهد. [47] [48]

میوس رودخانه بین دینان و Hastière
چشم انداز High Fens در نزدیکی مرز آلمان

آب و هوا معتدل دریایی است و در تمام فصول سال بارندگی قابل توجهی دارد ( طبقه بندی آب و هوایی Köppen : Cfb ) ، مانند بیشتر شمال غربی اروپا. [49] میانگین دمای هوا در ژانویه 3 درجه سانتی گراد (37.4 درجه فارنهایت) و بالاترین آن در جولای 18 درجه سانتی گراد (64.4 درجه فارنهایت) است. میانگین بارش در ماه بین 54 میلی متر (2.1 اینچ) در فوریه و آوریل ، و 78 میلی متر (3.1 اینچ) در ماه جولای متغیر است. [50] میانگین سالهای 2000 تا 2006 حداقل دمای روزانه 7 درجه سانتی گراد (44.6 درجه فارنهایت) و حداکثر 14 درجه سانتی گراد (57.2 درجه فارنهایت) و بارندگی ماهانه 74 میلی متر (2.9 اینچ) را نشان می دهد. اینها به ترتیب حدود 1 درجه سانتی گراد و تقریبا 10 میلی متر بالاتر از مقادیر طبیعی قرن گذشته هستند. [51]

Phytogeographically ، بلژیک بین استان آتلانتیک اروپا و مرکزی اروپا از به اشتراک گذاشته منطقه Circumboreal در بروئال پادشاهی . [52] با توجه به صندوق جهانی برای طبیعت ، قلمرو بلژیک متعلق به بومسار زمینی از اقیانوس اطلس جنگل های مخلوط و جنگل پهن برگ غربی اروپا . [53] [54] بلژیک دارای نمره میانگین نمایی جنگل های چشم انداز جنگلی 2018 1.36/10 بود و در بین 172 کشور در رتبه 163 جهان قرار گرفت. [55]

استانها

قلمرو بلژیک به سه منطقه تقسیم می شود که دو منطقه از جمله فلاندر و والون به نوبه خود به استان ها تقسیم می شوند . منطقه سوم ، منطقه پایتخت بروکسل ، نه یک استان است و نه بخشی از یک استان.

استان نام هلندی نام فرانسوی نام آلمانی سرمایه، پایتخت منطقه [3] جمعیت
(1 ژانویه 2019) [5]
تراکم ISO 3166-2: BE
[ نیاز به منبع ]
منطقه فلاندر
 آنتورپ آنتورپن Anvers آنتورپن آنتورپ 2876 کیلومتر 2 (1110 مایل مربع) 1،857،986 647 / کیلومتر 2 (1680 / مایل مربع) ون
 فلاندر شرقی اوست ولاندرن Flandre orientale استفلندرن گنت 3007 کیلومتر 2 (1161 مایل مربع) 1،515،064 504 در کیلومتر 2 (1،310 در مایل مربع) VOV
 برابانت فلاندر ولامز-برابانت شعله بربانت فلمیش برابانت لوون 2118 کیلومتر 2 (818 مایل مربع) 1،146،175 542 / کیلومتر 2 (1400 / مایل مربع) VBR
 لیمبورگ لیمبورگ لیمبورگ لیمبورگ هاسلت 2427 کیلومتر 2 (937 مایل مربع) 874،048 361 در کیلومتر 2 (930 در مایل مربع) VLI
 غرب فلاندرز وست-ولاندرن Flandre occidentale وستفلندرن بروژ 3197 کیلومتر 2 (1234 مایل مربع) 1،195،796 375 در کیلومتر 2 (970 در مایل مربع) VWV
منطقه والون
 هینوت هنگوین هینوت هننگاو مونس 3813 کیلومتر 2 (1472 مایل مربع) 1،344،241 353 در کیلومتر 2 (910 در مایل مربع) WHT
 ارباب لوئیک ارباب لوتيچ ارباب 3857 کیلومتر 2 (1489 مایل مربع) 1،106،992 288 / کیلومتر 2 (750 / مایل مربع) WLG
 لوکزامبورگ لوکزامبورگ لوکزامبورگ لوکزامبورگ آرلون 4459 کیلومتر 2 (1722 مایل مربع) 284،638 64 / کیلومتر 2 (170 / مایل مربع) WLX
 نامور نامن نامور نامور (نامیر) نامور 3675 کیلومتر 2 (1419 مایل مربع) 494،325 135/کیلومتر 2 (350 مایل مربع) WNA
 والون برابانت والس برابانت برابانت والون والونیس برابانت واور 1097 کیلومتر 2 (424 مایل مربع) 403،599 368 در کیلومتر 2 (950 در مایل مربع) WBR
منطقه پایتخت بروکسل
 منطقه پایتخت بروکسل بروکسل Hoofdstedelijk Gewest منطقه دو بروکسل-کاپیتال منطقه Brüssel-Hauptstadt بروکسل سیتی 162.4 کیلومتر 2 (62.7 مایل مربع) 1،208،542 7442 / کیلومتر 2 (19270 / مایل مربع) BBR
جمع بلژیک بلژیک بلژین بروکسل سیتی 30689 کیلومتر 2 (11849 مایل مربع) 11،431،406 373 / کیلومتر 2 (970 / مایل مربع)

سیاست

بلژیک یک حکومت سلطنتی مشروطه ، مردمی و دموکراسی پارلمانی فدرال است . دو مجلسی پارلمان فدرال است که از یک تشکیل مجلس سنا و یک اتاق نمایندگان . اولین نماینده متشکل از 50 سناتور است که توسط پارلمان جوامع و مناطق تعیین شده اند و 10 سناتور انتخاب شده . پیش از سال 2014 ، اکثر اعضای سنا مستقیماً انتخاب می شدند. اتاق را 150 نمایندگان تحت انتخاب رای گیری متناسب سیستم از 11 حوزه انتخاباتی . بلژیک رای گیری اجباری داردو بدین ترتیب یکی از بالاترین میزان مشارکت رای دهندگان در جهان را حفظ می کند. [56]

پادشاه (در حال حاضر فیلیپ ) است رئیس دولت با محدود، هر چند حق انحصاری . او وزیرانی از جمله نخست وزیر را تعیین می کند که از اعتماد مجلس نمایندگان برای تشکیل دولت فدرال برخوردار است . شورای وزیران متشکل از حداکثر پانزده عضو است. به استثنای نخست وزیر ، شورای وزیران از تعداد مساوی اعضای هلندی زبان و اعضای فرانسوی زبان تشکیل شده است. [57] سیستم قضایی بر اساس قانون مدنی است و از کد ناپلئون نشأت می گیرد . دیوان عالی کشورآخرین دادگاه است و دادگاه های تجدیدنظر یک سطح پایین تر از آن است. [58]

فرهنگ سیاسی

نهادهای سیاسی بلژیک پیچیده هستند. بیشتر قدرت سیاسی بر اساس نیاز به نمایندگی از جوامع اصلی فرهنگی سازماندهی شده است . [59] از حدود 1970 ، احزاب مهم ملی بلژیک به اجزای متمایزی تقسیم شده اند که عمدتاً منافع سیاسی و زبانی این جوامع را نمایندگی می کنند. [60] احزاب عمده در هر جامعه ، گرچه نزدیک به مرکز سیاسی هستند ، اما به سه گروه اصلی تعلق دارند: دموکرات مسیحی ، لیبرال و سوسیال دموکرات . [61] احزاب مهم دیگری پس از اواسط قرن گذشته ، عمدتاً در مورد زبان شناسی به وجود آمدند، موضوعات ملی گرایانه یا زیست محیطی و اخیراً موضوعات کوچکتر با ماهیت لیبرالی خاص. [60]

مجموعه ای از دولت های ائتلافی دموکرات مسیحی از سال 1958 در سال 1999 پس از اولین بحران دیوکسین ، یک رسوایی بزرگ آلودگی مواد غذایی شکسته شد. [62] [63] [64] "ائتلاف رنگین کمان" از شش حزب بوجود آمد: فلاندری و لیبرالهای فرانسوی زبان ، سوسیال دموکراتها و سبزها. [65] بعدها ، " ائتلاف بنفش " لیبرال ها و سوسیال دموکرات ها پس از از دست دادن بیشتر کرسی های سبزها در انتخابات 2003 شکل گرفت . [66]

دولت از سال 1999 تا 2007 به رهبری نخست وزیر گای ورهوفشت به بودجه متوازن ، برخی اصلاحات مالیاتی ، اصلاحات در بازار کار ، برنامه ریزی شده برای خاتمه هسته ای و وضع قوانینی دست یافت که اجازه می دهد جنایات جنگی شدیدتر و مجازات ملایم تری برای استفاده از مواد مخدر نرم ایجاد شود . محدودیت های مربوط به جلوگیری از اتانازی کاهش یافت و ازدواج همجنسگرایان قانونی شد. دولت دیپلماسی فعال را در آفریقا پیش برد [67] و با حمله به عراق مخالفت کرد . [68] این تنها کشوری است که محدودیت سنی در مورد اتانازی ندارد. [69]

ائتلاف ورهوفشتات در انتخابات ژوئن 2007 بد ظاهر شد . بیش از یک سال ، کشور دچار بحران سیاسی شد . [70] این بحران به حدی بود که بسیاری از ناظران در مورد تقسیم احتمالی بلژیک گمانه زنی کردند . [71] [72] [73] از 21 دسامبر 2007 تا 20 مارس 2008 دولت موقت ورهوفشتات سوم بر سر کار بود. این ائتلاف از فلاندرز و فرانسوی زبان حزب دموکرات مسیحی ، در فلاندرز و فرانسوی زبان لیبرال همراه با سوسیال دموکرات فرانسوی زبانتا 20 مارس 2008 دولت موقت بود . [74]

در آن روز دولت جدیدی به رهبری ایو لترم ، دموکرات مسیحی فلاندری ، برنده واقعی انتخابات فدرال در ژوئن 2007 ، توسط پادشاه سوگند یاد کرد. در 15 جولای 2008 لترم استعفای کابینه را به پادشاه اعلام کرد ، زیرا هیچ پیشرفتی در اصلاحات قانون اساسی صورت نگرفته بود. [74] در دسامبر 2008 ، او بار دیگر استعفای خود را پس از بحران ناشی از فروش Fortis به BNP Paribas به پادشاه پیشنهاد داد . [75] در این مقطع ، استعفای وی پذیرفته شد و هرمان ون رومپوی مسیحی دموکرات و فلاندری در 30 دسامبر 2008 به عنوان نخست وزیر سوگند یاد کرد . [76]

پس از تعیین هرمان ون رومپوی به عنوان اولین رئیس دائم شورای اروپا در 19 نوامبر 2009 ، وی در 25 نوامبر 2009 استعفای دولت خود را به پادشاه آلبرت دوم پیشنهاد داد . چند ساعت بعد ، دولت جدید زیر نظر نخست وزیر ایو لترم سوگند یاد کرد. در. در 22 آوریل 2010 ، لترم پس از خروج یکی از شرکای ائتلاف ، OpenVLD ، از دولت ، استعفای کابینه خود را مجدداً به پادشاه پیشنهاد داد [77] و در 26 آوریل 2010 پادشاه آلبرت رسماً استعفای خود را پذیرفت. [78]

در انتخابات پارلمانی بلژیک در 13 ژوئن 2010 ، ملی گرایان فلاندری N-VA به بزرگترین حزب در فلاندر تبدیل شد و حزب سوسیالیست PS به بزرگترین حزب در والونیا تبدیل شد. [79] تا دسامبر 2011 ، بلژیک توسط دولت موقت لترم اداره می شد و منتظر پایان مذاکرات بن بست برای تشکیل دولت جدید بود . تا 30 مارس 2011 ، این یک رکورد جهانی جدید برای مدت زمان بدون دولت رسمی ، که قبلاً در عراق جنگ زده بود ، به ثبت رساند . [80] سرانجام ، در دسامبر 2011 دولت دی روپو به رهبری الیو دی روپو ، نخست وزیر سوسیالیست والون سوگند یاد کرد.[81]

2014 انتخابات فدرال (همزمان با انتخابات منطقه ) منجر به افزایش انتخاباتی بیشتر برای فلاندرز ناسیونالیستی N-VA، اگر چه ائتلاف فعلی (متشکل از فلاندرز و فرانسوی زبان سوسیال دموکرات، لیبرال ها و دموکرات مسیحی) حفظ اکثریت جامد در پارلمان و در همه حوزه های انتخابیه. در 22 ژوئیه 2014 ، پادشاه فیلیپ چارلز میشل (MR) و کریس پیترز (CD&V) را برای رهبری تشکیل کابینه جدید فدرال متشکل از احزاب فلاندر N-VA ، CD&V ، Open Vld و MR فرانسوی زبان معرفی کرد. در دولت میشلبه این اولین بار بود که N-VA بخشی از کابینه فدرال بود ، در حالی که طرف فرانسوی زبان فقط توسط MR نمایندگی می شد ، که به اکثریت آرای عمومی در والونیا دست یافت. [82]

در ماه مه 2019 ، انتخابات فدرال در منطقه فلاندری زبان فلاندرز ، حزب راست افراطی Vlaams Belang ، دستاوردهای بزرگی داشت. در ناحیه جنوبی والونیا که فرانسوی زبان صحبت می کرد ، سوسیالیست ها قوی بودند. حزب معتدل ملی گرا فلاندر N-VA بزرگترین حزب در پارلمان باقی ماند. [83] در جولای 2019 نخست وزیر چارلز میشل برای تصدی پست ریاست شورای اروپا انتخاب شد . [84] جانشین وی سوفی ویلماس اولین نخست وزیر زن بلژیک بود. او از اکتبر 2019 رهبری دولت موقت را بر عهده داشت. [85] سیاستمدار حزب لیبرال فلاندر الکساندر د کرودر اکتبر 2020 نخست وزیر جدید شد. احزاب 16 ماه پس از انتخابات بر سر دولت فدرال به توافق رسیدند. [86]

جوامع و مناطق

جوامع:
  جامعه فلاندری / منطقه زبان هلندی
  انجمن فلاندری و فرانسوی / منطقه زبان دو زبانه
  جامعه فرانسوی / منطقه زبان فرانسوی
  جامعه آلمانی زبان / منطقه زبان آلمانی
مناطق:
  منطقه فلاندر / منطقه زبان هلندی
  بروکسل-منطقه پایتخت / منطقه دو زبانه
  منطقه والون / مناطق زبان فرانسوی و آلمانی

Following a usage which can be traced back to the Burgundian and Habsburg courts,[87] in the 19th century it was necessary to speak French to belong to the governing upper class, and those who could only speak Dutch were effectively second-class citizens.[88] Late that century, and continuing into the 20th century, Flemish movements evolved to counter this situation.[89]

While the people in Southern Belgium spoke French or dialects of French, and most Brusselers adopted French as their first language, the Flemings refused to do so and succeeded progressively in making Dutch an equal language in the education system.[89] Following World War II, Belgian politics became increasingly dominated by the autonomy of its two main linguistic communities.[90] Intercommunal tensions rose and the constitution was amended to minimize the potential for conflict.[90]

Based on the four language areas defined in 1962–63 (the Dutch, bilingual, French and German language areas), consecutive revisions of the country's constitution in 1970, 1980, 1988 and 1993 established a unique form of a federal state with segregated political power into three levels:[91][92]

  1. The federal government, based in Brussels.
  2. The three language communities:
  3. The three regions:

The constitutional language areas determine the official languages in their municipalities, as well as the geographical limits of the empowered institutions for specific matters.[93] Although this would allow for seven parliaments and governments when the Communities and Regions were created in 1980, Flemish politicians decided to merge both.[94] Thus the Flemings just have one single institutional body of parliament and government is empowered for all except federal and specific municipal matters.[D]

The overlapping boundaries of the Regions and Communities have created two notable peculiarities: the territory of the Brussels-Capital Region (which came into existence nearly a decade after the other regions) is included in both the Flemish and French Communities, and the territory of the German-speaking Community lies wholly within the Walloon Region. Conflicts about jurisdiction between the bodies are resolved by the Constitutional Court of Belgium. The structure is intended as a compromise to allow different cultures to live together peacefully.[16]

Locus of policy jurisdiction

The Federal State's authority includes justice, defense, federal police, social security, nuclear energy, monetary policy and public debt, and other aspects of public finances. State-owned companies include the Belgian Post Group and Belgian Railways. The Federal Government is responsible for the obligations of Belgium and its federalized institutions towards the European Union and NATO. It controls substantial parts of public health, home affairs and foreign affairs.[95] The budget—without the debt—controlled by the federal government amounts to about 50% of the national fiscal income. The federal government employs around 12% of the civil servants.[96]

Communities exercise their authority only within linguistically determined geographical boundaries, originally oriented towards the individuals of a Community's language: culture (including audiovisual media), education and the use of the relevant language. Extensions to personal matters less directly connected with language comprise health policy (curative and preventive medicine) and assistance to individuals (protection of youth, social welfare, aid to families, immigrant assistance services, and so on.).[97]

Regions have authority in fields that can be broadly associated with their territory. These include economy, employment, agriculture, water policy, housing, public works, energy, transport, the environment, town and country planning, nature conservation, credit and foreign trade. They supervise the provinces, municipalities and intercommunal utility companies.[98]

In several fields, the different levels each have their own say on specifics. With education, for instance, the autonomy of the Communities neither includes decisions about the compulsory aspect nor allows for setting minimum requirements for awarding qualifications, which remain federal matters.[95] Each level of government can be involved in scientific research and international relations associated with its powers. The treaty-making power of the Regions' and Communities' Governments is the broadest of all the Federating units of all the Federations all over the world.[99][100][101]

Foreign relations

Because of its location at the crossroads of Western Europe, Belgium has historically been the route of invading armies from its larger neighbors. With virtually defenseless borders, Belgium has traditionally sought to avoid domination by the more powerful nations which surround it through a policy of mediation. The Belgians have been strong advocates of European integration. Both the European Union and NATO are headquartered in Belgium.

Armed forces

The Belgian Armed Forces have about 47,000 active troops. In 2019, Belgium's defense budget totaled €4.303 billion ($4.921 billion) representing .93% of its GDP.[102] They are organized into one unified structure which consists of four main components: Land Component, or the Army; Air Component, or the Air Force; Marine Component, or the Navy; Medical Component. The operational commands of the four components are subordinate to the Staff Department for Operations and Training of the Ministry of Defense, which is headed by the Assistant Chief of Staff Operations and Training, and to the Chief of Defense.[103]

The effects of the Second World War made collective security a priority for Belgian foreign policy. In March 1948 Belgium signed the Treaty of Brussels and then joined NATO in 1948. However, the integration of the armed forces into NATO did not begin until after the Korean War.[104] The Belgians, along with the Luxembourg government, sent a detachment of battalion strength to fight in Korea known as the Belgian United Nations Command. This mission was the first in a long line of UN missions which the Belgians supported. Currently, the Belgian Marine Component is working closely together with the Dutch Navy under the command of the Admiral Benelux.

Economy

Belgium is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.
A proportional representation of Belgium exports, 2019

Belgium's strongly globalized economy[105] and its transport infrastructure are integrated with the rest of Europe. Its location at the heart of a highly industrialized region helped make it the world's 15th largest trading nation in 2007.[106][107] The economy is characterized by a highly productive work force, high GNP and high exports per capita.[108] Belgium's main imports are raw materials, machinery and equipment, chemicals, raw diamonds, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, transportation equipment, and oil products. Its main exports are machinery and equipment, chemicals, finished diamonds, metals and metal products, and foodstuffs.[44]

The Belgian economy is heavily service-oriented and shows a dual nature: a dynamic Flemish economy and a Walloon economy that lags behind.[16][109][E] One of the founding members of the European Union, Belgium strongly supports an open economy and the extension of the powers of EU institutions to integrate member economies. Since 1922, through the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, Belgium and Luxembourg have been a single trade market with customs and currency union.[110]

Steelmaking along the Meuse at Ougrée, near Liège

Belgium was the first continental European country to undergo the Industrial Revolution, in the early 19th century.[111] Areas in Liège Province and around Charleroi rapidly developed mining and steelmaking, which flourished until the mid-20th century in the Sambre and Meuse valley and made Belgium one of the three most industrialized nations in the world from 1830 to 1910.[112][113] However, by the 1840s the textile industry of Flanders was in severe crisis, and the region experienced famine from 1846 to 1850.[114][115]

After World War II, Ghent and Antwerp experienced a rapid expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries. The 1973 and 1979 oil crises sent the economy into a recession; it was particularly prolonged in Wallonia, where the steel industry had become less competitive and experienced a serious decline.[116] In the 1980s and 1990s, the economic center of the country continued to shift northwards and is now concentrated in the populous Flemish Diamond area.[117]

By the end of the 1980s, Belgian macroeconomic policies had resulted in a cumulative government debt of about 120% of GDP. As of 2006, the budget was balanced and public debt was equal to 90.30% of GDP.[118] In 2005 and 2006, real GDP growth rates of 1.5% and 3.0%, respectively, were slightly above the average for the Euro area. Unemployment rates of 8.4% in 2005 and 8.2% in 2006 were close to the area average. By October 2010, this had grown to 8.5% compared to an average rate of 9.6% for the European Union as a whole (EU 27).[119][120] From 1832 until 2002, Belgium's currency was the Belgian franc. Belgium switched to the euro in 2002, with the first sets of euro coins being minted in 1999. The standard Belgian euro coins designated for circulation show the portrait of the monarch (first King Albert II, since 2013 King Philippe).

Despite an 18% decrease observed from 1970 to 1999, Belgium still had in 1999 the highest rail network density within the European Union with 113.8 km/1 000 km2. On the other hand, the same period, 1970–1999, has seen a huge growth (+56%) of the motorway network. In 1999, the density of km motorways per 1000 km2 and 1000 inhabitants amounted to 55.1 and 16.5 respectively and were significantly superior to the EU's means of 13.7 and 15.9.[121]

From a biological resource perspective, Belgium has a low endowment: Belgium's biocapacity adds up to only 0.8 global hectares in 2016,[122] just about half of the 1.6 global hectares of biocapacity available per person worldwide.[123] In contrast, in 2016, Belgians used on average 6.3 global hectares of biocapacity - their ecological footprint of consumption. This means they required about eight times as much biocapacity as Belgium contains. As a result, Belgium was running a biocapacity deficit of 5.5 global hectares per person in 2016.[122]

Belgium experiences some of the most congested traffic in Europe. In 2010, commuters to the cities of Brussels and Antwerp spent respectively 65 and 64 hours a year in traffic jams.[124] Like in most small European countries, more than 80% of the airways traffic is handled by a single airport, the Brussels Airport. The ports of Antwerp and Zeebrugge (Bruges) share more than 80% of Belgian maritime traffic, Antwerp being the second European harbor with a gross weight of goods handled of 115 988 000 t in 2000 after a growth of 10.9% over the preceding five years.[121][125] In 2016, the port of Antwerp handled 214 million tons after a year-on-year growth of 2.7%.[126]

There is a large economic gap between Flanders and Wallonia. Wallonia was historically wealthy compared to Flanders, mostly due to its heavy industries, but the decline of the steel industry post-World War II led to the region's rapid decline, whereas Flanders rose swiftly. Since then, Flanders has been prosperous, among the wealthiest regions in Europe, whereas Wallonia has been languishing. As of 2007, the unemployment rate of Wallonia is over double that of Flanders. The divide has played a key part in the tensions between the Flemish and Walloons in addition to the already-existing language divide. Pro-independence movements have gained high popularity in Flanders as a consequence. The separatist New Flemish Alliance (N-VA) party, for instance, is the largest party in Belgium.[127][128][129]

Science and technology

Contributions to the development of science and technology have appeared throughout the country's history. The 16th century Early Modern flourishing of Western Europe included cartographer Gerardus Mercator, anatomist Andreas Vesalius, herbalist Rembert Dodoens[130][131][132][133] and mathematician Simon Stevin among the most influential scientists.[134]

Chemist Ernest Solvay[135] and engineer Zenobe Gramme (École industrielle de Liège)[136] gave their names to the Solvay process and the Gramme dynamo, respectively, in the 1860s. Bakelite was developed in 1907–1909 by Leo Baekeland. Ernest Solvay also acted as a major philanthropist and gave its name to the Solvay Institute of Sociology, the Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management and the International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry which are now part of the Université libre de Bruxelles. In 1911, he started a series of conferences, the Solvay Conferences on Physics and Chemistry, which have had a deep impact on the evolution of quantum physics and chemistry.[137] A major contribution to fundamental science was also due to a Belgian, Monsignor Georges Lemaître (Catholic University of Louvain), who is credited with proposing the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe in 1927.[138]

Three Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine were awarded to Belgians: Jules Bordet (Université libre de Bruxelles) in 1919, Corneille Heymans (University of Ghent) in 1938 and Albert Claude (Université libre de Bruxelles) together with Christian de Duve (Université catholique de Louvain) in 1974. François Englert (Université libre de Bruxelles) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013. Ilya Prigogine (Université libre de Bruxelles) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977.[139] Two Belgian mathematicians have been awarded the Fields Medal: Pierre Deligne in 1978 and Jean Bourgain in 1994.[140][141] Belgium was ranked 22nd in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, up from 23rd in 2019.[142][143][144][145]

Demographics

Population density in Belgium by arrondissement.
Brussels, the capital city and largest metropolitan area of Belgium

As of 1 January 2020, the total population of Belgium according to its population register was 11,492,641.[5] The population density of Belgium is 376/km2 (970/sq mi) as of January 2019, making it the 22nd most densely populated country in the world, and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe. The most densely populated province is Antwerp, the least densely populated province is Luxembourg. As of January 2019, the Flemish Region had a population of 6,589,069 (57.6% of Belgium), its most populous cities being Antwerp (523,248), Ghent (260,341) and Bruges (118,284). Wallonia had a population of 3,633,795 (31.8% of Belgium) with Charleroi (201,816), Liège (197,355) and Namur (110,939), its most populous cities. The Brussels-Capital Region has 1,208,542 inhabitants (10.6% of Belgium) in the 19 municipalities, three of which have over 100,000 residents.[5]

In 2017 the average total fertility rate (TFR) across Belgium was 1.64 children per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1; it remains considerably below the high of 4.87 children born per woman in 1873.[146] Belgium subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with an average age of 41.6 years.[147]

Migration

As of 2007, nearly 92% of the population had Belgian citizenship,[148] and other European Union member citizens account for around 6%. The prevalent foreign nationals were Italian (171,918), French (125,061), Dutch (116,970), Moroccan (80,579), Portuguese (43,509), Spanish (42,765), Turkish (39,419) and German (37,621).[149][150] In 2007, there were 1.38 million foreign-born residents in Belgium, corresponding to 12.9% of the total population. Of these, 685,000 (6.4%) were born outside the EU and 695,000 (6.5%) were born in another EU Member State.[151][152]

At the beginning of 2012, people of foreign background and their descendants were estimated to have formed around 25% of the total population i.e. 2.8 million new Belgians.[153] Of these new Belgians, 1,200,000 are of European ancestry and 1,350,000[154] are from non-Western countries (most of them from Morocco, Turkey, and the DR Congo). Since the modification of the Belgian nationality law in 1984 more than 1.3 million migrants have acquired Belgian citizenship. The largest group of immigrants and their descendants in Belgium are Moroccans.[155] 89.2% of inhabitants of Turkish origin have been naturalized, as have 88.4% of people of Moroccan background, 75.4% of Italians, 56.2% of the French and 47.8% of Dutch people.[154]

Statbel released figures of the Belgian population in relation to the origin of people in Belgium. According to the data, as of 1 January 2021, 67.3% of the Belgian population was of ethnic Belgian origin and 32.7% were of foreign origin or nationality, with 20.3% of those of a foreign nationality or ethnic group originating from neighbouring countries. The study also found that 74.5% of the Brussels Capital Region were of non-Belgian origin, of which 13.8% originated from neighbouring countries.[156]


Languages

Estimated distribution of primary languages in Belgium
Dutch
59%
French
40%
German
1%
Bilingual signs in Brussels

Belgium has three official languages: Dutch, French and German. A number of non-official minority languages are spoken as well.[157] As no census exists, there are no official statistical data regarding the distribution or usage of Belgium's three official languages or their dialects.[158] However, various criteria, including the language(s) of parents, of education, or the second-language status of foreign born, may provide suggested figures. An estimated 60% of the Belgian population are native speakers of Dutch (often referred to as Flemish), and 40% of the population speaks French natively. French-speaking Belgians are often referred to as Walloons, although the French speakers in Brussels are not Walloons.[F]

The total number of native Dutch speakers is estimated to be about 6.23 million, concentrated in the northern Flanders region, while native French speakers number 3.32 million in Wallonia and an estimated 870,000 (or 85%) in the officially bilingual Brussels-Capital Region.[G][159] The German-speaking Community is made up of 73,000 people in the east of the Walloon Region; around 10,000 German and 60,000 Belgian nationals are speakers of German. Roughly 23,000 more German speakers live in municipalities near the official Community.[160][161][162][163]

Both Belgian Dutch and Belgian French have minor differences in vocabulary and semantic nuances from the varieties spoken respectively in the Netherlands and France. Many Flemish people still speak dialects of Dutch in their local environment. Walloon, considered either as a dialect of French or a distinct Romance language,[164][165] is now only understood and spoken occasionally, mostly by elderly people. Walloon is divided into four dialects, which along with those of Picard,[166] are rarely used in public life and have largely been replaced by French.

Religion

Since the country's independence, Roman Catholicism has had an important role in Belgium's politics.[167] However Belgium is largely a secular country as the constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government generally respects this right in practice. During the reigns of Albert I and Baudouin, the Belgian royal family had a reputation of deeply rooted Catholicism.[168]

Roman Catholicism has traditionally been Belgium's majority religion; being especially strong in Flanders. However, by 2009 Sunday church attendance was 5% for Belgium in total; 3% in Brussels,[169] and 5.4% in Flanders. Church attendance in 2009 in Belgium was roughly half of the Sunday church attendance in 1998 (11% for the total of Belgium in 1998).[170] Despite the drop in church attendance, Catholic identity nevertheless remains an important part of Belgium's culture.[168]

According to the Eurobarometer 2010,[171] 37% of Belgian citizens responded that they believe there is a God. 31% answered that they believe there is some sort of spirit or life-force. 27% answered that they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life-force. 5% did not respond. According to the Eurobarometer 2015, 60.7% of the total population of Belgium adhered to Christianity, with Roman Catholicism being the largest denomination with 52.9%. Protestants comprised 2.1% and Orthodox Christians were the 1.6% of the total. Non-religious people comprised 32.0% of the population and were divided between atheists (14.9%) and agnostics (17.1%). A further 5.2% of the population was Muslim and 2.1% were believers in other religions.[172] The same survey held in 2012 found that Christianity was the largest religion in Belgium, accounting for 65% of Belgians.[173]

Symbolically and materially, the Roman Catholic Church remains in a favorable position.[168] Belgium officially recognizes three religions: Christianity (Catholic, Protestantism, Orthodox churches and Anglicanism), Islam and Judaism.[174]

In the early 2000s, there were approximately 42,000 Jews in Belgium. The Jewish Community of Antwerp (numbering some 18,000) is one of the largest in Europe, and one of the last places in the world where Yiddish is the primary language of a large Jewish community (mirroring certain Orthodox and Hasidic communities in New York, New Jersey, and Israel). In addition, most Jewish children in Antwerp receive a Jewish education.[175] There are several Jewish newspapers and more than 45 active synagogues (30 of which are in Antwerp) in the country. A 2006 inquiry in Flanders, considered to be a more religious region than Wallonia, showed that 55% considered themselves religious and that 36% believed that God created the universe.[176] On the other hand, Wallonia has become one of Europe's most secular/least religious regions. Most of the French-speaking region's population does not consider religion an important part of their lives, and as much as 45% of the population identifies as irreligious. This is particularly the case in eastern Wallonia and areas along the French border.

A 2008 estimate found that approximately 6% of the Belgian population (628,751 people) is Muslim. Muslims constitute 23.6% of the population of Brussels, 4.9% of Wallonia and 5.1% of Flanders. The majority of Belgian Muslims live in the major cities, such as Antwerp, Brussels and Charleroi. The largest group of immigrants in Belgium are Moroccans, with 400,000 people. The Turks are the third largest group, and the second largest Muslim ethnic group, numbering 220,000.[155][177]

Health

University Hospital of Antwerp

The Belgians enjoy good health. According to 2012 estimates, the average life expectancy is 79.65 years.[44] Since 1960, life expectancy has, in line with the European average, grown by two months per year. Death in Belgium is mainly due to heart and vascular disorders, neoplasms, disorders of the respiratory system and unnatural causes of death (accidents, suicide). Non-natural causes of death and cancer are the most common causes of death for females up to age 24 and males up to age 44.[178]

Healthcare in Belgium is financed through both social security contributions and taxation. Health insurance is compulsory. Health care is delivered by a mixed public and private system of independent medical practitioners and public, university and semi-private hospitals. Health care service are payable by the patient and reimbursed later by health insurance institutions, but for ineligible categories (of patients and services) so-called 3rd party payment systems exist.[178] The Belgian health care system is supervised and financed by the federal government, the Flemish and Walloon Regional governments; and the German Community also has (indirect) oversight and responsibilities.[178]

For the first time in Belgian history, the first child was euthanized following the 2-year mark of the removal of the euthanization age restrictions. The child had been euthanized due to an incurable disease that was inflicted upon the child. Although there may have been some support for the euthanization there is a possibility of controversy due to the issue revolving around the subject of assisted suicide.[179][180] Excluding assisted suicide, Belgium has the highest suicide rate in Western Europe and one of the highest suicide rates in the developed world (exceeded only by Lithuania, South Korea, and Latvia).[181]

Education

The Central Library of the KU Leuven University

Education is compulsory from 6 to 18 years of age for Belgians.[182] Among OECD countries in 2002, Belgium had the third highest proportion of 18- to 21-year-olds enrolled in postsecondary education, at 42%.[183] Though an estimated 99% of the adult population is literate, concern is rising over functional illiteracy.[166][184] The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Belgium's education as the 19th best in the world, being significantly higher than the OECD average.[185] Education being organized separately by each, the Flemish Community scores noticeably above the French and German-speaking Communities.[186]

Mirroring the dual structure of the 19th-century Belgian political landscape, characterized by the Liberal and the Catholic parties, the educational system is segregated within a secular and a religious segment. The secular branch of schooling is controlled by the communities, the provinces, or the municipalities, while religious, mainly Catholic branch education, is organized by religious authorities, although subsidized and supervised by the communities.[187]

Culture

Despite its political and linguistic divisions, the region corresponding to today's Belgium has seen the flourishing of major artistic movements that have had tremendous influence on European art and culture. Nowadays, to a certain extent, cultural life is concentrated within each language Community, and a variety of barriers have made a shared cultural sphere less pronounced.[16][188][189] Since the 1970s, there are no bilingual universities or colleges in the country except the Royal Military Academy and the Antwerp Maritime Academy.[190]

Fine arts

The Ghent Altarpiece: The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb (interior view), painted 1432 by van Eyck

Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich. The Mosan art, the Early Netherlandish,[191] the Flemish Renaissance and Baroque painting[192] and major examples of Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture[193] are milestones in the history of art. While the 15th century's art in the Low Countries is dominated by the religious paintings of Jan van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden, the 16th century is characterized by a broader panel of styles such as Peter Breughel's landscape paintings and Lambert Lombard's representation of the antique.[194] Though the Baroque style of Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck flourished in the early 17th century in the Southern Netherlands,[195] it gradually declined thereafter.[196][197]

During the 19th and 20th centuries many original romantic, expressionist and surrealist Belgian painters emerged, including James Ensor and other artists belonging to the Les XX group, Constant Permeke, Paul Delvaux and René Magritte. The avant-garde CoBrA movement appeared in the 1950s, while the sculptor Panamarenko remains a remarkable figure in contemporary art.[198][199] Multidisciplinary artists Jan Fabre, Wim Delvoye and the painter Luc Tuymans are other internationally renowned figures on the contemporary art scene.

Belgian contributions to architecture also continued into the 19th and 20th centuries, including the work of Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde, who were major initiators of the Art Nouveau style.[200][201]

The vocal music of the Franco-Flemish School developed in the southern part of the Low Countries and was an important contribution to Renaissance culture.[202] In the 19th and 20th centuries, there was an emergence of major violinists, such as Henri Vieuxtemps, Eugène Ysaÿe and Arthur Grumiaux, while Adolphe Sax invented the saxophone in 1846. The composer César Franck was born in Liège in 1822. Contemporary popular music in Belgium is also of repute. Jazz musician Toots Thielemans and singer Jacques Brel have achieved global fame. Nowadays, singer Stromae has been a musical revelation in Europe and beyond, having great success. In rock/pop music, Telex, Front 242, K's Choice, Hooverphonic, Zap Mama, Soulwax and dEUS are well known. In the heavy metal scene, bands like Machiavel, Channel Zero and Enthroned have a worldwide fan-base.[203]

Belgium has produced several well-known authors, including the poets Emile Verhaeren, Guido Gezelle, Robert Goffin and novelists Hendrik Conscience, Stijn Streuvels, Georges Simenon, Suzanne Lilar, Hugo Claus and Amélie Nothomb. The poet and playwright Maurice Maeterlinck won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1911. The Adventures of Tintin by Hergé is the best known of Franco-Belgian comics, but many other major authors, including Peyo (The Smurfs), André Franquin (Gaston Lagaffe), Dupa (Cubitus), Morris (Lucky Luke), Greg (Achille Talon), Lambil (Les Tuniques Bleues), Edgar P. Jacobs and Willy Vandersteen brought the Belgian cartoon strip industry a worldwide fame.[204] Additionally, famous crime author Agatha Christie created the character Hercule Poirot, a Belgian detective, who has served as a protagonist in a number of her acclaimed mystery novels.

Belgian cinema has brought a number of mainly Flemish novels to life on-screen.[H] Other Belgian directors include André Delvaux, Stijn Coninx, Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne; well-known actors include Jean-Claude Van Damme, Jan Decleir and Marie Gillain; and successful films include Bullhead, Man Bites Dog and The Alzheimer Affair.[205] Belgium is also home to a number of successful fashion designers Category:Belgian fashion designers. For instance, in the 1980s, Antwerp's Royal Academy of Fine Arts produced important fashion trendsetters, known as the Antwerp Six.[206]

Folklore

The Gilles of Binche, in costume, wearing wax masks

Folklore plays a major role in Belgium's cultural life: the country has a comparatively high number of processions, cavalcades, parades, 'ommegangs' and 'ducasses',[I] 'kermesse' and other local festivals, nearly always with an originally religious or mythological background. The Carnival of Binche with its famous Gilles and the 'Processional Giants and Dragons' of Ath, Brussels, Dendermonde, Mechelen and Mons are recognized by UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.[207]

Other examples are the Carnival of Aalst; the still very religious processions of the Holy Blood in Bruges, Virga Jesse Basilica in Hasselt and Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen; 15 August festival in Liège; and the Walloon festival in Namur. Originated in 1832 and revived in the 1960s, the Gentse Feesten have become a modern tradition. A major non-official holiday is the Saint Nicholas Day, a festivity for children and, in Liège, for students.[208]

Cuisine

Moules-frites or mosselen met friet is a representative dish of Belgium.

Many highly ranked Belgian restaurants can be found in the most influential restaurant guides, such as the Michelin Guide.[209] Belgium is famous for beer, chocolate, waffles and french fries with mayonnaise. Contrary to their name, french fries are claimed to have originated in Belgium, although their exact place of origin is uncertain. The national dishes are "steak and fries with salad", and "mussels with fries".[210][211][212][J]

Brands of Belgian chocolate and pralines, like Côte d'Or, Neuhaus, Leonidas and Godiva are famous, as well as independent producers such as Burie and Del Rey in Antwerp and Mary's in Brussels.[213] Belgium produces over 1100 varieties of beer.[214][215] The Trappist beer of the Abbey of Westvleteren has repeatedly been rated the world's best beer.[216][217][218] The biggest brewer in the world by volume is Anheuser-Busch InBev, based in Leuven.[219]

Sports

Eddy Merckx, regarded as one of the greatest cyclists of all time

Since the 1970s, sports clubs and federations are organized separately within each language community.[220] Association football is the most popular sport in both parts of Belgium; also very popular are cycling, tennis, swimming, judo[221] and basketball.[222]

The Belgium national football team have been on the top spot of the FIFA World Rankings ever since September 2018 (first time reached this rank in November 2015).[223] Since the 1990s, the team have been the world's number one for the most years in history, only behind the records of Brazil and Spain.[224] The team's golden generations with the world class players in the squad, namely Eden Hazard, Kevin De Bruyne, Jean-Marie Pfaff, Jan Ceulemans achieved the bronze medals at World Cup 2018, and silver medals at Euro 1980. Belgium hosted the Euro 1972, and co-hosted the Euro 2000 with the Netherlands.

Belgians hold the most Tour de France victories of any country except France. They have also the most victories on the UCI Road World Championships. Philippe Gilbert is the 2012 world champion. Another modern well-known Belgian cyclist is Tom Boonen. With five victories in the Tour de France and numerous other cycling records, Belgian cyclist Eddy Merckx is regarded as one of the greatest cyclists of all time.[225]

Kim Clijsters and Justine Henin both were Player of the Year in the Women's Tennis Association as they were ranked the number one female tennis player. The Spa-Francorchamps motor-racing circuit hosts the Formula One World Championship Belgian Grand Prix. The Belgian driver, Jacky Ickx, won eight Grands Prix and six 24 Hours of Le Mans and finished twice as runner-up in the Formula One World Championship. Belgium also has a strong reputation in, motocross with the riders Joël Robert, Roger De Coster, Georges Jobé, Eric Geboers and Stefan Everts among others.[226] Sporting events annually held in Belgium include the Memorial Van Damme athletics competition, the Belgian Grand Prix Formula One, and a number of classic cycle races such as the Tour of Flanders and Liège–Bastogne–Liège. The 1920 Summer Olympics were held in Antwerp. The 1977 European Basketball Championship was held in Liège and Ostend.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Dutch: België [ˈbɛlɣijə] (About this soundlisten); French: Belgique [bɛlʒik] (About this soundlisten); German: Belgien [ˈbɛlɡi̯ən] (About this soundlisten)
  2. ^ Dutch: Koninkrijk België; French: Royaume de Belgique; German: Königreich Belgien
  3. ^ Belgium is a member of, or affiliated to, many international organizations, including ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G-10, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUSCO (observers), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNECE, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (non-regional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC.
  4. ^ The Constitution set out seven institutions each of which can have a parliament, government and administration. In fact, there are only six such bodies because the Flemish Region merged into the Flemish Community. This single Flemish body thus exercises powers about Community matters in the bilingual area of Brussels-Capital and in the Dutch language area, while about Regional matters only in Flanders.
  5. ^ The richest (per capita income) of Belgium's three regions is the Flemish Region, followed by the Walloon Region and lastly the Brussels-Capital Region. The ten municipalities with the highest reported income are: Laethem-Saint-Martin, Keerbergen, Lasne, Oud-Heverlee, Hove, De Pinte, Meise, Knokke-Heist, Bierbeek."Où habitent les Belges les plus riches?". trends.be. 2010. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  6. ^ Native speakers of Dutch living in Wallonia and of French in Flanders are relatively small minorities that furthermore largely balance one another, hence attributing all inhabitants of each unilingual area to the area's language can cause only insignificant inaccuracies (99% can speak the language). Dutch: Flanders' 6.079 million inhabitants and about 15% of Brussels' 1.019 million are 6.23 million or 59.3% of the 10.511 million inhabitants of Belgium (2006); German: 70,400 in the German-speaking Community (which has language facilities for its less than 5% French-speakers) and an estimated 20,000–25,000 speakers of German in the Walloon Region outside the geographical boundaries of their official Community, or 0.9%; French: in the latter area as well as mainly in the rest of Wallonia (3.321 million) and 85% of the Brussels inhabitants (0.866 million) thus 4.187 million or 39.8%; together indeed 100%.
  7. ^ Flemish Academic Eric Corijn (initiator of Charta 91), at a colloquium regarding Brussels, on 2001-12-05, states that in Brussels 91% of the population speaks French at home, either alone or with another language, and about 20% speaks Dutch at home, either alone (9%) or with French (11%)—After ponderation, the repartition can be estimated at between 85 and 90% French-speaking, and the remaining are Dutch-speaking, corresponding to the estimations based on languages chosen in Brussels by citizens for their official documents (ID, driving licenses, weddings, birth, sex, and so on); all these statistics on language are also available at Belgian Department of Justice (for weddings, birth, sex), Department of Transport (for Driving licenses), Department of Interior (for IDs), because there are no means to know precisely the proportions since Belgium has abolished 'official' linguistic censuses, thus official documents on language choices can only be estimations. For a web source on this topic, see e.g. General online sources: Janssens, Rudi
  8. ^ Notable Belgian films based on works by Flemish authors include: De Witte (author Ernest Claes) movie by Jan Vanderheyden and Edith Kiel in 1934, remake as De Witte van Sichem directed by Robbe De Hert in 1980; De man die zijn haar kort liet knippen (Johan Daisne) André Delvaux 1965; Mira ('De teleurgang van de Waterhoek' by Stijn Streuvels) Fons Rademakers 1971; Malpertuis (aka The Legend of Doom House) (Jean Ray [pen name of Flemish author who mainly wrote in French, or as John Flanders in Dutch]) Harry Kümel 1971; De loteling (Hendrik Conscience) Roland Verhavert 1974; Dood van een non (Maria Rosseels) Paul Collet and Pierre Drouot 1975; Pallieter (Felix Timmermans) Roland Verhavert 1976; De komst van Joachim Stiller (Hubert Lampo) Harry Kümel 1976; De Leeuw van Vlaanderen (Hendrik Conscience) Hugo Claus (a famous author himself) 1985; Daens ('Pieter Daens' by Louis Paul Boon) Stijn Coninx 1992; see also Filmarchief les DVD!s de la cinémathèque (in Dutch). Retrieved on 7 June 2007.
  9. ^ The Dutch word 'ommegang' is here used in the sense of an entirely or mainly non-religious procession, or the non-religious part thereof—see also its article on the Dutch-language Wikipedia; the Processional Giants of Brussels, Dendermonde and Mechelen mentioned in this paragraph are part of each city's 'ommegang'. The French word 'ducasse' refers also to a procession; the mentioned Processional Giants of Ath and Mons are part of each city's 'ducasse'.
  10. ^ Contrarily to what the text suggests, the season starts as early as July and lasts through April.

References

  1. ^ Eurobarometer 90.4: Attitudes of Europeans towards Biodiversity, Awareness and Perceptions of EU customs, and Perceptions of Antisemitism. European Commission. Retrieved 9 August 2019 – via GESIS.
  2. ^ "Government type: Belgium". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
  3. ^ a b "be.STAT". Bestat.statbel.fgov.be. 26 November 2019.
  4. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d "Structuur van de bevolking" (in Dutch). Statbel. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  7. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  8. ^ "2019 Human Development Index Ranking". Hdr.undp.org. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  9. ^ The Belgian Constitution (PDF). Brussels, Belgium: Belgian House of Representatives. May 2014. p. 63. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  10. ^ Pateman, Robert and Elliott, Mark (2006). Belgium. Benchmark Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7614-2059-0
  11. ^ The Belgian Constitution (PDF). Brussels, Belgium: Belgian House of Representatives. May 2014. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015. Article 3: Belgium comprises three Regions: the Flemish Region, the Walloon Region and the Brussels Region. Article 4: Belgium comprises four linguistic regions: the Dutch-speaking region, the French-speaking region, the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital and the German-speaking region.
  12. ^ Janssens, Rudi (2008). Language use in Brussels and the position of Dutch. Brussels Studies [Online]. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  13. ^ Leclerc, Jacques (18 January 2007). "Belgique • België • Belgien—Région de Bruxelles-Capitale • Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest". L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde (in French). Host: Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2007. C'est une région officiellement bilingue formant au centre du pays une enclave dans la province du Brabant flamand (Vlaams Brabant)
    *"About Belgium". Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) / Embassy of Belgium in the Republic of Korea. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2007. the Brussels-Capital Region is an enclave of 162 km2 within the Flemish region.
    *"Flanders (administrative region)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft. 2007. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2007. The capital of Belgium, Brussels, is an enclave within Flanders.
    *McMillan, Eric (October 1999). "The FIT Invasions of Mons" (PDF). Capital translator, Newsletter of the NCATA, Vol. 21, No. 7, p. 1. National Capital Area Chapter of the American Translators Association (NCATA). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007. The country is divided into three autonomous regions: Dutch-speaking Flanders in the north, mostly French-speaking Brussels in the center as an enclave within Flanders and French-speaking Wallonia in the south, including the German-speaking Cantons de l'Est.
    *Van de Walle, Steven. "Language Facilities in the Brussels Periphery". KULeuven—Leuvens Universitair Dienstencentrum voor Informatica en Telematica. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2007. Brussels is a kind of enclave within Flanders—it has no direct link with Wallonia.
  14. ^ C. Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, book 8, chapter 46.
  15. ^ Haß, Torsten (17 February 2003). Rezension zu (Review of) Cook, Bernard: Belgium. A History (in German). FH-Zeitung (journal of the Fachhochschule). ISBN 978-0-8204-5824-3. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007. die Bezeichnung Belgiens als "the cockpit of Europe" (James Howell, 1640), die damals noch auf eine kriegerische Hahnenkampf-Arena hindeutete—The book reviewer, Haß, attributes the expression in English to James Howell in 1640. Howell's original phrase "the cockpit of Christendom" became modified afterwards, as shown by:
    *Carmont, John. "The Hydra No.1 New Series (November 1917)—Arras And Captain Satan". War Poets Collection. Napier University's Business School. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 24 May 2007.—and as such coined for Belgium:
    *Wood, James (1907). "Nuttall Encyclopaedia of General Knowledge—Cockpit of Europe". Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2007. Cockpit of Europe, Belgium, as the scene of so many battles between the Powers of Europe. (See also The Nuttall Encyclopaedia)
  16. ^ a b c d Fitzmaurice, John (1996). "New Order? International models of peace and reconciliation—Diversity and civil society". Democratic Dialogue Northern Ireland's first think tank, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
  17. ^ "Belgium country profile". EUbusiness, Richmond, UK. 27 August 2006. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
  18. ^ Karl, Farah; Stoneking, James (1999). "Chapter 27. The Age of Imperialism (Section 2. The Partition of Africa)" (PDF). World History II. Appomattox Regional Governor's School (History Department), Petersburg, Virginia, USA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.
  19. ^ "Belgium's genocidal colonial legacy haunts the country's future". The Independent. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  20. ^ Buoyant Brussels. "Bilingual island in Flanders". UCL. Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  21. ^ "Belgian government sworn in, ending 18-month crisis". Expatica. 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  22. ^ Robinson, Duncan (3 November 2015). "Belgium: A nation divided by more than two languages". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  23. ^ "Quality of Life Index by Country 2017 Mid-Year". www.numbeo.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  24. ^ "Health index" (PDF). World Health Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2011.
  25. ^ "Education index | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  26. ^ "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). undp.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2017.
  27. ^ "Global Peace Index 2017" (PDF). reliefweb.int. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 December 2017.
  28. ^ Caesar, Gallic War, 8.46 "quattuor legiones in Belgio collocavit", "his confectis rebus ad legiones in Belgium se recipit hibernatque Nemetocennae". (In online English translations the second part is often included in the next paragraph 8.47. Wightman, Edith (1985), Gallia Belgica, p. 12, ISBN 978-0-520-05297-0. González Villaescusa; Jacquemin (2011), "Gallia Belgica: An Entity with No National Claim", Études rurales, 2 (2): 93–111, doi:10.4000/etudesrurales.9499.
  29. ^ Werner, Matthias (1980), Der Lütticher Raum in frühkarolingischer Zeit : Untersuchungen zur Geschichte einer karolingischen Stammlandschaft
  30. ^ Edmundson, George (1922). "Chapter I: The Burgundian Netherlands". History of Holland. The University Press, Cambridge. Republished: Authorama. Archived from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
  31. ^ Van Der Essen, Leon (1925), "Notre nom national", Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, 4 (1): 121–131, doi:10.3406/rbph.1925.6335
  32. ^ Edmundson, George (1922). "Chapter II: Habsburg Rule in the Netherlands". History of Holland. The University Press, Cambridge. Republished: Authorama. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
  33. ^ Dobbelaere, Karel; Voyé, Liliane (1990). "From Pillar to Postmodernity: The Changing Situation of Religion in Belgium". Sociological Analysis. 51: S1–S13. doi:10.2307/3711670. JSTOR 3711670.
  34. ^ Gooch, Brison Dowling (1963). Belgium and the February Revolution. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands. p. 112. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  35. ^ "National Day and feast days of Communities and Regions". Belgian Federal Government. 3 October 2010. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  36. ^ Deschouwer, Kris (January 2004). "Ethnic structure, inequality and governance of the public sector in Belgium" (PDF). United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2007.
  37. ^ Forbath, Peter (1977). The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic Rivers. Harper & Row. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-06-122490-4.
  38. ^ a b "Belgium Confronts Its Heart of Darkness; Unsavory Colonial Behavior in the Congo Will Be Tackled by a New Study – The New York Times". nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  39. ^ Meredith, Martin (2005). The State of Africa. Jonathan Ball. pp. 95–96(?). ISBN 978-1-86842-220-3.
  40. ^ Arango, Ramon (1961). Leopold III and the Belgian Royal Question. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8018-0040-5.
  41. ^ "The Congolese Civil War 1960–1964". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  42. ^ "New data on land use". Statbel. Archived from the original on 19 March 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  43. ^ "België is 160 km² groter dan gedacht". Het Laatste Nieuws. 10 January 2019. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  44. ^ a b c "Belgium". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 23 September 2021.
  45. ^ (in Dutch) Geografische beschrijving van België – Over Belgie – Portaal Belgische Overheid Archived 19 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Belgium.be. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  46. ^ "Belgium—The land—Relief". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, Illinois, US. 2007. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
  47. ^ "Geography of Belgium". 123independenceday.com. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
  48. ^ "Life—Nature" (PDF). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 September 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
  49. ^ Peel, Murray C.; Finlayson, Bryan L. & McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2011. (direct: Final Revised Paper Archived 29 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine)
  50. ^ "Climate averages—Brussels". EuroWEATHER/EuroMETEO, Nautica Editrice Srl, Rome, Italy. Archived from the original on 21 October 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2007.
  51. ^ "Kerncijfers 2006 – Statistisch overzicht van België" (PDF) (in Dutch). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy—Directorate-general Statistics Belgium. pp. 9–10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  52. ^ Takhtajan, Armen, 1986. Floristic Regions of the World. (translated by T.J. Crovello and A. Cronquist). University of California Press, Berkeley.
  53. ^ Dinerstein, Eric; Olson, David; Joshi, Anup; Vynne, Carly; Burgess, Neil D.; Wikramanayake, Eric; Hahn, Nathan; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hedao, Prashant; Noss, Reed; Hansen, Matt; Locke, Harvey; Ellis, Erle C; Jones, Benjamin; Barber, Charles Victor; Hayes, Randy; Kormos, Cyril; Martin, Vance; Crist, Eileen; Sechrest, Wes; Price, Lori; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Weeden, Don; Suckling, Kierán; Davis, Crystal; Sizer, Nigel; Moore, Rebecca; Thau, David; Birch, Tanya; Potapov, Peter; Turubanova, Svetlana; Tyukavina, Alexandra; de Souza, Nadia; Pintea, Lilian; Brito, José C.; Llewellyn, Othman A.; Miller, Anthony G.; Patzelt, Annette; Ghazanfar, Shahina A.; Timberlake, Jonathan; Klöser, Heinz; Shennan-Farpón, Yara; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars; Voge, Maianna; Al-Shammari, Khalaf F.; Saleem, Muhammad (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
  54. ^ "Atlantic mixed forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
  55. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  56. ^ López Pintor, Rafael; Gratschew, Maria (2002). "Voter Turnout Rates from a Comparative Perspective" (PDF). IDEA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  57. ^ "The Belgian Constitution – Article 99" (PDF). Belgian House of Representatives. January 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  58. ^ "Belgium 1831 (rev. 2012)". Constitute. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  59. ^ "Belgium, a federal state". Belgium.be. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  60. ^ a b "Background Note: Belgium". U.S. Department of States. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  61. ^ "Belgium – Political parties". European Election Database. Norwegian Social Science Data Services. 2010. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  62. ^ Tyler, Richard (8 June 1999). "Dioxin contamination scandal hits Belgium: Effects spread through European Union and beyond". World Socialist Web Site (WSWS). International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  63. ^ ElAmin, Ahmed (31 January 2006) Belgium, Netherlands meat sectors face dioxin crisis Archived 14 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. foodproductiondaily.com
  64. ^ European Commission (16 June 1999). "Food Law News—EU : CONTAMINANTS—Commission Press Release (IP/99/399) Preliminary results of EU-inspection to Belgium". School of Food Biosciences, University of Reading, UK. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
  65. ^ "Belgium's "rainbow" coalition sworn in". BBC News. 12 July 1999. Retrieved 20 May 2007.
  66. ^ "La Chambre des représentants—Composition" [Composition of the Chamber of Representatives] (PDF) (in French). The Chamber of Representatives of Belgium. 9 March 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
  67. ^ "Rwanda". tiscali.reference. Tiscali UK. Archived from the original on 24 September 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2007. The article shows an example of Belgium's recent[when?] African policies.
  68. ^ "Belgian demand halts NATO progress". CNN. 16 February 2003. Archived from the original on 16 January 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
  69. ^ "Belgium minor first to be granted euthanasia – BBC News". BBC News. bbc.co.uk. 17 September 2016. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  70. ^ "Time-line Belgium". BBC News. 5 January 2009. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2009. 2007 September – Belgium without a government for 100 days.
  71. ^ Bryant, Elizabeth (12 October 2007). "Divisions could lead to a partition in Belgium". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
  72. ^ Hughes, Dominic (15 July 2008). "Analysis: Where now for Belgium?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2008.
  73. ^ Banks, Martin (6 September 2010). "Fears over 'break up' of Belgium". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
  74. ^ a b "Belgian PM offers his resignation". BBC News. 15 July 2008. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  75. ^ CNN.com Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, "Belgium Prime Minister offers resignation over banking deal"
  76. ^ Belgian king asks Van Rompuy to form government Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Reuters.
  77. ^ "Prime Minister Leterme resigns after liberals quit government". France 24. 22 April 2010. Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
  78. ^ "King Albert II accepts resignation of Prime Minister Yves Leterme". France 24. 26 April 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  79. ^ "Federal Elections in Belgium – Chamber of Representatives Results". Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
  80. ^ Kovacevic, Tamara (6 May 2015). "Reality Check: How long can nations go without governments?". BBC News Online. Archived from the original on 13 October 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
  81. ^ "Political crisis nears an end as new PM, cabinet named". France 24. 5 December 2011.
  82. ^ "Belgium agrees to form coalition government | DW | 07.10.2014". DW.COM.
  83. ^ "No coalition in sight after fractured Belgium election | DW | 27.05.2019". DW.COM.
  84. ^ Houzel, Timothée (1 April 2021). "Who is Charles Michel, the next President of the European Council?". The New Federalist.
  85. ^ "Belgium gets first female PM as Sophie Wilmès takes office". The Guardian. 28 October 2019.
  86. ^ Didili, Zoi (1 October 2020). "Belgium agrees on federal government, De Croo to become PM".
  87. ^ Kramer, Johannes (1984). Zweisprachigkeit in den Benelux-ländern (in German). Buske Verlag. p. 69. ISBN 978-3-87118-597-7. Zur prestige Sprache wurde in den Spanischen Niederlanden ganz eindeutig das Französische. Die Vertreter Spaniens beherrschten normalerweise das Französische, nicht aber das Niederländische; ein beachtlicher Teil der am Hofe tätigen Adligen stammte aus Wallonien, das sich ja eher auf die spanische Seite geschlagen hatte als Flandern und Brabant. In dieser Situation war es selbstverständlich, dass die flämischen Adligen, die im Laufe der Zeit immer mehr ebenfalls zu Hofbeamten wurden, sich des Französischen bedienen mussten, wenn sie als gleichwertig anerkannt werden wollten. [Transl.: The prestigious language in the Spanish Netherlands was clearly French. Spain's representatives usually mastered French but not Dutch; a notable part of the nobles at the court came from Wallonia, which had taken party for the Spanish side to a higher extent than Flanders and Brabant. It was therefore evident within this context that the Flemish nobility, of which a progressively larger number became servants of the court, had to use French, if it wanted to get acknowledged as well.]
  88. ^ Witte, Els; Craeybeckx, Jan & Meynen, Alain (2009). Political History of Belgium: From 1830 Onwards. Brussels: Academic and Scientific Publishers. p. 56.
  89. ^ a b Fitzmaurice (1996), p. 31.
  90. ^ a b "Belgium". European Election Database. Norwegian Social Science Data Services. 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  91. ^ Willemyns, Roland (2002). "The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 23 (1&2): 36–49. doi:10.1080/01434630208666453. S2CID 143809695. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
  92. ^ "The Belgian Constitution – Article 4" (PDF). Belgian House of Representatives. January 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  93. ^ Fitzmaurice (1996), p. 121
  94. ^ Fitzmaurice (1996), p. 122.
  95. ^ a b "The Federal Government's Powers". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. 3 October 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
  96. ^ Lagasse, Charles-Etienne (2003). Les nouvelles institutions politiques de la Belgique et de l'Europe. Namur: Erasme. p. 289. ISBN 978-2-87127-783-5. In 2002, 58.92% of the fiscal income was going to the budget of the federal government, but more than one-third was used to pay the interests of the public debt. Without including this post, the share of the federal government budget would be only 48.40% of the fiscal income. There are 87.8% of the civil servants who are working for the Regions or the Communities and 12.2% for the Federal State.
  97. ^ "The Communities". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. 3 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  98. ^ "The Regions". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. 3 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  99. ^ Lagasse, Charles-Etienne (18 May 2004). "Federalism in Russia, Canada and Belgium: experience of comparative research" (in French). Kazan Institute of Federalism. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2008. La Belgique constitue ainsi le seul exemple clair du transfert d'une partie de la compétence " affaires étrangères " à des entités fédérées. (Transl.: Belgium is thus the only clear example of a transfer of a part of the "Foreign Affairs" competences to federated units.)
  100. ^ Lagasse, Charles-Etienne. Les nouvelles institutions de la Belgique et de l'Europe (in French). p. 603. [Le fédéralisme belge] repose sur une combinaison unique d'équipollence, d'exclusivité et de prolongement international des compétences. ([Belgian federalism] is based on a unique combination of equipollence, of exclusivity, and of international extension of competences.)
  101. ^ Suinen, Philippe (October 2000). "Une Première mondiale". Le Monde diplomatique (in French). Archived from the original on 17 November 2000. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Dans l'organisation de ces autonomies, la Belgique a réalisé une " première " mondiale: afin d'éviter la remise en cause, par le biais de la dimension internationale, de compétences exclusives transférées aux entités fédérées, les communautés et régions se sont vu reconnaître une capacité et des pouvoirs internationaux. (In organizing its autonomies, Belgium realized a World's First: to avoid a relevant stalemate, international consequences caused transfers of exclusive competences to federal, community and regional entities that are recognized to have become internationally enabled and empowered.)
  102. ^ "Defence Data of Belgium in 2010". European Defence Agency. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  103. ^ "Defensie La Défense". Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
  104. ^ David Isby and Charles Kamps Jr, 'Armies of NATO's Central Front,' Jane's Publishing Company, 1985, p.59
  105. ^ Belgium ranked first in the KOF Globalization Index 2009ETH Zürich (ed.). "KOF Index of Globalization". Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
  106. ^ "Rank Order – Exports". CIA – The 2008 world factbook. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 15[th]: Belgium $322,200,000,000 (2007 est.)
  107. ^ "Rank Order – Imports". CIA – The 2008 world factbook. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008. 15[th]: Belgium $323,200,000,000 (2007 est.)
  108. ^ "Belgian economy". Belgium. Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2009. Belgium is the world leader in terms of export per capita and can justifiably call itself the 'world's largest exporter'.
  109. ^ "Wallonia in 'decline' thanks to politicians". Expatica Communications BV. 9 March 2005. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
  110. ^ "L'Union économique belgo-luxembourgeoise" (in French). Luxembourgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
  111. ^ "Industrial History Belgium". European Route of Industrial Heritage. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  112. ^ Rioux, Jean-Pierre (1989). La révolution industrielle (in French). Paris: Seuil. p. 105. ISBN 978-2-02-000651-4.
  113. ^ "Industrial History, Belgium". European route of industrial heritage. Archived from the original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  114. ^ Vanhaute, Eric; Paping, Richard & Ó Gráda, Cormac (2006). The European subsistence crisis of 1845–1850: a comparative perspective (PDF). IEHC. Helsinki. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  115. ^ Vanhaute, Eric (2007). "'So worthy an example to Ireland'. The subsistance and industrial crisis of 1845–1850 in Flanders". When the potato failed. Causes and effects of the 'last' European subsistance crisis, 1845–1850. Brepols. pp. 123–148. ISBN 978-2-503-51985-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  116. ^ "Background Note: Belgium". US Department of State, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. April 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  117. ^ Vanhaverbeke, Wim. "Het belang van de Vlaamse Ruit vanuit economisch perspectief The importance of the Flemish Diamond from an economical perspective" (in Dutch). Netherlands Institute of Business Organization and Strategy Research, University of Maastricht. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
  118. ^ "The World Factbook—(Rank Order—Public debt)". CIA. 17 April 2007. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  119. ^ "Key figures". National Bank of Belgium. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
  120. ^ "EurActiv". Belgium makes place for urban enterprises. EurActiv. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
  121. ^ a b Panorama of Transport (PDF). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2003. ISBN 978-92-894-4845-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2011.
  122. ^ a b "Country Trends". Global Footprint Network. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  123. ^ Lin, David; Hanscom, Laurel; Murthy, Adeline; Galli, Alessandro; Evans, Mikel; Neill, Evan; Mancini, Maria Serena; Martindill, Jon; Medouar, Fatime-Zahra; Huang, Shiyu; Wackernagel, Mathis (2018). "Ecological Footprint Accounting for Countries: Updates and Results of the National Footprint Accounts, 2012–2018". Resources. 7 (3): 58. doi:10.3390/resources7030058.
  124. ^ Fidler, Stephen (3 November 2010). "Europe's Top Traffic Jam Capitals". Wallstreet Journal. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  125. ^ Another comparative study on transportation in Belgium: OECD environmental performance reviews: Belgium. OECD. 2007. ISBN 978-92-64-03111-1.
  126. ^ "Double record for freight volume". port of Antwerp. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  127. ^ "The Belgian Crisis". Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  128. ^ John Lichfield (2007). "Belgium: A nation divided". Independent. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  129. ^ Cook, B.A. (2002). Belgium: A History. Peter Lang. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-8204-5824-3. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  130. ^ "Rembert Dodoens: iets over zijn leven en werk—Dodoens' werken". Plantaardigheden—Project Rembert Dodoens (Rembertus Dodonaeus) (in Dutch). Balkbrug: Stichting Kruidenhoeve/Plantaardigheden. 20 December 2005. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2007. het Cruijdeboeck, dat in 1554 verscheen. Dit meesterwerk was na de bijbel in die tijd het meest vertaalde boek. Het werd gedurende meer dan een eeuw steeds weer heruitgegeven en gedurende meer dan twee eeuwen was het het meest gebruikte handboek over kruiden in West-Europa. Het is een werk van wereldfaam en grote wetenschappelijke waarde. De nieuwe gedachten die Dodoens erin neerlegde, werden de bouwstenen voor de botanici en medici van latere generaties. (... the Cruijdeboeck, published in 1554. This masterpiece was, after the Bible, the most translated book in that time. It continued to be republished for more than a century and for more than two centuries it was the mostly used referential about herbs. It is a work with world fame and great scientific value. The new thoughts written down by Dodoens, became the building bricks for botanists and physicians of later generations.)
  131. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertsonfirst2=E. F. (2004). "Simon Stevin". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. Although he did not invent decimals (they had been used by the Arabs and the Chinese long before Stevin's time) he did introduce their use in mathematics in Europe.
  132. ^ De Broe, Marc E.; De Weerdt, Dirk L.; Ysebaert, Dirk K.; Vercauteren, Sven R.; De Greef, Kathleen E.; De Broe, Luc C. (1999). "Abstract (*)". American Journal of Nephrology. 19 (2): 282–289. doi:10.1159/000013462. PMID 10213829. The importance of A. Vesalius' publication 'de humani corporis fabrica libri septem' cannot be overestimated. (*) Free abstract for pay-per-view article byDe Broe, Marc E.; De Weerdt, Dirk L.; Ysebaert, Dirk K.; Vercauteren, Sven R.; De Greef, Kathleen E.; De Broe, Luc C. (1999). "The Low Countries – 16th/17th century". American Journal of Nephrology. 19 (2): 282–9. doi:10.1159/000013462. PMID 10213829.
  133. ^ Midbon, Mark (24 March 2000). "'A Day Without Yesterday': Georges Lemaitre & the Big Bang". Commonweal, republished: Catholic Education Resource Center (CERC). pp. 18–19. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  134. ^ Carson, Patricia (1969). The Fair Face of Flanders. Lannoo Uitgeverij. p. 136. ISBN 978-90-209-4385-6.
  135. ^ Day, Lance (2003). Lance Day; Ian McNeil (eds.). Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. Routledge. p. 1135. ISBN 978-0-203-02829-2.
  136. ^ Woodward, Gordon (2003). Lance Day; Ian McNeil (eds.). Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. Routledge. p. 523. ISBN 978-0-203-02829-2.
  137. ^ Larsson, Ulf (2001). Cultures of Creativity: the Centennial Exhibition of the Nobel Prize. Science History Publications. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-88135-288-7.
  138. ^ "Georges Lemaître, Father of the Big Bang". American Museum of Natural History. 2000. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  139. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  140. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Pierre Deligne", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews (Retrieved 10 November 2011)
  141. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Jean Bourgain", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews (Retrieved 10 November 2011)
  142. ^ "Release of the Global Innovation Index 2020: Who Will Finance Innovation?". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  143. ^ "Global Innovation Index 2019". www.wipo.int. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  144. ^ "RTD - Item". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  145. ^ "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  146. ^ Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last two centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation
  147. ^ "World Factbook EUROPE : BELGIUM", The World Factbook, 3 February 2021
  148. ^ This number evolved to 89% in 2011. Belgian Federal Government. "Population par sexe et nationalité pour la Belgique et les régions, 2001 et 2011" (in French). Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  149. ^ Perrin, Nicolas (April 2006). "European Migration Network—Annual Statistical Report on migration and asylum in Belgium (Reference year 2003)—section A. 1) b) Population by citizenship & c) Third country nationals, 1 January 2004" (PDF). Study Group of Applied Demographics (Gédap). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Interior—Immigration Office. pp. 5–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2007.
  150. ^ De vreemde bevolking. ecodata.mineco.fgov.be
  151. ^ L'IMMIGRATION EN BELGIQUE. EFFECTIFS, MOUVEMENTS. ET MARCHE DU TRAVAIL Archived 31 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Rapport 2009. Direction générale Emploi et marché du travai
  152. ^ Belgian Federal Government. "Structure de la population selon le pays de naissance" (in French). Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  153. ^ BuG 155 – Bericht uit het Gewisse – 01 januari 2012 Archived 8 September 2012 at archive.today. npdata.be (1 January 2012).
  154. ^ a b BuG 159 – Bericht uit het Gewisse – 7 mei 2012 Archived 26 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. npdata.be (7 May 2012).
  155. ^ a b Voor het eerst meer Marokkaanse dan Italiaanse migranten Archived 18 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. hbvl.be. 21 May 2007
  156. ^ "Diversity according to origin in Belgium". Statbel.fgov.be. 16 June 2021.
  157. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). Languages of Belgium. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (sixteenth ed.). Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.: SIL International. pp. 1, 248. ISBN 978-1-55671-216-6. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  158. ^ de Witte, Bruno (1996). Rainey, Anson F. (ed.). "Surviving in Babel? Language rights and European integration". Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets. 1. Brill. p. 122. ISBN 978-90-04-10521-8.
  159. ^ "Belgium Market background". British Council. Archived from the original on 22 November 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007. The capital Brussels, 80–85 percent French-speaking, ...—Strictly, the capital is the municipality (City of) Brussels, though the Brussels-Capital Region might be intended because of its name and also its other municipalities housing institutions typical for a capital.
  160. ^ "The German-speaking Community". The German-speaking Community. Archived from the original on 30 May 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007. The (original) version in German language Archived 29 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine (already) mentions 73,000 instead of 71,500 inhabitants.
  161. ^ "Citizens from other countries in the German-speaking Community". The German-speaking Community. Archived from the original on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
  162. ^ "German (Belgium)—Overview of the language". Mercator, Minority Language Media in the European Union, supported by the European Commission and the University of Wales. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
  163. ^ Leclerc, Jacques (19 April 2006). "Belgique • België • Belgien—La Communauté germanophone de Belgique". L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde (in French). Host: Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
  164. ^ According to Le Petit Larousse, Walloon is a dialect of the langue d'oïl. According to the Meyers grosses Taschenlexikon
  165. ^ Jules, Feller (1912). Notes de philologie wallonne. Liège: Vaillant Carmanne.
  166. ^ a b Among Belgium native German speakers many are familiar with the local dialect varieties of their region, that include dialects that spill over into neighboring Luxembourg and Germany.Gordon, Raymond G. Jr., ed. (2005). Languages of Belgium. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Fifteenth ed.). Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.: SIL International. (Online version: Sixteenth edition Archived 3 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine)
  167. ^ See for example Belgium entry of the Catholic Encyclopedia
  168. ^ a b c Loopbuyck, P. & Torfs, R. (2009). The world and its people – Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. 4. Marshall Cavendish. p. 499. ISBN 978-0-7614-7890-4.
  169. ^ "Churchgoers in Brussels threatened with extinction". Brusselnieuws.be (in Dutch). 30 November 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  170. ^ Kerken lopen zeer geleidelijk helemaal leeg – Dutch news article describing church attendance in Flanders Archived 27 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Standaard.be (25 November 2010). Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  171. ^ Eurobarometer Biotechnology report 2010 Archived 30 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine p.381.
  172. ^ Eurobarometer 437: Discrimination in the EU in 2015. European Commission. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017 – via GESIS.
  173. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013
  174. ^ "State and Church in BELGIUM". euresisnet.eu. 31 October 2007. Archived from the original on 17 July 2010.
  175. ^ Ghiuzeli, Haim F. The Jewish Community of Antwerp, Belgium Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Beit Hatfutsot, the Museum of the Jewish People
  176. ^ Inquiry by 'Vepec', 'Vereniging voor Promotie en Communicatie' (Organization for Promotion and Communication), published in Knack magazine 22 November 2006 p. 14 [The Dutch language term 'gelovig' is in the text translated as 'religious'. More precisely it is a very common word for believing in particular in any kind of God in a monotheistic sense or in some afterlife], or both.
  177. ^ "Moslims in België per gewest, provincie en gemeente". Npdata.be. 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  178. ^ a b c Corens, Dirk (2007). "Belgium, health system review" (PDF). Health Systems in Transition. 9 (2). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
  179. ^ "Belgium euthanasia: First child dies - CNN.com". edition.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  180. ^ Santa Clara University. "Assisted Suicide: A Right or a Wrong? – Resources – Bioethics – Focus Areas – Markkula Center for Applied Ethics – Santa Clara University". scu.edu. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  181. ^ "GHO | By category | Suicide rate estimates, age-standardized - Estimates by country". WHO. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  182. ^ Hofman, Roelande H.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Gray, J. M.; Daly, P. (2004). Institutional context of education systems in Europe: a cross-country comparison on quality and equity. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 97, 105. ISBN 978-1-4020-2744-4. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2015. Extracts: p. 97 Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, p. 105 Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  183. ^ "Table 388. Percentage of population enrolled in secondary and postsecondary institutions, by age group and country – Chapter 6. International Comparisons of Education, data: 2002". Digest of Education Statistics—Tables and Figures. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), US Department of Education. 2005. Archived from the original on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  184. ^ "I. Monitoring Human Development: Enlarging peoples's choices ... —5. Human poverty in OECD, Eastern Europe and the CIS" (PDF). Human Development Indicators. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2000. pp. 172–173. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
  185. ^ "Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale" (PDF). OECD. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  186. ^ De Meyer, Inge; Pauly, Jan; Van de Poele, Luc (2005). "Learning for Tomorrow's Problems – First Results from PISA2003" (PDF). Ministry of the Flemish Community – Education Department; University of Ghent – Department of Education, Ghent, Belgium (Online by OECD). p. 52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  187. ^ De Ley, Herman (2000). "Humanists and Muslims in Belgian Secular Society (Draft version)". Centrum voor Islam in Europe (Center for Islam in Europe), Ghent University. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  188. ^ "Belgium—Arts and cultural education". Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 8th edition. Council of Europe / ERICarts. 2007. Archived from the original on 31 August 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  189. ^ "Belgique". European Culture Portal. European Commission. 2007. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
  190. ^ Gonthier, Adrien (2003). "Frontière linguistique, frontière politique, une presse en crise". Le Monde diplomatique (in French). Archived from the original on 27 March 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2008. Mumford, David (2008). The World Today Series. The New York Times. Western Europe/2007. ISBN 978-1-887985-89-5.
  191. ^ "Low Countries, 1000–1400 AD". Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2007. Archived from the original on 15 April 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
  192. ^ "Low Countries, 1400–1600 AD". Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 April 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
  193. ^ Several examples of major architectural realizations in Belgium belong to UNESCO's World Heritage List:"Belgium". Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
  194. ^ Hendrick, Jacques (1987). La peinture au pays de Liège (in French). Liège: Editions du Perron. p. 24. ISBN 978-2-87114-026-9.
  195. ^ Guratzsch, Herwig (1979). Die große Zeit der niederländische Malerei (in German). Freiburg im Beisgau: Verlag Herder. p. 7.
  196. ^ "Low Countries, 1600–1800 AD". Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2007. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
  197. ^ "Art History: Flemish School: (1600–1800)—Artists: (biography & artworks)". World Wide Arts Resources. 5 February 2006. Archived from the original on 13 October 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2007.—A general presentation of the Flemish artistic movement with a list of its artists, linking to their biographies and artworks
  198. ^ "Belgian Artists: (biographies & artworks)". World Wide Arts Resources. 5 February 2006. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2007.—List of Belgian painters, linking to their biographies and artworks
  199. ^ Baudson, Michel (1996). "Panamarenko". Flammarion (Paris), quoted at presentation of the XXIII Bienal Internacional de São Paulo. Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
  200. ^ Brussels, capital of Art Nouveau (page 1) Archived 9 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, "(page 2)". Senses Art Nouveau Shop, Brussels. 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007. (for example)
  201. ^ "Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels)". UNESCO's World Heritage List. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2007. The appearance of Art Nouveau in the closing years of the 19th century marked a decisive stage in the evolution of architecture, making possible subsequent developments, and the Town Houses of Victor Horta in Brussels bear exceptional witness to its radical new approach.
  202. ^ "Western music, the Franco-Flemish school". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2007. Most significant musically was the pervasive influence of musicians from the Low Countries, whose domination of the music scene during the last half of the 15th century is reflected in the period designations the Netherlands school and the Franco-Flemish school.
  203. ^ Two comprehensive discussions of rock and pop music in Belgium since the 1950s:
    "The Timeline—A brief history of Belgian Pop Music". The Belgian Pop & Rock Archives. Flanders Music Centre, Brussels. March 2007. Archived from the original on 12 July 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
    "Belgian Culture—Rock". Vanberg & DeWulf Importing. 2006. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
  204. ^ Grove, Laurence (2010). Comics in French: the European bande dessinée in context. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-588-0.
  205. ^ A review of the Belgian cinema till about 2000 can be found at"History of Cinema in Belgium". Film Birth. 2007. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  206. ^ "Fashion and the 'Antwerp Six'". Dorset, UK: Fashion Worlds. 2004. Archived from the original on 19 April 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  207. ^ "Processional Giants and Dragons in Belgium and France". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
  208. ^ "Folklore estudiantin liégeois" (in French). University of Liège. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2008.
  209. ^ "The Michelin stars 2007 in Belgium". Resto.be TM Dreaminvest. 2007. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
  210. ^ "Steak-frites". Epicurious. 20 August 2004. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007. Republished fromVan Waerebeek, Ruth; Robbins, Maria (October 1996). Everybody Eats Well in Belgium Cookbook. Workman Publishing. ISBN 978-1-56305-411-2.
  211. ^ "Belgium". Global Gourmet. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007. Republished fromVan Waerebeek, Ruth; Robbins, Maria (October 1996). Everybody Eats Well in Belgium Cookbook. Workman Publishing. ISBN 978-1-56305-411-2.
  212. ^ "Mussels". Visit Belgium. Official Site of the Belgian Tourist Office in the Americas. 2005. Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
  213. ^ Elliott, Mark & Cole, Geert (2000). Belgium and Luxembourg. Lonely Planet. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-86450-245-9.
  214. ^ Snick, Chris (18 October 2011). "Nieuwe bierbijbel bundelt alle 1.132 Belgische bieren". Het Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 5 June 2012.
  215. ^ "Nieuwe bierbijbel met 1.132 Belgische bieren voorgesteld in Brugge". Krant van West-Vlaanderen (in Dutch). 18 October 2011. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  216. ^ Ames, Paul (30 August 2009). "Buying the World's Best Beer". Global Post. Archived from the original on 9 November 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  217. ^ Guthrie, Tyler (11 August 2010). "Day trip to the best beer in the world". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  218. ^ "Monks run short of 'world's best' beer". ABC. Reuters. 12 August 2005. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  219. ^ "InBev dividend 2006: 0.72 euro per share—infobox: About InBev" (Press release). InBev. 24 April 2007. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007. InBev is a publicly traded company (Euronext: INB) based in Leuven, Belgium. The company's origins date back to 1366, and today it is the leading global brewer by volume.
  220. ^ Task, Marijke; Renson, Roland & van Reusel, Bart (1999). Klaus Heinemann (ed.). Organised sport in transition: development, structures and trends of sports clubs in Belgium. Sport clubs in various European countries. Schattauer Verlag. pp. 183–229. ISBN 978-3-7945-2038-1.
  221. ^ Wingfield, George (2008). Charles F. Gritzner (ed.). Belgium. Infobase Publishing. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-0-7910-9670-3.
  222. ^ Hendricks, Kelly (20 June 2014). "Belgium's 10 most popular sports". The Bulletin. Archived from the original on 22 November 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  223. ^ "Belgium go top, Chile and Austria soar". FIFA. 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  224. ^ Team of the Year Award 2010 Archived 18 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine on the FIFA website
  225. ^ Majendie, Matt (18 April 2005). "Great, but there are greater". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007. [the Author's] top five [cyclists] of all time: 1 Eddy Merckx, 2 Bernard Hinault, 3 Lance Armstrong, 4 Miguel Indurain, 5 Jacques Anquetil
  226. ^ Woods, Bob (2008). Motocross History: From Local Scrambling to World Championship MX to Freestyle. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7787-3987-6.

Online sources

Bibliography

  • Arblaster, Paul (23 December 2005). A History of the Low Countries. Palgrave Essential Histories (Hardcover 312pp ed.). Palgrave Macmillan, New York. ISBN 978-1-4039-4827-4.
  • Blom, J. C. H.; Lamberts, Emiel, eds. (May 1999). History of the Low Countries. Translated by Kennedy, James C. (Hardcover 503pp ed.). Berghahn Books, Oxford/New York. ISBN 978-1-57181-084-7.
  • Cammaerts, Émile L. (1921) [1913]. A History of Belgium from the Roman Invasion to the Present Day (357pp ed.). D. Appleton and Co, New York. ASIN B00085PM0A. OCLC 1525559.
    [Also editions [1913], London, OCLC 29072911; (1921) D. Unwin and Co., New York OCLC 9625246 also published (1921) as Belgium from the Roman invasion to the present day, The Story of the nations, 67, T. Fisher Unwin, London, OCLC 2986704]
  • de Kavanagh Boulger; Demetrius C. (28 June 2001) [1902]. The History of Belgium: Part 1. Cæsar to Waterloo. Elibron Classics (Paperback 493pp ed.). Adamant Media (Delaware corporation), Boston, Massachusetts, United States. ISBN 978-1-4021-6714-0. Facsimile reprint of a 1902 edition by the author, London
    Ib. (June 2001) [1909]. Ib. Part 2. 1815–1865. Waterloo to the Death of Leopold I. Ib. (Paperback 462pp ed.). Ib. ISBN 978-1-4021-6713-3. Facsimile reprint of a 1909 edition by the author, London
  • Fitzmaurice, John (1996). The Politics of Belgium: A Unique Federalism. Nations of the modern world (Paperback 284pp ed.). Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-2386-2. OCLC 30112536.
  • Kossmann-Putto, Johanna A.; Kossmann Ernst H. (January 1993) [1987]. Deleu Jozef H. M. (ed.). The Low Countries: History of the Northern and Southern Netherlands. Translated by Fenoulhet Jane. De Lage Landen: geschiedenis van de Noordelijke en Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Vlaams-Nederlandse Stichting Ons Erfdeel, Rekkem (3rd Rev. edition Paperback 64pp ed.). Flemish-Netherlands Foundation Stichting Ons Erfdeel, Rekkem, Belgium. ISBN 978-90-70831-20-2.

(Several editions in English, incl. (1997) 7th ed.)

External links

Government

General