مايكل جاكسون

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مايكل جاكسون

A photograph of Michael Jackson singing into a microphone
جاكسون يؤدي في يونيو 1988
ولد
مايكل جوزيف جاكسون

(1958-08-29)29 أغسطس 1958
غاري ، إنديانا ، الولايات المتحدة
مات25 يونيو 2009 (2009-06-25)(50 سنة)
لوس أنجلوس ، كاليفورنيا ، الولايات المتحدة
سبب الوفاةتوقف القلب
مدفون
حديقة فورست لون ميموريال ، جلينديل ، كاليفورنيا ، الولايات المتحدة
اسماء اخرىمايكل جو جاكسون
احتلال
  • مغني
  • مؤلف الأغاني
  • راقصة
الزوج / الزوجة
( م.  1994؛ شعبة.  1996)

( م.  1996؛ شعبة.  1999)
أطفال3
الآباء)جو جاكسون
كاثرين جاكسون
أسرةعائلة جاكسون
الجوائزالقائمة الكاملة
مهنة موسيقية
الأنواع
الادواتغناء
سنوات النشاط1964 - 2009
ملصقات
الأفعال المرتبطةجاكسون 5
موقع الكترونيwww .michaeljackson .com
إمضاء
Michael Jackson signature.svg

كان مايكل جوزيف جاكسون ONM (29 أغسطس 1958-25 يونيو 2009) مغنيًا وكاتب أغاني وراقصًا أمريكيًا. يُطلق عليه لقب " ملك البوب " ، ويُعتبر أحد أهم الشخصيات الثقافية في القرن العشرين. على مدى أربعة عقود من حياته المهنية ، ساهمت مساهماته في الموسيقى والرقص والأزياء جنبًا إلى جنب مع حياته الشخصية المعلنة ، في جعله شخصية عالمية في الثقافة الشعبية . أثر جاكسون على الفنانين عبر العديد من الأنواع ، ومن خلال العروض المسرحية والفيديو ، حركات الرقص المعقدة الشائعة مثل التمشي على سطح القمر ، الذي أطلق عليه الاسم ، والروبوت . صاحب السجلات والإنجازات تشمل كونه فنان الموسيقى الأكثر منحت في التاريخ.

الطفل الثامن ل عائلة جاكسون ، أدلى جاكسون مشواره مع الاحتراف في عام 1964 مع نظيره الاكبر الاخوة جاكي ، تيتو ، جيرمين ، و مارلون كعضو جاكسون 5 . بدأ جاكسون مسيرته الفردية في عام 1971 أثناء وجوده في موتاون للتسجيلات ، وأصبح نجمًا منفردًا بألبومه عام 1979 Off the Wall . له أشرطة الفيديو والموسيقى ، بما فيها تلك المتعلقة " انه فوز "، " بيلي جين "، و " إثارة " من تقريره لعام 1982 ألبوم القصة المثيرة ، والفضل في كسر الحواجز العرقيةوتحويل الوسيلة إلى شكل فني وأداة ترويجية. ساعد في دفع نجاح MTV واستمر في الابتكار مع مقاطع الفيديو لألبومات Bad (1987) ، و Dangerous (1991) ، و HIStory: Past ، Present and Future ، Book I (1995). أصبح Thriller الألبوم الأكثر مبيعًا على الإطلاق ، بينما كان Bad هو الألبوم الأول الذي أنتج خمس أغنيات فردية في الولايات المتحدة Billboard Hot 100 . [ملحوظة 1]

من أواخر 1980s، أصبح جاكسون شخصية من الجدل والتكهنات بداعي تغيير مظهر ، العلاقات والسلوك ونمط الحياة. في عام 1993 ، اتهم بالاعتداء الجنسي على طفل صديق للعائلة. تمت تسوية الدعوى خارج المحكمة المدنية ، ولم يتم توجيه الاتهام إلى جاكسون بسبب نقص الأدلة. في عام 2005 ، حوكم وبُرئ من مزيد من مزاعم الاعتداء الجنسي على الأطفال وعدة تهم أخرى. في عام 2009 ، أثناء التحضير لسلسلة من حفلات العودة ، This Is It ، توفي جاكسون من جرعة زائدة من البروبوفول الذي كان يديره طبيبه الشخصي ، كونراد موراي ، الذي أدين لاحقًامن القتل غير العمد .

جاكسون هو واحد من أفضل فناني الموسيقى مبيعًا على الإطلاق ، حيث تقدر مبيعاته بأكثر من 400  مليون تسجيل في جميع أنحاء العالم. [nb 2] كان لديه 13 أغنية فردية في Billboard Hot 100 (أكثر من أي فنان ذكر آخر في عصر Hot 100) وكان أول فنان حصل على أفضل عشرة منفردة في Billboard Hot 100 في خمسة عقود مختلفة. تشمل الجوائز التي حصل عليها 15 جائزة جرامي وست جوائز بريطانية وجائزة غولدن غلوب و 39 رقمًا قياسيًا في موسوعة غينيس ، بما في ذلك "الفنان الترفيهي الأكثر نجاحًا في كل العصور". تشمل عروض جاكسون قاعة مشاهير الروك أند رول (مرتين) ، ومجموعة Vocal Group Hall of Fame ، وقاعة مشاهير Songwriters ، و Dance Hall of Fame (فنان التسجيل الوحيد الذي يتم تجنيده) ، وقاعة مشاهير موسيقى Rhythm and Blues . في عام 2016 ، كسبت ممتلكاته 825  مليون دولار ، وهو أعلى مبلغ سنوي سجله أحد المشاهير على الإطلاق من قبل فوربس .

الحياة و الوظيفة

1958-1975: بدايات حياته وجاكسون 5

The single-story house has white walls, two windows, a central white door with a black door frame, and a black roof. In front of the house there is a walkway and multiple colored flowers and memorabilia.
منزل طفولة جاكسون في غاري ، إنديانا ، في الصورة في مارس 2010 مع الزهور بعد وفاته

ولد مايكل جوزيف جاكسون [7] [8] في غاري ، إنديانا ، بالقرب من شيكاغو ، في 29 أغسطس 1958. [9] [10] كان ثامنًا من بين عشرة أطفال في عائلة جاكسون ، وهو أمريكي من أصل أفريقي من الطبقة العاملة أسرة تعيش في منزل من غرفتي نوم في شارع جاكسون. [11] [12] والدته ، كاثرين إستر جاكسون ( née Scruse) ، كانت تعزف الكلارينيت والبيانو ، وكانت تطمح لأن تكون عازفة ريفية وغربية ، وعملت بدوام جزئي في سيرز . [13] كانت من شهود يهوه . [14] والده ،جوزيف والتر "جو" جاكسون ، الملاكم السابق ، كان مشغل رافعة في شركة US Steel وعزف على الغيتار مع فرقة إيقاع وبلوز محلية ، الصقور ، لتكملة دخل الأسرة. [15] [16] كان "جاك" جيل ، جد جو في يوليو ، كشافًا للجيش الأمريكي . اعتبرت تقاليد العائلة أنه كان أيضًا رجل طب أمريكي أصلي . [17] نشأ مايكل مع ثلاث شقيقات ( ريبي ، لا تويا ، وجانيت ) وخمسة أشقاء ( جاكي ، تيتو ، جيرمين ، مارلون ، وراندي ).[15] توفي الأخ السادس ، توأم مارلون براندون ، بعد وقت قصير من ولادته. [18]

وفي عام 1964، انضم مايكل ومارلون جاكسون إخوان-عصابة تشكلت من قبل والدهما الذي تضمن جاكي، تيتو، وجيرمين-كما الموسيقيين النسخ الاحتياطي لعب كونغاس و الدف . [19] [20] قال مايكل إن والده أخبره أن لديه "أنف سمين" ، [21] وأساء إليه جسديًا وعاطفيًا أثناء البروفات. وأشار إلى أن جو غالبًا ما كان يجلس على كرسي ويحمل حزامًا في يده بينما يتدرب هو وإخوته ، على استعداد لمعاقبة أي أخطاء. [14] [22] اعترف جو بأنه كان يضرب مايكل بانتظام. [23] قالت كاثرين إنه على الرغم من أن الجلد يعتبر إساءة ، إلا أنه كان طريقة شائعة لتأديب الأطفال عندما كان مايكل يكبر. [24][25] أنكر جاكي وتيتو وجيرمين ومارلون أن والدهم كان مسيئًا وقالوا إن الجلد ، الذي كان أكثر قسوة على مايكل لأنه كان أصغر سنًا ، جعلهم منضبطين وبعيدًا عن المشاكل. [26] قال جاكسون أن شبابه كان وحيدًا ومعزولًا. [27]

في وقت لاحق من عام 1964 ، بدأ مايكل في مشاركة غناء الرصاص مع Jermaine ، وتم تغيير اسم المجموعة إلى Jackson 5 . [28] في عام 1965 ، فازت المجموعة بعرض المواهب. أدى مايكل رقصة أغنية " Barefootin " لروبرت باركر عام 1965 وغنى أغنية Temptations " My Girl ". [29] من عام 1966 إلى عام 1968 ، قامت عائلة جاكسون 5 بجولة في الغرب الأوسط . لعبوا في كثير من الأحيان في سلسلة من النوادي السوداء المعروفة باسم الدائرة Chitlin " كما فعل الافتتاحية للفنانين مثل سام وديف ، ثي أوجايس ، غلاديس نايت ، و إيتا جيمس. كما قدم جاكسون 5 عروضه في النوادي وصالات الكوكتيل ، حيث ظهرت عروض التعري ، وفي القاعات المحلية ورقصات المدرسة الثانوية. [30] [31] في أغسطس 1967 ، أثناء قيامهم بجولة في الساحل الشرقي ، فازوا بحفل أسبوعي ليلي للهواة في مسرح أبولو في هارلم . [32]

جاكسون (في الوسط) كعضو في Jackson 5 في عام 1972. كانت المجموعة من بين أوائل الفنانين الأمريكيين من أصل أفريقي الذين حققوا تقاطعًا. [33]

سجل جاكسون 5 العديد من الأغاني لشركة غاري للتسجيلات ، ستيلتاون ريكوردز ؛ تم إصدار أول أغنية فردية لهم ، " Big Boy " ، في عام 1968. [34] أحضر بوبي تايلور من Bobby Taylor & the Vancouvers جاكسون 5 إلى موتاون بعد أن افتتحوا أمام تايلور في مسرح ريجال في شيكاغو في عام 1968. أنتج تايلور بعضًا من أفلام موتاون المبكرة التسجيلات ، بما في ذلك نسخة من " Who's Lovin 'You ". [35] بعد التوقيع مع موتاون ، انتقلت عائلة جاكسون إلى لوس أنجلوس. [36] في عام 1969 ، قرر التنفيذيون في موتاون ديانا روسيجب أن يقدم جاكسون 5 للجمهور - جزئيًا لتعزيز مسيرتها المهنية في التلفزيون - طرد ما كان يعتبر آخر منتجات موتاون من "خط إنتاجها". [37] ظهر جاكسون 5 في أول ظهور تلفزيوني له في عام 1969 في مسابقة ملكة جمال أمريكا السوداء ، حيث قاموا بأداء أغنية " إنه الشيء الخاص بك ". [38] وصفت رولينج ستون فيما بعد مايكل الشاب بأنه "معجزة" مع "هدايا موسيقية ساحقة" الذي "ظهر سريعًا كمغني السحب الرئيسي والقائد". [39]

في يناير 1970 ، أصبحت أغنية " I Want You Back " أول أغنية لـ Jackson 5 تصل إلى المرتبة الأولى في قائمة Billboard Hot 100 الأمريكية . بقيت هناك لمدة أربعة أسابيع. تصدرت ثلاث أغنيات فردية أخرى مع Motown الرسم البياني: " ABC " و " The Love You Save " و " سأكون هناك ". [40] في مايو 1971 ، انتقلت عائلة جاكسون إلى منزل كبير على مساحة فدانين في إنسينو ، كاليفورنيا . [41] خلال هذه الفترة ، تطور مايكل من ممثل طفل إلى آيدول مراهق . [42] بين عامي 1972 و 1975 ، أصدر أربعة ألبومات استوديو فردية مع موتاون: حصلت على أن يكون هناك (1972) ،بن (1972) ، الموسيقى وأنا (1973) ، وإلى الأبد ، مايكل (1975). [43] " Got to Be There " و " Ben " ، مقطوعات العنوان من أول ألبومين منفصلين له ، تم بيعهما بالإضافة إلى الأغاني المنفردة ، وكذلك غلاف" Rockin 'Robin " لبوبي داي . [44]

حافظ مايكل على علاقاته مع جاكسون 5. [43] وُصف جاكسون 5 فيما بعد بأنه "مثال متطور لفناني الكروس أوفر الأسود ". [45] أصيبوا بالإحباط بسبب رفض موتاون السماح لهم بالمساهمة الإبداعية. [46] أدى أداء جاكسون لأفضل خمس " آلة راقصة " على قطار الروح إلى انتشار رقصة الروبوت . [47]

1975-1981: الانتقال إلى ملحمة وبعيدا عن الجدار

من الصف الخلفي الأيسر: جاكي جاكسون ، مايكل جاكسون ، تيتو جاكسون ، مارلون جاكسون . الصف الأوسط: راندي جاكسون ، لا تويا جاكسون ، ريبي جاكسون . الصف الأمامي: جانيت جاكسون (1977)

في عام 1975 ، غادر جاكسون 5 موتاون. وقعوا مع Epic Records ، وهي شركة تابعة لـ CBS Records ، [48] وأعادوا تسمية أنفسهم باسم Jacksons. انضم شقيقهم الأصغر راندي إلى الفرقة في هذا الوقت تقريبًا ؛ بقي جيرمين مع موتاون وواصل مهنة منفردة. [49] واصل The Jacksons القيام بجولة دولية ، وأصدروا ستة ألبومات أخرى بين عامي 1976 و 1984. كتب مايكل ، مؤلف الأغاني الرئيسي للمجموعة خلال هذا الوقت ، أغاني مثل " Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground) " (1978) ، " فندق هذا المكان "(1980) و" Can You Feel It "(1980). [50]

في عام 1978 ، انتقل جاكسون إلى مدينة نيويورك ليلعب دور الفزاعة في The Wiz ، وهي مسرحية موسيقية من إخراج سيدني لوميت . انها تشاركت ديانا روس ، نيبسي راسيل ، وتيد روس. [51] كان الفيلم فشلًا في شباك التذاكر. [52] رتبت نتيجتها كوينسي جونز ، [53] الذي أنتج لاحقًا ثلاثة ألبومات فردية لجاكسون. [54] خلال الفترة التي قضاها في نيويورك ، تردد جاكسون على الملهى الليلي ستوديو 54 ، حيث سمع موسيقى الهيب هوب المبكرة . وقد أثر هذا على بيتبوكسينغه في المسارات المستقبلية مثل " يوم العمل والليل". [55] وفي عام 1979، اندلعت جاكسون أنفه خلال روتين الرقص. و تجميل الأنف أدت إلى صعوبات في التنفس التي أثرت في وقت لاحق حياته المهنية. وأشار إلى ستيفين هويفلين ، الذي أجرى عمليات جاكسون لاحقة. [56]

الألبوم المنفرد الخامس لجاكسون ، Off the Wall (1979) ، جعله مؤديًا منفردًا وساعده على الانتقال من موسيقى البوب الزاهي في شبابه إلى أصوات أكثر تعقيدًا. [42] أنتجت أربعة مداخل من العشرة الأوائل في الولايات المتحدة: " Off the Wall " و " She's Out of My Life " والأغاني الفردية " لا تتوقف حتى تحصل على ما يكفي " و " Rock with You " . [57] وصل الألبوم إلى المركز الثالث على قائمة بيلبورد الأمريكية 200 وباع أكثر من 20  مليون نسخة حول العالم. [58] في عام 1980 ، فاز جاكسون بثلاث جوائز أمريكية للموسيقىلعمله الفردي: ألبوم Soul / R & B المفضل ، فنان مفضل Soul / R & B ذكر ، و Favourite Soul / R & B Single لـ "لا تتوقف حتى تحصل على ما يكفي". [59] [60] كما فاز بجائزة جرامي لأفضل أداء صوتي لموسيقى R & B لعام 1979 عن أغنية "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough". [61] في عام 1981 ، كان جاكسون هو الفائز بجائزة الموسيقى الأمريكية لألبوم Soul / R & B المفضل وفنان Soul / R & B المفضل. [62] شعر جاكسون بأنه كان من المفترض أن يكون لـ Off the Wall تأثير أكبر ، وكان عازمًا على تجاوز التوقعات بإصداره التالي. [63] في عام 1980 ، حصل على أعلى معدل إتاوات في صناعة الموسيقى: 37 بالمائة من أرباح الألبوم بالجملة. [64]

1982-1983: القصة المثيرة و موتاون 25: أمس، اليوم، للأبد

A sparkly jacket and gloves, displayed inside a transparent vertical tube.
سترة مطرزة وقفازات بيضاء يرتديها جاكسون في موتاون 25: بالأمس واليوم وإلى الأبد . وصفت مجلة فوغ البريطانية جاكسون بأنه "رائد الموضة [...] الذي أعطى معنى جديدًا للسير على سطح القمر ، وخلد العزلة ، [و] القفازات البراقة". [65]

سجل جاكسون مع المغني الملكة فريدي ميركوري من 1981 إلى 1983 ، مسجلاً عروض توضيحية لأغنية " حالة الصدمة " و "النصر" و " يجب أن تكون الحياة أكثر من هذا ". كانت التسجيلات مخصصة لألبوم ثنائي ، ولكن وفقًا لمدير كوينز جيم بيتش ، توترت العلاقة عندما أحضر جاكسون لاما إلى استوديو التسجيل ، [66] وكان جاكسون منزعجًا من تعاطي عطارد للمخدرات. [67] تم إصدار الأغاني في عام 2014. [68] واصل جاكسون تسجيل أغنية State of Shock مع ميك جاغر لألبوم Jacksons Victory (1984). [69]في عام 1982 ، ساهم جاكسون بأغنية Someone in the Dark في الكتاب المسموع لفيلم ET the Extra-Terrestrial . ألبوم جاكسون السادس، تشويق أفرج عنه في أواخر عام 1982. وكان هذا الألبوم في جميع أنحاء العالم الأكثر مبيعا في عام 1983، [70] [71] وأصبح بيع أفضل ألبوم من كل وقت في الولايات المتحدة [72] و الأكثر مبيعا الألبوم في كل العصور في جميع أنحاء العالم ، بيع ما يقدر بنحو 70 مليون نسخة. [73] [74] تصدرت مخطط بيلبورد 200 لمدة 37 أسبوعًا وكانت في المراكز العشرة الأولى من 200 لمدة 80 أسبوعًا متتاليًا. كان أول ألبوم ينتج سبع بيلبوردأفضل 100 أغنية فردية ، بما في ذلك " Billie Jean " و " Beat It " و " Wanna Be Startin 'Somethin' ". [75]

في 25 مارس 1983 ، التقى جاكسون بإخوته في فيلم موتاون 25: بالأمس ، اليوم ، إلى الأبد ، عرض تلفزيوني خاص على شبكة إن بي سي. تم بث العرض في 16 مايو إلى ما يقدر بنحو 47 مليون مشاهد ، وظهر فيه Jacksons وغيرهم من نجوم Motown. [76] أدى أداء جاكسون الفردي لـ "بيلي جين" إلى ترشيحه لأول مرة لجائزة إيمي . [77] مرتديًا قفازًا مزينًا بأحجار الراين ، [78] ظهر لأول مرة رقصة التمشي على سطح القمر ، والتي علمه جيفري دانيال قبل ثلاث سنوات ، وأصبحت رقصته المميزة في مجموعته الموسيقية. [79]كان جاكسون قد رفض في الأصل الدعوة إلى العرض ، معتقدًا أنه كان يفعل الكثير من التلفزيون. ولكن بناءً على طلب مؤسس شركة Motown Berry Gordy ، قام بالأداء مقابل الحصول على فرصة للقيام بأداء منفرد. [80] وصف ميكال جيلمور ، مراسل مجلة رولينج ستون ، الأداء بأنه "استثنائي". [42] ووجه الأداء جاكسون مقارنات ل الفيس بريسلي الصورة و البيتلز "من الظهور على إد سوليفان مشاهدة . [81] أشادت آنا كيسيلجوف من صحيفة نيويورك تايمز بالتوقيت والتقنية المثالية للرقص. [82]وصف جوردي أنه "مفتون" بالأداء. [83]

في حفل توزيع جوائز جرامي السنوي السادس والعشرون ، فاز فيلم Thriller بثماني جوائز ، وفاز جاكسون بجائزة ET the Extra-Terrestrial Storybook. الفوز بثمانية جرامي في حفل واحد هو رقم قياسي يحمله مع فرقة سانتانا . [61] فاز جاكسون وكوينسي جونز بجائزة أفضل منتج لهذا العام (غير كلاسيكي). فاز فيلم Thriller بجائزة ألبوم العام (مع جاكسون كفنان الألبوم وجونز كمنتج مشارك له) ، وفازت الأغنية بجائزة أفضل أداء صوتي بوب (ذكر) لجاكسون. فاز "Beat It" بجائزة أفضل أداء صوتي في العام وأفضل أداء روك صوتي (للذكور). فاز فيلم "Billie Jean" بجائزتين من جوائز Grammy: أفضل أغنية R & B Song و R & B Vocal Performance (ذكر) ، مع جاكسون ككاتب أغاني ومغني على التوالي.[61] فاز فيلم Thriller بجائزة جرامي لأفضل تسجيل هندسي (غير كلاسيكي) ، تقديراً لبروس سويدان لعمله في الألبوم. [84] في حفل توزيع جوائز الموسيقى الأمريكية السنوي الحادي عشر ، فاز جاكسون بثماني جوائز أخرى وأصبح أصغر فنان يفوز بجائزة الاستحقاق. [85] فاز أيضًا بفنان ذكر مفضل وفنان موسيقى Soul / R & B المفضل وفنان بوب / روك مفضل. فازت أغنية Beat It بجائزة Soul / R & B Video المفضلة و Pop / Rock Video و Pop / Rock Single. فاز الألبوم بشكل جماعي بألبوم مفضل Soul / R & B وألبوم Pop / Rock المفضل. [85] [86]

كان لدى جاكسون أعلى معدل ملكية في صناعة الموسيقى في تلك المرحلة ، حيث بلغ حوالي 2 دولار لكل ألبوم تم بيعه (ما يعادل 5 دولارات في عام 2020) ، وكان يحقق أرباحًا قياسية. دمى على غرار ظهور جاكسون في المتاجر في مايو 1984 مقابل 12 دولارًا لكل منها. [87] في نفس العام ، فاز فيلم The Making of Michael Jackson's Thriller ، وهو فيلم وثائقي موسيقي ، بجائزة جرامي لأفضل فيديو موسيقي (Longform). [61] وصف تايم تأثير جاكسون في تلك المرحلة بأنه "نجم التسجيلات ، والراديو ، وموسيقى الروك. فريق إنقاذ من رجل واحد للأعمال الموسيقية. مؤلف الأغاني الذي وضع الإيقاع لعقد من الزمان. راقص صاحب أفخم أقدام في عالم الموسيقى الشارع. مغني يتخطى كل حدود الذوق والأسلوب واللون أيضًا ". [87] نيويورك تايمزكتب "في عالم موسيقى البوب ​​، يوجد مايكل جاكسون وهناك الجميع". [88]

في 14 مايو 1984 ، منح الرئيس رونالد ريغان جاكسون جائزة تقديراً لدعمه للجمعيات الخيرية لتعاطي الكحول والمخدرات ، [89] وتقديراً لدعمه لمجلس الإعلانات والإدارة الوطنية لسلامة المرور على الطرق السريعة لمنع القيادة في حالة سكر. الحملة الانتخابية. سمح جاكسون للحملة باستخدام "Beat It" لإعلانات الخدمة العامة. [90]

الرئيس رونالد ريغان و السيدة الأولى نانسي ريغان قبل فترة وجيزة من تقديم جاكسون مع الجائزة في البيت الأبيض في 14 مايو 1984
جاكسون داخل البيت الأبيض مع عائلة ريغان

1984-1985: بيبسي ، "نحن العالم" ، ومهنة تجارية

في نوفمبر 1983 ، دخل جاكسون وإخوته في شراكة مع شركة PepsiCo في  صفقة ترويجية بقيمة 5 ملايين دولار حطمت الأرقام القياسية لتأييد المشاهير (ما يعادل 12،991،981 دولارًا في عام 2020). تضمنت حملة بيبسي الأولى ، التي استمرت في الولايات المتحدة من 1983 إلى 1984 وأطلقت موضوعها "الجيل الجديد" ، رعاية الرحلات ، وفعاليات العلاقات العامة ، والعروض داخل المتجر. ساعد جاكسون لإنشاء الإعلان، واقترح استخدام أغنيته "بيلي جين"، من كلمات المنقحة، ليصل إلى جلجل . [91]

في 27 يناير 1984، مايكل وغيرهم من أعضاء جاكسون صورت يشرف بيبسي التجارية من قبل فيل دوزنبييري ، [92] و BBDO الإعلانية التنفيذية وكالة، و آلان بوتاش ، المدير الإبداعي في جميع أنحاء العالم بيبسي، في قاعة ضريح في لوس انجليس. خلال حفلة موسيقية محاكاة أمام منزل مليء بالمعجبين ، أشعلت الألعاب النارية بطريق الخطأ النار في شعر جاكسون ، مما تسبب في حروق من الدرجة الثانية في فروة رأسه. خضع جاكسون للعلاج لإخفاء الندوب وخضع لعملية تجميل الأنف الثالثة بعد ذلك بوقت قصير. [56] استقرت بيبسي خارج المحكمة ، وتبرع جاكسون  بالتسوية البالغة 1.5 مليون دولار لمركز بروتمان الطبي فيكولفر سيتي ، كاليفورنيا ؛ تم تسمية مركز مايكل جاكسون بيرن المغلق الآن على شرفه. [93] [94] وقع جاكسون اتفاقية ثانية مع شركة بيبسي في أواخر الثمانينيات مقابل 10  ملايين دولار. غطت الحملة الثانية 20 دولة وقدمت الدعم المالي لألبوم جاكسون باد وجولة عالمية 1987-88. حصل جاكسون على موافقات وصفقات إعلانية مع شركات أخرى ، مثل LA Gear و Suzuki و Sony ، لكن لم يكن أي منها بنفس أهمية صفقاته مع Pepsi. [91]

في جولة النصر لسنة 1984 تحت عنوان لجاكسون وعرضت مادة منفردة جديدة جاكسون إلى أكثر من مليوني أميركي. كانت آخر جولة قام بها مع إخوته. [95] بعد الجدل حول مبيعات تذاكر الحفلة ، تبرع جاكسون بحصته من العائدات ، والتي تقدر بـ 3 إلى 5 ملايين دولار ، للأعمال الخيرية. [96] خلال الحفلة الموسيقية الأخيرة لجولة النصر في ملعب دودجر بلوس أنجلوس ، أعلن جاكسون انفصاله عن عائلة جاكسون خلال أغنية "اهتز جسدك". [97] استمر عمله الخيري مع إصدار " نحن العالم " (1985) ، بالاشتراك مع ليونيل ريتشي ، [98]التي جمعت الأموال للفقراء في الولايات المتحدة وأفريقيا. [99] ربح 63  مليون دولار (ما يعادل 151،593،750 دولارًا في عام 2020) ، [99] وأصبح واحدًا من أفضل الأغاني الفردية مبيعًا على الإطلاق ، حيث تم  بيع 20 مليون نسخة. [100] فاز بأربع جوائز جرامي في عام 1985 ، بما في ذلك أغنية العام لجاكسون وريتشي ككاتبيها. [98] حصل مبتكرو المشروع على جائزتين خاصتين من جوائز الموسيقى الأمريكية: واحدة لتأليف الأغنية والأخرى لفكرة الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية لأفريقيا . تلقى جاكسون وجونز والمروج كين كراغن جوائز خاصة لأدوارهم في إنشاء الأغنية. [98] [101] [102] [103]

جاكسون يوقع على ملصق " نحن العالم " عام 1985

تعاون جاكسون مع بول مكارتني في أوائل الثمانينيات ، وعلم أن مكارتني كان يكسب 40  مليون دولار سنويًا من امتلاك حقوق أغاني الفنانين الآخرين. [99] بحلول عام 1983 ، كان جاكسون قد بدأ في شراء حقوق النشر لأغاني الآخرين ، لكنه كان حريصًا في عمليات الاستحواذ التي حصل عليها ، ولم يقدم سوى عطاءات على عدد قليل من العشرات التي عُرضت عليه. تضمنت مقتنيات جاكسون المبكرة من كتالوجات الموسيقى وحقوق التأليف والنشر للأغاني مثل مجموعة Sly Stone "Everyday People" (1968) ، و " 1–2–3 " لين باري (1965) ، و " The Wanderer " لديون ديموتشي (1961) ) و " Runaround Sue " (1961).

في عام 1984 ، أعلن روبرت هولمز à Court أنه يبيع كتالوج ATV Music Publishing الذي يضم حقوق النشر لما يقرب من 4000 أغنية ، بما في ذلك معظم مواد البيتلز. [104] في عام 1981 ، عُرض على مكارتني الكتالوج مقابل 20  مليون جنيه إسترليني (40  مليون دولار). [99] [105] قدم جاكسون عرضًا بقيمة 46  مليون دولار في 20 نوفمبر 1984. [104] عندما لم يتمكن جاكسون ومكارتني من إجراء عملية شراء مشتركة ، لم يرغب مكارتني في أن يكون المالك الوحيد لأغاني البيتلز ، و لم يتابع عرضًا من تلقاء نفسه. [106] [105]لم يتمكن عملاء جاكسون من التوصل إلى اتفاق ، وفي مايو 1985 تركوا المحادثات بعد أن أنفقوا أكثر من  مليون دولار وأربعة أشهر من العناية الواجبة في المفاوضات. [104] وفي يونيو 1985، علمت جاكسون وبرانكا أن شارل كوبيلمان الصورة و مارتي Bandier الصورة الشركة الترفيه قدمت عرضا مبدئيا لشراء ATV الموسيقى لمدة 50 $  مليون. في أوائل أغسطس ، اتصلت محكمة هولمز بجاكسون واستؤنفت المحادثات.  تم قبول عرض جاكسون المتزايد بمبلغ 47.5 مليون دولار (ما يعادل 114،296،875 دولارًا في عام 2020) لأنه كان بإمكانه إغلاق الصفقة بسرعة أكبر ، بعد أن أكمل بالفعل العناية الواجبة. [104]وافق جاكسون على زيارة Holmes à Court في أستراليا ، حيث سيظهر على القناة السابعة في بيرث تيليثون . [107] تم الانتهاء من شراء جاكسون لـ ATV Music في 10 أغسطس 1985. [99] [104]

1986-1987: تغيير المظهر والصحف والأفلام

كان جلد جاكسون بنيًا متوسط ​​اللون خلال شبابه ، ولكن منذ منتصف الثمانينيات أصبح شاحبًا تدريجيًا. أثار التغيير تغطية إعلامية واسعة النطاق ، بما في ذلك التكهنات بأنه كان يقوم بتبييض بشرته . [108] [109] [110] قال طبيب الأمراض الجلدية في جاكسون ، أرنولد كلاين ، إنه لاحظ في عام 1983 أن جاكسون يعاني من البهاق ، [111] وهي حالة تتميز بفقدان بقع الجلد للصبغة ، والحساسية لأشعة الشمس. كما حدد الذئبة الحمامية القرصية في جاكسون. قام بتشخيص إصابة جاكسون بالذئبة في ذلك العام ، [111] وبهاق عام 1986. [112]يمكن لآثار البهاق الشديدة على الجسم أن تسبب ضائقة نفسية. استخدم جاكسون مكياجًا فاتح اللون ، [113] وربما كريمات وصفة طبية لتبييض البشرة ، [114] للتغطية على بقع اللون غير المتساوية التي يسببها المرض. كانت الكريمات ستزيد من تفتيح بشرته ، وبوضع المكياج ، يمكن أن يبدو شاحبًا جدًا. [115] قال جاكسون إنه لم يقم بتبييض بشرته عمدًا ولم يستطع السيطرة على البهاق ، مضيفًا ، "عندما يصنع الناس قصصًا لا أريد أن أكون من أنا عليها ، فهذا يؤلمني." [116] أصبح صديقًا لكلين ومساعدة كلاين ، ديبي رو . أصبحت رو فيما بعد الزوجة الثانية لجاكسون وأم لطفليه الأولين. [117]

وقال جاكسون في كتابه 1988 السيرة الذاتية ومقابلة 1993 كان قد تلقى اثنان تجميل الأنف عملية جراحية و الذقن المشقوقة عملية جراحية ولكن ليس أكثر من ذلك. قال إنه فقد وزنه في أوائل الثمانينيات بسبب تغيير في النظام الغذائي لتحقيق جسد راقص. [118] أفاد الشهود أنه غالبًا ما كان يصاب بالدوار ، وتكهنوا بأنه يعاني من فقدان الشهية العصبي . أصبحت فترات فقدان الوزن مشكلة متكررة في وقت لاحق من حياته. [119] بعد وفاته ، قالت والدة جاكسون إنه لجأ أولاً إلى عمليات التجميللعلاج البهاق ، لأنه لا يريد أن يبدو مثل "بقرة مرقطة". قالت إنه تلقى أكثر من عمليتي التجميل اللذين زعمهما وتكهن أنه أصبح مدمنًا عليهما. [120]

في عام 1986 ، ذكرت الصحف الشعبية أن جاكسون كان ينام في غرفة الأكسجين عالي الضغط لإبطاء الشيخوخة ، وصورته مستلقياً في صندوق زجاجي. كان الادعاء غير صحيح ، وذكرت الصحف الشعبية أنه نشر القصة بنفسه. [121] وأفادوا أيضًا أن جاكسون أخذ جرعات هرمون أنثوي لإبقاء صوته مرتفعًا وشعر وجهه ناعمًا ، واقترح على إليزابيث تايلور وربما كان لديه ضريح لها ، وخضع لجراحة تجميلية في عينيه. أنكر فرانك ديليو مدير جاكسون كلهم ، باستثناء جاكسون الذي لديه غرفة. وأضاف ديليو "لا أعرف ما إذا كان ينام فيها. أنا لست مع ذلك. لكن مايكل يعتقد أنه شيء ربما يكون صحيًا بالنسبة له. إنه متعصب قليلًا للصحة." [122]

عندما اصطحب جاكسون قرده الشمبانزي بابلز للقيام بجولة في اليابان ، صورت وسائل الإعلام جاكسون على أنه شخصية كرتونية طموحة من ديزني تصادق الحيوانات. [123] أفيد أيضًا أن جاكسون عرض شراء عظام جوزيف ميريك ("رجل الفيل"). [124] في يونيو 1987 ، ذكرت صحيفة شيكاغو تريبيون أن الناشر الدعائي لجاكسون قدم عرضًا بقيمة  مليون دولار للهيكل العظمي إلى كلية طب مستشفى لندن نيابة عنه. أكدت الكلية أن الهيكل العظمي ليس للبيع. قال ديليو إن جاكسون كان لديه "اهتمام ممتع" بميريك ، "على أساس وعيه بالأهمية الأخلاقية والطبية والتاريخية". [125]

ألهمت قصص التابلويد هذه اسم "Wacko Jacko" الذي احتقره جاكسون. [8] [126] وفقًا للصحفي الموسيقي جوزيف فوجل ، ظهر الاسم المهين لأول مرة في صحيفة التابلويد البريطانية The Sun في عام 1985. يأتي الاسم من Jacko Macacco ، وهو اسم قرد مشهور يستخدم في مباريات اصطياد القرود في Westminster Pit في أوائل عشرينيات القرن التاسع عشر. تم استخدام "جاكو" لاحقًا في لغة كوكني العامية للإشارة إلى القرود بشكل عام ، ومن هنا دلالة عنصرية وراء الاسم. [127]

في عام 1987 ، وصفت رولينج ستون جاكسون بأنه "الطفل النجم العبقري الطائر ، مشهور طوال حياته تقريبًا ، يسكن في مملكة من القصص الخيالية من زملائه المشاهير والحيوانات وعارضات الأزياء والرسوم المتحركة ، الذين يوفرون علفًا لا نهاية له للصحف الشعبية. ... لكن الطفل نفسه في مايكل هو الذي ألهم الفن الذي يغذي جميع الصناعات الفرعية ، والذي يحول مخاوفه وخيالاته الأولية إلى موسيقى رائعة ، مفرطة الحركة وعاطفية ". [123]

عملت جاكسون مع جورج لوكاس و فرانسيس فورد كوبولا على 17 دقيقة 30 $  مليون 3D فيلم الكابتن EO ، التي امتدت من عام 1986 في ديزني لاند و إبكت ، وفيما بعد في طوكيو ديزني لاند و اليورو ديزني لاند . [128] بعد إزالته في أواخر التسعينيات ، عاد إلى المتنزه لعدة سنوات بعد وفاة جاكسون. [129] في عام 1987 ، نأى جاكسون بنفسه عن شهود يهوه. [130] قالت كاثرين جاكسون إن هذا ربما كان بسبب أن بعض الشهود عارضوا بشدة مقطع الفيديو المثير . [131]وكان مايكل قد شجبها في مطبوعة Witness عام 1984. [132]

1987-1990: باد ، سيرة ذاتية ، ونيفرلاند

جاكسون والرئيس جورج إتش دبليو بوش في البيت الأبيض يوم 5 أبريل 1990. كانت هذه المرة الثانية التي يتم فيها تكريم جاكسون من قبل رئيس للولايات المتحدة .

الألبوم الأول لجاكسون منذ خمس سنوات ، باد (1987) ، كان متوقعًا للغاية ، حيث توقعت الصناعة نجاحًا كبيرًا آخر. [133] أصبح أول ألبوم ينتج خمس أغنيات منفردة في الولايات المتحدة: " أنا فقط لا أستطيع التوقف عن حبك " ، " سيئة " ، " الطريقة التي تجعلني أشعر بها " ، " رجل في المرآة " ، و " ديانا القذرة ". أغنية أخرى ، " Smooth Criminal " ، بلغت ذروتها في المرتبة السابعة. [57] فاز باد عام 1988 بجائزة جرامي لأفضل تسجيل هندسي - غير كلاسيكي وجائزة جرامي لعام 1990 لأفضل فيديو موسيقي ، نموذج قصير عن "دعني وحدي ". [61] [84]فاز جاكسون على جائزة الإنجاز في حفل توزيع جوائز الموسيقى الأمريكية في عام 1989 بعد باد ولدت خمسة رقم واحد الفردي، وأصبح أول ألبوم لأعلى الرسوم البيانية في 25 بلدا والأكثر مبيعا في جميع أنحاء العالم ألبوم في 1987 و 1988. [134] [135 ] بحلول عام 2012 ، تم بيع ما بين 30 و 45  مليون نسخة حول العالم. [136] [137]

ل سوء ركض جولة حول العالم من 12 سبتمبر، 1987، في 14 يناير، 1989. [138] في اليابان، وكانت جولة 14 خونة ولفت 570،000 شخص، أي حوالي ثلاثة أضعاف الرقم القياسي السابق للقيام بجولة واحدة. [139] 504000 شخص حضروا سبعة عروض بيعت بالكامل في استاد ويمبلي سجلوا رقمًا قياسيًا جديدًا في موسوعة غينيس للأرقام القياسية . [140]

في عام 1988 ، أصدر جاكسون سيرته الذاتية ، Moonwalk ، بمساهمة من ستيفن ديفيس وجاكلين كينيدي أوناسيس . [141] باعت 200000 نسخة ، [142] ووصلت إلى قمة قائمة نيويورك تايمز الأكثر مبيعًا. [143] ناقش جاكسون طفولته ، وجاكسون 5 ، والإساءة من والده. [144] أرجع تغير مظهر وجهه إلى ثلاث عمليات تجميل ، سن البلوغ ، وفقدان الوزن ، واتباع نظام غذائي نباتي صارم ، وتغيير في تصفيفة الشعر ، وإضاءة المسرح. [145] [118] في أكتوبر ، أصدر جاكسون فيلم Moonwalker الذي تضمن لقطات حية وأفلام قصيرة من بطولة جاكسون وجو بيسكي . في الولايات المتحدة ، تم إصداره مباشرة إلى الفيديو وأصبح شريط الفيديو الأكثر مبيعًا. [146] [147] صدق عليها RIAA على أنها ثماني مرات بلاتينية. [148]

في مارس 1988 ، اشترى جاكسون 2،700 فدان (11 كم 2 ) من الأرض بالقرب من سانتا ينز ، كاليفورنيا ، لبناء منزل جديد ، نيفرلاند رانش ، بتكلفة 17  مليون دولار (ما يعادل 37،200،056 دولارًا في عام 2020). [149] قام بتركيب عجلة فيريس ، وهو دائري ، المسرح والسينما وحديقة للحيوانات. [149] [150] [151] قام أفراد الأمن المكون من 40 فرد بدوريات في المنطقة. [150] بعد ذلك بوقت قصير ، ظهر في أول إعلان تلفزيوني غربي في الاتحاد السوفيتي . [152]

أصبح جاكسون معروفًا باسم " ملك البوب " ، وهو لقب تبناه دعاية جاكسون. [22] [153] [154] عندما منحته إليزابيث تايلور جائزة Soul Train Heritage في عام 1989 ، وصفته بأنه "الملك الحقيقي لموسيقى البوب ​​والروك والروح". [155] عينه الرئيس جورج بوش الأب "فنان العقد" في البيت الأبيض. [156] من عام 1985 إلى عام 1990 ، تبرع جاكسون بمبلغ 455000 دولار أمريكي لصندوق United Negro College ، [157] وذهبت جميع أرباحه المنفردة "Man in the Mirror" للأعمال الخيرية. [158]حصل جاكسون على ترشيحه الثاني لجاكسون في أدائه "You Were There" في الاحتفال بعيد ميلاد سامي ديفيس جونيور الستين. [77] جاكسون كان الفنان الأكثر مبيعًا في الثمانينيات. [159]

1991-1993: Dangerous و Heal the World Foundation و Super Bowl XXVII عرض نهاية الشوط الأول

في مارس 1991 ، جدد جاكسون عقده مع سوني مقابل 65  مليون دولار (ما يعادل 123،504،764 دولارًا في عام 2020) ، وهي صفقة قياسية ، [160] متغلبًا على عقد تجديد نيل دايموند مع شركة كولومبيا للتسجيلات . [161] في عام 1991 ، أصدر ألبومه الثامن Dangerous الذي أنتجه بالاشتراك مع تيدي رايلي . [162] تم اعتماده ثماني مرات بلاتينيوم في الولايات المتحدة ، وبحلول عام 2018 تم بيع 32  مليون نسخة في جميع أنحاء العالم. [163] [164] في الولايات المتحدة ، كانت الأغنية الأولى ، " أسود أو أبيض " ، هي الأغنية الأكثر شهرة في الألبوم. كان رقم واحد على لوحة الإعلاناتHot 100 لمدة سبعة أسابيع وحققت أداءً مشابهًا في الرسم البياني في جميع أنحاء العالم. [165] بلغت الأغنية المنفردة الثانية ، " تذكر الوقت " ، ذروتها في المرتبة الثالثة على مخطط بيلبورد هوت 100 الفردي. [166] في نهاية عام 1992 ، كان Dangerous هو الألبوم الأكثر مبيعًا لهذا العام في جميع أنحاء العالم و "Black or White" هو الألبوم الأكثر مبيعًا في العام في جميع أنحاء العالم في Billboard Music Awards . [159] في عام 1993 ، أدى "تذكر الوقت" في حفل توزيع جوائز Soul Train Music على كرسي ، قائلاً إنه لوى كاحله أثناء تدريبات الرقص. [167] في المملكة المتحدة ، قدمت أغنية " Heal the World " رقم لا.2 على الرسوم البيانية في عام 1992.[168]

جاكسون خلال جولة Dangerous World Tour في عام 1993. وقد اعترف الكتاب بـ Dangerous باعتباره تأثيرًا على فناني البوب ​​و R & B المعاصرين. [169]

أسس جاكسون مؤسسة Heal the World Foundation في عام 1992. وقد جلبت المؤسسة الخيرية الأطفال المحرومين إلى مزرعة جاكسون لاستخدام ألعاب الملاهي ، وأرسلت ملايين الدولارات حول العالم لمساعدة الأطفال المهددين بالحرب والفقر والمرض. التي يوليو، نشرت جاكسون كتابه الثاني، الرقص الحلم ، مجموعة من الشعر. في جولة حول العالم الخطرة ركض بين يونيو 1992 ونوفمبر 1993، وحقق 100 مليون $ (أي ما يعادل 179152269 $ في عام 2020)؛ قدم جاكسون عرضًا لـ 3.5  مليون شخص في 70 حفلة موسيقية ، جميعها خارج الولايات المتحدة. [170] ذهب جزء من العائدات إلى مؤسسة Heal the World Foundation. [171]باع جاكسون حقوق بث الجولة إلى HBO مقابل 20  مليون دولار ، وهي صفقة قياسية لا تزال قائمة. [172]

بعد وفاة المتحدث باسم فيروس نقص المناعة البشرية / الإيدز وصديقه ريان وايت ، ناشد جاكسون إدارة كلينتون في حفل تنصيب بيل كلينتون لتقديم المزيد من الأموال للجمعيات الخيرية والبحوث المتعلقة بفيروس نقص المناعة البشرية / الإيدز [173] [174] وأدى أغنية " Gone Too Soon " ، أغنية مخصصة للبيض ، و "شفاء العالم" في الحفل. [175] زار جاكسون إفريقيا في أوائل عام 1992 ؛ في محطته الأولى في الغابون ، استقبله أكثر من 100000 شخص ، بعضهم يحمل لافتات كتب عليها "أهلا بكم في المنزل مايكل" ​​، [176] وحصل على وسام الاستحقاق الوطني من الرئيس عمر بونغو . [177][178] أثناء رحلته إلى ساحل العاج ، توج جاكسون "الملك ساني" من قبل زعيم قبلي. وشكر الشخصيات المرموقة باللغتين الفرنسية والإنجليزية ، ووقع على وثائق تضفي الطابع الرسمي على ملكيته ، وجلس على العرش الذهبي أثناء ترؤسه للرقصات الاحتفالية. [176]

في يناير 1993 ، قدم جاكسون عرضًا في عرض نهاية الشوط الأول Super Bowl XXVII في باسادينا ، كاليفورنيا. سعى اتحاد كرة القدم الأميركي إلى فنان ذائع الصيت للحفاظ على درجات عالية خلال الاستراحة بعد تضاؤل ​​أرقام الجمهور. [179] [180] كانت أول لعبة سوبر بول التي استقطب أداؤها بين الشوطين عددًا أكبر من الجماهير مقارنة باللعبة. لعب جاكسون دور " Jam " و "Billie Jean" و "Black or White" و "Heal the World". ارتفع خطير 90 مرتبة في مخطط الألبوم بعد الأداء. [108]

أجرى جاكسون مقابلة لمدة 90 دقيقة مع أوبرا وينفري في 10 فبراير 1993. وتحدث عن إساءة معاملته في طفولته على يد والده. كان يعتقد أنه فاته الكثير من طفولته ، وقال إنه كثيرًا ما يبكي من الوحدة. ونفى شائعات الصحف الشعبية بأنه اشترى عظام الرجل الفيل ، ونام في غرفة أكسجين شديدة الضغط ، أو قام بتبييض بشرته ، وذكر لأول مرة أنه مصاب بالبهاق. عاد Dangerous إلى مخطط الألبوم في المراكز العشرة الأولى ، بعد أكثر من عام من صدوره. [22] [108]

في يناير 1993 ، فاز جاكسون بثلاث جوائز أمريكية : ألبوم Pop / Rock المفضل ( Dangerous ) ، و Favorite Soul / R & B Single ("تذكر الوقت") ، وكان أول من فاز بجائزة الفنان الدولي للتميز. [181] [182] في فبراير ، فاز بجائزة "ليفينج ليجند" في حفل توزيع جوائز جرامي السنوي الخامس والثلاثين في لوس أنجلوس. [61] حضر حفل توزيع الجوائز مع Brooke Shields . [183] تم ترشيح Dangerous لأفضل أداء صوتي (لـ "Black or White") ، وأفضل أداء صوتي R & B ("Jam") وأفضل أغنية R & B Song ("Jam") ، وفاز سويدان ورايلي بجائزة أفضل مهندس - غير كلاسيكي. [84]

1993-1995: أول اتهامات بالاعتداء الجنسي على الأطفال والزواج الأول

في أغسطس 1993 ، اتُهم جاكسون بالاعتداء الجنسي على الأطفال من قبل صبي يبلغ من العمر 13 عامًا ، جوردان تشاندلر ، ووالده إيفان تشاندلر. [184] وقال الاردن انه وجاكسون شاركت في أعمال التقبيل، و الاستمناء و ممارسة الجنس عن طريق الفم . [185] قالت والدة جوردان للشرطة في البداية إنها لا تعتقد أن جاكسون تحرش بابنها. ومع ذلك ، تذبذب موقفها بعد أيام قليلة. [186] [187] تم تسجيل إيفان وهو يناقش نيته في متابعة التهم ، والتي استخدمها جاكسون للقول بأنه كان ضحية أب غيور يحاول ابتزاز المال. [187] اتهمته شقيقة جاكسون الكبرى لا تويا بكونه شاذًا للأطفال ، وتراجعت عنه لاحقًا. [188]داهمت الشرطة منزل جاكسون في ديسمبر وعثرت على كتب وصور تظهر صبية صغار يرتدون ملابس قليلة أو بدون ملابس. كانت الكتب قانونية لامتلاكها ، ولم يتم توجيه الاتهام إلى جاكسون. [189] قدم جوردان تشاندلر للشرطة وصفًا للأعضاء التناسلية لجاكسون. تم إجراء بحث عاري ، وشعر المحلفون أن الوصف لم يكن مطابقًا. [190] [191] [192] في يناير 1994 ، استقر جاكسون مع عائلة تشاندلر خارج المحكمة مقابل مبلغ إجمالي يبلغ 23 مليون دولار. [193] لم توجه الشرطة قط اتهامات جنائية. [194] بحجة نقص الأدلة دون شهادة الأردن ، أغلقت الدولة تحقيقها في 22 سبتمبر / أيلول 1994. [195]

كان جاكسون يتعاطى مسكنات الألم من أجل جراحاته التجميلية لفروة الرأس ، والتي كانت تدار بسبب حادث بيبسي التجاري في عام 1984 ، وأصبح يعتمد عليها للتعامل مع ضغوط مزاعم الاعتداء الجنسي. [196] في 12 نوفمبر 1993 ، ألغى جاكسون ما تبقى من الرحلة الخطرة بسبب مشاكل صحية والتوتر من الادعاءات وإدمان مسكنات الألم. وشكر صديقته المقربة إليزابيث تايلور على الدعم والتشجيع والمشورة. واختتم ختام الجولة علاقته مع شركة بيبسي كولا التي رعت الجولة. [197]

في أواخر عام 1993 ، اقترح جاكسون على ليزا ماري بريسلي ، ابنة إلفيس بريسلي ، عبر الهاتف. [198] تزوجا في لا فيجا ، جمهورية الدومينيكان ، في مايو 1994 من قبل القاضي المدني هوغو فرانسيسكو ألفاريز بيريز. [199] تكهنت وسائل الإعلام الشعبية بأن حفل الزفاف كان بمثابة حيلة دعائية لصرف النظر عن مزاعم الانتهاك الجنسي لجاكسون وبدء مسيرة بريسلي المهنية كمغني. [200] [199] انتهى زواجهما بعد أكثر من عام بقليل ، وانفصلا في ديسمبر 1995. [201] استشهد بريسلي بـ "خلافات لا يمكن التوفيق بينها" عند التقدم بطلب الطلاق في الشهر التالي وسعى فقط لاستعادة اسمها قبل الزواج كمستوطنتها. . [200] [202] After the divorce, Judge Perez said, "They lasted longer than I thought they would. I gave them a year. They lasted a year and a half."[199]

Jackson was set to compose music for the Sega Genesis video game Sonic the Hedgehog 3 (1994), but left the project around the time the sexual abuse allegations surfaced and went uncredited. Jackson was a Sonic fan,[203] and had collaborated with Sega for the 1990 arcade game Moonwalker.[204] The reasons for Jackson's departure and whether his compositions remain in the released game have been the subject of debate. Sega Technical Institute director Roger Hector and Sonic the Hedgehog co-creator Naoto Ohshima said that Jackson's involvement was terminated and his music reworked following the allegations.[203][205] However, Jackson's musical director Brad Buxer and two other members of Jackson's team, Doug Grigsby III and Ciorocco Jones, said the music remained and that Jackson went uncredited because he was unhappy with how the Genesis replicated his music.[206]

1995–1997: HIStory, second marriage, and fatherhood

In June 1995, Jackson released the double album HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I. The first disc, HIStory Begins, is a greatest hits album (reissued in 2001 as Greatest Hits: HIStory, Volume I). The second disc, HIStory Continues, contains 13 original songs and two cover versions. The album debuted at number one on the charts and has been certified for eight million shipments in the US.[207] It is the best-selling multi-disc album of all time, with 20 million copies (40 million units) sold worldwide.[165][208] HIStory received a Grammy nomination for Album of the Year.[61] The New York Times reviewed it as "the testimony of a musician whose self-pity now equals his talent".[209]

The first single from HIStory was "Scream/Childhood". "Scream", a duet with Jackson's youngest sister Janet, protests the media's treatment of Jackson during the 1993 child abuse allegations against him. The single reached number five on the Billboard Hot 100,[166] and received a Grammy nomination for "Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals".[61] The second single, "You Are Not Alone", holds the Guinness world record for the first song to debut at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.[210] It received a Grammy nomination for "Best Pop Vocal Performance" in 1995.[61]

In 1995 the Anti-Defamation League and other groups complained that "Jew me, sue me, everybody do me/ Kick me, kike me, don't you black or white me", the original lyrics of "They Don't Care About Us", were antisemitic. Jackson released a version with revised words.[211][212]

In late 1995, Jackson was admitted to a hospital after collapsing during rehearsals for a televised performance, caused by a stress-related panic attack.[213] In November, Jackson merged his ATV Music catalog with Sony's music publishing division, creating Sony/ATV Music Publishing. He retained ownership of half the company, earning $95 million up front (equivalent to $161,348,548 in 2020) as well as the rights to more songs.[214][215]

Close-up of a pale skinned Jackson with black hair. He is wearing a black jacket with white designs on it.
Jackson at the 1997 Cannes Film Festival for the Michael Jackson's Ghosts short film premiere

"Earth Song" was the third single released from HIStory, and topped the UK Singles Chart for six weeks over Christmas 1995.[168] It became the 87th-bestselling single in the UK.[216] At the 1996 Brit Awards, Jackson's performance of "Earth Song" was disrupted by Pulp singer Jarvis Cocker, who was protesting what Cocker saw as Jackson's "Christ-like" persona. Jackson said the stage invasion was "disgusting and cowardly".[217][218]

In 1996, Jackson won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form, for "Scream" and an American Music Award for Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist.[61][219]

Jackson promoted HIStory with the HIStory World Tour, from September 7, 1996, to October 15, 1997. He performed 82 concerts in five continents, 35 countries and 58 cities to over 4.5 million fans, his most attended tour. It grossed $165 million.[138] During the tour, in Sydney, Australia, Jackson married Debbie Rowe, a dermatology assistant, who was six months pregnant with his first child.[220] Michael Joseph Jackson Jr. (commonly known as Prince) was born on February 13, 1997; his sister Paris-Michael Katherine Jackson was born a year later on April 3, 1998.[221] Jackson and Rowe divorced in 1999, and Rowe conceded custody of the children, with an $8 million settlement (equivalent to $13,981,822 in 2020). In 2004, after the second child abuse allegations against Jackson, she returned to court to reclaim custody. The suit was settled in 2006.[222]

In 1997, Jackson released Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix, which contained remixes of singles from HIStory and five new songs. Worldwide sales stand at 6 million copies, making it the best-selling remix album of all time. It reached number one in the UK, as did the title track.[223] In the US, the album reached number 24 and was certified platinum.[163]

1997–2002: Label dispute and Invincible

From October 1997 to September 2001, Jackson worked on his tenth solo album, Invincible, which cost $30 million to record.[224] In June 1999, Jackson joined Luciano Pavarotti for a War Child benefit concert in Modena, Italy. The show raised a million dollars for refugees of the Kosovo War, and additional funds for the children of Guatemala.[225] Later that month, Jackson organized a series of "Michael Jackson & Friends" benefit concerts in Germany and Korea. Other artists involved included Slash, The Scorpions, Boyz II Men, Luther Vandross, Mariah Carey, A. R. Rahman, Prabhu Deva Sundaram, Shobana, Andrea Bocelli, and Luciano Pavarotti. The proceeds went to the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund, the Red Cross and UNESCO.[226] From August 1999 to 2000, he lived in New York City at 4 East 74th Street.[227] At the turn of the century, Jackson won an American Music Award as Artist of the 1980s.[228] In 2000, Guinness World Records recognized him for supporting 39 charities, more than any other entertainer.[229]

In September 2001, two 30th Anniversary concerts were held at Madison Square Garden to mark Jackson's 30th year as a solo artist. Jackson performed with his brothers for the first time since 1984. The show also featured Mýa, Usher, Whitney Houston, Destiny's Child, Monica, Liza Minnelli, and Slash. The first show was marred by technical lapses, and the crowd booed a speech by Marlon Brando.[230] Almost 30 million people watched the television broadcast of the shows in November.[231] After the September 11 attacks, Jackson helped organize the United We Stand: What More Can I Give benefit concert at RFK Stadium in Washington, D.C. on October 21, 2001. Jackson performed "What More Can I Give" as the finale.[232]

The release of Invincible was preceded by a dispute between Jackson and his record label, Sony Music Entertainment. Jackson had expected the licenses to the masters of his albums to revert to him in the early 2000s, after which he would be able to promote the material however he pleased and keep the profits, but clauses in the contract set the revert date years into the future. Jackson sought an early exit from his contract.[233] Invincible was released on October 30, 2001. It was Jackson's first full-length album in six years, and the last album of original material he released in his lifetime.[233] It debuted at number one in 13 countries and went on to sell eight million copies worldwide, receiving double-platinum certification in the US.[163][234][235]

Jackson in 2003

On January 9, 2002, Jackson won his 22nd American Music Award for Artist of the Century.[236][237] Later that year, an anonymous surrogate mother gave birth to his third child, Prince Michael Jackson II (nicknamed "Blanket"), who had been conceived by artificial insemination.[238] On November 20, Jackson briefly held Blanket over the railing of his Berlin hotel room, four stories above ground level, prompting widespread criticism in the media. Jackson apologized for the incident, calling it "a terrible mistake."[239] On January 22, promoter Marcel Avram filed a breach of contract complaint against Jackson for failing to perform two planned 1999 concerts.[240] In March, a Santa Maria jury ordered Jackson to pay Avram $5.3 million.[241][242] On December 18, 2003, Jackson's attorneys dropped all appeals on the verdict and settled the lawsuit for an undisclosed amount.[243]

On April 24, 2002, Jackson performed at Apollo Theater. The concert was a fundraiser for the Democratic National Committee and former President Bill Clinton.[244] The money collected would be used to encourage citizens to vote. It raised $2.5 million.[245] The concert was called Michael Jackson: Live at the Apollo and this would be Jackson's final on-stage performance.[246]

In July 2002, Jackson called Sony Music chairman Tommy Mottola "a racist, and very, very, very devilish," and someone who exploits black artists for his own gain, at Al Sharpton's National Action Network in Harlem. The accusation prompted Sharpton to form a coalition investigating whether Mottola exploited black artists.[247] Jackson charged that Mottola had called his colleague Irv Gotti a "fat nigger".[248] Responding to those attacks, Sony issued a statement calling them "ludicrous, spiteful, and hurtful" and defended Mottola as someone who had championed Jackson's career for many years.[247] Sony ultimately refused to renew Jackson's contract and claimed that a $25 million promotional campaign had failed because Jackson refused to tour in the US for Invincible.[224]

2002–2005: Second child sexual abuse allegations, trial, and acquittal

Jackson's mug shot, taken on November 20, 2003

Beginning in May 2002, a documentary film crew led by Martin Bashir followed Jackson for several months.[239] The documentary, broadcast in February 2003 as Living with Michael Jackson, showed Jackson holding hands and discussing sleeping arrangements with a 12-year-old boy.[21][249] He said that he saw nothing wrong with having sleepovers with minors and sharing his bed and bedroom with various people, which aroused controversy. He insisted that the sleepovers were not sexual and that his words had been misunderstood.[250][251]

On November 18, 2003, Sony released Number Ones, a greatest hits compilation. It was certified five-times platinum by the RIAA, and nine times platinum in the UK, for shipments of at least 2.7 million units.[163][252]

On December 18, 2003, Santa Barbara authorities charged Jackson with seven counts of child molestation and two counts of intoxicating a minor with alcoholic drinks.[253] Jackson denied the allegations and pleaded not guilty.[254] The People v. Jackson trial began on January 31, 2005, in Santa Maria, California, and lasted until the end of May. Jackson found the experience stressful and it affected his health. If convicted, he would have faced up to 20 years in prison.[255] On June 13, 2005, Jackson was acquitted on all counts.[256] After the trial, he became reclusive[257] and moved to Bahrain as a guest of Sheikh Abdullah.[258]

2006–2009: Final years and This Is It

Jackson is wearing an overcoat and walking from left to right. His face is obscured by his hair. His son is wearing a mask and a baseball cap. Two men are with them; a third person is holding an umbrella over the Jacksons.
Jackson and his son Blanket in Disneyland Paris, 2006

In April 2006, Jackson agreed to use a piece of his ATV catalog stake, then worth about $1 billion, as collateral against his $270 million worth of loans from Bank of America. Bank of America had sold the loans to Fortress Investments, an investment company that buys distressed loans, the year before. As part of the agreement, Fortress Investments provided Jackson a new loan of $300 million with reduced interest payments (equivalent to $385,127,105 in 2020). Sony Music would have the option to buy half of his stake, or about 25% of the catalog, at a set price. Jackson's financial managers had urged him to shed part of his stake to avoid bankruptcy.[215][259] The main house at Neverland Ranch was closed as a cost-cutting measure, while Jackson lived in Bahrain at the hospitality of Sheik Abdullah, the ruler's son.[260] At least 30 of Jackson's employees had not been paid on time and were owed $306,000 in back wages; Jackson was ordered to pay $100,000 in penalties.[215]

In early 2006, it was announced that Jackson had signed a contract with a Bahrain-based startup, Two Seas Records; nothing came of the deal, and Two Seas CEO Guy Holmes later said it was never finalized.[261][262] That October, Fox News reported that Jackson had been recording at a studio in County Westmeath, Ireland. It was not known what Jackson was working on, or who had paid for the sessions; his publicist stated that he had left Two Seas by then.[262][263]

In November 2006, Jackson invited an Access Hollywood camera crew into the studio in Westmeath, and MSNBC reported that he was working on a new album, produced by will.i.am.[165] On November 15, Jackson briefly performed "We Are the World" at the World Music Awards in London and accepted the Diamond Award honoring the sale of over 100 million records. The event was Jackson's last public performance in his lifetime.[165][264] He returned to the U.S. in December 2006, settling in Las Vegas, and attended James Brown's funeral in Augusta, Georgia later that month, where he gave a eulogy calling Brown his greatest inspiration.[265]

In 2007, Jackson and Sony bought another music publishing company, Famous Music LLC, formerly owned by Viacom. The deal gave him the rights to songs by Eminem and Beck, among others.[266][267] In a brief interview with the Associated Press in Tokyo, Jackson said he had no regrets about his lifelong career despite difficulties and "deliberate attempts to hurt [him]".[268] That March, Jackson visited a US Army post in Japan, Camp Zama, to greet over 3,000 troops and their families.[269][270]

In September 2007, Jackson was still working on his next album, which he never completed.[271] For the 25th anniversary of Thriller in 2008, Jackson and Sony released Thriller 25, with two remixes released as singles: "The Girl Is Mine 2008" and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin' 2008".[272] For Jackson's 50th birthday, Sony BMG released a series of greatest hits albums, King of Pop, with different tracklists for different regions.[273]

A view from above of a large property in a semi-desert. The landscape is pale with clumps of vegetation. The property shows circular structures between the buildings.
An aerial view of part of Jackson's 2,800-acre (11 km2) Neverland Valley Ranch near Los Olivos, California, showing the rides

In 2008, Fortress Investments threatened to foreclose on Neverland Ranch, which Jackson had used as collateral for his loans. Fortress sold Jackson's debts to Colony Capital LLC.[274][275] In November, Jackson transferred Neverland Ranch's title to Sycamore Valley Ranch Company LLC, a joint venture between Jackson and Colony Capital LLC. The deal earned him $35 million.[276] Jackson arranged to sell a collection of his memorabilia of more than 1,000 items through Julien's Auction House. On the eve of the first public exhibit, Jackson canceled the auction after earning between $200 million to $300 million of initial sales from a series of concerts to be held in London.[277][257]

In March 2009, amid speculation about his finances and health, Jackson announced a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, at a press conference at The O2 Arena.[278] The shows were to be his first major concerts since the HIStory World Tour in 1997. Jackson suggested he would retire after the shows. The initial plan was for 10 concerts in London, followed by shows in Paris, New York City and Mumbai. Randy Phillips, president and chief executive of AEG Live, predicted the first 10 dates would earn Jackson £50 million.[279] The London residency was increased to 50 dates after record-breaking ticket sales; over one million were sold in less than two hours.[280] The concerts were to run from July 13, 2009, to March 6, 2010. Jackson moved to Los Angeles, where he rehearsed in the weeks leading up to the tour under the direction of choreographer Kenny Ortega, whom he had worked with during his previous tours. Most rehearsals took place at the Staples Center owned by AEG.[281]

Death

Jackson's Star with flowers and notes on it
Fans placed flowers and notes on Jackson's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on the day of his death

On June 25, 2009, less than three weeks before the first This Is It show was due to begin in London, with all concerts sold out, Jackson died from cardiac arrest.[282] Conrad Murray, his personal physician, had given Jackson various medications to help him sleep at his rented mansion in Holmby Hills, Los Angeles. Paramedics received a 911 call at 12:22 pm Pacific time (19:22 UTC), and arrived three minutes later.[283][284] Jackson was not breathing and CPR was performed.[285] Resuscitation efforts continued en route to Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, and for more than an hour after arriving there, but were unsuccessful,[286][287] and Jackson was pronounced dead at 2:26 pm Pacific time (21:26 UTC).[288][289]

Jackson was administered propofol, lorazepam, and midazolam;[290] his death was caused by a propofol overdose.[291][287] News of his death spread quickly online, causing websites to slow down and crash from user overload,[292] and putting unprecedented strain[293] on services and websites including Google,[294] AOL Instant Messenger,[293] Twitter, and Wikipedia.[294] Overall, web traffic rose by between 11% and 20%.[295][296] MTV and BET aired marathons of Jackson's music videos,[297] and Jackson specials aired on television stations around the world.[298] MTV briefly returned to its original music video format,[9] and aired hours of Jackson's music videos, with live news specials featuring reactions from MTV personalities and other celebrities.[299]

Memorial service

A large pink/cream-colored box in front of a stained glass window.
Jackson's unmarked crypt at the end of the Sanctuary of Ascension in the Holly Terrace of the Great Mausoleum, Forest Lawn Glendale

Jackson's memorial was held on July 7, 2009, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, preceded by a private family service at Forest Lawn Memorial Park's Hall of Liberty. Over 1.6 million fans applied for tickets to the memorial; the 8,750 recipients were drawn at random, and each received two tickets.[300] The memorial service was one of the most watched events in streaming history,[301] with an estimated US audience of 31.1 million[302] and a worldwide audience of an estimated 2.5 to 3 billion.[303]

Mariah Carey, Stevie Wonder, Lionel Richie, Jennifer Hudson and Shaheen Jafargholi performed at the memorial, and Smokey Robinson and Queen Latifah gave eulogies.[304] Al Sharpton received a standing ovation with cheers when he told Jackson's children: "Wasn't nothing strange about your daddy. It was strange what your daddy had to deal with. But he dealt with it anyway."[305] Jackson's 11-year-old daughter Paris Katherine, speaking publicly for the first time, wept as she addressed the crowd.[306][307] The Rev. Lucious Smith provided a closing prayer.[308] Jackson's body was entombed on September 3, 2009, at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California.[309]

Criminal investigation and prosecution of Conrad Murray

A group of people standing outside a gated area. There are trees, bushes, and grassed areas. A majority of the area the people and in are shadowed by the trees by the gate.
Fans visiting the makeshift memorial set up outside the Neverland Ranch entrance shortly after Jackson's death.

In August 2009, the Los Angeles County Coroner ruled that Jackson's death was a homicide.[310][311] Law enforcement officials charged Murray with involuntary manslaughter on February 8, 2010.[312] In late 2011, he was found guilty of involuntary manslaughter[313] and held without bail to await sentencing.[314] Murray subsequently was sentenced to four years in prison.[315]

Posthumous sales

At the 2009 American Music Awards, Jackson won four posthumous awards, including two for his compilation album Number Ones, bringing his total American Music Awards to 26.[316][317] In the year after his death, more than 16.1 million of Jackson's albums sold in the US, and 35 million albums worldwide, more than any other artist in 2009.[318][319] He became the first artist to sell one million music downloads in a week, with 2.6 million song downloads. Thriller, Number Ones and The Essential Michael Jackson became the first catalog albums to outsell any new album.[320] Jackson also became the first artist to have four of the top 20 best-selling albums in a single year in the US.[321]

Following the surge in sales, in March 2010, Sony Music signed a $250 million deal (equivalent to $296,696,170 in 2020) with the Jackson estate to extend their distribution rights to Jackson's back catalog until at least 2017; it had been due to expire in 2015. It was the most expensive music contract for a single artist in history.[322][323] They agreed to release ten albums of previously unreleased material and new collections of released work.[322][324] The deal was extended in 2017.[325] That July, a Los Angeles court awarded Jones $9.4 million of disputed royalty payments for Off the Wall, Thriller and Bad.[54] In July 2018, Sony/ATV bought the estate's stake in EMI for $287.5 million.[326]

In 2014, Jackson became the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.[327] The following year, Thriller became the first album to be certified for 30 million shipments by the RIAA;[4] a year later, it was certified 33× platinum, after Soundscan added streams and audio downloads to album certifications.[328][nb 3]

Posthumous releases and productions

The first posthumous Jackson song, "This Is It", co-written in the 1980s with Paul Anka, was released in October 2009. The surviving Jackson brothers reunited to record backing vocals.[330] It was followed by a documentary film about the rehearsals for the canceled This Is It tour, Michael Jackson's This Is It,[331] and a compilation album.[332] Despite a limited two-week engagement, the film became the highest-grossing documentary or concert film ever, with earnings of more than $260 million worldwide.[333] Jackson's estate received 90% of the profits.[334] In late 2010, Sony released the first posthumous album, Michael, and the promotional single "Breaking News". Jackson collaborator Will.i.am expressed disgust, saying that Jackson would not have approved the release.[335]

Video game developer Ubisoft released a music video game featuring Jackson for the 2010 holiday season, Michael Jackson: The Experience; it was among the first games to use Kinect and PlayStation Move, the motion-detecting camera systems for Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3.[336] Xscape, an album of unreleased material, was released on May 13, 2014.[337] Later that year, Queen released a duet recorded with Jackson and Freddie Mercury in the 1980s.[68] A compilation album, Scream, was released on September 29, 2017.[338]

In October 2011, the theater company Cirque du Soleil launched Michael Jackson: The Immortal World Tour, a $57-million production,[339] in Montreal, with a permanent show resident in Las Vegas.[340] A larger and more theatrical Cirque show, Michael Jackson: One, designed for residency at the Mandalay Bay resort in Las Vegas, opened on May 23, 2013, in a renovated theater.[341][342] A jukebox musical, Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough, is due to debut on Broadway in 2021.[343]

In April 2011, Mohamed Al-Fayed, chairman of Fulham Football Club, unveiled a statue of Jackson outside the club stadium, Craven Cottage.[344] It was moved to the National Football Museum in Manchester in May 2014,[345] and removed from display in March 2019 following renewed sexual assault allegations.[346]

In 2012, in an attempt to end a family dispute, Jackson's brother Jermaine retracted his signature on a public letter criticizing executors of Jackson's estate and his mother's advisers over the legitimacy of his brother's will.[347] T.J. Jackson, son of Tito Jackson, was given co-guardianship of Michael Jackson's children after false reports of Katherine Jackson going missing.[348] A duet between Jackson and Justin Timberlake titled "Love Never Felt So Good" was released in 2014, making Jackson the first artist to have a top 10 single on the US Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades when the single reached number 9.[349] In November 2019, it was reported that a Jackson biopic, produced by Bohemian Rhapsody (2018) producer Graham King, was in the works, with the screenplay written by John Logan. Jackson's estate granted King the rights to his music and will work with King.[350]

Posthumous child sexual abuse allegations

A smiling Jackson wears a blue baseball cap and a red shirt. On his right are two women. One holds a pen, and one a small purse. On his left a young boy looks off-camera. He is dressed in a red shirt too. Jackson's hand is on his shoulder.
Jackson and Safechuck (right) in Honolulu, Hawaii in 1988

In 2013, choreographer Wade Robson filed a lawsuit alleging that Jackson had sexually abused him for seven years, beginning when he was seven years old (1989–1996).[351] In 2014, a case was filed by James Safechuck, alleging sexual abuse over a four-year period from the age of ten (1988–1992).[352][353][354] Both had testified in Jackson's defense during the 1993 allegations; Robson did so again in 2005.[355][356] In 2015, Robson's case against Jackson's estate was dismissed on the grounds of being filed too late. Safechuck's claim was also time-barred.[357] In 2017, it was ruled that Jackson's corporations could not be held accountable for his alleged past actions.[358][359] The rulings were appealed, and on October 20, 2020, Safechuck's lawsuit against Jackson's corporations was again dismissed, with the presiding judge ruling that there was no evidence that Safechuck had a relationship with Jackson's companies.[360][361][362] On April 26, 2021, Robson's case was dismissed because of a lack of supporting evidence that the defendants exercised control over Jackson.[363]

Robson and Safechuck described allegations in graphic detail in the documentary Leaving Neverland, released in March 2019.[364] Radio stations in New Zealand, Canada, the UK and the Netherlands removed Jackson's music from their playlists.[365][366][367] Jackson's family condemned the film as a "public lynching",[368] and the Jackson estate released a statement calling the film a "tabloid character assassination [Jackson] endured in life, and now in death".[369] Close associates of Jackson, such as Corey Feldman, Aaron Carter, Brett Barnes, and Macaulay Culkin, said that Jackson had not molested them.[370][371][372] Rebuttal documentaries, such as Square One: Michael Jackson, Neverland Firsthand: Investigating the Michael Jackson Documentary and Michael Jackson: Chase the Truth, presented information countering the claims.[373][374][375] Jackson's album sales increased following the documentary.[376] Billboard senior editor Gail Mitchell said she and a colleague interviewed about thirty music executives who believed Jackson's legacy could withstand the controversy.[377] In late 2019, some New Zealand and Canadian radio stations re-added Jackson's music to their playlists, citing "positive listener survey results".[378][379]

On February 21, 2019, the Jackson estate sued HBO for breaching a non-disparagement clause from a 1992 contract. The suit sought to compel HBO to participate in a non-confidential arbitration that could result in $100 million or more in damages rewarded to the estate.[380] HBO said they did not breach a contract and filed an anti-SLAPP motion against the estate. In September 2019, Judge George H. Wu denied HBO's motion to dismiss the case, allowing the Jackson estate to arbitrate.[381] HBO appealed, but in December 2020 the appeal court affirmed Judge Wu's ruling.[382]

Legacy and influence

A wall with colorful graffiti depicting Michael Jackson; once his full body dancing, then a close-up of his face.
Michael Jackson graffiti in Santa Cruz, California

Jackson has been referred to as the "King of Pop" because he transformed the art of music videos and paved the way for modern pop music. For much of Jackson's career, he had an unparalleled worldwide influence over the younger generation.[212] His influence extended beyond the music industry; he impacted dance, led fashion trends, and raised awareness for global affairs.[383] Jackson's music and videos fostered racial diversity in MTV's roster and steered its focus from rock to pop music and R&B, shaping the channel into a form that proved enduring.[42] In songs such as "Man in the Mirror", "Black or White", Heal the World, "Earth Song" and "They Don't Care About Us", Jackson's music emphasized racial integration and environmentalism and protested injustice.[384][385] He is recognized as the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time by Guinness World Records.[386][387] He is considered one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century,[388] and his contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.[389][390][391]

Trying to trace Michael Jackson's influence on the pop stars that followed him is like trying to trace the influence of oxygen and gravity. So vast, far-reaching and was his impact — particularly in the wake of Thriller's colossal and heretofore unmatched commercial success — that there weren't a whole lot of artists who weren't trying to mimic some of the Jackson formula.

— J. Edward Keyes of Rolling Stone[392]

Danyel Smith, chief content officer of Vibe Media Group and the editor-in-chief of Vibe, described Jackson as "the Greatest Star".[393] Steve Huey of AllMusic called him "an unstoppable juggernaut, possessed of all the skills to dominate the charts seemingly at will: an instantly identifiable voice, eye-popping dance moves, stunning musical versatility and loads of sheer star power".[8] BET said Jackson was "quite simply the greatest entertainer of all time" whose "sound, style, movement and legacy continues to inspire artists of all genres".[394]

Jackson's Bad era wax figure at Madame Tussauds, London in 1992

In 1984, Time pop critic Jay Cocks wrote that "Jackson is the biggest thing since the Beatles. He is the hottest single phenomenon since Elvis Presley. He just may be the most popular black singer ever." He described Jackson as a "star of records, radio, rock video. A one-man rescue team for the music business. A songwriter who sets the beat for a decade. A dancer with the fanciest feet on the street. A singer who cuts across all boundaries of taste and style, and color too."[87] In 2003, The Daily Telegraph writer Tom Utley described Jackson as "extremely important" and a "genius".[395] In 2007, Jackson said: "Music has been my outlet, my gift to all of the lovers in this world. Through it, my music, I know I will live forever."[396] At Jackson's memorial service on July 7, 2009, Motown founder Berry Gordy called Jackson "the greatest entertainer that ever lived".[397][398] In a June 28, 2009 Baltimore Sun article, Jill Rosen wrote that Jackson's legacy influenced fields including sound, dance, fashion, music videos and celebrity.[399]

Pop critic Robert Christgau wrote that Jackson's work from the 1970s to the early 1990s showed "immense originality, adaptability, and ambition" with "genius beats, hooks, arrangements, and vocals (though not lyrics)", music that "will stand forever as a reproach to the puritanical notion that pop music is slick or shallow and that's the end of it". During the 1990s, as Jackson lost control of his "troubling life", his music suffered and began to shape "an arc not merely of promise fulfilled and outlived, but of something approaching tragedy: a phenomenally ebullient child star tops himself like none before, only to transmute audibly into a lost weirdo".[400] In the 2000s, Christgau wrote: "Jackson's obsession with fame, his grotesque life magnified by his grotesque wealth, are such an offense to rock aesthetes that the fact that he's a great musician is now often forgotten".[401]

Artistry

Influences

A black jacket with five round golden medals on its left and right shoulders, a gold band on its left arm sleeve, and two belt straps on the right bottom sleeve. Underneath the jacket is a golden belt, with a round ornament in its center.
Jackson's Bad era jacket on display at the Hollywood Guinness World Records Museum.

Jackson was influenced by musicians including James Brown, Little Richard, Jackie Wilson, Diana Ross, Fred Astaire, Sammy Davis Jr., Gene Kelly,[402] and David Ruffin.[403] Little Richard had a substantial influence on Jackson,[404] but Brown was his greatest inspiration; he later said that as a small child, his mother would waken him whenever Brown appeared on television. Jackson described being "mesmerized".[405]

Jackson's vocal technique was influenced by Diana Ross; his use of the oooh interjection from a young age was something Ross had used on many of her songs with the Supremes.[406] She was a mother figure to him, and he often watched her rehearse.[407] He said he had learned a lot from watching how she moved and sang, and that she had encouraged him to have confidence in himself.[408]

Choreographer David Winters, who met Jackson while choreographing the 1971 Diana Ross TV special Diana!, said that Jackson watched the musical West Side Story almost every week, and it was his favorite film; he paid tribute to it in "Beat It" and the "Bad" video.[409][410][411]

Vocal style

Jackson sang from childhood, and over time his voice and vocal style changed. Between 1971 and 1975, his voice descended from boy soprano to high tenor.[412] He was known for his vocal range.[413] With the arrival of Off the Wall in the late 1970s, Jackson's abilities as a vocalist were well regarded; Rolling Stone compared his vocals to the "breathless, dreamy stutter" of Stevie Wonder, and wrote that "Jackson's feathery-timbred tenor is extraordinarily beautiful. It slides smoothly into a startling falsetto that's used very daringly."[414] By the time of 1982's Thriller, Rolling Stone wrote that Jackson was singing in a "fully adult voice" that was "tinged by sadness".[415]

The turn of the 1990s saw the release of the introspective album Dangerous. The New York Times noted that on some tracks, "he gulps for breath, his voice quivers with anxiety or drops to a desperate whisper, hissing through clenched teeth" and he had a "wretched tone". When singing of brotherhood or self-esteem the musician would return to "smooth" vocals.[416] Of Invincible, Rolling Stone wrote that, at 43, Jackson still performed "exquisitely voiced rhythm tracks and vibrating vocal harmonies".[417] Joseph Vogel notes Jackson's ability to use non-verbal sounds to express emotion.[418] Neil McCormick wrote that Jackson's unorthodox singing style "was original and utterly distinctive".[419]

Musicianship

Jackson had no formal music training and could not read or write music notation. He is credited for playing guitar, keyboard and drums, but was not proficient in them.[420] When composing, he recorded ideas by beatboxing and imitating instruments vocally.[420] Describing the process, he said: "I'll just sing the bass part into the tape recorder. I'll take that bass lick and put the chords of the melody over the bass lick and that's what inspires the melody." Engineer Robert Hoffman recalled that after Jackson came in with a song he had written overnight, Jackson sang every note of every chord to a guitar player. Hoffman also remembered Jackson singing string arrangements part by part into a cassette recorder.[420]

Dance

Jackson danced from a young age as part of the Jackson 5,[421] and incorporated dance extensively in his performances and music videos.[421] According to Sanjoy Roy of The Guardian, Jackson would "flick and retract his limbs like switchblades, or snap out of a tornado spin into a perfectly poised toe-stand".[421] The moonwalk, taught to him by Jeffrey Daniel,[79] was Jackson's signature dance move and one of the most famous of the 20th century.[422] Jackson is credited for coining the name "moonwalk"; the move was previously known as the "backslide".[423][424] His other moves included the robot,[47] crotch grab, and the "anti-gravity" lean of the "Smooth Criminal" video.[421]

Themes and genres

Black and white photo of Jackson holding a microphone and singing.
Jackson during his Bad tour in Vienna, June 1988

Jackson explored genres including pop,[8][425] soul,[8][150] rhythm and blues,[425] funk,[426] rock,[425][426] disco,[427] post-disco,[426] dance-pop[428] and new jack swing.[8] Steve Huey of AllMusic wrote that Thriller refined the strengths of Off the Wall; the dance and rock tracks were more aggressive, while the pop tunes and ballads were softer and more soulful.[8] Its tracks included the ballads "The Lady in My Life", "Human Nature", and "The Girl Is Mine",[429][415][430] the funk pieces "Billie Jean" and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'",[429][415] and the disco set "Baby Be Mine" and "P.Y.T. (Pretty Young Thing)".[430]

With Off the Wall, Jackson's "vocabulary of grunts, squeals, hiccups, moans, and asides" vividly showed his maturation into an adult, Robert Christgau wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies (1981). The album's title track suggested to the critic a parallel between Jackson and Stevie Wonder's "oddball" music personas: "Since childhood his main contact with the real world has been on stage and in bed."[431] With Thriller, Christopher Connelly of Rolling Stone commented that Jackson developed his long association with the subliminal theme of paranoia and darker imagery.[415] AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine noted this on the songs "Billie Jean" and "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'".[429] In "Billie Jean", Jackson depicts an obsessive fan who alleges he has fathered her child,[8] and in "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'" he argues against gossip and the media.[415] "Beat It" decried gang violence in a homage to West Side Story, and was Jackson's first successful rock cross-over piece, according to Huey.[8][39] He observed that "Thriller" began Jackson's interest with the theme of the supernatural, a topic he revisited in subsequent years. In 1985, Jackson co-wrote the charity anthem "We Are the World"; humanitarian themes later became a recurring theme in his lyrics and public persona.[8]

In Bad, Jackson's concept of the predatory lover is seen on the rock song "Dirty Diana".[436] The lead single "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" is a traditional love ballad, and "Man in the Mirror" is a ballad of confession and resolution. "Smooth Criminal" is an evocation of bloody assault, rape and likely murder.[133] AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine states that Dangerous presents Jackson as a paradoxical person.[437] The first half of the record is dedicated to new jack swing, including songs like "Jam" and "Remember the Time". It was the first Jackson album in which social ills became a primary theme; "Why You Wanna Trip on Me", for example, protests world hunger, AIDS, homelessness and drugs. Dangerous contains sexually charged songs such as "In the Closet". The title track continues the theme of the predatory lover and compulsive desire. The second half includes introspective, pop-gospel anthems such as "Will You Be There", "Heal the World" and "Keep the Faith".[416] In the ballad "Gone Too Soon", Jackson gives tribute to Ryan White and the plight of those with AIDS.[438]

HIStory creates an atmosphere of paranoia.[439] In the new jack swing-funk rock tracks "Scream" and "Tabloid Junkie", and the R&B ballad "You Are Not Alone", Jackson retaliates against the injustice and isolation he feels, and directs his anger at the media.[440] In the introspective ballad "Stranger in Moscow", Jackson laments his "fall from grace"; "Earth Song", "Childhood", "Little Susie" and "Smile" are operatic pop songs.[439][440] In "D.S.", Jackson attacks lawyer Thomas W. Sneddon Jr., who had prosecuted him in both child sexual abuse cases. He describes Sneddon as a white supremacist who wanted to "get my ass, dead or alive". Sneddon said he had not listened to the song.[441] Invincible was produced by Rodney Jerkins.[8] It includes urban soul tracks such as "Cry" and "The Lost Children", ballads such as "Speechless", "Break of Dawn", and "Butterflies" and mixes hip hop, pop, and R&B in "2000 Watts", "Heartbreaker" and "Invincible".[442][443]

Music videos and choreography

A man is singing into a microphone under a spotlight. He wears a blue open-neck shirt over a white T-shirt, and dark pants. There are two colorfully-dressed men on either side of him.
Jackson (center) performing a dance sequence of "The Way You Make Me Feel" at the Bad tour in 1988.

Jackson released "Thriller", a 14-minute music video directed by John Landis, in 1983.[444] The zombie-themed video "defined music videos and broke racial barriers" on MTV, which had launched two years earlier.[42] Before Thriller, Jackson struggled to receive coverage on MTV, allegedly because he was African American.[445] Pressure from CBS Records persuaded MTV to start showing "Billie Jean" and later "Beat It", which led to a lengthy partnership with Jackson, and helped other black music artists gain recognition.[446] The popularity of his videos on MTV helped the relatively new channel's viewing figures, and MTV's focus shifted toward pop and R&B.[446][447] His performance on Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever changed the scope of live stage shows, making it acceptable for artists to lip-sync to music video on stage.[448] The choreography in Thriller has been copied in Indian films and prisons in the Philippines.[449] Thriller marked an increase in scale for music videos, and was named the most successful music video ever by the Guinness World Records.[210]

In "Bad"'s 19-minute video—directed by Martin Scorsese—Jackson used sexual imagery and choreography, and touched his chest, torso and crotch. When asked by Winfrey in the 1993 interview about why he grabbed his crotch, he said it was spontaneously compelled by the music. Time magazine described the "Bad" video as "infamous". It featured Wesley Snipes; Jackson's later videos often featured famous cameo roles.[450][451] For the "Smooth Criminal" video, Jackson experimented with leaning forward at a 45 degree angle, beyond the performer's center of gravity. To accomplish this live, Jackson and designers developed a special shoe to lock the performer's feet to the stage, allowing them to lean forward. They were granted U.S. Patent 5,255,452 for the device.[452] The video for "Leave Me Alone" was not officially released in the US, but in 1989 was nominated for three Billboard Music Video Awards[453] and won a Golden Lion Award for its special effects. It won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form.[61]

He received the MTV Video Vanguard Award in 1988; in 2001 the award was renamed in his honor.[454] The "Black or White" video simultaneously premiered on November 14, 1991, in 27 countries with an estimated audience of 500 million people, the largest audience ever for a music video at the time.[165] Along with Jackson, it featured Macaulay Culkin, Peggy Lipton, and George Wendt. It helped introduce morphing to music videos.[455] It was controversial for scenes in which Jackson rubs his crotch, vandalizes cars, and throws a garbage can through a storefront. He apologized and removed the final scene of the video.[154]

"In the Closet" featured Naomi Campbell in a courtship dance with Jackson.[456] "Remember the Time" was set in ancient Egypt, and featured Eddie Murphy, Iman, and Magic Johnson.[457] The video for "Scream", directed by Mark Romanek and production designer Tom Foden, gained a record 11 MTV Video Music Award Nominations, and won "Best Dance Video", "Best Choreography", and "Best Art Direction".[458] The song and its video are Jackson's response to being accused of child molestation in 1993.[459] A year later, it won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form. It has been reported as the most expensive music video ever made, at $7 million;[460] Romanek has contradicted this.[461] The "Earth Song" video was nominated for the 1997 Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form.[462]

Michael Jackson's Ghosts, a short film written by Jackson and Stephen King and directed by Stan Winston, premiered at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival. At over 38 minutes long, it held the Guinness world record for the longest music video until 2013, when it was eclipsed by the video for the Pharrell Williams song "Happy".[463] The 2001 video for "You Rock My World" lasts over 13 minutes, was directed by Paul Hunter, and features Chris Tucker and Marlon Brando.[464] It won an NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Music Video in 2002.[465]

In December 2009, the Library of Congress selected "Thriller" as the only music video to be preserved in the National Film Registry, as a work of "enduring importance to American culture".[466][467] Huey wrote that Jackson transformed the music video into an artform and a promotional tool through complex story lines, dance routines, special effects and famous cameos, while breaking down racial barriers.[8]

Honors and awards

The Thriller platinum certified record on display at the Hard Rock Cafe in Hollywood. As of 2017, it is certified 33× platinum.[328]

Jackson's estimated sales of over 400 million records worldwide[468][Note 2] make him one of the best-selling music artist in history.[469] He had 13 number-one singles in the US in his solo career—more than any other male artist in the Hot 100 era.[470] He was invited and honored by a President of the United States at the White House three times. In 1984, he was honored with a "Presidential Public Safety Commendation" award by Ronald Reagan for his humanitarian endeavors.[471] In 1990, he was honored as the "Artist of the Decade" by George H. W. Bush.[472] In 1992, he was honored as a "Point of Light Ambassador" by Bush for inviting disadvantaged children to his Neverland Ranch.[473]

He won hundreds of awards, more than any other popular music recording artist.[474] His awards include 39 Guinness World Records, including the Most Successful Entertainer of All Time,[386][387] 13 Grammy Awards,[475] as well as the Grammy Legend Award[476] and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award,[477] and a record 26 American Music Awards, including the "Artist of the Century" and "Artist of the 1980s".[228] He also received the World Music Awards' Best-Selling Pop Male Artist of the Millennium and the Bambi Pop Artist of the Millennium Award.[478] Jackson was inducted onto the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1980 as a member of the Jacksons, and in 1984 as a solo artist. He was inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Vocal Group Hall of Fame as a member of The Jackson 5 in 1997 and 1999,[479] respectively, and again as a solo artist in 2001.[480] In 2002, he was added to the Songwriters Hall of Fame.[481] In 2010, he was the first recording artist to be inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame,[482] and in 2014, he was posthumously inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame.[483]

In 1988, Fisk University honored him with an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters.[484] In 1992, he was invested as a titular king of Sanwi, a traditional kingdom located in the south-east of Ivory Coast.[485] In July 2009, the Lunar Republic Society named a crater on the Moon after Jackson.[486] In August, for what would have been Jackson's 51st birthday, Google dedicated their Google Doodle to him.[487] In 2014, the British Council of Cultural Relations deemed Jackson's life one of the 80 most important cultural moments of the 20th century.[488] World Vitiligo Day has been celebrated on June 25, the anniversary of Jackson's death, to raise awareness of the auto-immune disorder that Jackson suffered from.[489]

Earnings

In 1989, Jackson's annual earnings from album sales, endorsements, and concerts were estimated at $125 million.[210] Forbes placed Jackson's annual income at $35 million in 1996 and $20 million in 1997.[490] Estimates of Jackson's net worth during his life range from negative $285 million to positive $350 million for 2002, 2003 and 2007.[491][492] Forbes reported in August 2018 that Jackson's total career pretax earnings in life and death were $4.2 billion.[493][494] Sales of his recordings through Sony's music unit earned him an estimated $300 million in royalties. He may have earned another $400 million from concerts, music publishing (including his share of the Beatles catalog), endorsements, merchandising and music videos.[495]

In 2013, the executors of Jackson's estate filed a petition in the United States Tax Court as a result of a dispute with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) over US federal estate taxes.[496] The executors claim that it was worth about $7 million, the IRS that it was worth over $1.1 billion. In February 2014, the IRS reported that Jackson's estate owed $702 million; $505 million in taxes, and $197 million in penalties.[497] A trial was held from February 6 to 24, 2017,[498] and a decision was still pending as of 2020.[499]

In 2016, Forbes estimated annual gross earnings by the Jackson Estate at $825 million, the largest ever recorded for a celebrity, mostly due to the sale of the Sony/ATV catalog.[500] In 2018, the figure was $400 million.[501] It was the eighth year since his death that Jackson's annual earnings were reported to be over $100 million, thus bringing Jackson's postmortem total to $2.4 billion.[502] In 2020, Forbes recognized Jackson as the top-earning dead celebrity each year since his death except 2012.[503][504]

Discography

Filmography

Tours

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "I Just Can't Stop Loving You", "Bad", "The Way You Make Me Feel", "Man in the Mirror", and "Dirty Diana".
  2. ^ The Wall Street Journal and other news sites report that the 750 million units sold by Michael Jackson is an inflated figure, initially claimed in 2006 by Raymone Bain,[1] Jackson's publicist at that time, without any evidence and probably in an effort to boost album sales.[2][3] Since 2006, several sources such as RIAA, Rolling Stone, and Time have claimed that Michael Jackson has sold 750 million units (or even 1 billion);[4][5][6] Adrian Strain, a representative from the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) has disputed this figure.[3]
  3. ^ In 2018, its US sales record was overtaken by the Eagles' album Greatest Hits 1971–75, with 38× platinum.[329]

References

Citations

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