Sindicato de rugby

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Sindicato de rugby
New Zealand vs South Africa 2006 Tri Nations Line Out.JPG
El sudafricano Victor Matfield toma un line-out contra Nueva Zelanda en 2006
Más alto órgano de gobiernoRugby mundial
Apodos
  • Rugby
  • Rugger
  • Rugby XV
  • Unión [1]
Jugado por primera vezSiglo XIX, Inglaterra , Reino Unido
Jugadores registrados6.600.000 [2] [nb 1]
Clubs180,630
Caracteristicas
ContactoCompleto
Miembros del equipo15 (con hasta 8 suplentes)
Género mixtoCompeticiones separadas
Escribe
Equipo
SedeCampo de rugby
Presencia
País o RegiónEn todo el mundo (más popular en ciertos países europeos y de la Commonwealth )
olímpicoParte del programa olímpico de verano en 1900 , 1908 , 1920 y 1924
Rugby a siete incluido en 2016 y 2020

El rugby , comúnmente conocido simplemente como rugby , es un deporte de equipo de contacto cercano que se originó en Inglaterra en la primera mitad del siglo XIX. Uno de los dos códigos del rugby , se basa en correr con el balón en la mano. En su forma más común, un juego se juega entre dos equipos de 15 jugadores cada uno, usando una pelota de forma ovalada en un campo rectangular llamado campo. El campo tiene postes de portería en forma de H en ambos extremos.

El rugby es un deporte popular en todo el mundo, jugado por jugadores masculinos y femeninos de todas las edades. En 2014, había más de 6 millones de personas jugando en todo el mundo, de las cuales 2,36 millones eran jugadores registrados. World Rugby , anteriormente llamado International Rugby Football Board (IRFB) y International Rugby Board (IRB), ha sido el organismo rector de la unión de rugby desde 1886, y actualmente tiene 101 países como miembros de pleno derecho y 18 miembros asociados.

En 1845, los alumnos de Rugby School redactaron las primeras leyes ; Otros eventos importantes en el desarrollo temprano del rugby incluyen la decisión de Blackheath FC de dejar la Asociación de Fútbol en 1863 y, en 1895, la división entre rugby union y rugby league . Históricamente, el rugby era un deporte de aficionados, pero en 1995 se eliminaron las restricciones formales sobre los pagos a los jugadores, lo que hizo que el juego fuera abiertamente profesional al más alto nivel por primera vez. [3]

La unión del rugby se extendió desde las naciones de origen de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda, con otros exponentes tempranos del deporte como Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Sudáfrica y Francia. El deporte se sigue principalmente en las Islas Británicas , Francia , Australasia , África del Sur , Argentina y, en menor medida , Italia , Uruguay , Estados Unidos , [4] [5] [6] Canadá y Japón , y su crecimiento se produce durante la expansión del Imperio Británico y a través de los proponentes franceses ( Rugby Europa) en Europa. Los países que han adoptado la unión del rugby como su deporte nacional de facto incluyen Fiji, Georgia, Madagascar, [7] Nueva Zelanda, Samoa, Tonga y Gales.

Los partidos internacionales han tenido lugar desde 1871 cuando se jugó el primer partido entre Escocia e Inglaterra en Raeburn Place en Edimburgo. La Copa del Mundo de Rugby , que se celebró por primera vez en 1987, se celebra cada cuatro años. El Campeonato de las Seis Naciones en Europa y el Campeonato de Rugby en el Hemisferio Sur son otras competencias internacionales importantes que se celebran anualmente.

Las competencias provinciales y de clubes nacionales incluyen la Premiership en Inglaterra, el Top 14 en Francia, la Copa Mitre 10 en Nueva Zelanda, la Liga Superior en Japón, la Copa Currie en Sudáfrica y el Campeonato Nacional de Rugby en Australia. Otras competiciones de clubes transnacionales incluyen la European Rugby Champions Cup , el Pro14 en Europa y Sudáfrica, y el Super Rugby y Global Rapid Rugby en el hemisferio sur.

Historia

A wide shot of an old English school with a central tower, with a sports pitch in the foreground.
Escuela de Rugby en Rugby, Warwickshire , con un campo de fútbol de rugby en primer plano

El fútbol de rugby se deriva de la forma de juego que se juega en Rugby School , que los antiguos alumnos luego introdujeron en sus universidades.

Al ex alumno de la Escuela de Rugby Albert Pell se le atribuye haber formado el primer equipo de "fútbol" mientras estudiaba en la Universidad de Cambridge . [8] Las principales escuelas privadas utilizaron reglas diferentes durante este período inicial, con antiguos alumnos de Rugby y Eton intentando llevar sus reglas preferidas a sus universidades. [9] Un evento significativo en el desarrollo temprano del fútbol de rugby fue la producción de un conjunto de reglas escritas en Rugby School en 1845, [10] [11] seguido por las Reglas de Cambridge que se redactaron en 1848. [12]

Formado en 1863, el organismo rector nacional The Football Association (FA) comenzó a codificar un conjunto de reglas universales del fútbol. Estas nuevas reglas prohibían específicamente a los jugadores correr con la pelota en la mano y también prohibían el hackeo (patear a los jugadores en las espinillas), las cuales eran tácticas legales y comunes bajo las reglas del deporte de la Escuela de Rugby. En protesta por la imposición de las nuevas reglas, el Blackheath Club abandonó la FA [13] [14] seguido de varios otros clubes que también favorecían las "Reglas de Rugby". Aunque estos clubes decidieron prohibir la piratería poco después, la división fue permanente y las reglas codificadas de la FA se conocieron como " fútbol de asociación"mientras que los clubes que habían favorecido las Reglas de Rugby formaron la Unión de Fútbol de Rugby en 1871, [13] y su código se conoció como" fútbol de rugby ".

En 1895, hubo un cisma importante dentro del fútbol de rugby en Inglaterra en el que numerosos clubes del norte de Inglaterra dimitieron de la RFU por la cuestión de reembolsar a los jugadores el tiempo perdido en sus lugares de trabajo. La división puso de relieve las divisiones sociales y de clase en el deporte en Inglaterra y condujo directamente a la creación del código separado de la " liga de rugby ". El deporte existente a partir de entonces tomó el nombre de "rugby union" para diferenciarlo de la liga de rugby, [15] pero ambas versiones del deporte se conocen simplemente como "rugby" en la mayor parte del mundo. [dieciséis]

Primeros internacionales

El primer partido internacional de rugby se jugó el 27 de marzo de 1871 entre Escocia e Inglaterra en Edimburgo . Escocia ganó el juego 1-0. [13] [17] En 1881 tanto Irlanda como Gales tenían equipos representativos y en 1883 había comenzado la primera competición internacional, el Campeonato de las Naciones de Casa . 1883 es ​​también el año del primer torneo de rugby a siete , el Melrose Sevens , [18] que todavía se celebra anualmente.

En 1888 se llevaron a cabo dos giras importantes en el extranjero: un equipo de las Islas Británicas visitó Australia y Nueva Zelanda; aunque se trataba de una empresa privada, sentó las bases para futuras giras de los Leones británicos e irlandeses ; [19] y el equipo de fútbol nativo de Nueva Zelanda de 1888-1889 trajo el primer equipo extranjero a los espectadores británicos. [20]

A black and white photo of a rugby field in which three men in military uniform, one of whom is King George V, present a silver trophy to a rugby player dressed in black kit. Behind in a line are the rest of the team.
James Ryan , capitán del equipo del Ejército de Nueva Zelanda, recibiendo la Copa Kings de manos de George V

Durante la historia temprana del rugby union, un tiempo antes de los viajes aéreos comerciales, los equipos de diferentes continentes rara vez se reunían. Las dos primeras giras notables tuvieron lugar en 1888: el equipo de las Islas Británicas recorrió Nueva Zelanda y Australia, [21] seguido por el equipo de Nueva Zelanda que recorrió Europa. [22] Tradicionalmente, las giras más prestigiosas fueron los países del hemisferio sur de Australia, Nueva Zelanda y Sudáfrica haciendo una gira por un hemisferio norte, y las giras de regreso realizadas por un equipo conjunto británico e irlandés. [23] Las giras durarían meses, debido a los largos tiempos de viaje y al número de juegos realizados; El equipo de Nueva Zelanda de 1888 comenzó su gira en Hawkes Bay en junio y no completó su agenda hasta agosto de 1889, después de haber jugado 107 partidos de rugby.[24] Los equipos internacionales de gira jugarían partidos de prueba contra oponentes internacionales, incluidos los equipos nacionales, de clubes y del condado en el caso del rugby del hemisferio norte, o equipos provinciales / estatales en el caso del rugby del hemisferio sur. [21] [25]

Entre 1905 y 1908, los tres principales países de rugby del hemisferio sur enviaron sus primeros equipos de gira al hemisferio norte: Nueva Zelanda en 1905, seguida de Sudáfrica en 1906 y Australia en 1908. Los tres equipos trajeron nuevos estilos de juego, niveles de condición física y tácticas, [26] y tuvieron mucho más éxito de lo que los críticos esperaban. [27]

El equipo de gira de Nueva Zelanda de 1905 realizó un haka antes de cada partido, lo que llevó al administrador de Welsh Rugby Union, Tom Williams, a sugerir que el jugador de Gales, Teddy Morgan, encabezara a la multitud cantando el Himno Nacional de Gales, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau , como respuesta. Después de que Morgan comenzó a cantar, la multitud se unió: la primera vez que se cantó un himno nacional al comienzo de un evento deportivo. [28] [nb 2] En 1905, Francia jugó contra Inglaterra en su primer partido internacional. [26]

La unión de rugby se incluyó como un evento en los Juegos Olímpicos cuatro veces a principios del siglo XX. No se jugaron partidos internacionales de rugby ni partidos de clubes patrocinados por la unión durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, pero las competiciones continuaron a través de equipos de servicio como el equipo del Ejército de Nueva Zelanda . [30] Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la mayoría de los países no jugaron partidos internacionales, aunque Italia, Alemania y Rumanía jugaron un número limitado de partidos, [31] [32] [33] y Cambridge y Oxford continuaron su partido universitario anual . [34]

El primer torneo internacional de rugby a siete oficialmente sancionado tuvo lugar en 1973 en Murrayfield, uno de los estadios más grandes de Escocia, como parte de las celebraciones del centenario de la Scottish Rugby Union . [35]

Mundial y profesionalismo

En 1987 se celebró la primera Copa del Mundo de Rugby en Australia y Nueva Zelanda, y los ganadores inaugurales fueron Nueva Zelanda. El primer torneo de la Copa del Mundo de Seven se llevó a cabo en Murrayfield en 1993. El Rugby Sevens se introdujo en los Juegos de la Commonwealth en 1998 y se agregó a los Juegos Olímpicos de 2016. [36] Tanto el Seven masculino como el femenino volverán a tener lugar en los Juegos Olímpicos de 2020 en Tokio. [37]

El rugby era un deporte amateur hasta que el IRB declaró el juego "abierto" en agosto de 1995 (poco después de la finalización de la Copa del Mundo de 1995), eliminando las restricciones sobre los pagos a los jugadores. [38] [39] Sin embargo, el período anterior a 1995 de la unión del rugby estuvo marcado por frecuentes acusaciones de " shamateurism ", [40] incluida una investigación en Gran Bretaña por un comité selecto de la Cámara de los Comunes a principios de 1995. [41] [42 ] Tras la introducción del profesionalismo se iniciaron las competiciones de clubes transnacionales, con la Copa Heineken en el hemisferio norte y el Super Rugby en el hemisferio sur. [43] [44]

El Tri Nations , un torneo internacional anual que involucra a Australia, Nueva Zelanda y Sudáfrica, comenzó en 1996. [44] En 2012 , esta competencia se extendió para incluir a Argentina , un país cuyas impresionantes actuaciones en juegos internacionales (especialmente terminando en tercer lugar en la Copa del Mundo de Rugby de 2007) se consideró que merecía la inclusión en la competencia. Como resultado de la expansión a cuatro equipos, el torneo pasó a llamarse The Rugby Championship. [45]

Equipos y posiciones

Una formación estándar de un equipo de rugby que ilustra cada una de las posiciones y sus respectivos números.

Cada equipo comienza el partido con 15 jugadores en el campo y siete u ocho suplentes. [46] Los jugadores de un equipo se dividen en ocho delanteros (dos más que en la liga de rugby ) y siete corredores . [47]

Adelante

Las principales responsabilidades de los delanteros son ganar y retener la posesión del balón. Los delanteros juegan un papel vital en la entrada y el rumbo de los jugadores rivales. [48] Los jugadores en estas posiciones son generalmente más grandes y fuertes y participan en el scrum y el line-out. [48] Los forwards a menudo se conocen colectivamente como el 'paquete', especialmente cuando están en la formación de scrum. [49]

Primera fila

La primera fila se compone de tres jugadores: dos apoyos (el pilar izquierdo y el pilar derecho) y el Hooker . La función de los dos pilares es apoyar al hooker durante los scrums, brindar apoyo a los saltadores durante los line-outs y proporcionar fuerza y ​​potencia en rucks y mauls. La tercera posición en la primera fila es la prostituta. El hooker es una posición clave en el juego ofensivo y defensivo y es responsable de ganar la pelota en el scrum. Las prostitutas normalmente lanzan la pelota en los line-outs. [47] [50]

Segunda fila

La segunda fila consta de dos candados o candados hacia adelante. Los bloqueos suelen ser los jugadores más altos del equipo y se especializan como saltadores de línea. [47] El papel principal del bloqueo en los line-outs es hacer un salto parado, a menudo apoyado por los otros delanteros, para recoger la pelota lanzada o asegurarse de que la pelota caiga de lado. Los bloqueos también tienen un papel importante en el scrum, uniéndose directamente detrás de los tres jugadores de la primera línea y proporcionando un impulso hacia adelante. [47]

Facing right a group of seven men, in blue and white hooped jerseys, bind together and crouch to form a scrum. The eighth player stands behind them observing the off-picture opposition.
Sébastien Chabal (extremo izquierdo) en la posición número ocho antes de
ingresar al scrum

Fila de atrás

La fila de atrás, que no debe confundirse con 'Backs', es la tercera y última fila de las posiciones de los delanteros, que a menudo se conocen como los delanteros sueltos. [49] Las tres posiciones en la última fila son los dos flancos y el número 8 . Las dos posiciones de flanker, llamadas flanker del lado ciego y flanker del lado abierto, son la última fila del scrum. Suelen ser los delanteros más móviles del juego. Su función principal es ganar la posesión a través de 'entregas'. [47] El número 8 se empaqueta entre las dos cerraduras en la parte posterior del scrum. El papel del número 8 en el scrum es controlar el balón después de que ha sido inclinado hacia atrás desde el frente del grupo, y la posición proporciona un vínculo entre los delanteros y los zagueros durante las fases de ataque.[51]

Espaldas

El papel de los backs es crear y convertir oportunidades de anotar puntos. Generalmente son más pequeños, rápidos y ágiles que los delanteros. [48] Otra distinción entre los corredores y los delanteros es que se espera que los corredores tengan habilidades superiores para patear y manejar el balón, especialmente el medio elevado, medio scrum y lateral. [48]

Half-backs

Las medias partes posteriores consisten en dos posiciones, el medio scrum y la mosca de la mitad . El fly-half es crucial para el plan de juego de un equipo, orquestando el desempeño del equipo. [51] Por lo general, son los primeros en recibir el balón del medio scrum después de una ruptura, un lineout o un scrum, y deben ser decisivos con las acciones a tomar y ser efectivos en la comunicación con los corredores externos. [51] Muchos fly-half son también los pateadores de gol de su equipo. El medio scrum es el vínculo entre los forwards y los backs. [51] Reciben la pelota desde el lineout y quitan la pelota de la parte posterior del scrum, generalmente pasándola al medio elevado. [52]También alimentan al scrum y, a veces, tienen que actuar como un cuarto delantero suelto. [53]

Tres cuartos

Hay cuatro posiciones de tres cuartos: dos centros (interior y exterior) y dos alas (izquierda y derecha). Los centros intentarán abordar a los jugadores atacantes; mientras están en ataque, deben emplear velocidad y fuerza para romper las defensas de la oposición. [51] Las alas se colocan generalmente en el exterior de la línea de fondo. Su función principal es finalizar movimientos y anotar intentos. [54] Los alas suelen ser los jugadores más rápidos del equipo y son corredores esquivos que usan su velocidad para evitar tacleadas. [55]

Lateral

El lateral normalmente se coloca varios metros detrás de la línea de fondo. Suelen lanzar patadas de oposición y suelen ser la última línea de defensa en caso de que un oponente traspase la línea de fondo. [51] Dos de los atributos más importantes de un buen lateral son las habilidades confiables para atrapar y un buen juego de patadas. [56]

Leyes y jugabilidad

Diagrama de un campo de juego de la unión de rugby que muestra las diversas líneas y distancias marcadas

Puntuación

La unión de rugby se juega entre dos equipos: el que anota más puntos gana el juego. Los puntos se pueden anotar de varias formas: un try , anotado apoyando el balón en el suelo en el área de in-goal (entre la línea de goal y la línea de pelota muerta), vale 5 puntos y un puntapié de conversión posterior anota 2 puntos; un tiro penal exitoso o un drop goal cada uno anota 3 puntos. [57] Los valores de cada uno de estos métodos de puntuación se han modificado a lo largo de los años. [58]

Campo de juego

El campo de juego en un campo de rugby está lo más cerca posible a un máximo de 144 metros (157 yardas) de largo por 70 metros (77 yardas) de ancho. [59] En el juego real, la duración de un lanzamiento puede variar. Por lo general, hay 100 metros (109 yardas) entre las dos líneas de prueba, pero puede ser tan corto como 94 metros (103 yardas). Cualquier lugar entre 6 y 22 metros (7 y 24 yardas) detrás de cada línea de try sirve como área de in-goal. El campo debe tener al menos 68 metros (74 yardas) de ancho, hasta un máximo de 70 metros (76,5 yardas) [59]

Los postes de la portería de rugby tienen forma de H y están situados en el medio de las líneas de portería en cada extremo del campo. Consisten en dos postes, a 5,6 metros (6,1 yardas) de distancia, conectados por una barra transversal horizontal a 3 metros (3,3 yardas) sobre el suelo. La altura mínima de los postes es de 3,4 metros (3,7 yardas). [59]

Match structure

At the beginning of the game, the captains and the referee toss a coin to decide which team will kick off first. Play then starts with a dropkick, with the players chasing the ball into the opposition's territory, and the other side trying to retrieve the ball and advance it. The dropkick must make contact with the ground before kicked. If the ball does not reach the opponent's 10-metre (11-yard) line 10 meters away, the opposing team has two choices: to have the ball kicked off again, or to have a scrum at the centre of the half-way line.[60] If the player with the ball is tackled, frequently a ruck will result.[61]

Los juegos se dividen en mitades de 40 minutos, con un intermedio de no más de 15 minutos en el medio. [62] Los lados intercambian extremos del campo después del descanso del medio tiempo. [62] Las detenciones por lesión o para permitir que el árbitro tome medidas disciplinarias no cuentan como parte del tiempo de juego, por lo que el tiempo transcurrido suele ser superior a 80 minutos. [62] El árbitro es responsable de llevar el tiempo, incluso cuando, como en muchos torneos profesionales, es asistido por un cronometrador oficial. [62]Si el tiempo expira mientras la pelota está en juego, el juego continúa hasta que la pelota esté "muerta", y solo entonces el árbitro hará sonar el silbato para señalar el medio tiempo o el tiempo completo; pero si el árbitro concede un penalti o un tiro libre, el juego continúa. [62]

En las etapas eliminatorias de las competiciones de rugby, en particular la Copa del Mundo de Rugby , se juegan dos períodos de tiempo extra de períodos de 10 minutos (con un intervalo de 5 minutos entre ellos) si el juego está empatado después del tiempo completo. Si los puntajes están nivelados después de 100 minutos, las reglas exigen que se jueguen 20 minutos de tiempo extra de muerte súbita. Si el período de tiempo extra de muerte súbita da como resultado que no se puntúe, se utiliza una competencia de patadas para determinar el ganador. Sin embargo, ningún partido en la historia de la Copa del Mundo de Rugby ha pasado de los 100 minutos a un período de tiempo extra de muerte súbita. [63]

Pasar y patear

Un jugador a punto de
pasar la pelota.
Pateando la conversión después de un intento

No se permite el pase hacia adelante (lanzar la pelota hacia adelante a otro jugador); la pelota se puede pasar lateralmente o hacia atrás. [64] La pelota tiende a moverse hacia adelante de tres maneras: pateando, por un jugador que corre con ella o dentro de un scrum o maul . Solo el jugador con la pelota puede ser tackleado o rucked. Se comete un "knock-on" cuando un jugador golpea la pelota hacia adelante y el juego se reinicia con un scrum. [64]

Any player may kick the ball forward in an attempt to gain territory. When a player anywhere in the playing area kicks indirectly into touch so that the ball first bounces in the field of play, the throw-in is taken where the ball went into touch.[65] If the player kicks directly into touch (i.e. without bouncing in-field first) from within one's own 22-metre (24-yard) line, the lineout is taken by the opposition where the ball went into touch, but if the ball is kicked into touch directly by a player outside the 22-metre (24-yard) line, the lineout is taken level to where the kick was taken.[65]

Breakdowns

A child running away from camera in green and black hooped rugby jersey is being tackled around the hips and legs by another child in opposition kit.
A rugby tackle must be below the neck with the aim of impeding or grounding the player with the ball.

El objetivo del lado defensor es detener al jugador con la pelota, ya sea llevándolo al suelo (un tackle, que frecuentemente es seguido por un ruck) o disputando la posesión con el portador de la pelota en sus pies (un maul). . Tal circunstancia se denomina avería y cada una se rige por una ley específica.

Abordar

A player may tackle an opposing player who has the ball by holding them while bringing them to ground. Tacklers cannot tackle above the shoulder (the neck and head are out of bounds),[66] and the tackler has to attempt to wrap their arms around the player being tackled to complete the tackle. It is illegal to push, shoulder-charge, or to trip a player using feet or legs, but hands may be used (this being referred to as a tap-tackle or ankle-tap).[67][68] Tacklers may not tackle an opponent who has jumped to catch a ball until the player has landed.[66]

Rucking and Mauling

Los mauls ocurren después de que un jugador con la pelota ha entrado en contacto con un oponente pero el manejador permanece de pie; una vez que cualquier combinación de al menos tres jugadores se ha atado, se ha establecido un maul. [49] Un ruck es similar al maul, pero en este caso la pelota ha ido al suelo con al menos tres jugadores atacantes atados al suelo en un intento de asegurar la pelota. [49]

Establecer piezas

Two rows of opposing players, green to the fore, white behind, each aiding a jumping player from their team by lifting him towards an off-picture ball travelling overhead
Irlanda y Georgia disputan un line-out en la Copa del Mundo de Rugby 2007

Lineout

Cuando el balón abandona el lateral del campo, se concede un line-out contra el equipo que tocó el balón por última vez. [69] Los jugadores delanteros de cada equipo se alinean a un metro de distancia, perpendiculares a la línea de banda y entre 5 y 15 m (5,5 y 16,4 yardas) de la línea de banda. [69] La pelota es lanzada desde la línea de banda hacia el centro de las líneas de delanteros por un jugador (generalmente el hooker ) del equipo que no jugó la pelota al touch. [69] La excepción a esto es cuando el balón salió de un penalti, en cuyo caso el lado que ganó el penalti lanza el balón. [69]

Ambos lados compiten por el balón y los jugadores pueden levantar a sus compañeros de equipo. [70] Un jugador que salta no puede ser tackleado hasta que se ponga de pie y solo se permite el contacto hombro con hombro; La infracción deliberada de esta ley es un juego peligroso y da lugar a un tiro penal. [71]

Scrum

Two opposing formations of eight men, in white and black to the left, red and black to the right, push against each other in a crouched position; behind them stands another player and the referee
Un scrum entre los Crusaders de Nueva Zelanda y los Brumbies de Australia

A scrum is a way of restarting the game safely and fairly after a minor infringement.[72] It is awarded when the ball has been knocked or passed forward, if a player takes the ball over their own try line and puts the ball down, when a player is accidentally offside or when the ball is trapped in a ruck or maul with no realistic chance of being retrieved. A team may also opt for a scrum if awarded a penalty.[72]

Un scrum está formado por los ocho delanteros de cada equipo agachándose y uniéndose en tres filas, antes de entrelazarse con el equipo contrario. [72] Para cada equipo, la primera fila consta de dos pilares (cabeza suelta y cabeza cerrada) a cada lado del hooker. [72] Los dos accesorios se encuentran típicamente entre los jugadores más fuertes del equipo. La segunda fila consta de dos cerraduras y los dos flancos. Detrás de la segunda fila está el número 8. Esta formación se conoce como la formación 3-4-1. [73] Una vez que se forma un scrum, el medio scrum del equipo al que se le otorgó la alimentación hace rodar la pelota hacia el espacio entre las dos primeras filas conocido como el túnel . [72]Luego, los dos hookers compiten por la posesión enganchando la pelota hacia atrás con los pies, mientras cada grupo intenta empujar al grupo contrario hacia atrás para ayudar a ganar la posesión. [72] El lado que gana la posesión puede mantener el balón bajo sus pies mientras hace retroceder al oponente, para ganar terreno, o transferir el balón a la parte posterior del scrum donde puede ser recogido por el número 8 o por el medio scrum. [72]

Funcionarios y delitos

Toque juez con bandera

Hay tres árbitros: un árbitro y dos árbitros asistentes. A los árbitros se les suele llamar "señor". [74] Estos últimos, antes conocidos como jueces de touch, tenían la función principal de indicar cuándo la pelota había entrado en "touch"; su función se ha ampliado y ahora se espera que ayuden al árbitro en una serie de áreas, como vigilar el juego sucio y controlar las líneas de fuera de juego. [74] Además, para los partidos en competiciones de alto nivel, a menudo hay un oficial de televisión (TMO; popularmente llamado el "árbitro de video"), para ayudar con ciertas decisiones, vinculado al árbitro por radio. [75] Los árbitros tienen un sistema de señales con las manos para indicar sus decisiones. [76]

Common offences include tackling above the shoulders, collapsing a scrum, ruck or maul, not releasing the ball when on the ground, or being offside.[77] The non-offending team has a number of options when awarded a penalty: a "tap" kick, when the ball is kicked a very short distance from hand, allowing the kicker to regather the ball and run with it; a punt, when the ball is kicked a long distance from hand, for field position; a place-kick, when the kicker will attempt to score a goal; or a scrum.[77] Players may be sent off (signalled by a red card) or temporarily suspended ("sin-binned") for ten minutes (yellow card) for foul play or repeated infringements, and may not be replaced.[77]

Occasionally, infringements are not caught by the referee during the match and these may be "cited" by the citing commissioner after the match and have punishments (usually suspension for a number of weeks) imposed on the infringing player.[78]

Replacements and substitutions

During the match, players may be replaced (for injury) or substituted (for tactical reasons).[46] A player who has been replaced may not rejoin play unless he was temporarily replaced to have bleeding controlled; a player who has been substituted may return temporarily, to replace a player who has a blood injury or has suffered a concussion, or permanently, if he is replacing a front-row forward.[46] In international matches, eight replacements are allowed; in domestic or cross-border tournaments, at the discretion of the responsible national union(s), the number of replacements may be nominated to a maximum of eight, of whom three must be sufficiently trained and experienced to provide cover for the three front row positions.[46][79]

Prior to 2016, all substitutions, no matter the cause, counted against the limit during a match. In 2016, World Rugby changed the law so that substitutions made to replace a player deemed unable to continue due to foul play by the opposition would no longer count against the match limit. This change was introduced in January of that year in the Southern Hemisphere and June in the Northern Hemisphere.[80]

Equipment

An oval-shaped synthetic ball, white in colour with red trim, adorned with the manufacturer's name
A synthetic rugby ball by Gilbert

The most basic items of equipment for a game of rugby union are the ball itself, a rugby shirt (also known as a "jersey"), rugby shorts, socks, and boots. The rugby ball is oval in shape (technically a prolate spheroid), and is made up of four panels.[81] The ball was historically made of leather, but in the modern era most games use a ball made from a synthetic material. World Rugby lays out specific dimensions for the ball, 280–300 mm (11–12 in) in length, 740–770 mm (29–30 in) in circumference of length and 580–620 mm (23–24 in) in circumference of width.[81] Rugby boots have soles with studs to allow grip on the turf of the pitch. The studs may be either metal or plastic but must not have any sharp edges or ridges.[82]

Protective equipment is optional and strictly regulated. The most common items are mouthguards, which are worn by almost all players, and are compulsory in some rugby-playing nations.[83] Other protective items that are permitted include head gear; thin (not more than 10 mm thick), non-rigid shoulder pads and shin guards; which are worn underneath socks.[82] Bandages or tape can be worn to support or protect injuries; some players wear tape around the head to protect the ears in scrums and rucks. Female players may also wear chest pads.[82] Although not worn for protection, some types of fingerless mitts are allowed to aid grip.[82]

It is the responsibility of the match officials to check players' clothing and equipment before a game to ensure that it conforms to the laws of the game.[82]

Governing bodies

Member and Associated Unions
  Member Union
  Associated Union

The international governing body of rugby union (and associated games such as sevens) is World Rugby (WR).[84] The WR headquarters are in Dublin, Ireland.[84] WR, founded in 1886, governs the sport worldwide and publishes the game's laws and rankings.[84] As of February 2014, WR (then known as the IRB, for International Rugby Board) recorded 119 unions in its membership, 101 full members and 18 associate member countries.[2] According to WR, rugby union is played by men and women in over 100 countries.[84] WR controls the Rugby World Cup,[84] the Women's Rugby World Cup,[85] Rugby World Cup Sevens,[86] HSBC Sevens Series,[87] HSBC Women's Sevens Series,[88] World Under 20 Championship,[89] World Under 20 Trophy,[90] Nations Cup[91] and the Pacific Nations Cup.[92] WR holds votes to decide where each of these events are to be held, except in the case of the Sevens World Series for men and women, for which WR contracts with several national unions to hold individual events.

Six regional associations, which are members of WR, form the next level of administration; these are:

SANZAAR (South Africa, New Zealand, Australia and Argentina Rugby) is a joint venture of the South African Rugby Union, New Zealand Rugby, Rugby Australia and the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) that operates Super Rugby and The Rugby Championship (formerly the Tri Nations before the entry of Argentina).[99] Although UAR initially had no representation on the former SANZAR board, it was granted input into the organisation's issues, especially with regard to The Rugby Championship,[100] and became a full SANZAAR member in 2016 (when the country entered Super Rugby).

National unions oversee rugby union within individual countries and are affiliated to WR. Since 2016, the WR Council has 40 seats. A total of 11 unions—the eight foundation unions of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and France, plus Argentina, Canada and Italy—have two seats each. In addition, the six regional associations have two seats each. Four more unions—Georgia, Japan, Romania and the USA—have one seat each. Finally, the Chairman and Vice Chairman, who usually come from one of the eight foundation unions (although the current Vice Chairman, Agustín Pichot, is with the non-foundation Argentine union) have one vote each.[101][84]

Global reach

A group of thirteen supporters pose together, nine standing in back row, four seated at front, some wearing rugby jerseys and others sporting traditional Japanese costumes and Japanese flags.
Japanese and Welsh rugby fans in Cardiff, Wales, September 2007

The earliest countries to adopt rugby union were England, the country of inception, and the other three Home Nations, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. The spread of rugby union as a global sport has its roots in the exporting of the game by British expatriates, military personnel, and overseas university students. The first rugby club in France was formed by British residents in Le Havre in 1872, while the next year Argentina recorded its first game: 'Banks' v 'City' in Buenos Aires.[102]

Seven countries have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport; they are Fiji,[103] Georgia, Madagascar,[104][105][106] New Zealand,[107] Samoa,[108] Tonga[109] and Wales.[110]

Oceania

A rugby club was formed in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia in 1864; while the sport was said to have been introduced to New Zealand by Charles Monro in 1870, who played rugby while a student at Christ's College, Finchley.[13]

Several island nations have embraced the sport of rugby. Rugby was first played in Fiji circa 1884 by European and Fijian soldiers of the Native Constabulary at Ba on Viti Levu island.[111][112] Fiji then sent their first overseas team to Samoa in 1924, who in turn set up their own union in 1924.[113] Along with Tonga, other countries to have national rugby teams in Oceania include the Cook Islands, Niue, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.[114]

North America and Caribbean

In North America a club formed in Montreal in 1868, Canada's first club. The city of Montreal also played its part in the introduction of the sport in the United States, when students of McGill University played against a team from Harvard University in 1874.[13][102]

Although the exact date of arrival of rugby union in Trinidad and Tobago is unknown, their first club Northern RFC was formed in 1923, a national team was playing by 1927 and due to a cancelled tour to British Guiana in 1933, switched their venue to Barbados; introducing rugby to the island.[115][116] Other Atlantic countries to play rugby union include Jamaica[117] and Bermuda.[118]

Rugby union is the fastest growing college sport and sport in general in the USA.[4][5][6]

Major League Rugby is the professional Rugby union league in the USA and Canada.

Europe

Germany playing Belgium in a World Cup qualifier, April 2006

The growth of rugby union in Europe outside the 6 Nations countries in terms of playing numbers, attendances, and viewership has been sporadic. Historically, British and Irish home teams played the Southern Hemisphere teams of Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, as well as France. The rest of Europe were left to play amongst themselves. During a period when it had been isolated by the British and Irish Unions, France, lacking international competition, became the only European team from the top tier to regularly play the other European countries; mainly Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Romania, Poland, Italy and Czechoslovakia.[96][119] In 1934, instigated by the French Rugby Federation, FIRA (Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur) was formed to organise rugby union outside the authority of the IRFB.[96] The founding members were Italy, Romania, Netherlands, Portugal, Czechoslovakia, and Sweden.

Other European rugby playing nations of note include Russia, whose first officially recorded match is marked by an encounter between Dynamo Moscow and the Moscow Institute of Physical Education in 1933.[120] Rugby union in Portugal also took hold between the First and Second World Wars, with a Portuguese National XV set up in 1922 and an official championship started in 1927.[121]

In 1999, FIRA agreed to place itself under the auspices of the IRB, transforming itself into a strictly European organising body. Accordingly, it changed its name to FIRA–AER (Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur – Association Européenne de Rugby). It adopted its current name of Rugby Europe in 2014.

South America

Argentine teams Alumni and Hindú playing the Torneo de la URBA final match, 2007

Although Argentina is the best-known rugby playing nation in South America, founding the Argentine Rugby Union in 1899,[122] several other countries on the continent have a long history. Rugby had been played in Brazil since the end of the 19th century, but the game was played regularly only from 1926, when São Paulo beat Santos in an inter-city match.[123] It took Uruguay several aborted attempts to adapt to rugby, led mainly by the efforts of the Montevideo Cricket Club; these efforts succeeded in 1951 with the formation of a national league and four clubs.[124] Other South American countries that formed a rugby union include Chile (1948),[125] and Paraguay (1968).[126]

Súper Liga Americana de Rugby is the professional Rugby union league in the South America.

Asia

Many Asian countries have a tradition of playing rugby dating from the British Empire. India began playing rugby in the early 1870s, the Calcutta Football Club forming in 1873. However, with the departure of a local British army regiment, interest in rugby diminished in the area.[127] In 1878, The Calcutta Football Club was disbanded, and rugby in India faltered.[128] Sri Lanka claims to have founded their union in 1878, and although little official information from the period is available, the team won the All-India cup in Madras in 1920.[129] The first recorded match in Malaysia was in 1892, but the first confirmation of rugby is the existence of the HMS Malaya Cup which was first presented in 1922 and is still awarded to the winners of the Malay sevens.[130]

Rugby union was introduced to Japan in 1899 by two Cambridge students: Ginnosuke Tanaka and Edward Bramwell Clarke.[131][132] The Japan RFU was founded in 1926 and its place in rugby history was cemented with the news that Japan will host the 2019 World Cup.[133] It will be the first country outside the Commonwealth, Ireland and France to host the event, and this is viewed by the IRB as an opportunity for rugby union to extend its reach,[133] particularly in Asia. Other Asian playing countries of note include Singapore, South Korea, China and The Philippines, while the former British colony of Hong Kong is notable within rugby for its development of the rugby sevens game, especially the Hong Kong Sevens tournament which was founded in 1976.[134]

Rugby in the Middle East and the Gulf States has its history in the 1950s, with clubs formed by British and French Services stationed in the region after the Second World War.[135] When these servicemen left, the clubs and teams were kept alive by young professionals, mostly Europeans, working in these countries. The official union of Oman was formed in 1971.[136] Bahrain founded its union a year later, while in 1975 the Dubai Sevens, the Gulf's leading rugby tournament, was created. Rugby remains a minority sport in the region with Israel and the United Arab Emirates, as of 2019, being the only member union from the Middle East to be included in the IRB World Rankings.[137]

A close-up shot of the Ivory Coast players, in their country's orange jerseys, entering the field from the dressing room tunnel
Ivory Coast before their 2011 World Cup qualifier vs. Zambia, 21 July 2008

Africa

In 1875, rugby was introduced to South Africa by British soldiers garrisoned in Cape Town.[102] The game spread quickly across the country, displacing Winchester College football as the sport of choice in South Africa and spreading to nearby Zimbabwe. South African settlers also brought the game with them to Namibia and competed against British administrators in British East Africa. During the late 19th and early 20th century, the sport in Africa was spread by settlers and colonials who often adopted a "whites-only" policy to playing the game. This resulted in rugby being viewed as a bourgeois sport by the indigenous people with limited appeal.[138] Despite this enclaves of black participation developed notably in the Eastern Cape and in Harare. The earliest countries to see the playing of competitive rugby include South Africa, and neighbouring Rhodesia (modern-day Zimbabwe), which formed the Rhodesia Rugby Football Union in 1895 and became a regular stop for touring British and New Zealand sides.[139]

In more recent times the sport has been embraced by several African nations. In the early 21st century Madagascar has experienced crowds of 40,000 at national matches,[140] while Namibia, whose history of rugby can be dated from 1915, have qualified for the final stages of the World Cup four times since 1999.[141] Other African nations to be represented in the World Rugby Rankings as Member Unions include Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia.[137] South Africa and Kenya are among the 15 "core teams" that participate in every event of the men's World Rugby Sevens Series.[142]

Women's rugby union

A female player in yellow and green kit and wearing a white scrum cap, jumps to collect a ball while supported by teammates.
US women's rugby:
NC Hustlers vs. Midwest II

Records of women's rugby football date from the late 19th century, with the first documented source being Emily Valentine's writings, in which she states that she set up a rugby team in Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, Ireland in 1887.[143] Although there are reports of early women's matches in New Zealand and France, one of the first notable games to prove primary evidence was the 1917 war-time encounter between Cardiff Ladies and Newport Ladies; a photo of which shows the Cardiff team before the match at the Cardiff Arms Park.[144] Since the 1980s, the game has grown in popularity among female athletes, and by 2010, according to World Rugby, women's rugby was being played in over 100 countries.[145]

The English-based Women's Rugby Football Union (WRFU), responsible for women's rugby in England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, was founded in 1983, and is the oldest formally organised national governing body for women's rugby. This was replaced in 1994 by the Rugby Football Union for Women (RFUW) in England with each of the other Home Nations governing their own countries.[146]

The premier international competition in rugby union for women is the Women's Rugby World Cup, first held in 1991; from 1994 through 2014, it was held every four years.[146] After the 2014 event, the tournament was brought forward a year to 2017 to avoid clashing with other sporting cycles, in particular the Rugby World Cup Sevens competition.[147] The Women's Rugby World Cup returned to a four-year cycle after 2017, with future competitions to be held in the middle year of the men's World Cup cycle.

Major international competitions

Rugby World Cup

An avenue of trees leads to a large iron lattice tower, in which an oversized rugby ball hangs within the lower sections.
A giant rugby ball suspended from the Eiffel Tower to commemorate France's hosting of the 2007 World Cup

The most important competition in rugby union is the Rugby World Cup, a men's tournament that has taken place every four years since the inaugural event in 1987. South Africa are the reigning champions, having defeated England in the final of the 2019 Rugby World Cup in Yokohama. New Zealand and South Africa have each won the title three times (New Zealand: 1987, 2011, 2015; South Africa: 1995, 2007, 2019), Australia have won twice (1991 and 1999), and England once (2003). England is the only team from the Northern Hemisphere to have won the Rugby World Cup.[148]

The Rugby World Cup has continued to grow since its inception in 1987. The Rugby League World Cup dates from 1954 in contrast. The first tournament, in which 16 teams competed for the title, was broadcast to 17 countries with an accumulated total of 230 million television viewers. Ticket sales during the pool stages and finals of the same tournament was less than a million. The 2007 World Cup was contested by 94 countries with ticket sales of 3,850,000 over the pool and final stage. The accumulated television audience for the event, then broadcast to 200 countries, was a claimed 4.2 billion.[149]

The 2019 Rugby World Cup took place in Japan between 20 September and 2 November. It was the ninth edition and the first time the tournament has been held in Asia.[150]

Regional tournaments

Major international competitions are the Six Nations Championship and The Rugby Championship, held in Europe and the Southern Hemisphere respectively.[151]

The Six Nations is an annual competition involving the European teams England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.[152] Each country plays the other five once. Following the first internationals between England and Scotland, Ireland and Wales began competing in the 1880s, forming the Home International Championships.[152] France joined the tournament in the 1900s and in 1910 the term Five Nations first appeared.[152] However, the Home Nations (England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales) excluded France in 1931 amid a run of poor results, allegations of professionalism and concerns over on-field violence.[153] France then rejoined in 1939–1940, though World War II halted proceedings for a further eight years.[152] France has played in all the tournaments since WWII, the first of which was played in 1947.[152] In 2000, Italy became the sixth nation in the contest and Rome's Stadio Olimpico has replaced Stadio Flaminio as the venue for their home games since 2013.[154]

The Rugby Championship is the Southern Hemisphere's annual international series for that region's top national teams. From its inception in 1996 through 2011, it was known as the Tri Nations, as it featured the hemisphere's traditional powers of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.[155] These teams have dominated world rankings in recent years, and many considered the Tri Nations to be the toughest competition in international rugby.[156][157] The Tri Nations was initially played on a home and away basis with the three nations playing each other twice.

In 2006 a new system was introduced where each nation plays the others three times, though in 2007 and 2011 the teams played each other only twice, as both were World Cup years.[155] Since Argentina's strong performances in the 2007 World Cup,[158] after the 2009 Tri Nations tournament, SANZAR (South Africa, New Zealand and Australian Rugby) invited the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) to join an expanded Four Nations tournament in 2012.[159] The competition has been officially rechristened as The Rugby Championship beginning with the 2012 edition. The competition reverted to the Tri Nations' original home-and-away format, but now involving four teams. In World Cup years, an abbreviated tournament is held in which each team plays the others only once.

Rugby within multi-sport events

Rugby union was played at the Olympic Games in 1900, 1908, 1920 and 1924.[160] As per Olympic rules, the nations of Scotland, Wales and England were not allowed to play separately as they are not sovereign states. In 1900, France won the gold, beating Great Britain 27 points to 8 and defeating Germany 27 points to 17.[160] In 1908, Australia defeated Great Britain, claiming the gold medal, the score being 32 points to three.[160] In 1920, the United States, fielding a team with many players new to the sport of rugby, upset France in a shock win, eight points to zero. In 1924, the United States again defeated France 17 to 3, becoming the only team to win gold twice in the sport.[160]

In 2009 the International Olympic Committee voted with a majority of 81 to 8 that rugby union be reinstated as an Olympic sport in at least the 2016 and 2020 games, but in the sevens, 4-day tournament format.[36][161] This is something the rugby world has aspired to for a long time and Bernard Lapasset, president of the International Rugby Board, said the Olympic gold medal would be considered to be "the pinnacle of our sport" (Rugby Sevens).[162]

Rugby sevens has been played at the Commonwealth Games since the 1998 Games in Kuala Lumpur.[163] The most gold medal holders are New Zealand who have won the competition on four successive occasions until South Africa beat them in 2014.[164] Rugby union has also been an Asian Games event since the 1998 games in Bangkok, Thailand. In the 1998 and 2002 editions of the games, both the usual fifteen-a-side variety and rugby sevens were played, but from 2006 onwards, only rugby sevens was retained. In 2010, the women's rugby sevens event was introduced. The event is likely to remain a permanent fixture of the Asian Games due to elevation of rugby sevens as an Olympic sport from the 2016 Olympics onwards. The present gold medal holders in the sevens tournament, held in 2014, are Japan in the men's event and China in the women's.[citation needed]

Women's international rugby

Women's international rugby union began in 1982, with a match between France and the Netherlands played in Utrecht.[165] As of 2009 over six hundred women's internationals have been played by over forty different nations.[166]

The first Women's Rugby World Cup was held in Wales in 1991, and was won by the United States.[146] The second tournament took place in 1994, and from that time through 2014 was held every four years. The New Zealand Women's team then won four straight World Cups (1998, 2002, 2006, 2010)[167] before England won in 2014. Following the 2014 event, World Rugby moved the next edition of the event to 2017, with a new four-year cycle from that point forward.[168] New Zealand are the current World Cup holders.

As well as the Women's Rugby World Cup there are also other regular tournaments, including a Six Nations, run in parallel to the men's competition. The Women's Six Nations, first played in 1996 has been dominated by England, who have won the tournament on 14 occasions, including a run of seven consecutive wins from 2006 to 2012. However, since then, England have won only in 2017; reigning champion France have won in each even-numbered year (2014, 2016, 2018) whilst Ireland won in 2013 and 2015.

Professional rugby union

Rugby union has been professionalised since 1995. The following table shows professional and semi-professional rugby union competitions.

Professional rugby competitions
Competition Teams Countries Average
Attendance
Super Rugby 10[a] New Zealand (5), Australia (5) 20,384
Premiership 12 England 15,065
Top League 16 Japan 14,952 (2020)[169]
Top 14 14 France 14,055 (2019-2020)
Currie Cup 9 South Africa 11,125
United Rugby Championship 16 Ireland (4), Wales (4), Scotland (2), Italy (2), South Africa (4)[b] 8,586
Mitre 10 Cup 14 New Zealand 7,203
Rugby Pro D2 16 France 4,222
RFU Championship 12 England 2,738
Major League Rugby 13 Canada (1), United States (12) 2,300[c]
NRC 8[d] Australia (7), Fiji (1) 1,450
Didi 10 10 Georgia Unknown
Rugby Premier League 10 Russia Unknown
CEC Bank SuperLiga 7 Romania Unknown
Global Rapid Rugby 6 Australia;(1), China (1), Fiji (1), Hong Kong (1), Malaysia (1), Samoa (1) Unknown
Súper Liga Americana de Rugby 6 Argentina (1), Uruguay (1), Brazil (1), Chile (1), Paraguay (1), Colombia (1) Unknown
  1. ^ Super Rugby peaked at 18 teams in 2016 and 2017, but reverted to 15 in 2018 with the loss of two teams from South Africa and one from Australia.
  2. ^ The two South African teams that were dropped from Super Rugby after its 2017 season joined the renamed Pro14 for the 2017–18 season.
  3. ^ (in 2018)
  4. ^ The NRC began in 2014 with nine teams, all from Australia. It dropped to eight when one of Sydney's three original sides was removed after the 2015 season. The league returned to nine teams with the arrival of the Fijian Drua in 2017, but reverted to eight when a second Sydney side was removed after the 2017 season.

Variants

Rugby union has spawned several variants of the full-contact, 15-a-side game. The two most common differences in adapted versions are fewer players and reduced player contact.

The oldest variant is rugby sevens (sometimes 7s or VIIs), a fast-paced game which originated in Melrose, Scotland in 1883. In rugby sevens, there are only seven players per side, and each half is normally seven minutes. Major tournaments include the Hong Kong Sevens and Dubai Sevens, both held in areas not normally associated with the highest levels of the 15-a-side game.

A more recent variant of the sport is rugby tens (10s or Xs), a Malaysian invention with ten players per side.[170]

Touch rugby, in which "tackles" are made by simply touching the ball carrier with two hands, is popular both as a training game and more formally as a mixed sex version of the sport played by both children and adults.[171][172]

Several variants have been created to introduce the sport to children with a less physical contact.[173] Mini rugby is a version aimed at fostering the sport in children.[174][175] It is played with only eight players and on a smaller pitch.[174]

Tag Rugby is a version in which the players wear a belt with two tags attached by velcro, the removal of either counting as a 'tackle'. Tag Rugby also varies in that kicking the ball is not allowed.[176] Similar to Tag Rugby, American Flag Rugby, (AFR), is a mixed gender, non-contact imitation of rugby union designed for American children entering grades K-9.[177] Both American Flag Rugby and Mini Rugby differ from Tag Rugby in that they introduce more advanced elements of rugby union as the participants age.[174]

Other less formal variants include beach rugby and snow rugby.[173][178]

Influence on other sports

When codifying Australian rules football in 1859, Tom Wills drew inspiration from an early version of rugby he learnt at Rugby School.

Rugby league was formed after the Northern Union broke from the Rugby Football Union in a disagreement over payment to players. It went on to change its laws and became a football code in its own right (though rugby union continues to claim otherwise to various global sporting bodies[citation needed]). The two sports continue to influence each other to this day.

American football[179][180] and Canadian football[181] are derived from early forms of rugby football.[181]

Australian rules football was influenced by rugby football and other games originating in English public schools.[182][183][184]

James Naismith took aspects of many sports including rugby to invent basketball.[185] The most obvious contribution is the jump ball's similarity to the line-out as well as the underhand shooting style that dominated the early years of the sport. Naismith played rugby at McGill University.[186]

Swedish football was a code whose rules were a mix of Association and Rugby football rules.[187][188]

Rugby lends its name to wheelchair rugby, a full-contact sport which contains elements of rugby such as crossing a try line with the ball to score.[189]

Statistics and records

According to a 2011 report by the Centre for the International Business of Sport, over four and a half million people play rugby union or one of its variants organised by the IRB.[190] This is an increase of 19 percent since the previous report in 2007.[191] The report also claimed that since 2007 participation has grown by 33 percent in Africa, 22 percent in South America and 18 percent in Asia and North America.[191] In 2014 the IRB published a breakdown of the total number of players worldwide by national unions. It recorded a total of 6.6 million players globally, of those, 2.36 million were registered members playing for a club affiliated to their country's union.[2] The 2016 World Rugby Year in Review reported 8.5 million players, of which 3.2 million were registered union players and 1.9 million were registered club players; 22% of all players were female.[192]

The most capped international player from the tier 1 nations is Welsh captain Alun Wyn Jones who has played over 150 internationals. While the top scoring tier 1 international player is New Zealand's Dan Carter, who has amassed 1442 points during his career.[193] In April 2010 Lithuania which is a second tier rugby nation, broke the record of consecutive international wins for second tier rugby nations. In 2016, the All Blacks of New Zealand set the new record 18 consecutive test wins among tier 1 rugby nations, bettering their previous consecutive run of 17.[194] This record was equalled by England on 11 March 2017 with a win over Scotland at Twickenham.[195] The highest scoring international match between two recognised unions was Hong Kong's 164–13 victory over Singapore on 27 October 1994.[196] While the largest winning margin of 152 points is held by two countries, Japan (a 155–3 win over Chinese Taipei) and Argentina (152–0 over Paraguay) both in 2002.[196]

The record attendance for a rugby union game was set on 15 July 2000 in which New Zealand defeated Australia 39–35 in a Bledisloe Cup game at Stadium Australia in Sydney before 109,874 fans.[197] The record attendance for a match in Europe of 104,000 (at the time a world record) was set on 1 March 1975 when Scotland defeated Wales 12–10 at Murrayfield in Edinburgh during the 1975 Five Nations Championship.[197] This crowd however is an estimate and contemporaneous newspaper accounts list a crowd of 80,000 only. The record attendance for a domestic club match is 99,124, set when Racing 92 defeated Toulon in the 2016 Top 14 final on 24 June at Camp Nou in Barcelona. The match had been moved from its normal site of Stade de France near Paris due to scheduling conflicts with France's hosting of UEFA Euro 2016.[198]

In culture

An oil painting of four moustached men, two wearing orange and white striped jerseys and shorts, the other two wearing blue and white striped jerseys and shorts, contesting a rugby ball within an avenue of trees.
Henri Rousseau – The Football Players (1908)

Thomas Hughes 1857 novel Tom Brown's Schooldays, set at Rugby School, includes a rugby football match, also portrayed in the 1940s film of the same name. James Joyce mentions Irish team Bective Rangers in several of his works, including Ulysses (1922) and Finnegans Wake (1939), while his 1916 semi-autobiographical work A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man has an account of Ireland international James Magee.[199] Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, in his 1924 Sherlock Holmes tale The Adventure of the Sussex Vampire, mentions that Dr Watson played rugby for Blackheath.[200]

Henri Rousseau's 1908 work Joueurs de football shows two pairs of rugby players competing.[201] Other French artists to have represented the sport in their works include Albert Gleizes' Les Joueurs de football (1912), Robert Delaunay's Football. L'Équipe de Cardiff (1916) and André Lhote's Partie de Rugby (1917).[202] The 1928 Gold Medal for Art at the Antwerp Olympics was won by Luxembourg's Jean Jacoby for his work Rugby.[203]

In film, Ealing Studios' 1949 comedy A Run for Your Money and the 1979 BBC Wales television film Grand Slam both centre on fans attending a match.[204] Films that explore the sport in more detail include independent production Old Scores (1991) and Forever Strong (2008). Invictus (2009), based on John Carlin's book Playing the Enemy, explores the events of the 1995 Rugby World Cup and Nelson Mandela's attempt to use the sport to connect South Africa's people post-apartheid.[205][206]

In public art and sculpture there are many works dedicated to the sport. There is a 27 feet (8.2 m) bronze statue of a rugby line-out by pop artist Gerald Laing at Twickenham[207] and one of rugby administrator Sir Tasker Watkins at the Millennium Stadium.[208] Rugby players to have been honoured with statues include Gareth Edwards in Cardiff and Danie Craven in Stellenbosch.[209]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ As of 2014 the International Rugby Board, now known as World Rugby, removed the total breakdown of world-wide player numbers by country, by age and sex to publish instead an overall figure per country. This document, titled '119 countries... 6.6 million players' adds the number of registered and unregistered players reported by each country. Some unions only report their registered players, i.e. those who play for an affiliated club or region. Other unions, such as England's Rugby Football Union, also report people taking part in outreach and educational programs, or unregistered players. In the 2012 figures reported by the RFU they reported 1,990,988 people playing rugby in England, including 1,102,971 under 13s, 731,685 teens and 156,332 seniors. Some of those recorded would have experienced rugby via educational visits to schools, playing tag or touch rugby, rather than playing regularly for a club. The figures released in 2014 give an overall figure of those playing rugby union, or one of its variants, as 6,684,118, but also reports that of that total, 3.36 million are registered players, while 4.3 million are unregistered.
  2. ^ Although the United States national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner", was first sung before baseball games in the mid-19th century, it did not become the official national anthem until 1931. In addition, the song's pregame use did not become customary until the 1920s.[29]

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