كاليفورنيا

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كاليفورنيا
ولاية كاليفورنيا
اسماء مستعارة): 
غولدن ستايت [1]
الشعار (الشعارات): 
نشيد وطني: " أحبك ، كاليفورنيا "
Map of the United States with California highlighted
خريطة للولايات المتحدة مع إبراز ولاية كاليفورنيا
دولةالولايات المتحدة الأمريكية
قبل قيام الدولةالتنازل المكسيكي إقليم غير منظم
تم قبوله في الاتحاد9 سبتمبر 1850 (31)
عاصمةسكرامنتو [1]
اكبر مدينةلوس أنجلوس
أكبر المترو و الحضرية المناطقلوس انجليس الكبرى
حكومة
 •  الحاكمجافين نيوسوم ( د )
 •  نائب الحاكمإليني كونالاكيس (د)
السلطة التشريعيةالتشريع الخاص بالولاية
 •  البيت العلويمجلس شيوخ الولاية
 •  البيت السفليبرلمان الولاية
القضاءالمحكمة العليا في كاليفورنيا
أعضاء مجلس الشيوخ الأمريكيديان فينشتاين (د)
أليكس باديلا (د)
وفد مجلس النواب الأمريكي
  • 42 ديموقراطيا
  • 11 جمهوري
( قائمة )
منطقة
 • المجموع163،696 ميل مربع (423،970 كم 2 )
 • الأرض155،959 ميل مربع (403،932 كم 2 )
 • ماء7،737 ميل مربع (20،047 كيلومتر مربع ) 4.7٪
رتبة المنطقةالثالث
أبعاد
 • طول770 ميل (1،240 كم)
 • عرض250 ميل (400 كم)
ارتفاع
2900 قدم (880 م)
أعلى ارتفاع14505 قدم (4،421.0 م)
أدنى ارتفاع−279 قدم (−85.0 م)
تعداد السكان
 (2020)
 • المجموع39538223 [8]
 • مرتبةالأول
 • كثافة253.6 / sq mi (97.9 / كم 2 )
 • رتبة الكثافةالحادي عشر
 •  متوسط ​​دخل الأسرة
71،228 دولارًا (2،018) [9]
 • مرتبة الدخل
التاسع
Demonym (s)كاليفورنيا
لغة
 •  لغة رسميةإنجليزي
 •  اللغة المنطوقة
وحدة زمنيةالتوقيت العالمي المتفق عليه − 08:00 ( توقيت المحيط الهادئ )
 • الصيف ( DST )التوقيت العالمي المتفق عليه − 07:00 ( توقيت المحيط الهادي الصيفي )
اختصار USPS
كاليفورنيا
كود ISO 3166الولايات المتحدة-كاليفورنيا
الاختصار التقليديكاليفورنيا ، كال. ، كالي.
خط العرض32 ° 32 ′ شمالاً إلى 42 درجة شمالاً
خط الطول114 ° 8 ′ غربًا إلى 124 ° 26 غربًا
موقع الكترونيwww .ca .gov
رموز ولاية كاليفورنيا
Flag of California.svg
Great Seal of California.svg
شارة حية
البرمائياتالضفدع الأحمر الأرجل في كاليفورنيا
عصفورالسمان في كاليفورنيا
سمكة
وردخشخاش كاليفورنيا
عشبالإبرة الأرجواني
حشرةفراشة الكلب الكلب في كاليفورنيا
الحيوان الثديي
الزواحفسلحفاة الصحراء
شجرةالخشب الأحمر الساحل و سيكويا عملاقة [11]
شارة الجماد
الألوانأزرق وذهبي [12]
الرقصوست كوست سوينغ
الرقص الشعبيرقصة مربعة
حفريةقط ذو أسنان صابر
الأحجار الكريمةبينيتويت
المعدنيةالذهب الأصلي
صخراعوج
تربةسان جواكين
رياضةتصفح
ترتانولاية كاليفورنيا ترتان
علامة طريق الحالة
California state route marker
ربع الدولة
California quarter dollar coin
أطلق في عام 2005
قوائم رموز الولايات المتحدة

كاليفورنيا هي ولاية تقع في غرب الولايات المتحدة . يحدها نيفادا من الشرق ، وأريزونا من الجنوب الشرقي ، والمحيط الهادي من الغرب ، وأوريجون من الشمال ، وولاية باجا كاليفورنيا المكسيكية من الجنوب. مع أكثر من 39.5  مليون نسمة في جميع أنحاء مساحة إجمالية قدرها حوالي 163696 ميل مربع (423970 كم 2 )، هو من حيث عدد السكان و ثالث أكبر ولاية أمريكية من حيث المساحة. وهي أيضًا الكيان دون الوطني الأكثر اكتظاظًا بالسكان في أمريكا الشمالية والمرتبة 34 من حيث عدد السكان في العالم. التعد منطقة لوس أنجلوس الكبرى ومنطقة خليج سان فرانسيسكو ثاني وخامس أكثر المناطق الحضرية اكتظاظًا بالسكان في البلاد على التوالي ، حيث تضم الأولى أكثر من 18.7  مليون نسمة والأخيرة تضم أكثر من 9.6  مليون نسمة. [13] ساكرامنتو هي عاصمة الولاية ، بينما لوس أنجلوس هي المدينة الأكثر اكتظاظًا بالسكان في الولاية وثاني أكثر المدن اكتظاظًا بالسكان في البلاد (بعد مدينة نيويورك ). مقاطعة لوس أنجلوس هي أكبر مقاطعة في البلاد من حيث عدد السكان ، في حين أن مقاطعة سان برناردينو هي أكبر مقاطعة من حيث المساحةفي البلاد. سان فرانسيسكو ، وهي مدينة ومقاطعة ، هي ثاني أكثر المدن الرئيسية كثافة سكانية في البلاد (بعد مدينة نيويورك) وخامس أكثر المقاطعات كثافة سكانية في البلاد ، خلف أربعة من الأحياء الخمس في مدينة نيويورك .

يعد اقتصاد كاليفورنيا ، بإجمالي ناتج إجمالي للولاية يبلغ 3.2  تريليون دولار أمريكي اعتبارًا من عام 2019 ، أكبر اقتصاد دون قومي في العالم. [14] إذا كانت دولة ، فستحتل المرتبة 37 من حيث عدد السكان وخامس أكبر اقتصاد اعتبارًا من عام 2020 . [15] تعد منطقة لوس أنجلوس الكبرى ومنطقة خليج سان فرانسيسكو ثاني وثالث أكبر اقتصادات حضرية في البلاد (1.0  تريليون دولار و 0.5  تريليون دولار على التوالي اعتبارًا من عام 2020 ) ، بعد منطقة نيويورك الحضرية (1.8  تريليون دولار). [16] و الإحصائية المنطقة المشتركة منطقة خليج سان فرانسيسكوكان نصيب الفرد من الناتج المحلي الإجمالي الأعلى في البلاد (106،757 دولارًا أمريكيًا) بين المناطق الإحصائية الأولية الكبيرة في عام 2018 ، [17] وهي موطن لخمس من أكبر عشر شركات في العالم من حيث القيمة السوقية [18] وأربعة من أغنى عشرة أشخاص في العالم. [19]

ما يعرف الآن بكاليفورنيا تم تسويته لأول مرة من قبل مختلف القبائل الأصلية في كاليفورنيا قبل استكشافها من قبل عدد من الأوروبيين خلال القرنين السادس عشر والسابع عشر. و الإمبراطورية الإسبانية ثم ادعى واستعمروها. في عام 1804 ، تم إدراجه في مقاطعة ألتا كاليفورنيا ضمن نواب الملك في إسبانيا الجديدة . أصبحت المنطقة جزءًا من المكسيك في عام 1821 ، بعد حربها الناجحة من أجل الاستقلال ، ولكن تم التنازل عنها للولايات المتحدة في عام 1848 بعد الحرب المكسيكية الأمريكية . تم بعد ذلك تنظيم الجزء الغربي من ألتا كاليفورنيا وتم قبوله باعتباره الولاية الحادية والثلاثين في 9 سبتمبر 1850 ، بعد تسوية عام 1850 . البدأت California Gold Rush في عام 1848 وأدت إلى تغييرات اجتماعية وديموغرافية دراماتيكية ، مع هجرة واسعة النطاق من أجزاء أخرى من الولايات المتحدة وخارجها وما صاحبها من ازدهار اقتصادي.

مساهمات بارزة في الثقافة الشعبية ، على سبيل المثال في الترفيه و الرياضة ، لها أصولها في ولاية كاليفورنيا. كما قدمت الدولة مساهمات جديرة بالملاحظة في مجالات الاتصال والمعلومات والابتكار وحماية البيئة والاقتصاد والسياسة. [20] [21] [22] إنها موطن هوليوود ، أقدم وأكبر صناعة أفلام في العالم ، والتي كان لها تأثير عميق على الترفيه العالمي. وهو يعتبر أصل الهيبيز المضادة، الشاطئ و الثقافة سيارة ، [ لم يتم التحقق في الجسم ] و أجهزة الكمبيوتر الشخصية، [23] من بين ابتكارات أخرى. [24] [25] يُنظر إلى منطقة خليج سان فرانسيسكو ومنطقة لوس أنجلوس الكبرى على نطاق واسع كمراكز للتكنولوجيا العالمية وصناعات الترفيه ، على التوالي. إن اقتصاد كاليفورنيا متنوع للغاية: 58٪ منه يعتمد على التمويل ، والحكومة ، والخدمات العقارية ، والتكنولوجيا ، والخدمات المهنية والعلمية والتقنية للأعمال. [26] على الرغم من أنها تمثل 1.5٪ فقط من اقتصاد الولاية ، [26] تمتلك الصناعة الزراعية في كاليفورنيا أعلى ناتج مقارنة بأي ولاية أمريكية. [27] [28] [29] تتعامل موانئ وموانئ كاليفورنيا مع حوالي ثلث جميع واردات الولايات المتحدة ، ومعظمها ينشأ في المحيط الهادئ التجارة العالمية.

تشترك في الحدود مع ولاية كاليفورنيا ولاية أوريغون في الشمال، و نيفادا و أريزونا إلى الشرق، والدولة المكسيكية باجا كاليفورنيا إلى الجنوب. يتراوح جغرافية متنوعة الدولة من ساحل المحيط الهادئ والمناطق الحضرية في الغرب إلى سييرا نيفادا الجبال في الشرق، ومن الخشب الأحمر و التنوب دوجلاس الغابات في الشمال الغربي ل صحراء موهافي في جنوب شرق البلاد. و ادي الوسطى ، وهي منطقة زراعية كبيرة، يهيمن على مركز الدولة. على الرغم من أن ولاية كاليفورنيا معروفة ل ه دافئة المناخ المتوسط و الرياح الموسميةالطقس الموسمي ، يؤدي الحجم الكبير للولاية إلى مناخات تختلف من غابات مطيرة رطبة معتدلة في الشمال إلى صحراء قاحلة في الداخل ، وكذلك جبال الألب الثلجية في الجبال. كل هذه العوامل تؤدي إلى طلب هائل على المياه. في الأرقام الإجمالية ، تعد كاليفورنيا أكبر مستهلك للمياه في قارة أمريكا الشمالية بأكملها. مع مرور الوقت، الجفاف و حرائق الغابات وزادت وتيرتها وتصبح على مدار العام أقل الموسمية وأكثر من نقص في ولاية كاليفورنيا الأمن المائي . [30] [31]

علم أصول الكلمات

أعطى الإسبان اسم لاس كاليفورنياس لشبه جزيرة باجا كاليفورنيا وألتا كاليفورنيا ، المنطقة التي أصبحت ولاية كاليفورنيا الحالية.

من المحتمل أن الاسم مشتق من جزيرة كاليفورنيا الأسطورية في القصة الخيالية للملكة كالافيا ، كما هو مسجل في عمل 1510 مغامرات Esplandián بواسطة Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo . [32] كان هذا العمل هو الخامس في سلسلة رومانسية إسبانية شهيرة بدأت مع Amadís de Gaula . [33] [34] [35] قيل أن مملكة الملكة كالافيا هي أرض نائية غنية بالذهب واللؤلؤ ، يسكنها نساء سوداوات جميلات يرتدين دروعًا ذهبية ويعشن مثل الأمازون ، بالإضافة إلى غريفين ووحوش غريبة أخرى. [32] [36] [37]في الجنة الخيالية ، قاتلت الملكة كالافيا إلى جانب المسلمين ، وربما تم اختيار اسمها لترديد لقب الزعيم المسلم ، الخليفة. من المحتمل أن يكون اسم كاليفورنيا يعني أن الجزيرة كانت دولة خلافة . [32] [38]

اعلموا أنه على يمين جزر الهند توجد جزيرة تسمى كاليفورنيا ، قريبة جدًا من ذلك الجزء من الجنة الأرضية ، والتي كانت تسكنها نساء سود دون وجود رجل واحد بينهم ، وكانوا يعيشون على طريقة الأمازون. كانوا أقوياء الجسم وقلوبهم عاطفية قوية وفضيلة عظيمة. الجزيرة نفسها هي واحدة من أكثر الجزر وحشية في العالم بسبب الصخور الجريئة والصخرية.

-  الفصل السابع والعشرون من مغامرات اسبلانديان [39]

تتضمن الأشكال المختصرة لاسم الولاية CA ، و Cal ، و Cali ، و Califas ، و California ، و US-CA .

تاريخ

خريطة المجموعات القبلية في كاليفورنيا واللغات في وقت الاتصال الأوروبي

أول سكان

استقرت في ظل موجات متتالية من الوافدين خلال آخر 13000 عام على الأقل ، [40] كانت كاليفورنيا واحدة من أكثر المناطق تنوعًا ثقافيًا ولغويًا في أمريكا الشمالية قبل كولومبوس . تتراوح التقديرات المختلفة للسكان الأصليين من 100،000 إلى 300،000. [41] كان السكان الأصليون في كاليفورنيا يضمون أكثر من 70 مجموعة عرقية مميزة من الأمريكيين الأصليين ، تتراوح من عدد كبير من السكان المستقرين الذين يعيشون على الساحل إلى مجموعات في الداخل. كما كانت مجموعة متنوعة كاليفورنيا في المؤسسة السياسية مع العصابات والقبائل والقرى، وعلى السواحل الغنية بالموارد، كبيرة مشيخات ، مثل Chumash ، Pomo و Salinan. عززت التجارة والتزاوج والتحالفات العسكرية العديد من العلاقات الاجتماعية والاقتصادية بين المجموعات المتنوعة.

الحكم الاسباني

شعار النبالة الممنوحة للكليفورنيس التي كتبها الوالي انطونيو دي مندوزا
تم رسم مهمة سان دييغو دي ألكالا كما كانت في عام 1848. تأسست عام 1769 ، وكانت أول مهمة من مهام كاليفورنيا.

كان أول الأوروبيين الذين اكتشفوا ساحل كاليفورنيا أعضاء في رحلة استكشافية إسبانية بقيادة القبطان البرتغالي خوان رودريغيز كابريلو . دخلوا خليج سان دييغو في 28 سبتمبر 1542 ، ووصلوا على الأقل إلى الشمال حتى جزيرة سان ميغيل . [42] قام الجندي والمستكشف فرانسيس دريك باستكشاف وادعاء وجود جزء غير محدد من ساحل كاليفورنيا في عام 1579 ، حيث هبط شمال مدينة سان فرانسيسكو المستقبلية . [43] حدث أول آسيويين تطأ أقدامهم الولايات المتحدة عام 1587 ، عندما وصل البحارة الفلبينيون على متن سفن إسبانية إلى خليج مورو.. [44] [45] [الملاحظة 1] قام سيباستيان فيزكاينو باستكشاف ورسم خريطة لساحل كاليفورنيا في عام 1602 لإسبانيا الجديدة ، ووضع الشاطئ في مونتيري . [48]

على الرغم من الاستكشافات الميدانية لكاليفورنيا في القرن السادس عشر ، استمرت فكرة رودريغيز عن كاليفورنيا كجزيرة. ظهرت هذه الرسوم على العديد من الخرائط الأوروبية في القرن الثامن عشر. [49]

بعد بعثة بورتولا الاستكشافية في 1769-1770 ، بدأ المبشرون الإسبان بقيادة جونيبيرو سيرا بإنشاء 21 بعثة في كاليفورنيا على أو بالقرب من ساحل ألتا (أعالي) كاليفورنيا ، بداية من سان دييغو . خلال نفس الفترة ، قامت القوات العسكرية الإسبانية ببناء عدة حصون ( بريسيديوس ) وثلاث مدن صغيرة ( بويبلوس ). و بعثة سان فرانسيسكو نشأ في مدينة سان فرانسيسكو، واثنين من الهنود الحمر نمت في مدن لوس انجليس و سان خوسيه . كما نشأت العديد من المدن والبلدات الصغيرة الأخرى المحيطة بالبعثات الإسبانية المختلفة والبيبلوس ، والتي لا تزال قائمة حتى يومنا هذا.

الاستعمار الاسباني أدت إلى وفاة جماعية بين المواطنين من خلال أوبئة الأمراض المختلفة التي كانت الشعوب الأصلية الحصانة لا الطبيعية، مثل الحصبة و الدفتيريا . [ بحاجة لمصدر ] أدى إنشاء أنظمة الحكم والبنية الاجتماعية الإسبانية ، التي جلبها المستوطنون الإسبان معهم ، إلى إرباك مجتمعات الشعوب الأصلية السابقة تقنيًا وثقافيًا. [ بحاجة لمصدر ]

خلال هذه الفترة نفسها ، استكشف البحارة من الإمبراطورية الروسية على طول ساحل كاليفورنيا وفي عام 1812 أنشأوا مركزًا تجاريًا في فورت روس . [٥٠] تم وضع المستوطنات الساحلية الروسية في أوائل القرن التاسع عشر في ولاية كاليفورنيا شمال أقصى الطرف الشمالي من منطقة الاستيطان الإسباني في خليج سان فرانسيسكو ، وكانت المستوطنات الروسية الواقعة في أقصى جنوب أمريكا في أمريكا الشمالية. انتشرت المستوطنات الروسية المرتبطة بحصن روس من بوينت أرينا إلى خليج توماليس . [51]

الحكم المكسيكي

خريطة توضح ألتا كاليفورنيا في عام 1838 ، عندما كانت مقاطعة مكسيكية ذات كثافة سكانية منخفضة. [52]

في عام 1821 ، منحت حرب الاستقلال المكسيكية المكسيك (بما في ذلك كاليفورنيا) الاستقلال عن إسبانيا. على مدار الخمسة وعشرين عامًا التالية ، ظلت ألتا كاليفورنيا منطقة إدارية نائية في الشمال الغربي من دولة المكسيك المستقلة حديثًا. في البعثات التي كانت تسيطر على معظم من أفضل الأراضي في الدولة، و العلمانية التي كتبها 1834، وأصبح ملكا للحكومة المكسيكية. [53] منح الحاكم العديد من المساحات المربعة من الأرض للآخرين الذين لهم نفوذ سياسي. هذه ضخمة رانتشوس ظهرت أو ماشية المزارع عن المؤسسات المهيمنة المكسيكي كاليفورنيا. تم تطوير مزرعة الرانشوز تحت ملكية كاليفورنيوس(ذوي الأصول الأسبانية من كاليفورنيا) الذين كانوا يتاجرون بجلد البقر والشحم مع تجار بوسطن. لم يصبح لحم البقر سلعة حتى عام 1849 في كاليفورنيا جولد راش .

منذ عشرينيات القرن التاسع عشر ، وصل الصيادون والمستوطنون من الولايات المتحدة وكندا المستقبلية إلى شمال كاليفورنيا. استخدم هؤلاء الوافدون الجدد مسار Siskiyou Trail و California Trail و Oregon Trail و Old Spanish Trail لعبور الجبال الوعرة والصحاري القاسية في كاليفورنيا وما حولها.

العلم الذي استخدمته حركة خوان باوتيستا ألفارادو عام 1836 من أجل استقلال كاليفورنيا .

كانت الحكومة المبكرة للمكسيك المستقلة حديثًا غير مستقرة إلى حد كبير ، وانعكاسًا لذلك ، من عام 1831 فصاعدًا ، شهدت كاليفورنيا أيضًا سلسلة من النزاعات المسلحة ، الداخلية ومع الحكومة المكسيكية المركزية. [54] خلال هذه الفترة السياسية المضطربة ، تمكن خوان باوتيستا ألفارادو من تأمين الحاكم خلال 1836-1842. [55] كان العمل العسكري الذي أوصل ألفارادو إلى السلطة في البداية قد أعلن للحظات أن كاليفورنيا دولة مستقلة ، وساعدها المقيمون الأنجلو أمريكيون في كاليفورنيا ، [56] بما في ذلك إسحاق جراهام . [57]في عام 1840 ، تم إلقاء القبض على مائة من هؤلاء السكان الذين ليس لديهم جوازات سفر ، مما أدى إلى قضية جراهام ، والتي تم حلها جزئيًا بوساطة مسؤولي البحرية الملكية . [56]

أسس الروس من ألاسكا أكبر مستوطنة لهم في كاليفورنيا ، فورت روس ، في عام 1812.

كان جون مارش أحد أكبر مربي الماشية في كاليفورنيا . بعد فشله في الحصول على العدالة ضد واضعي اليد على أرضه من المحاكم المكسيكية ، قرر أن كاليفورنيا يجب أن تصبح جزءًا من الولايات المتحدة. أجرى مارش حملة كتابة رسائل اعتنقت مناخ كاليفورنيا ، والتربة ، وأسباب أخرى للاستقرار هناك ، بالإضافة إلى أفضل طريق لاتباعه ، والذي أصبح يُعرف باسم "طريق مارش". تمت قراءة رسائله ، وإعادة قراءتها ، وتمريرها ، وطباعتها في الصحف في جميع أنحاء البلاد ، وبدأت أول قطارات عربة تتجه إلى كاليفورنيا. [58] دعا المهاجرين للبقاء في مزرعته حتى يتمكنوا من الاستقرار ، وساعدهم في الحصول على جوازات سفرهم. [59]

بعد الدخول في فترة الهجرة المنظمة إلى كاليفورنيا ، انخرط مارش في معركة عسكرية بين الجنرال المكسيكي المكروه مانويل ميتشيلتورينا وحاكم كاليفورنيا الذي حل محله ، خوان باوتيستا ألفارادو. اجتمعت جيوش كل منهما في معركة بروفيدينسيا بالقرب من لوس أنجلوس. كان مارش قد أُجبر رغماً عن رغبته في الانضمام إلى جيش ميشيلتورينا. متجاهلاً رؤسائه ، أثناء المعركة ، أشار إلى الجانب الآخر من أجل معركة. كان هناك العديد من المستوطنين من الولايات المتحدة يقاتلون من كلا الجانبين. أقنع هؤلاء الرجال أنه ليس لديهم سبب لمحاربة بعضهم البعض. نتيجة لتصرفات مارش ، تخلوا عن القتال ، وهُزم ميتشيلتورينا ، وبيو بيكو المولود في كاليفورنياعاد إلى الحاكم. مهد هذا الطريق لاستحواذ الولايات المتحدة على ولاية كاليفورنيا. [60] [61] [62] [63] [64]

جمهورية كاليفورنيا والغزو

في عام 1846 ، تمردت مجموعة من المستوطنين الأمريكيين في سونوما وحولها ضد الحكم المكسيكي خلال ثورة علم الدب . بعد ذلك ، رفع المتمردون علم الدب (الذي يظهر فيه دب ونجمة وشريط أحمر وكلمات "جمهورية كاليفورنيا") في سونوما. كان الرئيس الوحيد للجمهورية هو ويليام بي إيدي ، [65] الذي لعب دورًا محوريًا خلال ثورة علم الدب. كان هذا التمرد من قبل المستوطنين الأمريكيين بمثابة مقدمة للغزو العسكري الأمريكي في وقت لاحق لولاية كاليفورنيا وتم تنسيقه عن كثب مع القادة العسكريين الأمريكيين القريبين.

كانت جمهورية كاليفورنيا قصيرة العمر. [66] شهد العام نفسه اندلاع الحرب المكسيكية الأمريكية (1846-1848). [67] عندما أبحر العميد البحري جون دي سلوت من البحرية الأمريكية إلى خليج مونتيري وبدأ الاحتلال العسكري لكاليفورنيا من قبل الولايات المتحدة ، استسلم شمال كاليفورنيا في أقل من شهر لقوات الولايات المتحدة. [68] بعد سلسلة من المعارك الدفاعية في جنوب كاليفورنيا ، تم التوقيع على معاهدة Cahuenga من قبل كاليفورنيا في 13 يناير 1847 ، لتأمين السيطرة الأمريكية في كاليفورنيا. [69]

الفترة الأمريكية المبكرة

عمال المناجم خلال حمى الذهب في كاليفورنيا
تم قبول كاليفورنيا في الاتحاد بموجب تسوية عام 1850
السفن التجارية في ميناء سان فرانسيسكو ج.  1850 - 51
دليل من شركة كاليفورنيا 100 (الشركة أ) خلال الحرب الأهلية
تصوير لإكمال عام 1869 لأول خط سكة حديد عابر للقارات. The Last Spike (1881) بواسطة Thomas Hill .

بعد معاهدة غوادالوبي هيدالغو (2 فبراير 1848) التي أنهت الحرب ، سرعان ما أصبح الجزء الغربي من الأراضي المكسيكية التي ضمتها ألتا كاليفورنيا ولاية كاليفورنيا الأمريكية ، ثم تم تقسيم ما تبقى من الأراضي القديمة إلى أمريكا الجديدة. أراضي أريزونا ونيفادا و كولورادو و يوتا . ظلت المنطقة المنخفضة ذات الكثافة السكانية المنخفضة والقاحلة في باجا كاليفورنيا القديمة جزءًا من المكسيك. في عام 1846 ، قُدِّر إجمالي عدد المستوطنين في الجزء الغربي من ألتا كاليفورنيا القديمة بما لا يزيد عن 8000 ، بالإضافة إلى حوالي 100000 من الأمريكيين الأصليين ، انخفاضًا من حوالي 300000 قبل توطين ذوي الأصول الأسبانية في عام 1769. [70]

في عام 1848 ، قبل أسبوع واحد فقط من الضم الأمريكي الرسمي للمنطقة ، تم اكتشاف الذهب في كاليفورنيا ، وكان هذا حدثًا سيغير إلى الأبد التركيبة السكانية للولاية وشؤونها المالية. بعد ذلك بوقت قصير ، أدى تدفق أعداد كبيرة من المهاجرين إلى المنطقة ، حيث وصل المنقبون وعمال المناجم بالآلاف. ازدهر السكان مع مواطني الولايات المتحدة والأوروبيين والصينيين وغيرهم من المهاجرين خلال حمى الذهب العظيم في كاليفورنيا. بحلول وقت طلب ولاية كاليفورنيا للحصول على دولة في عام 1850 ، تضاعف عدد المستوطنين في كاليفورنيا إلى 100000. بحلول عام 1854 ، جاء أكثر من 300000 مستوطن. [71] بين عامي 1847 و 1870 ، زاد عدد سكان سان فرانسيسكو من 500 إلى 150.000. [72] لم تعد كاليفورنيا فجأة منطقة منعزلة ذات كثافة سكانية منخفضة ، ولكن يبدو أنها نمت بين عشية وضحاها لتصبح مركزًا سكانيًا رئيسيًا.

كان مقر حكومة ولاية كاليفورنيا تحت الحكم الأسباني وما بعده مكسيكيًا يقع في مونتيري من عام 1777 حتى عام 1845. [53] كان بيو بيكو ، آخر حاكم مكسيكي لألتا كاليفورنيا ، قد نقل العاصمة لفترة وجيزة إلى لوس أنجلوس في عام 1845. الولايات المتحدة كانت القنصلية موجودة أيضًا في مونتيري ، تحت إشراف القنصل توماس أو.لاركين .

في عام 1849 ، عُقد المؤتمر الدستوري للولاية لأول مرة في مونتيري. كان من بين المهام الأولى للاتفاقية قرار بشأن موقع لعاصمة الولاية الجديدة. عُقدت أولى الجلسات التشريعية الكاملة في سان خوسيه (1850-1851). وشملت المواقع اللاحقة فاليخو (1852-1853) ، وبنيسيا المجاورة (1853-1854) ؛ أثبتت هذه المواقع في النهاية أنها غير مناسبة أيضًا. تقع العاصمة في ساكرامنتو منذ عام 1854 [73] مع استراحة قصيرة فقط في عام 1862 عندما عقدت الجلسات التشريعية في سان فرانسيسكو بسبب الفيضانات في سكرامنتو . بمجرد أن ينتهي المؤتمر الدستوري للولاية من دستور الولاية ، تقدم بطلب إلى الكونجرس الأمريكي للقبول في إقامة دولة. في 9 سبتمبر 1850 ، كجزء من تسوية عام 1850 ، أصبحت كاليفورنيا ولاية حرة وأصبحت  9 سبتمبر عطلة رسمية .

أثناء الحرب الأهلية الأمريكية (1861-1865) ، أرسلت كاليفورنيا شحنات الذهب شرقًا إلى واشنطن لدعم الاتحاد . [74] ومع ذلك ، نظرًا لوجود مجموعة كبيرة من المؤيدين للجنوب داخل الولاية ، لم تكن الدولة قادرة على حشد أي أفواج عسكرية كاملة لإرسالها شرقًا للخدمة رسميًا في المجهود الحربي للاتحاد. ومع ذلك ، كانت العديد من الوحدات العسكرية الأصغر داخل جيش الاتحاد مرتبطة بشكل غير رسمي بولاية كاليفورنيا ، مثل "شركة كاليفورنيا 100" ، نظرًا لأن غالبية أعضائها من ولاية كاليفورنيا.

في وقت انضمام كاليفورنيا إلى الاتحاد ، كان السفر بين كاليفورنيا وبقية الولايات المتحدة القارية إنجازًا خطيرًا ويستغرق وقتًا طويلاً. بعد تسعة عشر عامًا ، وبعد سبع سنوات من منحها الضوء الأخضر من قبل الرئيس لينكولن ، تم الانتهاء من أول خط سكة حديد عابر للقارات في عام 1869. ثم أصبح من الممكن الوصول إلى كاليفورنيا من الولايات الشرقية في غضون أسبوع.

كان جزء كبير من الولاية مناسبًا تمامًا لزراعة الفاكهة والزراعة بشكل عام. تم زراعة مساحات شاسعة من القمح ومحاصيل الحبوب الأخرى ومحاصيل الخضروات والقطن والجوز وأشجار الفاكهة (بما في ذلك البرتقال في جنوب كاليفورنيا) ، وتم وضع الأساس للإنتاج الزراعي الهائل للولاية في الوادي الأوسط وأماكن أخرى.

In the nineteenth century, a large number of migrants from China traveled to the state as part of the Gold Rush or to seek work.[75] Even though the Chinese proved indispensable in building the transcontinental railroad from California to Utah, perceived job competition with the Chinese led to anti-Chinese riots in the state, and eventually the US ended migration from China partially as a response to pressure from California with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.[76]

Indigenous peoples

Yokayo, a village of Pomo people in Ukiah (Mendocino County) c. 1916

Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity.[77] Under its new American administration, California's harsh governmental policies towards its own indigenous people did not improve. As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers. Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians.[78] There were also massacres in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed.

Between 1850 and 1860, the California state government paid around 1.5 million dollars (some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal government)[79] to hire militias whose purpose was to protect settlers from the indigenous populations. In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them.[80] As a result, the rise of California was a calamity for the native inhabitants. Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California government as a genocide.[80][81]

1900–present

Hollywood film studios, 1922

In the twentieth century, thousands of Japanese people migrated to the US and California specifically to attempt to purchase and own land in the state. However, the state in 1913 passed the Alien Land Act, excluding Asian immigrants from owning land.[82] During World War II, Japanese Americans in California were interned in concentration camps such as at Tule Lake and Manzanar.[83] In 2020, California officially apologized for this internment.[84]

Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non-Hispanic white.[85]

To meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California and Los Angeles Aqueducts; the Oroville and Shasta Dams; and the Bay and Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education.

Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s. California manufactured 8.7 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking third (behind New York and Michigan) among the 48 states.[86] California however easily ranked first in production of military ships during the war (transport, cargo, [merchant ships] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships) at drydock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area.[87][88][89][90] After World War II, California's economy greatly expanded due to strong aerospace and defense industries,[91] whose size decreased following the end of the Cold War.[91][92] Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in California instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley.[93] As a result of these efforts, California is regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology, engineering, and the aerospace industry, and as the United States center of agricultural production.[94] Just before the Dot Com Bust, California had the fifth-largest economy in the world among nations.[95] Yet since 1991, and starting in the late 1980s in Southern California, California has seen a net loss of domestic migrants in most years. This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus.[96]

The "Birthplace of Silicon Valley" garage, where Stanford University graduates Bill Hewlett and David Packard developed their first product in the 1930s

In the mid and late twentieth century, a number of race-related incidents occurred in the state. Tensions between police and African Americans, combined with unemployment and poverty in inner cities, led to violent riots, such as the 1965 Watts riots and 1992 Rodney King riots.[97][98] California was also the hub of the Black Panther Party, a group known for arming African Americans to combat perceived racial injustice.[99] Additionally, Mexican, Filipino, and other migrant farm workers rallied in the state around Cesar Chavez for better pay in the 1960s and 1970s.[100]

During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S history.[101]

Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued. The brown haze known as "smog" has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust.[102][103]

An energy crisis in 2001 led to rolling blackouts, soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states. Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company came under heavy criticism.[104]

Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase; a modest home which in the 1960s cost $25,000 would cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005. More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties. Mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising. The bubble burst in 2007-8 as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended. Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many financial institutions and investors were badly hurt.[105][106]

In the twenty-first century, droughts and frequent wildfires attributed to climate change have occurred in the state.[107][108] From 2011 to 2017, a persistent drought was the worst in its recorded history.[109] The 2018 wildfire season was the state's deadliest and most destructive.[110]

Geography

A topographic map of California
Big Sur coast, south of Monterey at Bixby Bridge

California is the third-largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas.[111] California is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the ten southernmost counties,[112][113] and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties.[114][115] It is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east and northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and it shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California to the south (with which it makes up part of The Californias region of North America, alongside Baja California Sur).

In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland.

Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports.

The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs. Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley.

Suisun Bay lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The water is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which flows into San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco Bay, which then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait.

The Channel Islands are located off the Southern coast, while the Farallon Islands lie west of San Francisco.

The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4,421 m).[3][4][5] The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume.

To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Although Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States.

The Tulare Lake was the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River. A remnant of Pleistocene-era Lake Corcoran, Tulare Lake dried up by the early 20th century after its tributary rivers were diverted for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses.[116]

About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests,[117] and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5,000 years old.[118][119]

In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin at −279 feet (−85 m).[7] The horizontal distance from the bottom of Death Valley to the top of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles (140 km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.

A majority of California's cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan area in Northern California; or the Los Angeles area, the Inland Empire, or the San Diego metropolitan area in Southern California. The Los Angeles Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California coast.

As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, the largest being the San Andreas Fault. About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt.[120]

Climate

Köppen climate types in California

Although most of the state has a Mediterranean climate, due to the state's large size the climate ranges from polar to subtropical. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers. The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent. Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast. The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas closer to the ocean.

Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.

Five of the twenty largest wildfires in California history were part of the 2020 wildfire season.

California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest location in the world; the highest temperature in the world,[121][122] 134 °F (56.7 °C), was recorded there on July 10, 1913. The lowest temperature in California was −45 °F (−43 °C) on January 20, 1937, in Boca.[123]

The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not. This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka, the extreme heat of Death Valley, and the mountain climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevada.

Average temperatures and precipitation for selected communities in California[124]
Location August
(°F)
August
(°C)
January
(°F)
January
(°C)
Annual
Precipitation
(mm/in)
Los Angeles 83/64 29/18 66/48 20/8 377/15
LAX/LA Beaches 75/64 23/18 65/49 18/9 326/13
San Diego 76/67 24/19 65/49 18/9 262/10
San Jose 82/58 27/14 58/42 14/5 401/16
San Francisco 67/54 20/12 56/46 14/8 538/21
Fresno 97/66 34/19 55/38 12/3 292/11
Sacramento 91/58 33/14 54/39 12/3 469/18
Oakland 73/58 23/14 58/44 14/7 588/23
Bakersfield 96/69 36/21 56/39 13/3 165/7
Riverside 94/60 35/18 67/39 19/4 260/10
Eureka 62/53 16/11 54/41 12/5 960/38
Death Valley 115/86 46/30 67/40 19/4 60/2
Mammoth Lakes 77/45 25/7 40/15 4/ −9 583/23

Ecology

Mount Whitney (top) is less than 90 miles (140 km) away from Badwater Basin in Death Valley (bottom).

California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is part of the Nearctic realm and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions.[125]

California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.

Flora and fauna

California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California's native grasses are perennial plants.[126] After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer.[127]

Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert; upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.[128]

A Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia) in Joshua Tree

Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica, the state flower) also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.[128]

The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California laurel, sugar pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies.[129]

The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine, red fir, and lodgepole pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 feet (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.[128][130]

A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park

Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever. As of December 1997, 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.[128]

In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher, bushtit, and California condor.[128][131][132][133]

In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well.[128][134]

The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, mountain chickadee, hermit thrush, American dipper, and Townsend's solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the gray-crowned rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as Anna's hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker.[citation needed] Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. As of April 2003, the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.[128]

Sea otter in Morro Bay, California

Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and cutthroat. Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.[128]

As of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies are also endangered[135] and two that are threatened are on the federal list.[136][137] Among threatened animals are the coastal California gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and northern spotted owl. California has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km2) of National Wildlife Refuges.[128] As of September 2010, 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list.[138] Also, as of the same year, 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.[138]

Rivers

The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley. The two rivers join in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, flowing into the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. Many major tributaries feed into the Sacramento–San Joaquin system, including the Pit River, Feather River and Tuolumne River.

The Klamath and Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California. The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona.

Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California. The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.

Regions

Demographics

Population

Historical population
Census Pop.
185092,597
1860379,994310.4%
1870560,24747.4%
1880864,69454.3%
18901,213,39840.3%
19001,485,05322.4%
19102,377,54960.1%
19203,426,86144.1%
19305,677,25165.7%
19406,907,38721.7%
195010,586,22353.3%
196015,717,20448.5%
197019,953,13427.0%
198023,667,90218.6%
199029,760,02125.7%
200033,871,64813.8%
201037,253,95610.0%
202039,538,2236.1%
Sources: 1790–1990, 2000, 2010, 2020[139][140][8]
Chart does not include Indigenous population figures.
Studies indicate that the Native American
population in California in 1850 was close to 150,000
before declining to 15,000 by 1900.[141]

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of California was 39,368,078 on July 1, 2020, a 5.67% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[8] The population is projected to reach forty million by 2020 and fifty million by 2060.[142]

Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths).[143] During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people.[143] The state of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009.[144] However, according to the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, since 1990 almost 3.4 million Californians have moved to other states, with most leaving to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona.[145] According to the Department of Finance, California's population declined by 182,083 people in 2020, the first time that there has been a net decrease in population since 1900.[146]

Within the Western hemisphere California is the second most populous sub-national administrative entity (behind the state of São Paulo in Brazil)[147] and third most populous sub-national entity of any kind outside Asia (in which wider category it also ranks behind England in the United Kingdom, which has no administrative functions). California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world.[148][149] The Greater Los Angeles Area is the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area, while Los Angeles, with nearly half the population of New York City, is the second-largest city in the United States. Conversely, San Francisco, with nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, is the most densely populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the United States. Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states.[150][151] Including Los Angeles, four of the top 15 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco (13th). The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow, Kern County.[note 2]

As of 2018, the average life expectancy in California was 80.8 years, above the national average of 78.7, which is the second highest in the country.[153]

Cities and towns

The state has 482 incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".[154]

Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850.[155] San Jose, San Diego, and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850.[156][157][158] Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality, on July 1, 2011.[159][160]

The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area.

Largest metropolitan statistical areas in California
CA Rank U.S. Rank Metropolitan statistical area[162] 2018 Estimate[163] 2010 Census[163] Change Counties[162]
1 2 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA 13,291,486 12,828,837 +3.61% Los Angeles, Orange
2 12 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA MSA 4,729,484 4,335,391 +9.09% Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo
3 13 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA MSA 4,622,361 4,224,851 +9.41% Riverside, San Bernardino
4 17 San Diego-Carlsbad, CA MSA 3,343,364 3,095,313 +8.01% San Diego
5 27 Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA MSA 2,345,210 2,149,127 +9.12% El Dorado, Placer, Sacramento, Yolo
6 35 San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA MSA 1,999,107 1,836,911 +8.83% San Benito, Santa Clara
7 55 Fresno, CA MSA 994,400 930,450 +6.87% Fresno
8 62 Bakersfield, CA MSA 896,764 839,631 +6.80% Kern
9 67 Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA MSA 850,967 823,318 +3.36% Ventura
10 76 Stockton-Lodi, CA MSA 752,660 685,306 +9.83% San Joaquin
Largest combined statistical areas in California
CA Rank U.S. Rank Combined statistical area[164] 2017 estimate[164] 2010 Census[164] Change Counties[162]
1 2 Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area 18,788,800 17,877,006 +5.10% Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura
2 5 San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area 8,837,789 8,153,696 +8.39% Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, Santa Cruz, San Benito, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, Sonoma
3 22 Sacramento-Roseville, CA Combined Statistical Area 2,598,377 2,414,783 +7.60% El Dorado, Nevada, Placer, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo, Yuba
4 49 Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area 1,146,145 1,081,315 +6.00% Fresno, Madera
5 62 Modesto-Merced, CA Combined Statistical Area 820,572 770,246 +6.53% Merced, Stanislaus
6 81 Visalia-Porterville-Hanford, CA Combined Statistical Area 614,594 595,161 +3.27% Kings, Tulare
7 123 Redding-Red Bluff, CA Combined Statistical Area 243,847 240,686 +1.31% Shasta, Tehama

Migration

Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.[165] Along with the rest of the United States, California's immigration pattern has also shifted over the course of the late 2000s to early 2010s.[166] Immigration from Latin American countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants now coming from Asia.[167] In total for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants. Fifty-seven percent came from Asian countries versus 22% from Latin American countries.[167] Net immigration from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating.[166] As a result, it is projected that Hispanic citizens will constitute 49% of the population by 2060, instead of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births.[166][168]

The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers.[169] The number of migrants arrested attempting to cross the Mexican border in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1 million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011.[170] Despite these recent trends, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percent of the state's population, the third highest percentage of any state in the country,[171][note 3] totaling nearly 2.6 million.[172] In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles, Monterey, San Benito, Imperial, and Napa Counties—the latter four of which have significant agricultural industries that depend on manual labor.[173] More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico.[172] The state of California and some California cities, including Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco,[174] have adopted sanctuary policies.[175]

Race and ethnicity

According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination):[176]

By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race). Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California.[176] Non-Hispanic whites constituted 36.8% of the state's population.[176] Californios are the Hispanic residents native to California, who make up the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in California since 1542, of varying Mexican American/Chicano, Criollo Spaniard, and Mestizo origin.[177]

As of 2011, 75.1% of California's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white (white Hispanics are counted as minorities).[178]

In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4 million, constituting a third of the nation's total. California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state.[179]

According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60% of the state population.[180] Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while Hispanic and Asian populations have grown. Between 1970 and 2011, non-Hispanic whites declined from 80% of the state's population to 40%, while Hispanics grew from 32% in 2000 to 38% in 2011.[181] It is currently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49% of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration.[168] With the decline of immigration from Latin America, Asian Americans now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India and the Philippines, respectively.[182]

California historical racial demographics
Racial composition 1970[183] 1990[183] 2000[184] 2010[185]
White 89.0% 69.0% 59.5% 57.6%
Asian 2.8% 9.6% 10.9% 13.0%
Black 7.0% 7.4% 6.7% 6.2%
Native 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.3% 0.4%
Some other race 0.7% 13.2% 16.8% 17.0%
Two or more races 4.8% 4.9%

Languages

Non-English Languages Spoken in California by more than 100,000 persons
Language Population
(as of 2016)[186]
Spanish 10,672,610 speakers
Chinese 1,231,425
Tagalog 796,451
Vietnamese 559,932
Korean 367,523
Persian 203,770
Armenian 192,980
Arabic 191,954
Hindi 189,646
Russian 155,746
Punjabi 140,128
Japanese 139,430
French 123,956

English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. In 2010, the Modern Language Association of America estimated that 57.02% (19,429,309) of California residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 42.98% spoke another language at home. According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 73% of people who speak a language other than English at home are able to speak English "well" or "very well," while 9.8% of them could not speak English at all.[187] Like most U.S. states (32 out of 50), California law enshrines English as its official language, and has done so since the passage of Proposition 63 by California voters. Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.[188][189][190]

In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other state in the nation. New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than 100,000 persons.[191] The most common language spoken besides English was Spanish, spoken by 28.46% (9,696,638) of the population.[168][166] With Asia contributing most of California's new immigrants, California had the highest concentration nationwide of Vietnamese and Chinese speakers, the second highest concentration of Korean, and the third highest concentration of Tagalog speakers.[187]

California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families.[192][193] A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages among California farmworkers.[194] All of California's indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization.[note 4]

As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century. This variety, known as California English, has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.[195]

Culture

Sunset at Venice Beach

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia.[196][failed verification]

California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.

The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.

Mass media and entertainment

Two prominent California landmarks representing the state's mass media and entertainment: the Hollywood Sign (l) symbolizes the Los Angeles entertainment industry, while San Francisco's Sutro Tower (r) transmits numerous TV and radio stations across the Bay Area

Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major global center for entertainment, with the U.S. film industry's "Big Five" major film studios (Columbia, Disney, Paramount, Universal, and Warner Bros.) being based in or around the area.

The four major American television broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC) all have production facilities and offices in the state. All four, plus the two major Spanish-language networks (Telemundo and Univision) each have at least two owned-and-operated TV stations in California, one in Los Angeles and one in the San Francisco Bay Area.

The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several prominent internet media and social media companies, including three of the "Big Five" technology companies (Apple, Facebook, and Google) as well as other services such as Netflix, Pandora Radio, Twitter, Yahoo!, and YouTube.

One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS (AM) in the Bay Area, was founded in 1909. Universal Music Group, one of the "Big Four" record labels, is based in Santa Monica. California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound, Bay Area thrash metal, g-funk, nu metal, stoner rock, surf music, West Coast hip hop, and West Coast jazz.

Religion

Religion in California (2014)[197]
religion percent
Protestantism
32%
Catholicism
28%
Unaffiliated
27%
Judaism
2%
Buddhism
2%
Hinduism
2%
Islam
1%
Mormonism
1%
Other
5%

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent. Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 1% Muslim, 2% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.[197] This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.[198] The American Jewish Year Book placed the total Jewish population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006.[199] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953.[200]

The first priests to come to California were Catholic missionaries from Spain. Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California continues to have a large Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.

A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally.[201]

Sports

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum hosted the Summer Olympics in 1932 and 1984.

California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises. San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 11 times at four different stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium. A twelfth, Super Bowl 50, was held at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara on February 7, 2016.[202]

California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others.

California is the only U.S. state to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The 1932 and 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games.[203] Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup took place in California, with the Rose Bowl hosting eight matches (including the final), while Stanford Stadium hosted six matches.

Team Sport League
Los Angeles Rams American football National Football League (NFL)
Los Angeles Chargers American football National Football League
San Francisco 49ers American football National Football League
Los Angeles Dodgers Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB)
Los Angeles Angels Baseball Major League Baseball
Oakland Athletics Baseball Major League Baseball
San Diego Padres Baseball Major League Baseball
San Francisco Giants Baseball Major League Baseball
Golden State Warriors Basketball National Basketball Association (NBA)
Los Angeles Clippers Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Lakers Basketball National Basketball Association
Sacramento Kings Basketball National Basketball Association
Los Angeles Sparks Basketball Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)
Anaheim Ducks Ice hockey National Hockey League (NHL)
Los Angeles Kings Ice hockey National Hockey League
San Jose Sharks Ice hockey National Hockey League
Los Angeles Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer (MLS)
San Jose Earthquakes Soccer Major League Soccer
Los Angeles Football Club Soccer Major League Soccer
LA Giltinis Rugby union Major League Rugby (MLR)
San Diego Legion Rugby union Major League Rugby

Education

Torrance High School, one of the oldest high schools in continuous use in California

Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures.[204]

In 2016, California's K–12 public school per-pupil spending was ranked 22nd in the nation ($11,500 per student vs. $11,800 for the U.S. average).[205]

For 2012, California's K–12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0.102 (the U.S. average was 0.137), while paying the 7th most per employee, $49,000 (the U.S. average was $39,000).[206][207][208]

A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation.[209]

California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems:

  • The research university system in the state is the University of California (UC), a public university system. As of fall 2011, the University of California had a combined student body of 234,464 students.[210] There are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system, as the UC San Francisco, which is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health care, and is home to the UCSF Medical Center, the highest ranked hospital in California.[211] The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of California high school students, but several of the schools have become even more selective.[212][213][214] The UC system was originally given exclusive authority in awarding PhDs, but this has since changed and the CSU is also able to award several Doctoral degrees.
  • The California State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000 students. The CSU was originally intended to accept the top one-third of California high school students, but several of the schools have become much more selective.[214][215] The CSU was originally set up to award only bachelor's and master's degrees, but has since been granted the authority to award several Doctoral degrees.
  • The California Community Colleges System provides lower division coursework as well as basic skills and workforce training. It is the largest network of higher education in the U.S., composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6 million.

California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.

Twinned regions

California has twinning arrangements with the region of Catalonia in Spain[216] and with the Province of Alberta in Canada.[217][218]

Economy

A tree map depicting the distribution of occupations across California

California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. As of 2019, the gross state product (GSP) was $3.2 trillion ($80,600 per capita), the largest in the United States.[219] California is responsible for one seventh of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP).[220] As of 2018, California's nominal GDP is larger than all but four countries (the United States, China, Japan, and Germany).[221][222] In terms of Purchasing power parity (PPP),[223] it is larger than all but eight countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia).[224] California's economy is larger than Africa and Australia and is almost as large as South America.[225]

  • Total Non farm Employment (2016): 14,600,349
  • Total employer establishments (2016): 922,477[226]

The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.[227] As of June 2021, California has an unemployment rate of 7.6%.[228]

California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy. In 2008, California exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006.[229] Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.[229]

Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004.[230] This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.[230] In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue.[231] In 2011, that number grew to $43.5 billion products revenue.[232] The Agriculture sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce.[233] According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes.[234]

Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation.[235] Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.[236] Using the supplemental poverty measure, California has a poverty rate of 23.5%, the highest of any state in the country.[237] However, using the official measure the poverty rate was only 13.3% as of 2017.[238] Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.

In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation.[239] In 2010, California residents were ranked first among the states with the best average credit score of 754.[240]

State finances

State spending increased from $56 billion in 1998 to $127 billion in 2011.[243][244] California, with 12% of the United States population, has one-third of the nation's welfare recipients.[245] California has the third highest per capita spending on welfare among the states, as well as the highest spending on welfare at $6.67 billion.[246] In January 2011, California's total debt was at least $265 billion.[247] On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however the state's debt remains at $132 billion.[248][249]

With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and Proposition 55 in 2016, California now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000 (though the top brackets are only temporary until Proposition 55 expires at the end of 2030). While Proposition 30 also enacted a minimum state sales tax of 7.5%, this sales tax increase was not extended by Proposition 55 and reverted to a previous minimum state sales tax rate of 7.25% in 2017. Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate.[250]

All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction. Property tax increases are capped at 2% annually or the rate of inflation (whichever is lower), per Proposition 13.

Infrastructure

Energy

Moss Landing Power Plant, located on the coast of Monterey Bay.

Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. However, because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States.[251] Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.[252]

As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020.[253] Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems facility are located in the Mojave Desert. California's wind farms include Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. The Tehachapi area is also where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located.[254] Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power. It would be possible to convert the total supply to 100% renewable energy, including heating, cooling and mobility, by 2050.[255]

The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation.

California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre, the latter having been shut down in 2013. More than 1,700 tons of radioactive waste are stored at San Onofre,[256] which sits in an area where there is a record of past tsunamis.[257] Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.[258][note 5] In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones.

Transportation

One of Caltrans's tall "stack" interchanges

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States.[260][261] The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.[262]

The state has been a pioneer in road construction. One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was the longest suspension bridge main span in the world at 4,200 feet (1,300 m) between 1937 (when it opened) and 1964. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high.[263] The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western United States.[264] It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built.[265]

Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), the 4th busiest airport in the world in 2018, and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), the 25th busiest airport in the world in 2018, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.

California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States.[266]

Map of California showing the primary roadways

The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10,000 employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property.

The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file.[267] In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force.[268]

Inter-city rail travel is provided by Amtrak California; the three routes, the Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner, and San Joaquin, are funded by Caltrans. These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records. The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route.[269] Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain, SMART), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster).

The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 800-mile (1,300 km) rail system. Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election,[270] with the first phase of construction estimated to cost $64.2 billion.[271]

Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach.

Water

Aerial view of the Delta–Mendota Canal (left) and the California Aqueduct, at the Interstate 205 crossing west of Tracy

California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over 40,000,000 acre-feet (49 km3) of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects.[272] Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.

The California Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies.[273] Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water."[274]

Government and politics

State government

Democrats Jerry Brown and Eric Garcetti. Brown served twice as Governor of California and Garcetti is currently serving as Mayor of Los Angeles.

The capital of California is located within Sacramento.[275] The state is organized into three branches of government—the executive branch consisting of the governor[276] and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate;[277] and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts.[278] The state also allows ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification.[279] Before the passage of California Proposition 14 (2010), California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. After June 8, 2010, when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county central committee offices,[280] all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party.[281] At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation.[281] If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held.[281]

Executive branch

The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and state superintendent of public instruction. They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.[282]

Legislative branch

The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.

Judicial branch

California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law[283] (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007.[284] Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Oklahoma and Texas are far more active in carrying out executions).[285][286]

California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1,600 judges (the federal system has only about 840). At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the chief justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one member from each house of the state legislature.

Local government

Counties

California is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards.[287][288] In addition, the county serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas. Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors.[289]

City and town governments

Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities.[154] General-law municipalities owe their existence to state law and are consequently governed by it; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters. Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. Most small cities have a council–manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city. Some larger cities have a directly elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial. The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.

School districts and special districts

About 1,102 school districts, independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education.[290] California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts.[290]

There are about 3,400 special districts in California.[291] A special district, defined by California Government Code § 16271(d) as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area. The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service.

Federal representation

The state of California sends 53 members to the House of Representatives,[292] the nation's largest congressional state delegation. Consequently, California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 55. The current speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California's 12th district, Nancy Pelosi;[293] Kevin McCarthy, representing the state's 23rd district, is the House Minority Leader.[293]

California is represented by U.S. senators Dianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Alex Padilla, a native and former secretary of state of California. Former U.S. senator Kamala Harris, a native, former district attorney from San Francisco, former attorney general of California, resigned on January 18, 2021, to assume her role as the current Vice President of the United States. In the 1992 U.S. Senate election, California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer.[294] Set to follow the Vice President-Elect, Gov. Newsom appointed Secretary of State Alex Padilla to finish the rest of Harris's term which ends in 2022, Padilla has vowed to run for the full term in that election cycle. Padilla was sworn in on January 20, 2021, the same day as the Inauguration of President-Elect Joe Biden as well as Harris.[295][296]

Armed forces

In California, as of 2009, the U.S. Department of Defense had a total of 117,806 active duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were Sailors or Marines, 18,339 were Airmen, and 11,097 were Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees. Additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reservists and Guardsman in California.[297]

In 2010, Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military.[298] However, as of 2002, Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population.[299]

In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War).[300] As of 2010, there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and just over four thousand served before World War II (the largest population of this group of any state).[301]

California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps.

On August 5, 1950, a nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber carrying a nuclear bomb crashed shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. Brigadier General Robert F. Travis, command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead.[302]

Welcome sign at Fort Irwin National Training Center
The main gate of Camp Pendleton
Carl Vinson, Nimitz and Ronald Reagan at North Island Naval Air Station
Beale Air Force Base main gate
Coast Guard Island in the Oakland Estuary
United States Armed Forces in California. From left to right: Fort Irwin, Camp Pendleton, NAS North Island, Beale Air Force Base, and Coast Guard Island

Ideology

California registered voters as of August 30, 2021[303]
Party Number of Voters Percentage California party registration by county.svg

Party registration by county
(October 2018):

  Democrat >=30%
  Democrat >=40%
  Democrat >=50%
  Republican >=30%
  Republican >=40%
Democratic 10,265,897 46.54%
Republican 5,298,738 24.02%
No Party Preference 5,105,330 23.25%
American Independent 715,712 3.24%
Libertarian 214,698 0.97%
Peace and Freedom 110,576 0.5%
Green 88,419 0.4%
Other 140,854 0.64%
Total 22,078,290 100%

California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter.[304] In socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. In the 2016 United States presidential election, California had the third highest percentage of Democratic votes behind the District of Columbia and Hawaii.[305] In the 2020 United States presidential election, it had the 6th highest behind the District of Columbia, Vermont, Massachusetts, Maryland, and Hawaii. According to the Cook Political Report, California contains five of the 15 most Democratic congressional districts in the United States.

Among the political idiosyncrasies, California was the second state to recall their state governor, the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by vote (including Proposition 8 in 2008). Voters also passed Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund stem cell research, making California the second state to legalize stem cell research after New Jersey, and Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state's primary election process. California has also experienced disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. California voters have rejected affirmative action on multiple occasions, most recently in November 2020.

The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections. From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors. Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party.

Several political movements have advocated for Californian independence. The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both advocate for Californian independence along the lines of progressivism and civic nationalism.[306] The Yes California movement attempted to organize an independence referendum via ballot initiative for 2019, which was then postponed.[307]

The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate.

The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. From 1952 through 1988, California was a Republican leaning state, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with 1964 as the exception. Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.S. Presidents, respectively. However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last eight elections, starting in 1992.

In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States Congress in 2007. As the result of gerrymandering, the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive. In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. After the 2012 elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38–15 majority in the delegation. Following the 2018 midterm House elections, Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven.

In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County had remained largely Republican until the 2016 and 2018 elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates.[308][309] One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities.[310]

In February 2021, out of the 25,166,581 people eligible to vote, 22,154,304 people were registered to vote.[311] Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats (10,228,144), Republicans (5,347,377), and No Party Preference (5,258,223).[311] Los Angeles County had the largest number of registered Democrats (3,043,535) and Republicans (995,112) of any county in the state.[311]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Since 1565, Spanish galleons had been visiting Manila in the Philippines to make trade.[46][47]
  2. ^ The coordinates of the center of population are at 35°27′31″N 119°21′19″W / 35.458606°N 119.355165°W / 35.458606; -119.355165.[152]
  3. ^ Behind Nevada and Arizona.
  4. ^ The following are a list of the indigenous languages: Root languages of California: Athabaskan Family: Hupa, Mattole, Lassik, Wailaki, Sinkyone, Cahto, Tolowa, Nongatl, Wiyot, Chilula; Hokan Family: Pomo, Shasta, Karok, Chimiriko; Algonquian Family: Whilkut, Yurok; Yukian Family: Wappo; Penutian Family: Modok, Wintu, Nomlaki, Konkow, Maidu, Patwin, Nisenan, Miwok, Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Ohlone, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts, Foothill Yokuts; Hokan Family: Esselen, Salinan, Chumash, Ipai, Tipai, Yuma, Halchichoma, Mohave; Uto-Aztecan Family: Mono Paiute, Monache, Owens Valley Paiute, Tubatulabal, Panamint Shoshone, Kawaisu, Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Gabrielino, Juaneno, Luiseno, Cuipeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Chemehuevi
  5. ^ Minnesota also has a moratorium on construction of nuclear power plants, which has been in place since 1994.[259]

References

Citations

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  6. ^ The summit of Mount Whitney is the highest point in the Contiguous United States.
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Works cited

Further reading

External links

Preceded by
Wisconsin
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on September 9, 1850 (31st)
Succeeded by
Minnesota

Coordinates: 37°N 120°W / 37°N 120°W / 37; -120 (State of California)

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