Black Lives Matter

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Black Lives Matter
Black Lives Matter logo.svg
Logo often used in the Black Lives Matter movement
Date2013–present
LocationInternational, largely in the United States
Also known as
  • Black Lives Matter movement
  • BLM
Outcome
Protesters lying down over rail tracks with a "Black Lives Matter" banner
A اسود حياة المسألة يموت في أكثر من خطوط السكك الحديدية، احتجاجا على وحشية الشرطة المزعومة في سانت بول، مينيسوتا (20 سبتمبر 2015)

Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a decentralized political and social movement protesting against incidents of police brutality and all racially motivated violence against black people.[1][2][3][4][5] While there are specific organizations such as the Black Lives Matter Global Network that label themselves simply as "Black Lives Matter", the Black Lives Matter movement comprises a broad array of people and organizations. The slogan "Black Lives Matter" itself remains untrademarked by any group.[6]عادة ما تدعو الحركة الأوسع والمنظمات المرتبطة بها إلى مناهضة عنف الشرطة تجاه السود وكذلك لتغييرات أخرى في السياسة تعتبر ذات صلة بتحرير السود. [7]

The movement began in July 2013, with the use of the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter on social media after the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of African-American teen Trayvon Martin 17 months earlier in February 2012. The movement became nationally recognized for street demonstrations following the 2014 deaths of two African Americans, that of Michael Brown—resulting in protests and unrest in Ferguson, Missouri, a city near St. Louis—and Eric Garner in New York City.[8][9] Since the Ferguson protests, participants in the movement have demonstrated against the deaths of numerous other African Americans by police actions or while in police custody. In the summer of 2015, Black Lives Matter activists became involved in the 2016 United States presidential election.[10] The originators of the hashtag and call to action, Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tometi, expanded their project into a national network of over 30 local chapters between 2014 and 2016.[11] The overall Black Lives Matter movement is a decentralized network of activists with no formal hierarchy.[12]

The movement returned to national headlines and gained further international attention during the global George Floyd protests in 2020 following his murder by Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin.[13][14] An estimated 15 million to 26 million people participated in the 2020 Black Lives Matter protests in the United States, making it one of the largest movements in the country's history.[15] The movement comprises many views and a broad array of demands but they center on criminal justice reform.

تحولت شعبية Black Lives Matter بسرعة مع مرور الوقت. في حين كان الرأي العام حول Black Lives Matter سلبيًا تمامًا في عام 2018 ، فقد نمت شعبيته بشكل متزايد خلال عامي 2019 و 2020. [16] وجد استطلاع أجراه مركز بيو للأبحاث في يونيو 2020 أن 67٪ من الأمريكيين البالغين أعربوا عن بعض الدعم لحركة Black Lives Matter. [17] أظهر استطلاع لاحق أُجري في سبتمبر 2020 أن التأييد بين البالغين الأمريكيين انخفض إلى 55٪ ، مع انخفاض ملحوظ بين البيض والأسبان ، بينما ظل الدعم واسع الانتشار بين البالغين السود. [18]

الهيكل والتنظيم

هيكل فضفاض

The phrase "Black Lives Matter" can refer to a Twitter hashtag, a slogan, a social movement, a political action committee,[19] or a loose confederation of groups advocating for racial justice. As a movement, Black Lives Matter is grassroots and decentralized, and leaders have emphasized the importance of local organizing over national leadership.[20][21] The structure differs from previous black movements, like the Civil Rights Movement. Such differences have been the subject of scholarly literature.[22] Activist DeRay McKessonوقد علق قائلاً إن الحركة "تضم كل من يعلن علنًا أن حياة السود مهمة ويكرسون وقتهم وطاقتهم وفقًا لذلك". [23]

في عام 2013، Patrisse Cullors ، أليسيا غارزا ، و العقيق Tometi شكلت شبكة المسألة الأسود حياة. وصف غارزا الشبكة بأنها منصة على الإنترنت وُجدت لتزويد النشطاء بمجموعة مشتركة من المبادئ والأهداف. يُطلب من فصول Black Lives Matter الالتزام بقائمة المبادئ التوجيهية للمنظمة ولكنها تعمل بدون هيكل مركزي أو تسلسل هرمي. وعلق غارزا بأن الشبكة لم تكن مهتمة "بمراقبة من هو جزء من الحركة ومن لا ينتمي إليها". [24] [25]

ساهم الهيكل الفضفاض لـ Black Lives Matter في حدوث ارتباك في الصحافة وبين النشطاء ، حيث تُنسب أحيانًا أفعال أو تصريحات من الفصول أو الأفراد إلى "حياة السود مهمة" ككل. [26] [27] علق مات بيرس ، الذي كتب لصحيفة لوس أنجلوس تايمز ، أن "الكلمات يمكن أن تكون بمثابة صرخة حشد سياسي أو تشير إلى المنظمة الناشطة. أو يمكن أن تكون التسمية المطبقة بشكل غامض والمستخدمة لوصف نطاق واسع من الاحتجاجات والمحادثات التي ركزت على عدم المساواة العرقية ". [28]

في مناسبة واحدة على الأقل ، أصدر شخص ممثل بصفته المدير العام لشبكة BLM العالمية بيانًا يمثله نيابة عن تلك المنظمة. [29]

حركة أوسع

Concurrently, a broader movement involving several other organizations and activists emerged under the banner of "Black Lives Matter", as well.[11][30] In 2015, Johnetta Elzie, DeRay McKesson, Brittany Packnett, and Samuel Sinyangwe initiated Campaign Zero, aimed at promoting policy reforms to end police brutality. The campaign released a ten-point plan for reforms to policing, with recommendations including: ending broken windows policing, increasing community oversight of police departments, and creating stricter guidelines for the use of force.[31] The New York Timesكتب المراسل جون إليجون أن بعض النشطاء أعربوا عن مخاوفهم من أن الحملة تركز بشكل مفرط على العلاجات التشريعية لعنف الشرطة. [32]

يعبر Black Lives Matter أيضًا عن دعمه للحركات والأسباب خارج وحشية الشرطة السوداء ، بما في ذلك نشاط LGBTQ والنسوية وإصلاح الهجرة والعدالة الاقتصادية. [33]

احتجاجاً على "حياة السود مهمة" في 20 سبتمبر 2015 ، ضد وحشية الشرطة في سانت بول ، مينيسوتا

حركة لحياة السود

الحركة من أجل حياة السود (M4BL) هي تحالف يضم أكثر من 50 مجموعة تمثل مصالح المجتمعات السوداء في جميع أنحاء الولايات المتحدة. [34] يشمل الأعضاء شبكة Black Lives Matter ، والمؤتمر الوطني للمحامين السود ، ومركز Ella Baker لحقوق الإنسان . [35] وبتأييد من مجموعات مثل Color of Change و Race Forward ومركز بروكلين للحركة و PolicyLink و Million Women March Cleveland و ONE DC ، [36] يتلقى التحالف اتصالات ودعمًا تكتيكيًا من منظمة تدعى Blackbird. [37]

بعد مقتل جورج فلويد ، أصدرت M4BL قانون BREATHE ، الذي دعا إلى تغييرات تشريعية كاسحة تتعلق بالشرطة ؛ تضمن مشروع قانون السياسة دعوات لسحب الاستثمارات من العمل الشرطي وإعادة استثمار الأموال مباشرة في موارد المجتمع ونماذج بديلة للاستجابة لحالات الطوارئ. [38] [39]

في 24 يوليو 2015 ، اجتمعت الحركة في البداية في جامعة ولاية كليفلاند حيث تجمع ما بين 1500 و 2000 ناشط للمشاركة في مناقشات ومظاهرات مفتوحة. حاول المؤتمر الذي عقد في كليفلاند بولاية أوهايو في البداية "وضع إستراتيجيات لطرق الحركة من أجل حياة السود لمساءلة سلطات إنفاذ القانون عن أفعالهم على المستوى الوطني". [40] [41] [42] ومع ذلك ، نتج عن المؤتمر تشكيل حركة اجتماعية أكثر أهمية. في نهاية المؤتمر الذي استمر ثلاثة أيام ، في 26 يوليو ، بدأت الحركة من أجل حياة السود "عملية لمدة عام لجمع المجموعات المحلية والوطنية لإنشاء جبهة موحدة". [40]أدت العملية التي استمرت هذا العام في نهاية المطاف إلى إنشاء منصة تنظيمية توضح الأهداف والمطالب والسياسات التي تدعمها حركة من أجل حياة السود من أجل تحقيق "تحرير" المجتمعات السوداء في جميع أنحاء أمريكا. [40]

في عام 2016 ، أعلنت مؤسسة فورد عن خطط لتمويل حركة M4BL من أجل حياة السود في خطة "استثمارات مدتها ست سنوات" ، بالإضافة إلى الشراكة مع آخرين لتأسيس صندوق الحركة بقيادة السود . [43] [44] [45] المبلغ الذي تبرعت به مؤسسة فورد والجهات المانحة الأخرى لـ M4BL أفادت صحيفة واشنطن تايمز في عام 2016 بأنه 100 مليون دولار . تم إصدار تبرع آخر بقيمة 33 مليون دولار لـ M4BL من قبل مؤسسات المجتمع المفتوح . [46] [47]

In 2016, M4BL called for decarceration in the United States, reparations for harms related to slavery, and more recently, specific remedies for redlining in housing, education policy, mass incarceration and food insecurity.[48] It also called for an end to mass surveillance, investment in public education, not incarceration, and community control of the police: empowering residents in communities of color to hire and fire police officers and issue subpoenas, decide disciplinary consequences and exercise control over city funding of police.[49][50]

Funding

Politico reported in 2015 that the Democracy Alliance, a gathering of Democratic-Party donors, planned to meet with leaders of several groups who were endorsing the Black Lives Matter movement.[51] According to Politico, Solidaire, the donor coalition focusing on "movement building" and led by Texas oil fortune heir Leah Hunt-Hendrix, a member of the Democracy Alliance, had donated more than $200,000 to the BLM movement by 2015.[51]

According to The Economist, between May 2020 and December 2020, donations to Black Lives Matter related causes amounted to $10.6 billion.[52] The Black Lives Matter Global Network Foundation, one of the main organizations coordinating organizing and mobilization efforts across the Black Lives Matter network, reported raising $90 million in 2020, including a substantial number of individual donations online, with an average donation of $30.76.[53][54]

Strategies and tactics

استخدمت Black Lives Matter في الأصل العديد من منصات الوسائط الاجتماعية - بما في ذلك نشاط الهاشتاغ - للوصول إلى آلاف الأشخاص بسرعة. [55] منذ ذلك الحين ، تبنت Black Lives Matter مجموعة متنوعة من التكتيكات . [56] احتجاجات "حياة السود مهمة" كانت سلمية إلى حد كبير. عندما يحدث العنف ، غالبًا ما ترتكبه الشرطة أو المتظاهرون المناهضون. [57] [58] [59] على الرغم من ذلك ، صور المعارضون الحركة زوراً على أنها عنيفة. [59] [60]

الإنترنت ووسائل التواصل الاجتماعي

تحليل استخدام هاشتاج #BlackLivesMatter على تويتر ردًا على الأحداث الإخبارية الكبرى

In 2014, the American Dialect Society chose #BlackLivesMatter as their word of the year.[61][62] Yes! Magazine picked #BlackLivesMatter as one of the twelve hashtags that changed the world in 2014.[63] From July 2013 through May 1, 2018, the hashtag "#BlackLivesMatter" had been tweeted over 30 million times, an average of 17,002 times per day.[64] By June 10, 2020, it had been tweeted roughly 47.8 million times,[65] with the period of July 7–17, 2016 having the highest usage, at nearly 500,000 tweets a day.[64] This period also saw an increase in tweets using the hashtags "#BlueLivesMatter" and "#AllLivesMatter".[64]في 28 مايو 2020 ، كان هناك ما يقرب من 8.8 مليون تغريدة مع الهاشتاغ ، وارتفع المتوسط ​​إلى 3.7 مليون في اليوم. [65]

شهد إطلاق النار على ضباط شرطة دالاس في عام 2016 أن نغمة الحركة عبر الإنترنت أصبحت أكثر سلبية من ذي قبل ، مع 39٪ من التغريدات التي تستخدم هاشتاغ #BlackLivesMatter تعبر عن معارضتها للحركة. [66] ما يقرب من نصف المعارضين ربطوا الجماعة بالعنف ، ووصف الكثيرون المجموعة بالإرهابية. [66]

Khadijah White, a professor at Rutgers University, argues that BLM has ushered in a new era of black university student movements. The ease with which bystanders can record graphic videos of police violence and post them onto social media has driven activism all over the world.[67] The hashtag's usage has gained the attention of high-ranking politicians and has sometimes encouraged them to support the movement.[22]

On Wikipedia, a WikiProject dedicated to coverage of the Black Lives Matter movement was created in June 2020.[68]

في عام 2020 ، لاحظ مستخدمو التطبيق الشهير TikTok أن التطبيق بدا وكأنه يحظر المنشورات حول BLM أو عمليات قتل الشرطة الأخيرة للأشخاص السود. اعتذر TikTok وعزا الموقف إلى خلل فني. [69]

فعل مباشر

لافتة " ارفعوا أيديكم! " معروضة في احتجاج فيرغسون في أغسطس 2014

تشارك BLM عمومًا في تكتيكات العمل المباشر التي تجعل الناس غير مرتاحين بدرجة كافية بحيث يتعين عليهم معالجة المشكلة. [70] من المعروف أن BLM تبني السلطة من خلال الاحتجاجات والتجمعات. [71] نظمت BLM أيضًا سباقات متتالية وعقدت واحدة خلال ماراثون المدن التوأم لعام 2015 . [72]

مظاهرة Black Lives Matter في أوكلاند ، كاليفورنيا ، ديسمبر 2014

تشمل الشعارات السياسية المستخدمة أثناء المظاهرات الاسم الذي يحمل اسم "حياة السود مهمة" ، " ارفعوا أيديكم ، لا تطلقوا النار " (إشارة مشكوك فيها لاحقًا نُسبت إلى مايكل براون [73] ) ، " لا أستطيع التنفس " [74] [75] (بالإشارة إلى إريك غارنر ولاحقًا جورج فلويد ) ، "الصمت الأبيض هو عنف" ، [76] " لا عدالة ، لا سلام " ، [77] [78] و "هل ابني التالي؟" ، [79] من بين آخرين.

According to a 2018 study, "Black Lives Matter protests are more likely to occur in localities where more black people have previously been killed by police."[80]

Media, music and other cultural impacts

منذ بداية الحركة اسود حياة المادة في عام 2013، مع الهاشتاج # BlackLivesMatter، [81] وقد وصفت الحركة وتوثيقها في فيلم ، أغنية ، التلفزيون ، الأدب ، و الفنون البصرية . يقدم عدد من وسائل الإعلام مواد تتعلق بالظلم العنصري وحركة "حياة السود مهمة". ازدادت شعبية الكتب والروايات والبرامج التلفزيونية المنشورة في عام 2020. [82] أغانٍ مثل أغنية مايكل جاكسون " هم لا يهتمون بنا " وأغنية كندريك لامار " حسنًا ""، تم استخدامها على نطاق واسع كنداء حاشد في المظاهرات. [83] [84]

يعرض الفيلم الوثائقي القصير ، Bars4justice ، ظهورًا موجزًا ​​للعديد من النشطاء والفنانين المسجلين المنتسبين إلى حركة Black Lives Matter. الفيلم عبارة عن اختيار رسمي للمهرجان السنوي الرابع والعشرين للسينما الأفريقية . Stay Woke: The Black Lives Matter Movement هو فيلم وثائقي تلفزيوني أمريكي عام 2016 ، بطولة جيسي ويليامز ، حول حركة Black Lives Matter. [85] [86]

تم تخصيص عدد فبراير 2015 من مجلة Essence والغلاف إلى Black Lives Matter. [87] في ديسمبر 2015 ، كانت BLM منافسًا لجائزة شخصية العام من مجلة تايم ، وجاءت في المركز الرابع من بين ثمانية مرشحين. [88]

Black Lives Matter Plaza في واشنطن العاصمة ، كما يظهر من الفضاء في 8 يونيو 2020

A number of cities have painted murals of "Black Lives Matter" in large letters on their streets. The cities include Washington, D.C., Dallas, Denver, Charlotte, Seattle, Brooklyn, Los Angeles, and Birmingham, Alabama.[89][90]

On May 9, 2016, Delrish Moss was sworn in as the first African-American police chief in Ferguson, Missouri. He acknowledged that he faces such challenges as diversifying the police force, improving community relations, and addressing issues that catalyzed the Black Lives Matter movement.[91]

Policing use of excessive force

وفقًا لدراسة أجراها مكتب إحصاءات العدل في الفترة من 2002 إلى 2011 ، من بين أولئك الذين كانوا على اتصال بالشرطة ، "كان السود (2.8٪) أكثر عرضة من البيض (1.0٪) والأسبان (1.4٪) لإدراك التهديد أو استخدام القوة غير المميتة كان مفرطًا ". [92]

وفقًا لصحيفة واشنطن بوست ، أطلق ضباط الشرطة النار وقتلوا 1،001 شخصًا في الولايات المتحدة في عام 2019. وكان نصف القتلى من البيض ، وربعهم من السود ، مما يجعل معدل الوفيات بين الأمريكيين السود (31 إطلاق نار قاتل لكل مليون). أكثر من ضعف معدل الأمريكيين البيض (13 عملية إطلاق نار مميتة لكل مليون). [93] [94] أحصت صحيفة واشنطن بوست أيضًا مقتل 13 أمريكيًا أسود غير مسلح برصاص الشرطة في 2019. [95]

دراسة عام 2019 بواسطة Cesario et al. المنشور في مجلة Social Psychological and Personality Science وجد أنه بعد التكيف مع الجريمة ، "لم يكن هناك دليل منهجي على وجود تفاوتات مناهضة للسود في حوادث إطلاق النار المميتة ، أو إطلاق النار المميت لمواطنين غير مسلحين ، أو إطلاق النار القاتل الذي ينطوي على خطأ في التعرف على أشياء غير ضارة". [96] ومع ذلك ، فإن دراسة عام 2020 قام بها روس وآخرون. ينتقد تحليل البيانات المستخدم في Cesario et al. دراسة. باستخدام نفس مجموعة البيانات ، روس وآخرون. استنتجوا أن هناك تحيزًا عنصريًا كبيرًا في قضايا إطلاق النار على الشرطة التي تنطوي على مشتبه بهم سود غير مسلحين. لا يظهر هذا التحيز عندما كان المشتبه بهم مسلحين. [97]

خريطة توضح معدلات القتل على أيدي الشرطة حسب الولاية في الولايات المتحدة في 2018

وجدت دراسة أجراها عالم الاقتصاد في جامعة هارفارد رولاند فراير أن السود والأسبان كانوا أكثر عرضة بنسبة 50٪ لتجربة القوة غير المميتة في تفاعلات الشرطة ، ولكن بالنسبة لعمليات إطلاق النار التي يشارك فيها الضباط "لم تكن هناك اختلافات عنصرية في البيانات الأولية أو عند أخذ العوامل السياقية داخل الحساب". [98]

وجدت دراسة أجراها سي روس ، جامعة كاليفورنيا في ديفيس "تحيزًا كبيرًا في قتل الأمريكيين السود العزل مقارنة بالأمريكيين البيض العزل" من قبل الشرطة. كان متوسط ​​مقياس التحيز هو أن الأمريكيين الأفارقة غير المسلحين لديهم احتمال 3.49 مرة لإطلاق النار عليهم مقارنة بالبيض غير المسلحين ، على الرغم من أن الخطر في بعض الولايات القضائية قد يكون أعلى بمقدار 20 مرة. ووجدت الدراسة أن 2.79 من السود المسلحين تم إطلاق النار عليهم أكثر من السود العزل. ووجدت الدراسة أيضًا أن التحيز العنصري الموثق في إطلاق الشرطة لإطلاق النار لا يمكن تفسيره بالاختلافات في معدلات الجريمة المحلية. [99]

منذ أن تم التراجع عن دراسة في PNAS ، زعمت أن احتمال قتل السود على يد الشرطة أقل من البيض ، بناءً على معدلات الوفيات في لقاءات الشرطة. [100] نشرت دراسة في مجلة نيتشر ووجدت أن هذه الاستنتاجات خاطئة بسبب مفارقة سيمبسون . في الطبيعة paper showed that it was true that white people were more likely to be killed in a police encounter, overall black people were still being discriminated against because they had far more interactions with the police due to structural racism. The paper noted that black people have far more interactions with the police per capita than white people, and that black people tend to get stopped for more petty crimes or for no crime at all. Conversely, white people tend to interact with police in situations more rarely, and often in more serious crimes such as shootings, where police are more likely to use force. The Nature paper also backed up the findings of Ross and Fryer, and concluded that overall rate of death was a much more useful statistic than the rate of death in encounters.[101][102]

Disproportionate policing of Black Lives Matter events

يتعرض المتظاهرون أنفسهم في بعض الأحيان إلى إجراءات أمنية مفرطة من النوع الذي يتظاهرون ضده. في مايو 2020 ، بالإضافة إلى الشرطة ، تم نشر 43350 جنديًا ضد المتظاهرين على المستوى الوطني. [103] تم نشر طائرات المراقبة العسكرية ضد الاحتجاجات اللاحقة لحياة السود مهمة. [103] لاحظ المراقبون ، مثل الرئيس الأمريكي جو بايدن ، أن التعبئة العنيفة لليمين المتطرف ، بما في ذلك اقتحام مبنى الكابيتول في الولايات المتحدة عام 2021 ، اجتذبت تواجدًا أصغر وأكثر سلبية للشرطة من الاحتجاجات السلمية لحياة السود مهمة. [104] [105] [106] [107] [108] [109]في تشرين الثاني (نوفمبر) 2015 ، أُقيل ضابط شرطة في ولاية أوريغون من الخدمة في الشارع بعد منشور على وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي قال فيه إنه سيتعين عليه "رعاية هؤلاء الحمقى" ، في إشارة إلى حدث مخطط له من قبل BLM. [110]

الجدول الزمني للأحداث والمظاهرات البارزة في الولايات المتحدة

2014

متظاهر "حياة السود مهمة" في ميدان هيرالد في ميسي ، نوفمبر 2014
احتجاج على حياة السود مهمة في هيرالد سكوير ، مانهاتن ، نوفمبر 2014

In 2014, Black Lives Matter demonstrated against the deaths of numerous African Americans by police actions, including those of Dontre Hamilton, Eric Garner, John Crawford III, Michael Brown, Ezell Ford, Laquan McDonald, Akai Gurley, Tamir Rice, Antonio Martin, and Jerame Reid, among others.[111]

In July, Eric Garner died in New York City, after a New York City Police Department officer put him in a banned chokehold while arresting him. Garner's death has been cited as one of several police killings of African Americans that sparked the Black Lives Matter movement.[112]

خلال عطلة نهاية الأسبوع في عيد العمال في أغسطس ، نظمت منظمة Black Lives Matter "رحلة الحرية" ، والتي جلبت أكثر من 500 أمريكي من أصل أفريقي من جميع أنحاء الولايات المتحدة إلى فيرجسون بولاية ميسوري ، لدعم العمل الذي تقوم به المنظمات المحلية على الأرض. [113] [114] استمرت الحركة في المشاركة في احتجاجات فيرجسون بعد وفاة مايكل براون. [115] دخلت الاحتجاجات في بعض الأحيان في صراع مع أقسام الشرطة المحلية والولائية ، التي كانت ترد عادة بطريقة مسلحة. في وقت من الأوقات تم استدعاء الحرس الوطني وأعلنت حالة الطوارئ . [21]

وفي أغسطس / آب أيضًا ، أطلق ضباط شرطة لوس أنجلوس النار على إزيل فورد وقتلوه. احتج BLM على وفاته في لوس أنجلوس حتى عام 2015. [116]

في نوفمبر / تشرين الثاني ، أطلق ضابط في إدارة شرطة مدينة نيويورك النار على أكاي جورلي ، وهو رجل أمريكي من أصل أفريقي يبلغ من العمر 28 عامًا ، فقتل بالرصاص. تم الاحتجاج في وقت لاحق على وفاة غورلي من قبل Black Lives Matter في مدينة نيويورك. [117] في أوكلاند ، كاليفورنيا ، ألقي القبض على 14 ناشطًا في Black Lives Matter بعد أن أوقفوا قطار Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) لأكثر من ساعة في يوم الجمعة الأسود ، وهو أحد أكبر أيام التسوق في العام. تم تنظيم الاحتجاج ، بقيادة المؤسس المشارك لشركة Black Lives Matter ، أليسيا غارزا ، ردًا على قرار هيئة المحلفين الكبرى بعدم توجيه الاتهام إلى دارين ويلسون بشأن وفاة مايك براون. [118] [119]

وفي نوفمبر / تشرين الثاني أيضًا ، أطلق ضابط شرطة في كليفلاند النار على تمير رايس ، صبي أمريكي من أصل أفريقي يبلغ من العمر 12 عامًا. كما تم الاستشهاد بوفاة رايس كمساهمة في "إثارة" حركة "حياة السود مهمة". [112] [120]

A Black Lives Matter احتجاج على وحشية الشرطة في القاعة المستديرة بمول أمريكا في بلومنجتون ، مينيسوتا ، في ديسمبر 2014

في ديسمبر / كانون الأول ، تجمع ما بين ألفين وثلاثة آلاف شخص في مول أوف أمريكا في بلومنجتون بولاية مينيسوتا ، للاحتجاج على قتل الشرطة للرجال السود العزل. [121] تم تجهيز الشرطة في المركز التجاري بمعدات مكافحة الشغب وكلاب شم القنابل. تم القبض على ما لا يقل عن عشرين عضوا من المتظاهرين. [122] [123] قالت الإدارة إنها "أصيبت بخيبة أمل شديدة لأن منظمي احتجاج Black Lives Matter اختاروا تجاهل سياستنا المعلنة والتذكيرات المتكررة بأن الاحتجاجات والمظاهرات السياسية غير مسموح بها في ممتلكات مول أمريكا". [122]

في ميلووكي ، ويسكونسن ، احتج BLM على إطلاق الشرطة النار على Dontre Hamilton ، الذي توفي في أبريل. [124] احتج فيلم Black Lives Matter على إطلاق النار على جون كروفورد الثالث . [125] و إطلاق النار على Renisha ماكبرايد وقد احتج التي كتبها Black حياة المسألة. [126]

وفي ديسمبر أيضًا ، واستجابة لقرار هيئة المحلفين الكبرى بعدم توجيه الاتهام إلى دارين ويلسون بشأن أي تهم تتعلق بوفاة مايكل براون ، نُظمت مسيرة احتجاجية في بيركلي بولاية كاليفورنيا. في وقت لاحق ، في عام 2015 ، رفع المتظاهرون والصحفيون الذين شاركوا في هذا التجمع دعوى قضائية يزعمون فيها "اعتداءات الشرطة غير الدستورية" على الحاضرين. [127]

بعد أسبوع من الحكم على مايكل براون ، قتل ضابطا شرطة في مدينة نيويورك على يد إسماعيل برينسلي ، الذي أعرب عن رغبته في قتل ضباط الشرطة انتقاما لمقتل غارنر وبراون. أدانت منظمة Black Lives Matter إطلاق النار ، على الرغم من أن بعض وسائل الإعلام اليمينية حاولت ربط المجموعة به ، حيث زعم رئيس جمعية باترولمان الخيرية أن هناك "دماء ملطخة بأيادي [من] أولئك الذين حرضوا على العنف في الشارع تحت ستار الاحتجاجات ". [21] كما حاول معلق تلفزيوني محافظ ربط حياة السود مهمة بالمحتجين الذين يهتفون بأنهم يريدون رؤية "رجال شرطة ميتين" في "مسيرة الملايين" في ديسمبر والتي نظمتها مجموعات مختلفة. [21]

2015

متظاهر يرتدي زي فريق أوريولز للبيسبول في أحد شوارع بالتيمور ، أبريل 2015

في عام 2015 ، تظاهر Black Lives Matter ضد مقتل العديد من الأمريكيين الأفارقة من خلال إجراءات الشرطة ، بما في ذلك تشارلي ليوندو كيونانغ ، توني روبنسون ، أنتوني هيل ، ميغان هوكاداي ، إريك هاريس ، والتر سكوت ، فريدي جراي ، ويليام تشابمان ، جوناثان ساندرز ، ساندرا بلاند ، صموئيل دوبوز ، جيريمي مكدول ، كوري جونز ، وجامار كلارك وكذلك قتل ديلان روف لتشارلستون ناين . [128] [129]

في مارس ، احتج BLM في مكتب عمدة شيكاغو رام إيمانويل ، مطالبين بإصلاحات داخل إدارة شرطة شيكاغو . [130] تشارلي لوندو كيونانغ ، كاميروني يبلغ من العمر 43 عامًا ، قُتل برصاص ضباط إدارة شرطة لوس أنجلوس. اعتقلت شرطة لوس أنجلوس 14 بعد مظاهرات BLM. [131]

في أبريل ، احتج Black Lives Matter في جميع أنحاء الولايات المتحدة على وفاة فريدي جراي التي شملت احتجاجات بالتيمور عام 2015 . [132] [133] تم استدعاء الحرس الوطني. [21] بعد إطلاق النار على والتر سكوت في نورث تشارلستون ، ساوث كارولينا ، احتج فيلم Black Lives Matter على وفاة سكوت وطالب بإشراف المواطن على الشرطة. [134]

في مايو ، كان احتجاج BLM في سان فرانسيسكو جزءًا من احتجاج وطني ، Say Her Name ، شجب قتل الشرطة للنساء والفتيات السود ، والذي تضمن مقتل ميغان هوكاداي ، وأيانا جونز ، وريكيا بويد ، وآخرين. [135] في كليفلاند ، أوهايو ، بعد أن تمت تبرئة ضابط في المحاكمة في إطلاق النار على تيموثي راسل وماليسا ويليامز ، احتجت BLM. [136] في ماديسون ، ويسكونسن ، احتجت BLM بعد أن لم يتم توجيه الاتهام إلى الضابط في إطلاق النار على توني روبنسون. [137]

في يونيو، بعد Dylann سقف الصورة اطلاق النار في كنيسة السوداء تاريخيا في تشارلستون ، ساوث كارولينا، أصدر BLM بيان وأدان اطلاق النار كعمل من أعمال الإرهاب. [ بحاجة لمصدر ] سار BLM في جميع أنحاء البلاد ، واحتج وأقام وقفة احتجاجية لعدة أيام بعد إطلاق النار. [138] [139] كانت BLM جزءًا من مسيرة من أجل السلام على جسر آرثر رافينيل جونيور في ساوث كارولينا . [140] بعد إطلاق النار في تشارلستون ، تم رسم عدد من النصب التذكارية للولايات الكونفدرالية الأمريكية بعبارة "حياة السود مهمة" أو تم تخريبها بطريقة أخرى.[141] [142] احتج حوالي 800 شخص في ماكيني ، تكساس بعد نشر مقطع فيديو يظهر ضابطًا يعلق فتاة - في حفلة تجمع في ماكيني ، تكساس - على الأرض بركبتيه. [143]

في يوليو ، بدأ نشطاء BLM في جميع أنحاء الولايات المتحدة احتجاجات على وفاة ساندرا بلاند ، وهي امرأة أمريكية من أصل أفريقي ، زُعم أنه عُثر عليها مشنوقة في زنزانة سجن في مقاطعة والر ، تكساس. [144] [145] في سينسيناتي بولاية أوهايو ، احتشدت BLM واحتجت على وفاة صامويل دوبوز بعد إطلاق النار عليه وقتل من قبل ضابط شرطة جامعة سينسيناتي . [146] في نيوارك بولاية نيو جيرسي ، تظاهر أكثر من ألف من نشطاء BLM ضد وحشية الشرطة والظلم العنصري وعدم المساواة الاقتصادية. [147] وفي يوليو أيضًا ، احتجت BLM على وفاة جوناثان ساندرز الذي توفي أثناء اعتقاله من قبل الشرطة في ميسيسيبي. [148] [149]

One-year commemoration of the shooting of Michael Brown and the Ferguson unrest at Barclays Center in Brooklyn, New York, August 2015

In August, BLM organizers held a rally in Washington, D.C., calling for a stop to violence against transgender women.[150] In Charlotte, North Carolina, after a judge declared a mistrial in the trial of a white Charlotte police officer who killed an unarmed black man, Jonathan Ferrell, BLM protested and staged die-ins.[151] In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Janelle Monáe, Jidenna, and other BLM activists marched through North Philadelphia to bring awareness to police brutality and Black Lives Matter.[152]في حوالي 9 أغسطس ، في الذكرى السنوية الأولى لوفاة مايكل براون ، احتشدت BLM وأقيمت وقفة احتجاجية وسارت في سانت لويس وفي جميع أنحاء البلاد. [153] [154]

Black Lives Matter احتجاجًا على وحشية شرطة سانت بول في مترو جرين لاين ، سبتمبر 2015

في سبتمبر ، احتشد أكثر من خمسمائة متظاهر من BLM في أوستن ، تكساس ضد وحشية الشرطة ، وحمل العديد منهم لافتات احتجاجية لفترة وجيزة على الطريق السريع 35 . [155] في بالتيمور بولاية ماريلاند ، سار نشطاء BLM واحتجوا مع بدء جلسات الاستماع في قضية فريدي جراي الوحشية لشرطة فريدي جراي . [156] في ساكرامنتو ، كاليفورنيا ، تظاهر حوالي ثمانمائة متظاهر من BLM لدعم مشروع قانون مجلس الشيوخ في كاليفورنيا الذي من شأنه زيادة إشراف الشرطة. [157] احتج BLM على إطلاق النار على جيريمي مكدول. [158]

In October, Black Lives Matter activists were arrested during a protest of a police chiefs conference in Chicago.[159] "Rise Up October" straddled the Black Lives Matter Campaign, and brought several protests.[160] Quentin Tarantino and Cornel West, participating in "Rise Up October", decried police violence.[161]

Protest march in response to the Jamar Clark shooting, Minneapolis, Minnesota, November 2015
An activist holds a "Black Lives Matter" sign outside the Minneapolis Police Fourth Precinct building following the officer-involved shooting of Jamar Clark on November 15, 2015

في نوفمبر ، احتج نشطاء BLM بعد إطلاق النار على جمار كلارك من قبل قسم شرطة مينيابوليس . [162] تم تنظيم احتجاج مستمر في منطقة شرطة مينيابوليس الرابعة. خلال المظاهرة التي أقيمت في المخيمات ، اشتبك المتظاهرون والمحرضون الخارجيون مع الشرطة ، وخربوا المركز وحاولوا اقتحام المركز بسيارة دفع رباعي. [163] [164] في وقت لاحق من ذلك الشهر تم تنظيم مسيرة لتكريم جمار كلارك ، من الدائرة الرابعة إلى وسط مدينة مينيابوليس. بعد المسيرة ، ظهرت مجموعة من الرجال يحملون أسلحة نارية وسترات واقية [165] وبدأوا في تسمية المتظاهرين بالشتائم العرقية وفقًا لمتحدث باسم Black Lives Matter. بعد أن طلب المتظاهرون من الرجال المسلحين المغادرة ، فتح الرجال النار وأطلقوا النار على خمسة متظاهرين.[166] [167] تطلبت جميع الإصابات دخول المستشفى ، لكنها لم تكن مهددة للحياة. فر الرجال من مكان الحادث ليتم العثور عليهم لاحقًا واعتقلوا. الرجال الثلاثة الذين تم اعتقالهم كانوا من الشباب والبيض ، ووصفهم المراقبون بأنهم متعصبون للبيض . [168] [169] في فبراير 2017 ، أدين أحد الرجال المعتقلين ، ألين سكارسيلا ، بارتكاب عشرات جرائم الاعتداء والشغب على صلة بإطلاق النار. استنادًا جزئيًا إلى شهور من الرسائل العنصرية التي أرسلها سكارسيلا لأصدقائه قبل إطلاق النار ، رفض القاضي الحجج التي قدمها دفاعه بأن سكارسيلا كان "ساذجًا" وحكم عليه في أبريل 2017 بالسجن 15 عامًا من أصل 20 عامًا كحد أقصى. [170] [171]

From November into 2016, BLM protested the shooting death of Laquan McDonald, calling for the resignation of numerous Chicago officials in the wake of the shooting and its handling. McDonald was shot 16 times by Chicago Police Officer Jason Van Dyke.[172]

2016

In 2016, Black Lives Matter demonstrated against the deaths of numerous African Americans by police actions, including those of Bruce Kelley Jr., Alton Sterling, Philando Castile, Joseph Mann, Abdirahman Abdi, Paul O'Neal, Korryn Gaines, Sylville Smith, Terence Crutcher, Keith Lamont Scott, Alfred Olango, and Deborah Danner, among others.

In January, hundreds of BLM protesters marched in San Francisco to protest the December 2, 2015, shooting death of Mario Woods, who was shot by San Francisco Police officers. The march was held during a Super Bowl event.[173] BLM held protests, community meetings, teach-ins, and direct actions across the country with the goal of "reclaim[ing] the radical legacy of Martin Luther King Jr."[174]

In February, Abdullahi Omar Mohamed, a 17-year-old Somali refugee, was shot and injured by Salt Lake City, Utah, police after allegedly being involved in a confrontation with another person. The shooting led to BLM protests.[175]

في يونيو ، احتج أعضاء من BLM و Color of Change على إدانة كاليفورنيا والحكم على جاسمين ريتشاردز في حادثة 2015 التي حاولت فيها منع ضابط شرطة من اعتقال امرأة أخرى. أدين ريتشاردز "بمحاولة أخذ شخص بشكل غير قانوني من الحجز القانوني لضابط السلام" ، وهي تهمة وصفها قانون العقوبات بالولاية بأنها " الإعدام خارج نطاق القانون " حتى تم حذف هذه الكلمة قبل شهرين من وقوع الحادث. [176]

في 5 يوليو / تموز ، أصيب ألتون ستيرلنج ، وهو رجل أسود يبلغ من العمر 37 عامًا ، عدة مرات من مسافة قريبة أثناء تعليقه على الأرض من قبل اثنين من ضباط شرطة باتون روج الأبيض في باتون روج ، لويزيانا. في ليلة 5 يوليو ، هتف أكثر من 100 متظاهر في باتون روج "لا عدالة ، لا سلام" ، وأطلقوا الألعاب النارية ، وسدوا تقاطعًا للاحتجاج على وفاة سترلينج. [177] في 6 يوليو ، أقامت Black Lives Matter وقفة احتجاجية على ضوء الشموع في باتون روج ، مع هتافات "نحن نحب باتون روج" ودعوات إلى العدالة. [178]

في 6 يوليو ، قُتل فيلاندو كاستيل برصاصة قاتلة على يد جيرونيمو يانيز ، ضابط شرطة سانت أنتوني ، مينيسوتا ، بعد أن تم إيقافه في فالكون هايتس ، إحدى ضواحي سانت بول . كان قشتالة يقود سيارة مع صديقته وابنتها البالغة من العمر 4 سنوات كركاب عندما أوقفه يانيز وضابط آخر. [179] وفقًا لصديقته ، بعد أن سئل عن رخصته وتسجيله ، أخبر قشتالة الضابط أنه مرخص له بحمل سلاح وكان معه واحد في السيارة. [180] قالت: "قال الضابط لا تتحرك. وبينما كان يرفع يديه للخلف ، أطلق عليه الضابط النار في ذراعه أربع أو خمس مرات". [181] قامت ببث مباشرمقطع فيديو على Facebook في أعقاب إطلاق النار مباشرة. بعد إطلاق النار القاتل على قشتالة ، احتج BLM في جميع أنحاء مينيسوتا والولايات المتحدة. [182]

مسيرة احتجاجية ردا على إطلاق النار على فيلاندو كاستيل ، سانت بول ، مينيسوتا ، 7 يوليو ، 2016

في 7 يوليو ، تم تنظيم احتجاج BLM في دالاس ، تكساس تم تنظيمه للاحتجاج على وفاة Alton Sterling و Philando Castile. وفي نهاية الاحتجاج السلمي ، أطلق ميكا كزافييه جونسون النار في كمين ، مما أسفر عن مقتل خمسة من ضباط الشرطة وإصابة سبعة آخرين واثنين من المدنيين. وقتل المسلح بعد ذلك بانفجار قنبلة آلية. [183] قبل وفاته ، طبقًا للشرطة ، قال جونسون إنه "كان منزعجًا من أن حياة السود مهمة" ، وأنه "أراد قتل البيض ، وخاصة الضباط البيض". [184] ألقى حاكم ولاية تكساس دان باتريك وغيره من المشرعين المحافظين باللوم في إطلاق النار على حركة Black Lives Matter. [185] [186]أصدرت شبكة Black Lives Matter بيانًا يدين إطلاق النار. [187] [188] في 8 يوليو ، تم اعتقال أكثر من 100 شخص في احتجاجات Black Lives Matter في جميع أنحاء الولايات المتحدة. [189]

احتجاج ردا على إطلاق النار في ألتون ستيرلنج ، سان فرانسيسكو ، كاليفورنيا ، 8 يوليو ، 2016

In the first half of July, there were at least 112 protests in 88 American cities.[190] On July 13, NBA stars LeBron James, Carmelo Anthony, Chris Paul, and Dwyane Wade opened the 2016 ESPY Awards with a Black Lives Matter message.[191] On July 26, Black Lives Matter held a protest in Austin, Texas, to mark the third anniversary of the shooting death of Larry Jackson Jr.[192] On July 28, Chicago Police Department officers shot Paul O'Neal in the back and killed him following a car chase.[193] After the shooting, hundreds marched in Chicago, Illinois.[194]

في راندلستاون بولاية ماريلاند ، بالقرب من بالتيمور ، في 1 أغسطس ، أطلق ضباط الشرطة النار وقتلوا كورين جاينز ، وهي امرأة أمريكية من أصل أفريقي تبلغ من العمر 23 عامًا ، كما أطلقوا النار وأصابوا ابنها. [195] تم الاحتجاج على وفاة جاينز في بالتيمور. [196]

في أغسطس ، احتج موقع Black Lives Matter في بيتسبرغ بولاية بنسلفانيا على مقتل بروس كيلي جونيور ، الذي قُتل بعد طعن كلب شرطة أثناء محاولته الفرار من الشرطة في يناير الماضي. [197]

In August, several professional athletes began participating in National Anthem protests. The protests began in the National Football League (NFL) after Colin Kaepernick of the San Francisco 49ers sat during the anthem, as opposed to the tradition of standing, before his team's third preseason game of 2016.[198] During a post-game interview he explained his position stating, "I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color. To me, this is bigger than football and it would be selfish on my part to look the other way. There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder,"[199] a protest widely interpreted as in solidarity with the Black Lives Matter movement.[200][201][202] The protests have generated mixed reactions, and have since spread to other U.S. sports leagues.

In September, BLM protested the shooting deaths by police officers of Terence Crutcher in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Keith Lamont Scott in Charlotte, North Carolina.[203][204][205] The Charlotte Observer reported "The protesters began to gather as night fell, hours after the shooting. They held themed signs that said 'Stop Killing Us' and 'Black Lives Matter,' and they chanted 'No justice, no peace.' The scene was sometimes chaotic and tense, with water bottles and stones chucked at police lines, but many protesters called for peace and implored their fellow demonstrators not to act violently."[206] Multiple nights of protests in September and October were held in El Cajon، كاليفورنيا ، بعد إطلاق النار على ألفريد أولانجو. [207] [208]

2017

خلال شهر التاريخ الأسود لعام 2017 ، نظم ثلاثة فنانين من ريتشموند بولاية فيرجينيا معرضًا فنيًا لمدة شهر بعنوان "حياة السود مهمة" في كنيسة ريتشموند العالمية الموحدة الأولى في منطقة بيرد بارك بالمدينة. شارك في العرض أكثر من 30 فنانًا متنوعًا متعدد الثقافات حول موضوع يستكشف المساواة العرقية والعدالة. [209]

في نفس الشهر ركزت مكتبة جيمس برانش كابيل بجامعة فرجينيا كومنولث على جدول زمني مدته شهر من الأحداث المتعلقة بالتاريخ الأفريقي الأمريكي [210] وعرضت صوراً من معرض الكنيسة "حياة السود مهمة" على شاشتها الخارجية. [211] تضمن جدول أحداث VCU أيضًا: سلسلة أفلام الحياة الواقعية The Angry Heart: تأثير العنصرية على أمراض القلب بين الأمريكيين من أصل أفريقي . قدم كيث نايت محاضرة شهر التاريخ الأسود السنوي الرابع عشر لمكتبات جامعة فرجينيا كومنولث. لورنس روس ، مؤلف كتاب Blackballed: The Black and White Politics of Race on America's Campusتحدث عن علاقة كتابه بحركة "حياة السود مهمة". و Velma P. Scantlebury ، دكتوراه في الطب ، أول جراح زرع أسود في الولايات المتحدة ، ناقشا "المساواة الصحية في زراعة الكلى: التجارب من منظور الجراح".

احتج Black Lives Matter على إطلاق النار على Jocques Clemmons في ناشفيل ، تينيسي في 10 فبراير 2017. [212] في 12 مايو 2017 ، بعد يوم من جلين فونك ، قرر محامي مقاطعة ديفيدسون عدم مقاضاة ضابط الشرطة جوشوا ليبرت ، عقد فرع ناشفيل من BLM مظاهرة بالقرب من حرم جامعة فاندربيلت على طول الطريق إلى مقر إقامة عمدة ناشفيل ميغان باري . [213] [214]

في 27 سبتمبر في كلية ويليام وماري ، احتج الطلاب المرتبطون بـ Black Lives Matter على حدث ACLU لأن اتحاد الحريات المدنية الأمريكي قاتل من أجل حق التجمع اليميني الذي سيعقد في شارلوتسفيل ، فيرجينيا. [215] ورد تيلور ريفيلي ، رئيس William & Mary ، ببيان دافع فيه عن التزام الكلية بفتح نقاش. [216] [217]

2018

في فبراير ومارس 2018 ، كجزء من تركيزها على العدالة الاجتماعية ، قدمت الكنيسة الموحدة الأولى في ريتشموند ، فيرجينيا في ريتشموند ، فيرجينيا معرضها الفني السنوي الثاني Black Lives Matter Art . [218] تم عرض الأعمال الفنية في المعرض في ساعات محددة على الشاشة الخارجية الكبيرة (jumbotron) في مكتبة كابيل بجامعة فرجينيا كومنولث . تمت دعوة الفنانين ذوي الفن في المعرض لمناقشة أعمالهم في معرض Black Lives Matter حيث تم عرضه في منتدى مسائي في مدرج صغير في قاعة Hibbs في VCU. تم دعوتهم أيضا لعرض بعد ذلك على الاداء المحلي للفيلم A زبيب في الشمس .

In April, CNN reported that the largest Facebook account claiming to be a part of the "Black Lives Matter" movement was a "scam" tied to a white man in Australia. The account, with 700,000 followers, linked to fundraisers that raised $100,000 or more, purportedly for U.S. Black Lives Matter causes; however, some of the money was instead transferred to Australian banks accounts, according to CNN. Facebook has suspended the offending page.[219][220][221]

2020

في 23 فبراير / شباط 2020 ، قُتل أحمد أربيري ، وهو رجل أمريكي من أصل أفريقي غير مسلح يبلغ من العمر 25 عامًا ، برصاصة قاتلة أثناء الركض في مقاطعة غلين ، جورجيا . [222] تمت ملاحقة Arbery ومواجهتها من قبل ثلاثة من السكان البيض يقودون مركبتين ، من بينهم أب وابنه مسلحان. [223] تم توجيه لائحة اتهام ضد الرجال الثلاثة في تسع تهم ، من بينها القتل العمد. [224]

في 13 مارس ، قام ضباط شرطة لويزفيل بهدم باب شقة بريونا تيلور الأمريكية من أصل أفريقي البالغة من العمر 26 عامًا ، وهي تقضي بأمر تفتيش غير مطرق للاشتباه في المخدرات. وأطلقت الشرطة عدة أعيرة نارية خلال المواجهة ما أدى إلى وفاتها . كان صديقها الذي كان حاضراً في ذلك الوقت قد اتصل برقم 911 وقال ، "ركل أحدهم الباب وأطلق النار على صديقتي". [225] نظمت احتجاجات في لويزفيل مع دعوات لإصلاح الشرطة. [226]

في 25 مايو ، واجه كريستيان كوبر ، وهو مراقب طيور أسود في سنترال بارك بنيويورك ، مواجهة مع امرأة بيضاء بعد أن طلب منها وضع كلبها في مقود في رامبل ، وهي منطقة لا يسمح فيها بالكلاب. تصاعد التفاعل عندما اتصلت المرأة البيضاء بالشرطة لتقول إن رجلاً من أصل أفريقي يهددها. [227] [228] في 6 يوليو / تموز ، أعلن مكتب المدعي العام في مانهاتن أن المرأة ستُتهم بالإبلاغ الكاذب عن حادثة من الدرجة الثالثة. [229]

يحتج جورج فلويد

احتجاج جورج فلويد في ساحة لافاييت ، واشنطن العاصمة ، 30 مايو ، 2020

At the end of May, spurred on by a rash of racially charged events including those above, over 450 major protests[230][231] were held in cities and towns across the United States and three continents.[232] The breaking point was due primarily to the murder of George Floyd by Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin,[233] eventually charged with second-degree murder after a video circulated showing Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck for nearly nine minutes while Floyd pleaded for his life, repeating: "I can't breathe."[234][235] Following protesters' demands for additional prosecutions, three other officers were charged with aiding and abetting second-degree murder.[236]

Protests in May 2020 after George Floyd's death
"Black Lives Matter" on the facade of the Washington National Cathedral, June 10, 2020

Black Lives Matter organized rallies in the United States and worldwide[237] from May 30 onwards,[238][239] with protesters enacting Floyd's final moments, many lying down in streets and on bridges, yelling "I can't breathe," while others marched by the thousands, some carrying signs that read, "Tell your brother in blue, don't shoot"—"Who do you call when the murderer wears a badge?" and "Justice for George Floyd."[240] While global in nature and supported by several unassociated organizations, the Black Lives Matter movement has been inextricably linked to these monumental protests.[241] Black Lives Matter called to "defund the police", a slogan with varying interpretations from إلغاء الشرطة لسحب الاستثمارات من الشرطة والسجون لإعادة الاستثمار في الخدمات الاجتماعية في المجتمعات الملونة. [242] في عام 2020 ، ذكرت الإذاعة الوطنية العامة أن مطالب فرع واشنطن دي سي بلاك لايفز ماتر كانت تسحب تمويل الشرطة ، ووقف بناء سجون جديدة ، وإلغاء تجريم العمل بالجنس ، وإخراج الشرطة من المدارس ، وتبرئة المتظاهرين وإلغاء الكفالة النقدية في ماريلاند . [243]

قاد آل شاربتون مسيرة الالتزام: انزع ركبتك من أعناقنا في واشنطن العاصمة في 28 أغسطس 2020

في 5 يونيو ، أعلن عمدة واشنطن ، موريل باوزر ، أن جزءًا من الشارع خارج البيت الأبيض قد أعيد تسميته رسميًا إلى Black Lives Matter Plaza مُعلَّقًا عليه لافتة شارع. [244]

في 7 يونيو ، في أعقاب احتجاجات جورج فلويد العالمية ودعوة Black Lives Matter إلى "وقف تمويل الشرطة" ، صوت مجلس مدينة مينيابوليس على "حل قسم الشرطة" لتحويل التمويل إلى البرامج الاجتماعية في المجتمعات الملونة. وقالت رئيسة مجلس المدينة ليزا بندر ، "لقد فشلت جهودنا في الإصلاح التدريجي. فترة." جاء تصويت المجلس بعد أن قطعت مدارس مينيابوليس العامة وجامعة مينيسوتا ومينيابوليس باركس آند ريكريشن العلاقات مع إدارة شرطة مينيابوليس. [245] في نهاية عام 2020 ، تم إعادة تخصيص ما يقرب من 8 ملايين دولار من ميزانية شرطة المدينة البالغة 179 مليون دولار للبرامج التجريبية لمنع العنف ،واعتُبر نوع الإصلاح التدريجي الذي ندد به النشطاء والسياسيون في وقت سابق.[246]

On July 20, the Strike for Black Lives, organized in part by Black Lives Matter, featured thousands of workers across the United States performing a walkout to raise awareness of systemic racism following Floyd's death.[247]

From May 22 to August 22, there were more than 10,600 BLM protest events in the United States.[248]

International movement

In 2015, after the death of Freddie Gray in Baltimore, Maryland, black activists around the world modeled efforts for reform on Black Lives Matter and the Arab Spring.[55][249] This international movement has been referred to as the "Black Spring".[250][251] Connections have also been forged with parallel international efforts such as the Dalit rights movement.[252]

Australia

Protest in Brisbane, June 6, 2020

بعد وفاة السيدة ده في حجز الشرطة في أغسطس 2014 ، أشارت الاحتجاجات في كثير من الأحيان إلى حركة BLM. [253] [254] في يوليو 2016 ، تم تنظيم تجمع BLM في ملبورن ، أستراليا ، حضره 3500 شخص. كما أكد الاحتجاج على قضايا سوء معاملة الشرطة والحكومة الأسترالية للسكان الأصليين الأستراليين . [255]

في مايو 2017 ، مُنحت Black Lives Matter جائزة سيدني للسلام ، التي "تكرم المرشح الذي روج لـ" السلام مع العدالة "وحقوق الإنسان واللاعنف". [256]

في أوائل يونيو 2020 ، بعد فترة وجيزة من احتجاجات جورج فلويد في الولايات المتحدة ، اندلعت الاحتجاجات في أستراليا ، حيث ركز الكثير منها على القضية المحلية لوفيات السكان الأصليين في الحجز ، والعنصرية في أستراليا وغيرها من أشكال الظلم التي يواجهها السكان الأصليون الأستراليون . [257] انتقد لاعب الكريكيت مايكل هولدينج أستراليا ، وكذلك إنجلترا ، لرفضهما أخذ ركبة لدعم Black Lives Matter خلال مباريات الكريكيت. [258] [259]

البرازيل

يعاني السود في البرازيل من التهميش الاقتصادي وعنف الدولة والتمييز وانخفاض متوسط ​​العمر المتوقع. [260] في يونيو 2020 ، توفي طفلان سوداوان ، ميغيل أوتافيو سانتانا دا سيلفا البالغ من العمر 5 سنوات وجواو بيدرو ماتوس بينتو البالغ من العمر 14 عامًا ، في البرازيل. [260] كان ميغيل أوتافيو سانتانا دا سيلفا تحت مراقبة الرئيس الأبيض لوالدته عندما سقط من شرفة أحد المباني. [260] أصيب جواو بيدرو ماتوس بينتو برصاصة في ظهره من قبل الشرطة في ريو دي جانيرو أثناء مداهمة حيث أطلقت الشرطة سبعين رصاصة. [260] [261] قُتل في نفس الأسبوع الذي قُتل فيه جورج فلويد. [262] أدى موتهم إلى احتجاجات في المدن في جميع أنحاء البلاد. [260]تُرجم شعار "حياة السود مهمة" إلى اللغة البرتغالية "فيداس نيجراس إمبورتام". [260] استمرت الاحتجاجات طوال عام 2020 وتجددت في نهاية العام بعد أن ضرب حراس أمن السوبر ماركت اللحام جواو ألبرتو سيلفيرا فريتاس البالغ من العمر 40 عامًا حتى الموت في بورتو أليجري . [263]

كندا

احتجاج في فانكوفر ، 31 مايو 2020

In July 2015, BLM protesters shut down Allen Road in Toronto, Ontario, protesting the shooting deaths of two black men in the metropolitan area—Andrew Loku and Jermaine Carby—at the hands of police.[264] In September, BLM activists shut down streets in Toronto, citing police brutality and solidarity with "marginalized black lives" as reason for the shutdown. Black Lives Matter was a featured part of the Take Back the Night event in Toronto.[265]

In June 2016, Black Lives Matter was selected by Pride Toronto as the honored group in that year's Pride parade, during which they staged a sit-in to block the parade from moving forward for approximately half an hour.[266] They issued several demands for Pride to adjust its relationship with LGBTQ people of color, including stable funding and a suitable venue for the established Blockorama event, improved diversity in the organization's staff and volunteer base, and that Toronto Police officers be banned from marching in the parade in uniform.[267] Pride executive director Mathieu Chanteloisوقع بيان طلب BLM ، لكنه أكد لاحقًا أنه وقع عليه فقط لإنهاء الاعتصام وتحريك العرض ، ولم يوافق على احترام المطالب. [268] في أواخر أغسطس 2016 ، احتج فرع تورنتو أمام وحدة التحقيقات الخاصة في ميسيسوجا ردًا على وفاة عبد الرحمن عبدي ، الذي توفي أثناء اعتقاله في أوتاوا . [269]

في عام 2020، و فاة ريجيس Korchinski باكيه و قتل D'اندريه كامبل أثار احتجاجات في كندا بلم تطالب defunding خدمات الشرطة. [270] [271]

اعتبارا من شهر ديسمبر عام 2020، وهناك خمسة فصول BLM الكندية في تورونتو، فانكوفر ، واترلو منطقة ، ادمونتون ، و نيو برونزويك . [270]

النقطة المحورية الأخرى لحركة Black Lives Matter في كندا هي معالجة القضايا والعنصرية وغيرها من أشكال الظلم التي يواجهها الكنديون الأصليون . [272] [273] [274] [275]

الدنمارك

مظاهرة في كريستيانسبورج سلوتسبادس ، كوبنهاغن ، 7 يونيو 2020

في الدنمارك ، تأسست منظمة تدعى Black Lives Matter Denmark في عام 2016 من قبل Bwalya Sørensen  [ da ] ، وهي امرأة من زامبيا جاءت إلى الدنمارك عندما كان عمرها 19 عامًا. تتمركز المنظمة حول سورينسن وتركز بشكل أساسي على طالبي اللجوء المرفوضين والأجانب المجرمين المحكوم عليهم بالطرد من الدنمارك. [276] الاتصال بالمنظمة الأمريكية غير واضح ، لكن سورينسن قالت إنها شجعت من قبل شخص ما في الولايات المتحدة لبدء فرع دنماركي ، وأنه في عام 2017 ، زارها المؤسس المشارك للولايات المتحدة ، أوبال تومتي . [277]

في يونيو 2020 ، بعد وفاة جورج فلويد ، نظمت Black Lives Matter Denmark مظاهرة في كوبنهاغن جذبت 15000 مشارك. بعد المظاهرة ، تلقت المنظمة و Sørensen ، على وجه الخصوص ، انتقادات كثيرة لأن القواعد فصلت الناس حسب العرق: في المظاهرة ، كان السود فقط هم من يقفون في المقدمة ، ولم يُسمح للبيض بالمشاركة في بعض الهتافات. [278] [279] اشتملت الخلافات الأخرى على رفض سورينسن المشاركة في استضافة مظاهرة مع منظمة العفو الدولية لأن موظفيها كانوا من البيض ، [280] وجمع الأموال بشكل غير قانوني ، في حين وصف تصريح جمع التبرعات المفقود بأنه " عصيان مدني " سلمي . [281]تعرضت سورنسن نفسها لانتقادات لتقسيم الحركة بأسلوبها المواجهي. [276] [282]

تم الإعلان عن منظمة جديدة ، تُدعى Afro Danish Collective ، في يونيو 2020 ، مع روجر ماتيسين  [ دا ] ، العضو السابق في فولكتينغ من أجل البديل ، كمتحدث رسمي. للمنظمة أهداف مماثلة لأهداف Black Lives Matter الدنمارك ، لكنها ستتبع نهجًا أكثر اعتدالًا ، بما في ذلك عدم التمييز بين الأشخاص في المظاهرات على أساس لون بشرتهم. [283] [277] قال ماتيسين إن التجمع الأفرو الدنماركي قد تم تأسيسه جزئيًا لأن قيادة Black Lives Matter الدنمارك لم تكن محترفة بما فيه الكفاية. [283]

احتجاج على حياة السود مهمة في برلين ، ألمانيا ، 30 مايو 2020

فرنسا

في 18 يوليو 2020 ، تظاهر آلاف المتظاهرين بالقرب من باريس لإحياء الذكرى الرابعة لوفاة أداما تراوري . اعتقل تراوري ، وهو رجل أسود ، في يوليو 2016 وأغمي عليه بعد أن ثبته ضباط الشرطة على الأرض. توفي لاحقا في مركز للشرطة. ملابسات وفاته غير واضحة. [284]

ألمانيا

في 6 يونيو 2020 ، تجمع عشرات الآلاف من الأشخاص في جميع أنحاء ألمانيا لدعم حركة Black Lives Matter. [285] في 18 يوليو / تموز 2020 ، شارك أكثر من 1500 متظاهر في مسيرة مناهضة للعنصرية في برلين لإدانة وحشية الشرطة. [284]

Protest in Fukuoka, June 21, 2020

Japan

In the wake of the murder of George Floyd, several demonstrations took place in Japan, including a 1,000-person demonstration in Osaka on June 7, 2020,[286] and a 3,500-person march through the streets of Shibuya and Harajuku areas of Tokyo on June 14, 2020.[287] The movement has been met with some backlash in the country, notably on the internet,[288] where some users criticized tennis player Naomi Osaka after she encouraged people to join a Black Lives Matter march in the city of Osaka.[289]

New Zealand

Black Lives Matter protest in Auckland, June 14, 2020

On June 1, 2020, several BLM solidarity protests in response to the death of George Floyd were held in several New Zealand cities including Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Palmerston North and Hamilton.[290][291][292][293] The Auckland event, which attracted between 2,000 and 4,000 participants, was organized by several members of New Zealand's African community. Auckland organizer Mahlete Tekeste, African-American expatriate Kainee Simone, and sportsperson Israel Adesanya compared racism, mass incarceration, and police violence against African Americans to the over-representation of Māori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand prisons, the controversial armed police response squad trials, and existing racism against minorities in New Zealand including the 2019 Christchurch mosque shootings. Hip hop artist and music producer Mazbou Q also called on Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern to condemn violence against black Americans.[294]

كما أعرب حزب الخضر اليساري ، وهو عضو في الحكومة الائتلافية التي يقودها حزب العمال ، عن دعمه لحركة Black Lives Matter ، وربط محنة الأمريكيين من أصل أفريقي بالعنصرية وعدم المساواة وارتفاع معدل السجن الذي يعيشه الماوري وباسيفيكا. مجتمعات. اجتذبت احتجاجات BLM في نيوزيلندا انتقادات من نائب رئيس الوزراء وينستون بيترز لانتهاكه قوانين التباعد الاجتماعي الوبائي COVID-19 في البلاد التي تحظر التجمعات الجماهيرية لأكثر من 100 شخص. [295]

المملكة المتحدة

مظاهرة في كنيسة القديس نيكولاس في برايتون ، 3 يونيو ، 2020

ظهرت حركة Black Lives Matter كحركة في المملكة المتحدة في صيف 2016. وحضر الآلاف احتجاجات ضد عنصرية الشرطة في مانشستر في 11 يوليو ، وتم إنشاء مجموعة تسمى Black Lives Matter UK (UKBLM) في أعقاب خروج بريطانيا من الاتحاد الأوروبي في 26 يونيو. استفتاء في اجتماع وجهته الناشطة الأمريكية BLM باتريس كولورز. [296] [297] [298] [299] في 4 أغسطس 2016 ، أغلق متظاهرو BLM مطار لندن سيتي في لندن ، إنجلترا. ربط العديد من المتظاهرين أنفسهم ببعضهم البعض على مدرج المطار. [300] [301] تم القبض على تسعة أشخاص على صلة بالحادث. كانت هناك أيضًا احتجاجات تحت عنوان BLM في مدن إنجليزية أخرى بما في ذلك Birmingham and Nottingham. The UK-held protests marked the fifth anniversary of the shooting death of Mark Duggan.[302]

In 2016, tabloid newspapers ran several stories seeking to expose and discredit BLM activists, leading the movement to adopt anonymity.[299] On June 25, 2017, BLM supporters protested in Stratford, London over the death of Edson Da Costa, who died in police custody. There were no arrests made at the protest.[303][304] According to Patrick Vernon, BLM's start in the UK in 2016 was not met with respect. From 2018 onwards, after events like the Grenfell Tower fire and the Windrush scandal, the movement was viewed more favorably by black Britons, in particular senior black Britions.[305]في ديسمبر 2019 ، عملت Black Lives Matter UK مع تحالف Wretched of the Earth لتمثيل أصوات الشعوب الأصلية العالمية والأشخاص الملونين في حركة العدالة المناخية . [306]

مظاهرة خارج السفارة الأمريكية في لندن ، 7 يونيو ، 2020

In 2020, protests were held in support of the Black Lives Matter protests in the US. Following the murder of George Floyd, London protests took place in Trafalgar Square on May 31, Hyde Park on June 3, Parliament Square on June 6, and outside the US Embassy on June 7. Similar protests took place in Manchester, Bristol, and Cardiff.[307] The UK protests not only showed solidarity with U.S. protesters, but also commemorated black people who have died in the UK, with protesters chanting, carrying signs, and sharing social media posts with names of victims including Julian Cole,[308] Belly Mujinga,[309] Nuno Cardoso,[310] and Sarah Reed.[311]

The empty pedestal of the statue of Edward Colston in Bristol. Subject to increasing controversy since the 1990s, when his prior reputation as a philanthropist came under scrutiny due to a growing awareness of his slave trading, in June 2020 the statue was toppled, defaced and pushed into Bristol Harbour.

On June 7, protests continued in many towns and cities.[312] During a Black Lives Matter protest in Bristol, the city center statue of Edward Colston, a late 17th early 18th-century philanthropist, politician and slave trader, was pulled down by protesters, rolled along the road and pushed into Bristol Harbour.[313] The act was later condemned by Home Secretary Priti Patel who said "This hooliganism is utterly indefensible."[314] In London, after it was defaced a few days earlier,[315] protesters defaced the statue of Winston Churchill, Parliament Square, Westminster with graffiti for a second time. Black spray paint was sprayed over his name and the words "was a racist" were sprayed underneath.[314] A protester also attempted to burn the Union Jack flag flying at the Cenotaph, a memorial to Britain's war dead.[316] Later in the evening violence broke out between protesters and police. A total of 49 police officers were injured after demonstrators threw bottles and fireworks at them.[317] Over the weekend, a total of 135 arrests were made by police.[312] British Prime Minister Boris Johnson commented on the events, saying "those who attack public property or the police – who injure the police officers who are trying to keep us all safe – those people will face the full force of the law; not just because of the hurt and damage they are causing, but because of the damage they are doing to the cause they claim to represent."[318]

Peaceful protests took place in Leeds' Millennium Square on June 14, 2020[319] organized by a coalition of organizations: Black Voices Matter', which included Black Lives Matter Leeds.[320] A second protest was held on Woodhouse Moor on June 21, organized by Black Lives Matter Leeds.[321]

On June 28, Black Lives Matter UK faced criticism for making a series of tweets from their verified Twitter account regarding Israel, including one that claims "mainstream British politics is gagged of the right to critique Zionism".[322] The Premier League, who were carrying the Black Lives Matter logo on their football shirts for the rest of the 2019–20 season, subsequently said that attempts by groups to hijack the cause to suit their own political ends are entirely unwelcome.[323] After receiving considerable donations in summer 2020, Black Lives Matter UK formalised its organisation.[299] In September 2020, the group changed its official name to Black Liberation Movement UK and became legally registered as a community benefit society.[324] However, the group still uses the Black Lives Matter name in its global cooperative efforts.[325] In January 2021, the Black Liberation Movement began to distribute its funds to grassroots black-led and anti-racist organisations across the UK.[326] Activists from a different BLM group, Charles Gordon[327] and Sasha Johnson, founded the Taking The Initiative Party (TTIP) in the summer of 2020 had applied to register as a political party through the Electoral Commission; however, BLM UK said "BLM UK has no intention to set up a political party. This person or group is not affiliated with us."[325]

We Believe sign in Arlington, Virginia, October 2020

In September 2021, British businessman and philanthropist Ken Olisa revealed to Channel 4 that Elizabeth II and the British royal family are supporters of Black Lives Matter.[328] In response, a spokesperson for Black Lives Matter UK said "We were surprised to learn the Queen is a BLM supporter. But we welcome anyone that agrees with our goal of dismantling white supremacy. Of course, actions speak louder than words. The Queen sits on a throne made from colonial plunder. Until she gives back all the stolen gold and diamonds from the Commonwealth and pays reparations, these are nothing more than warm words."[329]

2016 United States presidential election

Bern Machine with a BLM sticker, September 18, 2015

Primaries

Democrats

At the Netroots Nation Conference in July 2015, dozens of Black Lives Matter activists took over the stage at an event featuring Martin O'Malley and Bernie Sanders. Activists, including Black Lives Matter co-founder Patrisse Cullors, asked both candidates for specific policy proposals to address deaths in police custody.[330] The protesters chanted several slogans, including "if I die in police custody, burn everything down" and "Shut this crap down".[331][21] The expression "Shut it down" would go on to become a popular phrase in Black Lives Matter protests and on social media.[21]

After conference organizers pleaded with the protesters for several minutes, O'Malley responded by pledging to release a wide-ranging plan for criminal justice reform. Protesters later booed O'Malley when he stated "Black lives matter. White lives matter. All lives matter."[331] O'Malley later apologized for his remarks, saying that he did not mean to disrespect the black community.[331]

Bernie Sanders and Black Lives Matter activists in Westlake Park, Seattle, August 8, 2015

On August 8, 2015, a speech by Democratic presidential candidate and civil rights activist Bernie Sanders was disrupted by a group who would go on to found the Seattle Chapter of Black Lives Matter including chapter co-founder Marissa Johnson[332] who walked onstage, seized the microphone from him and called his supporters racists and white supremacists.[333][334][335] Sanders issued a platform in response.[336] Nikki Stephens, the operator of a Facebook page called "Black Lives Matter: Seattle" issued an apology to Sanders' supporters, claiming these actions did not represent her understanding of BLM. She was then sent messages by members of the Seattle Chapter which she described as threatening, and was forced to change the name of her group to "Black in Seattle". The founders of Black Lives Matter stated that they had not issued an apology.[337] In August 2015, the Democratic National Committee passed a resolution supporting Black Lives Matter.[338]

In the first Democratic primary debate, the presidential candidates were asked whether black lives matter or all lives matter.[339] In reply, Bernie Sanders stated, "Black lives matter."[339] Martin O'Malley said, "Black lives matter," and that the "movement is making is a very, very legitimate and serious point, and that is that as a nation we have undervalued the lives of black lives, people of color."[340] In response, Hillary Clinton pushed for criminal justice reform, and said, "We need a new New Deal for communities of color."[341] Jim Webb, on the other hand, replied: "As the president of the United States, every life in this country matters."[339] Hillary Clinton was not directly asked the same question, but was instead asked: "What would you do for African Americans in this country that President Obama couldn't?"[342] Clinton had already met with Black Lives Matter representatives, and emphasized what she described as a more pragmatic approach to enacting change, stating "Look, I don't believe you change hearts. I believe you change laws". Without policy change, she felt "we'll be back here in 10 years having the same conversation."[343] In June 2015, Clinton used the phrase "all lives matter" in a speech about the opportunities of young people of color, prompting backlash that she may misunderstand the message of "Black Lives Matter."[344][345]

A week after the first Democratic primary debate was held in Las Vegas, BLM launched a petition targeted at the DNC and its chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz demanding more debates, and "specifically for a #BlackLivesMatter themed Presidential debate."[346][347] The petition received over 10,000 signatures within 24 hours of being launched,[348] and had over 33,000 signatures as of October 27, 2015.[349] The DNC said that it would permit presidential candidates to attend a presidential town hall organized by activists, but that it would not add another debate to its official schedule.[350] In response, the organization released a press statement on its Facebook page stating that "[i]n consultation with our chapters, our communities, allies, and supporters, we remain unequivocal that a Presidential Town Hall with support from the DNC does not sufficiently respond to the concerns raised by our members", continuing to demand a full additional debate.[348]

After the first debate, in October 2015, a speech by Hillary Clinton on criminal justice reform and race at Atlanta University Center was interrupted by BLM activists.[351]

In February 2016, two Black Lives Matter activists protested at a private fundraiser for Clinton about statements she made in 1996 in which she referred to young people as "super-predators". One of the activists wanted Clinton to apologize for "mass incarceration" in connection with her support for her husband, then-President Bill Clinton's 1994 criminal reform law.[352]

Republicans

Republican candidates have been mostly critical of BLM. In August 2015, Ben Carson, the only African American vying for the Republican nomination for the presidency, called the movement "silly".[353] Carson also said that BLM should care for all black lives, not just a few.[354] In the first Republican presidential debate, which took place in Cleveland, one question referenced Black Lives Matter.[355] In response to the question, Scott Walker advocated for the proper training of law enforcement[355] and blamed the movement for rising anti-police sentiment,[356] while Marco Rubio was the first candidate to publicly sympathize with the movement's point of view.[357]

In August 2015, activists chanting "Black Lives Matter" interrupted the Las Vegas rally of Republican presidential candidate Jeb Bush.[358] As Bush exited early, some of his supporters started responding to the protesters by chanting "white lives matter" or "all lives matter".[359]

Several conservative pundits have labeled the movement a "hate group".[360] Candidate Chris Christie, the New Jersey Governor, criticized President Obama for supporting BLM, stating that the movement calls for the murder of police officers.[361] Christie's statement was condemned by New Jersey chapters of the NAACP and ACLU.[362]

BLM activists also called on the Republican National Committee to have a presidential debate focused on issues of racial justice.[363] The RNC, however, declined to alter their debate schedule, and instead also supported a townhall or forum.[350]

In November 2015, a BLM protester was physically assaulted at a Donald Trump rally in Birmingham, Alabama. In response, Trump said, "maybe he should have been roughed up because it was absolutely disgusting what he was doing."[364] Trump had previously threatened to fight any Black Lives Matter protesters if they attempted to speak at one of his events.[365]

Anti-Trump protest in New York City, March 19, 2016

In March 2016, Black Lives Matter helped organize the 2016 Donald Trump Chicago rally protest that forced Trump to cancel the event.[366][367] Four individuals were arrested and charged in the incident; two were "charged with felony aggravated battery to a police officer and resisting arrest", one was "charged with two misdemeanor counts of resisting and obstructing a peace officer", and the fourth "was charged with one misdemeanor count of resisting and obstructing a peace officer".[368] A CBS reporter was one of those arrested outside the rally. He was charged with resisting arrest.[369]

General election

A group called Mothers of the Movement, which includes the mothers of Michael Brown, Sandra Bland, Eric Garner, and other mothers whose "unarmed African-American children have been killed by law enforcement or due to gun violence,"[370] addressed the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 26.[371][372]

Commenting on the first of 2016 presidential debates between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, some media outlets characterized Clinton's references to implicit bias and systemic racism[373] as speaking "the language of the Black Lives Matter movement,"[374] while others pointed out neither Clinton nor Trump used the words "Black Lives Matter."[375]

In a The Washington Post op-ed, DeRay Mckesson endorsed Hillary Clinton, because her "platform on racial justice is strong". He articulated that voting alone is not the only way to bring about "transformational change". He said that "I voted my entire life, and I was still tear-gassed in the streets of St. Louis and Baltimore. I voted my entire life, and those votes did not convict the killers of Sandra Bland, Freddie Gray or Michael Brown".[376][377]

Reactions

The United States population's perception of Black Lives Matter has varied consistently and considerably by race.[378] A majority of Americans disapproved of the movement through 2018, after which it started gaining wider support. Black Lives Matter's popularity surged and reached its highest levels yet in the summer of 2020, when a Pew Research Center poll found that 60% of white, 77% of Hispanic, 75% of Asian and 86% of African-Americans either strongly supported or somewhat supported BLM.[17] However, its popularity had declined considerably in September of the same year, when another Pew Research Center poll showed that its overall approval ratings among all American adults had gone down by 12 percentage points to 55%, and that 45% of whites, 66% of Hispanics and 69% of Asians now approved of it.[18] Support remained widespread among black-American adults (up 1% to 87%).[18]

The phrase "All Lives Matter" sprang up as a response to the Black Lives Matter movement, but has been criticized for dismissing or misunderstanding the message of "Black Lives Matter".[379][380] Following the shooting of two police officers in Ferguson, the hashtag Blue Lives Matter was created by supporters of the police.[381] A few civil rights leaders have disagreed with tactics used by Black Lives Matter activists.[382][383] Public and academic debate at large has arisen over the structure and tactics used.[22]

In the weeks following the death of George Floyd, many corporations came out in support of the movement, donating and enacting policy changes in accordance with the group's ethos.[384]

"All Lives Matter"

"What happened to 'All Lives Matter'?" sign at a protest against Donald Trump, January 29, 2017

The phrase "All Lives Matter" sprang up as response to the Black Lives Matter movement, shortly after the movement gained national attention.[380][385] Several notable individuals have supported All Lives Matter. Its proponents include Senator Tim Scott.[386] NFL cornerback Richard Sherman supports the All Lives Matter message, saying "I stand by what I said that All Lives Matter and that we are human beings."[387] According to an August 2015 telephone poll, 78% of likely American voters said that the statement "all lives matter" was closest to their own personal views when compared to "black lives matter" or neither. Only 11% said that the statement "black lives matter" was closest. Nine percent said that neither statement reflected their own personal point of view.[388]

According to professor David Theo Goldberg, "All Lives Matter" reflects a view of "racial dismissal, ignoring, and denial".[389] Professor Charles "Chip" Linscott said that "All Lives Matter" promotes the "erasure of structural anti-black racism and black social death in the name of formal and ideological equality and post-racial colorblindness".[123]

External image
image icon "All Houses Matter", Chainsawsuit, Kris Straub, July 7, 2016. Cartoonist uses a house fire to illustrate why critics see "All Lives Matter" as problematic.[379]

Founders have responded to criticism of the movement's exclusivity, saying, "#BlackLivesMatter doesn't mean your life isn't important – it means that Black lives, which are seen without value within White supremacy, are important to your liberation."[390] President Barack Obama spoke to the debate between Black Lives Matter and All Lives Matter.[391] Obama said, "I think that the reason that the organizers used the phrase Black Lives Matter was not because they were suggesting that no one else's lives matter ... rather what they were suggesting was there is a specific problem that is happening in the African American community that's not happening in other communities." He also said "that is a legitimate issue that we've got to address."[70]

"Blue Lives Matter"

Blue Lives Matter is a countermovement in the United States advocating that those who are prosecuted and convicted of killing law enforcement officers should be sentenced under hate crime statutes.[392] It was started in response to Black Lives Matter after the homicides of NYPD officers Rafael Ramos and Wenjian Liu in Brooklyn, New York on December 20, 2014.[393] Following the shooting of two police officers in Ferguson and in response to BLM, the hashtag #BlueLivesMatter was created by supporters of the police.[381] Following this, Blue Lives Matter became a pro-police officer movement in the United States, expanding after the killings of four police officers by a sniper in Dallas, Texas, who cited police shootings of Black people as his motive.[394][395][396]

Criticized by the ACLU and others, the movement inspired a state law in Louisiana that made it a hate crime to target police officers, firefighters, and emergency medical service personnel.[397][11]

"White Lives Matter"

White Lives Matter is an activist group created in response to Black Lives Matter. In August 2016, the Southern Poverty Law Center added "White Lives Matter" to its list of hate groups.[398][399] The group has also been active in the United Kingdom.[400] The "White Lives Matter" slogan was chanted by torch-wielding alt-right protesters during the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia. On October 28, 2017, numerous "White Lives Matter" rallies broke out in Tennessee. Dominated in Shelbyville particularly, protesters justified their movement in response to the increasing number of immigrants and refugees to Middle Tennessee.[401] "White Lives Matter" movements have also been present in European football, with instances of corresponding banners being raised at stadiums in the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Hungary, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.[402][403]

Disinformation

The Anti-Defamation League reports numerous attempts to spread disinformation about BLM, citing as examples mid-June 2020 posts "featuring a sticker instructing people to 'kill a white on sight' spread on Facebook and Twitter. The sticker included the hashtags #BlackLivesMatter and #Antifa." On Telegram, a "white supremacist channel encouraged members to distribute the propaganda."[404] Another disinformation campaign, originating in June 2020 on 4chan, had the "goal of getting the hashtags #AllWhitesAreNazis (#AWAN) trending on Twitter. Organizers hoped to commandeer hashtags like #BlackLivesMatter and #BLM with a high volume of tweets—purportedly from Black activist accounts—containing the #AWAN hashtag." According to the ADL, the campaign's supporters hoped to sow tension and promote white supremacist accelerationism.[405][406]

Conservative pundits such as Ryan Fournier and Candace Owens have falsely claimed that ActBlue funnels donations intended for Black Lives Matter to Democratic candidates, with some going so far as to allege the organization is a money laundering scam.[407][408][409][410]

According to scholars, Russian operatives associated with the Internet Research Agency have engaged in a sustained campaign to simultaneously promote the Black Lives Matter movement as well as to oppose it. In some cases, Russian operatives encouraged antagonism and violence toward BLM members.[411]

Fake manifesto

In June 2020, an unknown party created a website at BLMManifesto.com purporting to be the manifesto of the BLM movement. The text mimics a 1919 Italian Fascist Manifesto, modified to relate to racial injustice. According to Snopes, the website appears intended to discredit the BLM movement.[412]

Statistics

The United States population's perception of Black Lives Matter varies considerably by race. According to a September 2015 poll on race relations, nearly two-thirds of African Americans mostly agree with Black Lives Matter, while 30% of black Americans and 37% of white Americans do not have an opinion about Black Lives Matter.[378] Of white people surveyed, 41% thought that Black Lives Matter advocated violence, and 59% of whites thought that Black Lives Matter distracted attention from the real issues of racial discrimination. By comparison, 82% of black people polled thought that Black Lives Matter was a nonviolent movement, and 26% of blacks thought that Black Lives Matter distracted attention from the real issues of racial discrimination. On the question of whether "Black Lives Matter" was mostly a movement or mostly a slogan, 46% of whites and 67% of blacks thought that it is mostly a movement.[378][413] A nationally representative internet survey conducted by the Center for the Study of Diversity and Democracy at Northwestern University found that 82 percent of African Americans believe that the movement is at least moderately effective at achieving its stated goals, although 64 percent of the respondents believed that the movement would be more effective if it had a more centralized leadership structure.[22]

A poll in June 2016 found that 65% of black American adults supported Black Lives Matter and 40% of white American adults support it. Fifty-nine percent of black Americans thought that Black Lives Matter would "be effective, in the long run, in helping blacks achieve equality" and 34% of white Americans thought so.[414][415] A 2017 Harvard-Harris survey found that 35% of whites and 83% of blacks have a favorable view of the movement.[416]

According to an analysis by The Guardian of statistics collected by the US Crisis Monitor, during most of 2020 "US law enforcement agencies have used teargas, pepper spray, rubber bullets, and beatings at a much higher percentage at Black Lives Matter demonstrations than at pro-Trump or other rightwing protests",[417] regardless of whether the protest was violent or peaceful. The analysis also notes that "the vast majority of the thousands of protests across the United States in the past year have been peaceful, and [...] most protests by both the left and the right were not met with any violent response by law enforcement."[417]

2020

A BLM protest in Ohio, July 2020

With the resurgence of Black Lives Matter in national headlines amid global protests, the movement saw an increase in support in 2020.[418][419] Although they began from different perspectives, as per the New York Times' The Upshot, "all kinds of voters moved sharply in the direction of supporting the movement" just within the two weeks between late May and early June "as much as [they] had in the preceding two years."[419] The Pew Research Center reported that "[m]ost Americans express[ed] support for the Black Lives Matter movement" during this period.[420]

According to Terrance Woodbury, a researcher of attitudes among young adults, "[the] movement has evolved from Black people vs. the police to young people vs. racism."[421] An online survey of people aged from 18 to 34 by the Global Strategy Group found broad support from the participants, except by those who identified as pro-Trump Republicans.[422][423]

Opal Tometi theorizes that increased support was the result of economic anxiety and contempt for the American government's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic.[424] Protests led by Black Lives Matter throughout the summer eventually developed into one of the larger movements in U.S. history.[425][426]

However, the movement's momentum and popularity began to decline, with a Pew Research Center poll showing that support for Black Lives Matter had fallen by 12 percentage points to 55% of all American adults by September, and had returned to a net negative approval rating among white Americans as well as significantly declining in popularity among Hispanic Americans.[18] Support remained widespread among black American adults (up 1% from June to 87%).[18]

Criticism

Tactics

Some black civil rights leaders such as Cecil "Chip" Murray, Najee Ali, and Earl Ofari Hutchinson have criticized the tactics of BLM as disrespectful and ineffective, with Ali claiming "all they can do is disrupt and make noise."[382] Author and minister Barbara Ann Reynolds has also criticized the confrontational tactics of BLM.[383] Economist Glenn Loury, while supportive of the fundamentals of the movement, has criticized public retribution against "White politicians who state All Lives Matter" and the apparent polarizing effects of the movement.[21]

In his 2018 book The Once and Future Liberal, Mark Lilla criticizes Black Lives Matter as part of his broader left-wing critique of identity politics. Though he agreed with their aims, he called their rhetoric "a textbook example in how to not build solidarity", arguing that the campaign alienates people with their negative attitude toward American society and law enforcement and with their overbearing tactics. He also compared them unfavorably to the civil rights movement leaders, who were "consciously appealing to what we share" instead of emphasizing differences of race and other identities.[427][428]

According to Inside Higher Ed, Black Lives Matter protests at the College of William & Mary resulted in an invited speaker being shut down.[429]

Academic freedom

Many academics, including John McWhorter,[430] Eric Kaufmann,[431] John Ellis,[432] Marybeth Gasman,[433] Glenn Loury,[434] and at least 153 other scholars[435] have criticized tactics used by some Black Lives Matter activists as silencing speech and repressing academic freedom.[436] They claim that the result is self-censorship, reduced academic inquiry, and research bias.[437][438][436] Critics claim academics have been hesitant to speak out against repression for fear of retribution.[439][440][430]

على وجه الخصوص، وتحدث الأكاديميين البارزين ضد استخدام "تصريحات التنوع" في القبول، والتوظيف، والقرارات الحيازة، بما في ذلك جيفري الطيار ، عميد كلية الطب بجامعة هارفارد ، [441] [442] و الوصيفة طومسون ، نائب الرئيس من الجمعية الأمريكية للرياضيات . أجرى طومسون مقارنات بقسم الولاء في عهد مكارثي. [443] [444] عندما تتلقى المدارس تمويلًا من الدولة ، انتقد العلماء تعهدات "حياة السود مهمة" باعتبارها غير دستورية. [445]

آراء حول إنفاذ القانون

Some critics accuse Black Lives Matter of being anti-police.[446] Sgt. Demetrick Pennie of the Dallas Police Department filed an unsuccessful lawsuit against Black Lives Matter in September 2016, which accused the group of inciting a "race war."[447][448] Marchers using a BLM banner were recorded in a video chanting, "Pigs in a blanket, fry 'em like bacon" at the Minnesota State Fair. Law enforcement groups claim the chant promotes death to police. The protest organizer disputed that interpretation, saying "What we are promoting is that if black people who kill police officers are going to fry, then we want police officers to face the same treatment that we face as civilians for killing officers."[449]

Ferguson, Missouri, August 17, 2014

Disconnect from underprivileged communities

Some black community leaders have come out against the movement as disconnected from the people it claims to represent.[450] In opposing August 2020 budget cuts, New York City Councilman I. Daneek Miller, co-chairman of the council's Black, Latino and Asian Caucus opposed reducing police funding and stated, "Black folks want to be safe like everyone else...we can't allow folks from outside our community to lecture us about Black lives."[451] Vanessa Gibson of the Bronx's 16th Council District stated that, "My working-class people, my homeowners, my tenants, my neighbors—they are not out there screaming and yelling, because they have to work."[452] Mayor Ras Baraka of Newark, New Jersey, called "defund the police" a "bourgeois liberal" solution to racism.[450]

Insufficient focus on women

Women from within the Black Lives Matter movement, including professor and civil rights advocate Treva B. Lindsey, have argued that BLM has sidelined black women's experiences in favor of black men's experiences. For example, more demonstrations have been organized to protest the killings of Michael Brown and Trayvon Martin than the killings of Kayla Moore or Rekia Boyd.[453]

In response, Say Her Name was founded to focus specifically on the killing of black women by police and to bring their names into the Black Lives Matter protest. Their stated goal is to offer a more complete, but not competing, narrative with the overall Black Lives Matter movement.[454][455]

See also

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Further reading

Bibliographies

External links

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